Science topic

Skeletal Biology - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Skeletal Biology, and find Skeletal Biology experts.
Questions related to Skeletal Biology
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
4 answers
I would like to understand how different load on the muscle affects the development of bone tissue, the presence of tubercles on the bones, thickening, etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
Attached is a review article we wrote several years back about the linkage of muscle loading to bone properties and how that changes with aging.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
8 answers
I would like to conduct a motion capture experiment outdoors. I will be collaborating with a laboratory that has recently bought a VICON system equipped with MXT10S cameras. According to VICON documentation, the T10s system can function even outdoors.
Can anyone please confirm that the system is really functional outdoors ? 
Will I be dealing with a lot "phantom markers"?
Is the accuracy and precision of the marker position measurement affected?
Thank you in advance. 
Relevant answer
Answer
I cannot remember where I read it but I did read about research outdoors on this system on cricket players in Australia with very good data to analyze.
Sorry I can't remember where I saw it
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
7 answers
Approx 10cm in length. Desperate to ID down as much as possible. Skull was found as is and appeared undamaged. On a beach, on the central east coast of Brazil.
Many Thanks!
Dan
Relevant answer
Answer
Comparing the photos with specimens in my college's collection, the closest match is a goose-sized Anatid. The paired occipital fenestrae visible in the second photo (looks like a little handle in the profile) is present in the specimens I have access to.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
6 answers
There are some relatively recent dichotomous keys of skeletal characters, but they usually focus on distinguishing among species of the same genus, or use the cranium only, forgetting about the postcranial skeleton; or deal only with higher-level taxa, e.g. telling apart the mammalian orders. But are there, and could any one, please, point me to, any good dichotomous keys to middle-level mammalian taxa (from order to genera) based solely on skeletal characters? Without having to go all the way back to Lydekker's works (e.g. Catalogue of the Ungulate Mammals in the BM, 1913, which has some keys), and without being merely simple ones for teaching?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Miguel,
There is a three-volume key based on the morphology of the femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, radius, calcaneus and astragalus. It is in Russian throughout and is limited to the mid to large-sized Quaternary mammals from the former USSR.
Gromova V.I., 1950a. Key to the mammals of the USSR based on skeletal bones. Text and album of drawings. Issue 1. Key based on the large tubular bones. A. Text. Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, 9: 1-240. [in Russian] http://ashipunov.info/shipunov/school/books/gromova1950_opred_mlek_kost_1a.djvu
Gromova V.I., 1950b. Key to the mammals of the USSR based on skeletal bones. Text and album of drawings. Issue 1. Key based on the large tubular bones. B. Album of drawings. Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, 9: 1-108. [in Russian] http://ashipunov.info/shipunov/school/books/gromova1950_opred_mlek_kost_1b.djvu
Gromova V.I., 1960. Key to the mammals of the USSR based on skeletal bones. Issue 2. Key based on the large carpal and tarsal bones. Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, 16: 1-118. [in Russian] http://ashipunov.info/shipunov/school/books/gromova1960_opred_mlek_kost_2.djvu
You may also find it useful to check for additional keys the following thread here on RG: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_a_good_book_for_the_identification_of_mammals_from_bones
Best wishes,
Dmitry
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
4 answers
He has no h/o steroid, alcohol intake or any other underlying disease like sickle cell etc
Relevant answer
Answer
No. What are its implications in this case
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
7 answers
We have a patient  27 y.o. with malunion of femoral fracture (deformity of 32 degree varus, middle third). He presents autosomic dominant osteopetrosis.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear colleaugues!
Dear Dmitry this is very interesting topic, and I agree with Prof Journeau for the risk of non union, osteotomy problem and narrow intramedullary canal because of abnormal bone turnover. Sclerosis also hinders bone fixation.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
2 answers
I am interested in determining sex in Cape Hare from a collection of mandible.
I have not succeeded in finding anything in the literature. I do however know that sex can be determined via mandibular diastema length in some species of rabbits. 
