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Why does the alumina crucible loaded with Co-containing alloys turn blue after sintering Co-containing alloys?
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Cobalt oxide is the strongest mineral dye of blue color, used to stain ceramics and glass. Even the trace amounts of cobalt oxide on the white surface of the crucible from aluminum oxide stain it in bright blue. It is not surprising that after melting alloy with cobalt, your crucible turned blue, there was enough the minimum oxygen content in the atmosphere of the furnace.
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The sintering of 18Ni300 will encounter the enrichment of titanium and aluminum elements on the grain boundaries. Is there any possible reason? How to avoid its occurrence to achieve densification?
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The reason for poor sintering and enrichment of particle surfaces with aluminum and titanium is that your oven has too high an oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen or water in the furnace atmosphere contributes to the oxidation of the most active elements of the alloy (aluminum and titanium), which form oxide films on the surface of the sintered particles that prevent sintering. In addition, the oxidation of titanium and aluminum on the surface is the driving force for the diffusion of these elements from the depth of the metal to the surface, as a result of which both of these elements are concentrated on the surface of individual particles and at the grain boundaries of the already sintered material. The worse the vacuum in your furnace, the more active the above mechanism is manifested.
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Can anyone explain how the carbon dioxide gas is protecting the weldments in MAG welding. Since this gas is active/reactive in nature with the hot metal how does this affect the weldment. Further, can this be utilized to avoid oxidation in the sintering process?
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Carbon dioxide protects a weld pool from contamination with air gases. However, it is necessary to deoxidize the weld pool, i.e. remove oxygen from the liquid metal. In arc welding, it can be carried out in two ways: 1) using chemical reactions with deoxidizing elements (precipitating deoxidation); 2) physical and chemical processes between metal and slag (diffusion deoxidation).
Deoxidizers are chemical elements that have a greater affinity for oxygen than the metal being welded (easier to interact with it), they can be ranged by decreasing degree of deoxidation (affinity for oxygen): Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Si, Mn, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ni, Cu.
The element position the series is determined by the oxide dissociation elasticity level. Elements in the row to the left of iron protect the weld pool from oxidation. Most often, manganese and silicon are used as deoxidizers in arc welding, since they are cheaper. They are added to the weld pool from coatings, flux and/or welding wire. In these cases, the following deoxidation reactions occur in the weld pool:
2Mn + O2 = 2MnO;
Si + O2 = SiO2;
FeO + Mn = MnO + Fe;
2FeO + Si = SiO2 + 2Fe.
Due to these reasons, only low-alloy steels can be welded while shielding the weld pool with carbon dioxide. Respectively, it is not the best option for sintering.
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Dear researchers,
A discussion that I would like to explore, is whether a low loss (<0.0005) and low sintering temperature (<700 °C) microwave dielectric ceramic is a good candidate for Microwave sintering? What are the fundamental aspects that have to be considered for the comparison with the conventional sintering process?
I thank you and looking forward to having your valuable resposne.
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Fritz Caspers Tank you for the method. Primary interest is to asses the dielectric properties of MW sintered component in comparison with conventionally sintered ones to see whether the grain growth and microstructures are same or different. Did a preliminary assessment on binder removal in conventional upto 500 C and sintering upto 670 C.
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what happened if we tried to re-sintering of produced powder (by means of grinding)that obtained from previously sintered ceramic compact based on zirconia ? is it accepted in ceramic community? i understood that in the previous sintering, there was necking and grain growth. so if we re-sintered the powder produced from it, i think that it will undergo to further grain growth and may affect the properties of zirconia through changing the existed tetragonal phase. is this true?
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Everything depends on the powder size and the associated surface area (the larger the powder surface, the more active the sintering). If you only roughly grind a sintered ZrO2 ceramic (particle size 50-100 microns), then you can no longer re-sinter this powder almost to the melting temperature. But if your particles are smaller than 1 micron, then you can get a new product from them without any problems at sintering temperatures from 1700-1800°C. Of course, a "fresh" nanoscale ZrO2 powder sinters better than finely ground microscale powder (already from 1200-1300°C), but this can also be explained by the particle size.
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Can carbon dioxide be used in place of argon to sinter iron/steel powders at 1150o C?
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CO2 is not possible to use for Fe-alloys powder sintering It will oxidise it. The best gas for sintering is H2. Also the combination of H2 + CO is possible to use if you do not care about Carbon increasing in your alloys. Very important during sintering to achieve the dew point for H2 around -20C. It will promote the sintering even better because of small concentration of H2O always intensifies sintering by increasing reduction-oxidation reactions on the powder surfaces.
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I need a detailed breakdown of how I can get the CTE of a sintered sample from the obtainable data after the use of SPS machine to sinter. I am finding it difficult to manipulate the relative piston displacement and temperature data to obtain the correct value of CTE. I need guidance on the complete and useful set of data required to get CTE (based on SPS).
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@Rayappa, thank you for your response. I still do not understand how the speed of piston-die displacement versus temperature in figure 2 (of the document CTE3) was converted to strain in figure 3 of the same document. What relationship does the graph of figure 2 have with figure 3?
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To make a good mixture of all the constituents of our sintering powder (Alumina and other additives), it is necessary to disperse these constituents well. This requires the use of a dispersing agent (such as DARVAN C), which one?
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Nbc-Ni Cermets samples are sintered in a vacuum sintering furnace at @1450 degrees. The Samples were placed in the Alumina Piece as shown in the attached pictures. after sintering the color of the alumina piece changes to blue as shown in the picture. what can be the reason behind it? Thanks
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Dear Abdul,
I never worked with these materials but they are high melting point-based, so I believe the influence will be minor. I recommend you'll measure Al content prior to and after the heat treatment of your samples.
Good luck.
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Dear Colleagues,
Each time I am sintering YBCO pallet, the levitation is being reduced.
More the sintering temperature, the levitation is reduced more.
Does it mean, that Levitation is lost implies that the superconductivity is lost?
Please discuss.
Thanks and Regards
N Das
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Dear Nityananda,
The superconductivity (as zero resistivity) can persist, when the levitation is lost.
The explanation of the effect is very easy: the supercurrent can flow along a channel of a very narrow cross-sectional area (say 10-8 x 10-8 m2), whereas the Meissner effect is limited by the penetration length, which may be up to 10-7 m. So a system of narrow channels can carry supercurrent, but cannot expel the magnetic field.
The sintering can modify both the size of the SC chanels and the penetration length, so SC manifestation may vary.
Best wishes, Stanislav
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Currently sintering NASICON at 1180, 1200 and 1230 degrees C in a tube furnace under argon. The NASICON is melting and sticking to the alumina crucible at all 3 temperatures. Has anyone else experienced this and know a solution?
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You cannot avoid melting this fusible material at such high temperatures, but you can get rid of sticking to the substrate. If you use a graphite crucible, then the glass melt will not stick to it. This is all the more beneficial if you are heating in an argon environment (a graphite crucible would burn out in air).
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Dear Colleagues,
I prepared YBCO ( 123) heated at 920°C and formed pellet and observed very good levitation.
But, after that, I sintered the pallet at 950°C and then the Levitation reduces to a great extent.
Does this mean that the Superconducting YBCO is damaged and transition experiment is not possible?
Please discuss.
Thanks and Regards
N Das
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The cc Wiki on levitation has an interesting effect that I did not know previously:
The direct diamagnetic levitation
I extract from cc Wiki * the following explanation:
A substance that is diamagnetic repels a magnetic field. All materials have diamagnetic properties, but the effect is very weak and is usually overcome by the object's paramagnetic or ferromagnetic properties, which act in the opposite manner.
But any material in which the diamagnetic component is stronger will be repelled by a magnet.
Direct diamagnetic levitation can be used to levitate very light pieces of pyrolytic graphite or bismuth above a moderately strong permanent magnet. As water is predominantly diamagnetic, this technique has been used to levitate water droplets.