Relevant answer
Answer
check this paper may be u will find it helpe you : C. Mengoni , N. Mucci, E. Randi, 2015 - Sex identification in four leporid species (Lepus corsicanus, Lepus europaeus, Lepus timidus and Lepus capensis mediterraneus)
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
4 answers
I have seen several APIs that are able to provide some sort of "skeletal data stream" using a Kinect-like device, by extracting skeletal joint information from depth data in a transparent manner from a developer point of view.
Now I am looking for some library that implements a skeletal recognition algorithm (e.g. the one used in MS Kinect SDK, which should be based on "Real-Time Human Pose Recognition in Parts from a Single Depth Image" by Shotton et al. - see attached link) by taking an image file as input.
Does someone have suggestions on where I can find a library for doing this? I have no preferences on the programming language to be used.
Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
6 answers
I am trying to build a scalable (based on anthropometry) multi-body model of adult human leg and thigh. Femur and tibia are represented by a set of segments (3-4) connected together with torsional springs to capture the bending of bones in Medio lateral and anterio posterior mode. The model is mainly aimed to capture and assess the injury risk in the medial lateral bending in case of pedestrian to automotive vehicle crashes.  
3 point bending data  of bones is available and there is considerable variation among the responses owing to the difference in  length, geometry and other biological variation among specimens. Current models are based on optimizing the models response to the mean/average response of the specimen data. However this methodology does not take into account the cross sectional properties of bone and may only work in the validated case. To develop a generic model i wish to incorporate the bending stiffness calculated from beam theory into the torsional springs in the model.  To do that i would need to know the variation of area moment of inertia through out the length of the bone.  I have some CT data available to analyze this variation however i wish to know if this sort of work has already been done before. From the literature i have looked so far (Ruff et al.), this analysis has been done on archaeological bone specimens on a larger scale but i do not know the relevance of this older data.
If you can suggest me some authors and good articles it would be of great help. I am attaching a paper on the type of model i am talking about. 
Relevant answer
Answer
I found the works from the following authors quite helpful as it deals with the data from cadaveric specimen or volunteers rather than archeological specimens. 
Miller et. al. 1980 (C) "The Geometrical Properties of Human Femur and Tibia "
Minns et. al. 1975  (C) "The geometrical properties of the human tibia"
Piziali et. al.  1976  (C) "An extended structural analysis of long bones--application to the human tibia"
Capozza et. al. 2010 (V) "Structural analysis of the human tibia by tomographic (pQCT) serial scans"
Cristofolini et. al. 2012 (C) "Shape and function of the diaphysis of the human tibia"
(C)- Cadaver specimen
(V)- Volunteer subjects
Thanks for all the inputs.
One interesting observation that i found was in data from the cadaveric specimens (generally older samples, 55+ years) the Area moment of inertia about the medial lateral axis was lower than the area moment of inertia about the anterior posterior axis. 
The volunteer QCT data from capozza et al (from younger subjects 20-40 years, sample size =40) showed similar magnitude in the area moment of inertia about (M-L and A-P axes).
I could not find more studies to confirm this trend. However i think that the area moment of inertia along the medial lateral direction decreases with age. If anyone could comment more on this aspect it would be great.
Overall the area moment of inertia decreases from the proximal to the distal end of the diaphysis. 
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
9 answers
If yes, what is the procedure of modeling? If not, which softwares can be used for doing so?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Shivraj,
In general it is very difficult to model a 3D human skull in CAD software. I advise you to import a 3D point cloud containing the Cartesian coordinates of the 3D human skull using Digitized Shape Editor in CATIA, then you can generate the 3D mesh (the polygonal mesh), after that you can using the Quick Surface Reconstruction generate the surface starting form the previous generated mesh. Then you can establish the 3D solid from the constructed surface. The previous procedure is called (reverse engineering).
Approximate method: you can using several images of 3D and 2D human skull (imported to CATIA) generate Spline curves corresponding to the external and internal boundaries of the skull (in several parallel plans) and then construct a set (series) of surfaces (using for example multi-sections Surface)...You can then combine these surfaces in one surface. Finally, you can construct the 3D solid model of the skull.
I hope that these procedures help you !