However, the magnetic fields required for this are very high, typically in the range of 16 teslas, and therefore create significant problems if ferromagnetic materials are nearby. The operation of this electromagnet used in the frog levitation experiment required 4 MW (4000000 watts) of power
The minimum criterion for direct diamagnetic levitation is
B dB/dz= μ0 ρ g
where chi χ - is the magnetic susceptibility and g the gravitation field.
cc Wiki:
Best Regards
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I am making cermets with nickel binder, post sintering excess nickel sticks to the crucible. What is a reasonable solution for Ni removal without damaging or reaction with alumina. I was thinking of immersing the crucible in 30% diluted hcl @40celcius for 4 to 5 hours. I can be wrong. Please share a convenient method. I tried sanding but its not working.
Kindest regards
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You're right. Concentrated hydrochloric acid will dissolve nickel. You can also use hot sulfuric acid.
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Hello,
I have some sintered Alumina and 8YSZ samples. For my research I need to do the SEM so that we can observe the grain boundary and sizes and their distribution. I looked at online and found out that i need to mirror polish the sample and then put them in etchant solution. But I could not find a good resource that will tell me to use which etchant for 8YSZ and which to use for alumina? I need some advise regarding that.
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When googling for etchants, use additional word "metallography".
You can find some etchants here:
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Hello Scientist:
Can I use miedema model to calculate the thermodynamic analysis of a sintered metal. I carried out sintering of Mg-Al-Zn powder at a temperature between 380-500. i want to estimate the enthalpy and Gibbs free enegy of all the phases at those temperature. Can i plugin some parameters into the miedema model to estimate these variable. I can not get publication that applied it to direct thermal analysis except for powder mixing and transition metals. pls i need help.
Another question is, can I get amorphous phase in low-temperature sintered sintered Mg alloy? Pls all your helps are very useful. Thanks
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The following RG link is also very useful:
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May I know why commercial sintering die attach paste is always based on silver? Why not other metals, such as copper and aluminum? Thanks.
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The problem with other metals is that they oxidize when sintered in air. Only silver, gold, and the platinum metals other than osmium do not oxidize in air at the temperatures required for sintering. Silver is the cheapest of these metals, so it is the most commonly used.
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In my 3D printing of zirconia research, I have found a common trend to be an increase of transmittance (%) with increasing wavelength for my sintered samples. I have attached one example plot of this. The zirconia is tetragonal phase and has around 3mol% of yttria.
The samples are thin, maybe 0.5mm or less. The test performed is UV-Vis. There is a sharp increase around 360-420 nm and then has a small slope slightly increasing until 850 nm.
Why might I see this trend in my samples?
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Because refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) decrease with increasing incident light wavelength, in general.
The sharp transmittance increase in your sample around wavelength of 360-420 nm is the most probably caused by sharp decrease of n and k, i.e. your sample absorbs less light in this region. Quite normal behaviour.
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Hello , I want sintering 2 particles (AlSi10Mg - AlSi10Mg) but I don't know How can I do this ?
which command in lammps?
thank you
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You can do it thermally as the sintering goes on within two decoupling zones, particles shrinkage by densification, and growth by particles coarsening behaviours. Please follow the article in the following RG link to stand on full story related to particle sintering by calcination of the loose powder.
Best regards
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Using a muffle furnace, I synthesised several ferrite materials with varying sintering temperatures. Cotton and wood are used inside a muffle furnace, but they are not burnt since the muffle furnace is kept at a higher temperature. why?
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Thank you all
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Hi all,
I am trying to analyze SPS sintering data for ceramics. We sintered this sample at two different temperatures and two different pressure, each apart by 20ish. For example, we started with 1000C and 30mpa withholding of an hour, then increased to 1200C and 50mpa withholding of 25 minutes.
When we try graphing the displacement vs. temperature graph, we expected a positive stair-looking graph as we are calculating the displacement by subtracting the ram position from the starting ram position.
We do get a similar graph. However, we see a decrease in the displacement right when the temperature starts to increase after the hold at 1000. We looked at other values like the ram force and current, where we realized that all values that were increasing dropped sharply as soon as the temperature starts increasing after the hold. Does anyone know why this happens?