Best regards,
Khaled Assad ARROUK
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
8 answers
I get a request from a colleague. In the context of a paläanthropological research project he asked me for a microcephalic skulls of an adult with Down syndrome. In my collection there is not such a skull.
Relevant answer
Answer
nothing like this in the collection of the national museum of natural history in paris.
as far as I know, such a case is not reported in the medical litterature.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
1 answer
Does anybody have experience with doing ChIP or ChIP seq on cartilage? Can you do it directly on homogenized tissue or do you need to digest and isolate cells? Any advice or protocol on how to prepare the samples?
Relevant answer
Answer
OK, so it turns out you can do ChIP on whole mouse cartilage. Just homogenise the sample, cross-link it and proceed as you would for any other tissue. The obtained material is good enough for qPCR. Don't know yet if it will be suitable for ChIPseq.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
9 answers
Hello everyone,
I would highly appreciate if someone could give me an advice regarding plastic embedding. I am working with the bone tissues, and I am trying to establish embedding process in Spurr resin in order to analyse dynamic histomorphometry. Bones are from 6 months old mice. First, I dehydrate them in 70%, 95%, 100% ethanol and 100% acetone (every step takes 2 days) and then start infiltration process with Spurr resin 50%, 75% (mixed with acetone) and 100% (also steps take 2 days). Dehydration and infiltration processes take place in desiccator connected to vacuum pump. At the end of infiltration, bones are embedded in 100% Spurr and plastic blocks polymerize at 55oC for 2 days. When I do sectioning, I have this problem that region of secondary spongiosa starts to tear, and also block by itself is very brittle. What could cause this problem, could it be that infiltration was poor, or the ratio of Spurr components are not good? 
Thank you for any answer and help,
Milena
Relevant answer
Answer
I have used decalcified mouse bone and embedded in paraffin.  If you don't have to cut very thin sections, this might work. If the bone is decalcified for a few days in 10% EDTA in 0.1M Tris HCl pH 7.4, it will be soft enough to be wax embedded and cut on a microtome.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
3 answers
Does anyone know of any studies demonstarting a relationship between foot pronation and muscular activity in the extensor chain?
I'm particularly interested in the effect of pronation (or not) on gluteal activation in simple tasks.
can anyone help please?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much Oliver Ludwig!
I shall read through these over the weekend.
Yes, I'm looking at a number of studes about the relationship between the biomechanics of the foot and its influence on the rest of the body
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
3 answers
I am looking for normative data of the joint angles during rowing action (Sculling) using Concept 2 and Vicon nexus system. Any evidences will be appreciated. Please do suggest me previous studies. Many thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Before the propulsive phase, the angles of the ankle, knee and hip are at maximum flexion in the cycle, ie ~ 70 ° of dorsiflexion to the ankle (0 ° = foot fully extended) ~ 120 ° of flexion in the knee (0 ° = fully extended) and ~ 40 ° of flexion in the hip (Janshen et al. 2009). The angular amplitudes for the knees, ankles and hips during the propulsive phase are approximately of 110 °, 70 ° and 100 ° (Janshen et al. 2009). The extension of the legs is more or less complete depending on the level of the rowers (Hase et al. 2004). See also Soper and Hume 2004 and  Rodriguez et al. 1990.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
6 answers
Hi! I have a 3D-GMM data set of carnivore skulls and I would like to calculate the Procrustes distance of every individual specimen to a predefined shape after the Procrustes superimposition. In which (open source) software can I do that relatively straightforward and how? Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Stefan,
Even that you got answers that helped you to solve the problem, here I provided a R code that can help you to do the same stuff in R statistical environment. R is in a pure sense an open source (not only freeware software). 
As Sascha said, doing this in R you will be able to enjoy a power of R's flexibility and advanced analyses. Even more, it provides an intuitive way how Procrustes distance is actually calculated (and programmed).
Code is in the attachment.
Hope this will help.
Marko
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
4 answers
I want to work with 4D analysis of posture, but we bought it recently and we don't know how work with it. How do we analyze posture and how collect data?
Relevant answer
Answer
what is the device that you are using? is it Formetric 4D (Diers)?
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
10 answers
What is the difference between the lumbar and pygal vertebrae series in mosasaurs?
My question concerns isolated vertebrae.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello everyone, to start with the question - pygal vertebrae are a specialized form of caudal vertebrae that lack an articulating/or fused haemal arch or chevron bone, but possess a transverse process that does not have an articulating rib.  Typical caudal vertebrae have chevron bones (fused or articulating depending on the kind of mosasaur), and transverse processes without articulating ribs.  Presacral or dorsal vertebrae (the term lumbar is really a mammalian term reflecting specializations of the axial skeleton in derived synapsids) have shorter transverse processes with articulating ribs, and no chevron bones or haemapophyses.  The pygal region in mosasaurs is unique in that there are usually a rather large number of such vertebrae in the caudal series, potentially due to the loss of a sacroiliac joint - the 2 sacrals must go somewhere and so it is possible that in mosasaurs they have become part of the "pygal series" thus upping the count.  In more primitive sistergroups to mosasaurs there is a good sacrum (2 vertebrae) and 2 pygals prior to the typical caudal anatomy; this is why in derived mosasaurs the pygals are considered to be a specialized form of caudal vertebra.  Many modern lizards have 0 (Heloderma) to 1 (Varanus) or 3-4 (Iguanians, etc.) vertebrae at the base of the tail that display a pygal-like anatomy.  However, those same vertebrae in modern lizards usually possess grooves or forks that support lymph node networks - these are not apparent in mosasaur pygals.  It a reasonable supposition that the loss of the sacroiliac joint modified numerous soft tissues systems including the lymph tissues and their placement on the tips of the transverse processes of anterior caudals such as the pygal series.  Interestingly, the reverse is true for snakes, where despite the loss of the sacroiliac joint, the postcloacal vertebrae in proximity to the pelvic elements still possess lymphapophyses. Just to keep it confusing, snakes also present small hemapophyses on the first lympapophysis bearing postcloacal vertebra.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
10 answers
I started some work on skeletal muscle repair and regeneration recently. Due to lack of experience, I'm confused at choosing the cell surface marker to identify regenerated muscle cells in rats for IF and IHC staining. Could anyone give me some advice?
Relevant answer
Answer
Mohamed,
I asked that question just to better understand what Hong Huang was looking for... 2 months after it's nearly impossible to recognize which area of the injured underwent regeneration. However, 2 weeks after degeneration, it's very easy to discriminate between regenerating and non regenerating areas. First of all, centrally nucleated fibers are still visible, as Joseph said. Also the embryonic myosin is still detectable, even if it is produced just in the first few days of regeneration. Remember that myosin proteins have a long half-life (and so turnover is slow). Take a look at the attached review (fig 3)
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
1 answer
We posit that, by virtue of its location in the ER/SR and Golgi networks in skeletal muscle, and the finding that some dysferlin mutations are associated with ER stress, dysferlin is likely to be involved in protein processing and trafficking.
Relevant answer
Answer
Some studies indicates that dysferlin may bind lipids in a calcium-dependent manner, consistent with a role for dysferlin in regulating fusion of repair vesicles with the sarcolemma during membrane repair ( please see this article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24461013 ). However, how dysferlin achieves a 're-closure' of the membrane is not clear yet...
Best regards!
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
12 answers
I mean in a wild type condition (adult) and without damage. I am looking for some publications in this field.
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
The answer to this question depends on the level of sophistication behind the question. Besides the various types of muscle fibre. There are satellite cells, which are thought to be the main source of myogenic cells for repair of damaged muscle fibres.  There is some evidence of heterogeneity of satellite cells - some being more stem-like than others.  Skeletal muscle is richly vascularized and thee is some debate about the interactions of some of the microvascular cells and satellite cells. There is also some evidence that pericyte cells of the microvasculature can become myogenic.  Recently, an interstitial cell call fibroadipocyes have been shown to interact with myogenic cells during muscle repair.   In addtion to all of the 'resident' cells, lymphocytes and cells of the mononuclear series have been shown to pass through even 'normal' muscle, but it should be remembered that normal muscle is in constant interaction with the environment via the stresses and strains of normal physiological use.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
5 answers
How the environment the prey has been caught in, and prey itself can affect snake’s cranial morphology? Which bones and their features (length, width, height) affect snakes adaptation (fitness)? I'm particularly interested in data on the core Macrostomata group (pythons and boas).