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Perhaps you have reached full compaction already at 1000°C? Show graphs and give at least an approximate composition of ceramics.
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I want to develop 45s5 bioactive glass-ceramic but I don't want to go through melting approach first followed by heat treatment. So I felt if I should just compact the powder and sinter without melting to develop crystalline phases, can the product be referred to as glass-ceramic.
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You can call your product whatever you like, but strictly speaking, it will not be glass-ceramics, but ceramics with a glass phase, since the production technology is ceramic. For example, no one calls porcelain glass-ceramics, although it can contain up to 70% glass.
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Hi¡ We are working with Lithium Cobalt Oxide ceramics, and I would like to know the sintering temperatures of these kind of materials. We are starting with 900 ºC, but any ideas about lowering or increasing this temperature are welcome¡ Thanks¡
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See, for example,
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please answer I need help in my research
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As the degree of sintering increases, the porosity of the material decreases. The reduced porosity affects the microstructural properties of the material. However, you must be sure of the effect of time on sintering. You should analyze the change of the bulk or skeleton density of the material depending on the sintering time.
If you read the article in the link, you can see the effects of time on sintering.
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Hello everyone,
I want to find out a material's coefficent of linear thermal expansion. Also I need the know the sintering behaviour of our material. Which experimental method will be better, dilatometer or TMA? Finally, the material will be placed in a engine where it will act as a catalyst, in the engine temperature's will rise very quickly.
I am getting mixed reviews about the comparison. In terms of feasibility, TMA is much more widely available. I am mainly getting confused about the force applied in each technique.
Any help will be appreciated also, if anyone could point to a good literature sources that would be really helpful
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Hi @Omkar,
To answer your doubt about spherical pellets: It depends on the spherical size, of course. If the spherical diameter is within the dimensional range of the instrument's sample chamber/holder, then it is possible, preferably in TMA. I guess placing the sample would be tricky but doable, & you don't want your specimen to be deformed Thermo-mechanically during the testing to achieve adequate results.
Best regards
MN
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Dear all.
I am looking for a reason for my research, which strange looking bumps appeared onto zirconia grain structure.
The material i am using is 5.5 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZPEX smile, tosoh), and the image is thermally etched surface of a specimen after sintering -> polishing.
I have etched at 1350C for 20 mins, at heating rate of 5C/min. (the sintering condition is 1500C, 2h)
These strange bumps keep appearing in my grain structure, and i am guessing something is done at thermal etching process (such as contamination of other material), since i cannot find these shape before etching.
Does anyone know what could be the reason for this bumpy shapes? if so, it would be helpful to know what material (e.g. alumina) could be the source of this feature based on given image.
thanks in advance!
Kim.
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Dear Alec Ladonis,
you are right, I made a mistake, I thought it was a BSI image. By the way, it would be interesting to see this material in BSI.
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If yes, please contact me.
We are looking for partners in joint research.
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Our system can process either wires up to 2.2 mm diameter or rods up to 10 mm diameter. Just need to select machine configuration during order registration.
Other methods of raw material supply in our area of interest for joint research are e.g. induction melting of larger rods or pellets incl. alloying or AM scrap reuse (so called re-powder).
As in my initial question: We are looking for partners in joint research in different areas – feedstock input and melting, material characterization after alloying, powder applications (e.g. cermetal / MMC, inter-metallics), scale-up and full automatization for industrial scale production, system integration with printers and others research topics.
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In literature, i found sintering temperatue should be more than melting temperature. can anyone let me know why it should be high
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Thank you sir.
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I'm trying to sinter inorganic oxide powder and achieve density close to theoretical. I first agglomerate powder and then sinter it via SSS process. Because I can't compact the powder properly I can't achieve more than 80% of theoretical density. I’m thinking about trying LPS with sintering aids but my concern is that agglomerated particles will start sintering to each other.
Does anybody has successful experience sintering free flowing powder via LPS?