Relevant answer
Thank you Gordon W Schuett for your answer. I will check David Cundall work. Im already reading about intramaxillary joint in O. Reippel works but I will also check Cundall & Irish (1989) work.
Im the most interested in for example leght of quadrate and supratemporale (and other bones) on maximum size of prey consumed by snake. Which bones are usefull in what environment. More precisly what propotions of snake bones have influence on snake fittnes in particulary environment. I'm also looking for work about sexual dimorphism in Boidae and Pythonidae.
Some interesting works are already done for Natricinae between sexual dimorphism and prey catching environment.
Hibbitts, T.J., Fitzgerald, L.A., 2005. Morphological and ecological convergence in two natricine snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 85, 363–371. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00493.x
Vincent, S.E., Moon, B.R., Shine, R., Herrel, A., 2006b. The functional meaning of “prey size” in water snakes (Nerodia fasciata, Colubridae). Oecologia 147, 204–211. doi:10.1007/s00442-005-0258-2,
Shine, R., 1986. Sexual differences in morphology and niche utilization in an aquatic snake, Acrochordus arafurae. Oecologia 69, 260–267.
Borczyk, B., 2014. Allometry of head size and shape dimorphism In Grass Snake (Natrix natrix). Turk. J. Zool. (In press).
Hampton, P.M., 2011. Comparison of cranial form and function in association with diet in natricine snakes. J. Morphol. 272, 1435–1443. doi:10.1002/jmor.10995 - And I'm looking for something similiar for other snakes.
I already read thoose works:
Arnold, S., 1993. Foraging theory and prey-size-predator-size relations in snakes. Ecological Behaviour, New York: McGraw Hill Seigel RA, Collins JT, 87–115.
Aubret, F., Bonnet, X., Harris, M., Maumelat, S., 2005. Sex Differences in Body Size and Ectoparasite Load in the Ball Python, (Python regius). J. Herpetol. 39, 315–320. doi:10.1670/111-02N
Bertona, M., Chiaraviglio, M., 2003. Reproductive biology, mating aggregations, and sexual dimorphism of the Argentine Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor occidentalis). J. Herpetol. 37, 510–516.
Camilleri, C., Shine, R., 1990. Sexual Dimorphism and Dietary Divergence: Differences in trophic Morphology between Male and Female Snakes. Copeia 3, 649 – 658.
Chiaraviglio, M., Bertona, M., Sironi, M., Lucino, S., 2003. Intrapopulation variation in life history traits of Boa constrictor occidentalis in Argentina. Amphib. Reptil. 24, 65–74.
Feldman, A., Meiri, S., 2013. Length–mass allometry in snakes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 108, 161–172. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2012.02001.x
Forsman, A., Shine, R., 1997. Rejection of non-adaptive hypotheses for intraspecific variation in trophic morphology in gape-limited predators. Biology Journal of the Linnean Society 62, 209–223.
Frazzetta, T.H., 1959. Studies on the morphology and function of the skull in the Boidae (Serpentes). Part 1. Cranial differences between Python sebae and Epicrates cenchris. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 119, 453–472.
Frazzetta, T.H., 1975. Pattern and Instability in the Evolving Premaxilla of Boine Snakes. American Zoologist 15, 469–481. doi:10.1093/icb/15.2.469
Gans, C., 1961. The Feeding Mechanism of Snakes and Its Possible Evolution. American Zoologist 1, 217–227.
Greene, H.W., 1983. Dietary Correlates of the Origin and Radiation of Snakes. American Zoologist doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/23.2.431
Greene, H.W., Burghardt, G.M., 1978. Behavior and phylogeny: constriction in ancient and modern snakes. Science 200, 74–77. doi:10.1126/science.635575
Lee, M.S.Y., Bell Jr., G.L., Caldwell, M.W., 1999. The origin of snake feeding. Lett. Nat. 400.
Luiselli, L., Angelici, F.M., 1998. Sexual size dimorphism and natural history traits are correlated with intersexual dietary divergence in royal pythons (python regius) from the rainforests of southeastern Nigeria. Ital. J. Zool. 65, 183–185. doi:10.1080/11250009809386744
Monteiro, L.R., 1998. Ontogcnetic changes in the skull of Corallus caninus L., 1758 and Corallus enydris L., 1758 (Serpentes: Boidae), an allometric study. SNAKE-NITTAGUN- 28, 51–58.
Pearson, D., Shine, R., Williams, A., 2002. Geographic variation in sexual size dimorphism within a single snake species ( Morelia spilota , Pythonidae). Oecologia 131, 418–426. doi:10.1007/s00442-002-0917-5
Pough, F.H., Groves, J.D., 1983. Specializations of the Body Form and Food Habits of Snakes. American Zoologist 23, 443–454. doi:10.1093/icb/23.2.443
Rodríguez-Robles, J.A., Bell, C.J., Greene, H.W., 1999. Gape size and evolution of diet in snakes: feeding ecology of erycine boas. J. Zool. 248, 49–58. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01021.x
Shine, R., 1994. Sexual Size Dimorphism in Snakes Revisited. Copeia 1994, 326. doi:10.2307/1446982
Shine, R., Harlow, P.S., Keogh, J.S., Boeadi, 1998. The influence of sex and body size on food habits of a giant tropical snake, Python reticulatus. Funct. Ecol. 12, 248–258. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2435.1998.00179.x
That is what I have found but I'm still searching. If anyone have some suggestions or doing research about it, I will be very gratefull to hear about it. I'm looking for those informations for my Master degree paper.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
9 answers
I am trying to make an app in c# that will detect/classify 3 poses of the human body: standing, sitting, and lying. I can correctly detect/classify 2 of them (sitting and standing) with skeleton tracking. When it comes to lying on the floor, Kinect seems to not be able to track the skeleton of a human body.
Does anyone have any experiences with skeleton tracking in a lying position? As soon as I lie down, I lose joint positions. Is this task impossible? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Andrea, we had a similar problem when we wanted to mount the Kinect to track workers from above. To our knowledge both the Kinect SDK and the OpenNI / NITE middleware can only track horicontally. However in your case I suppose you only need to rotate the image by 90 degrees before it reaches the middleware. OpenCV can do that.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
5 answers
I am interested in the effects of injury on the electrical properties of bone.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for posting the article. I would submit that, based on my research the issue of specific frequency is a critical factor. The units I have tested to date are not optimal.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
15 answers
I am looking specifically for nuthatch skeletons from the Middle East and Asia. No species are rare in their distributions, just in Western museum collections.
Relevant answer
Answer
The Field Museum has a couple in their collection, one from Malaysia and one from Pakistan. The American Museum of Natural History has a few as well. The Smithsonian has several in their collection of birds from several different places in Asia. I would suspect that others, such as the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, have them as well. That is if you are only focusing on collections in the US. I would suspect other countries have them as well, such as the museum in Paris, especially the closer you get to the collection location.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
2 answers
There are controversies in regard of the age for performing of surgical correction and the choice of surgical technique.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you, Anna.
In my opinion the problem lies in the engagement of the spine on the one hand, and the extent of restricted abduction of the upper extremity on the affected side. In some cases there is a hard bond between the scapula and the spine - the so-called os omovertebrale.
We usually subject children with Sprengel's deformity to regular control examinations and x-rays (over 6 months). Meanwhile, a systematic physical therapy is carried out. If a secondary scoliosis emerges and the ROM is not improved with the elapse of time, then surgical correction is indicated. Usually, this happens at the age of 3-4. So here our opinions coincide entirely.
  • asked a question related to Skeletal Biology
Question
2 answers
I'm working on a research proposal on the genetic mapping of common biodistance markers.
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you mean associate mapping? Or do you mean seeing how the results of each compare? My dissertation looked at the products of biodistance analysis using nuclear microsatellites and dental non-metric datasets.