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The only way to sinter an agglomerated powder to 100% density without the agglomerates joining together is to heat it in a hot gas stream (plasma). You need two things at the same time: temperature close to or even higher than melting point and separate agglomerates. These two conditions only exist in plasma gas, where the particles are introduced with a gas stream. This process already exists on an industrial scale and is called plasma spheroidization.
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When im doing reactive DC-sputtering with an aluminum target, the texture after a while tends to be like fine like small 1mm grains on the surface. I guess this is due to the crystal structure in the sintered aluminum target. som times however very lerge structures appear on the alumium target surface. each "grain is about 3-6mm in diameter. They are unevenly distributed.
Could this surface defect aoccure due to to hig temperature on the sputter surface?
See attach picture. A is the normal target surface B is when the problematic structure.
The deposition seems to be affectad also by this texture.
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thanks. I guess the bonding to the backing plate has some issues. We will mount an isolated PT-100 sensor on the target to monitor the temperature. The strange is that the resulting aluminum coating gets very rough, decreasing the reflectance that is supposed to be over 90%. This usually happens when the coated substrate has a high temperature normally, but now it gets rough even when aluminum is deposited on a cold substrate.
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Hello everyone.
I need ideas on how to reduce the sintering temperature (presently 1050°C) of a newly synthesized solid electrolyte (a lithium based oxide) in order to form a catholyte (without initiating an irreversible reaction between the electrode and cathode) and I was wondering if anyone has any insight that could be of help. I have thought about sintering aids such as lithium metavanadate, lithim carbonate, etc., but they reduced the conductivity of the electrolyte. Apart from using a cold sintering approach, I would appreciate any/every insight on innovative ways to reduce the sintering temperature. Thanks in anticipation.
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There is nothing innovative in this, sintering methods were developed back in the 50s of the 20th century for ferrites and ferroelectrics. One of the main techniques (along with the use of a binder) is to reduce the grain size of the sintered material. You can also try the "undersynthesis" method (my term). A small amount (at the level of 0.1-0.01%) of the initial reaction mixture is added to the sintered substance and thoroughly homogenized. The process of synthesis of this additive occurs during sintering and the resulting substance binds the particles. Of course, you can use a sintered substance with such a level of residual starting reagents or add a "intermediate", obtained, for example, by the sol-gel method, into the sintered material.
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Hello
As the title say i am looking for information on intense pulsed light machines for particle sintering. If you know a manufacturer or if you have details on the conception of the electronic circuit of such machine please share your experience.
Thank you
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Dear Rémi Rafael , apparently the Xenon is one of the main manufacturers of such kind of IPL lamps or sources. Please have a look to their website and some of their products used for instance for sintering copper nanoparticles based inks for printing electronics:
Alternatively you can built your own system as the authors of the following paper did:
"The IPL sintering system is composed of a xenon flash lamp (PerkinElmer QXA, UK), an aluminum reflector, a power supply, capacitors, a simmer triggering pulse controller, and a light filter. IPL is generated using an arc plasma phenomenon in the xenon flash lamp [7]. Once the gas is ionized, a spark is formed between the electrodes, allowing the capacitor current to conduct, which is the arc plasma phenomenon. A charged super capacitor (40000 µF) is used to deliver high electrical current (about 1000 A) in a short time (1–10 ms) when the lamp is triggered. During the arc plasma generation, the flash lamp emits an optical spectrum of light that covers a wide range of wavelength from 160 nm to 2.5 mm [7]. The conversion of electrical input power into radiated optical power is approximately 50% in the wavelength range of 200–1100 nm."
Hope this helps, and thanks for your question that let us discover new ideas! Regards!
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Greetings
A year ago, I had prepared (Bi,As)-2212 superconducting cuprate samples, sintered at 840 degrees and the XRD showed a good phase formation but the resistivity displayed a Tc 10 K lower than expected. For curiosity I had chosen a pellet of the pure sample and one at x=0.1 of As. Those pellets were placed in a tube furnace for 2 hours under Argon flow at T=845. This was done in the hopes of somewhat reducing Oxygen content (as EDX results were going to be late for logistical reasons). When I removed them I found that they had completely melted and I'm still baffled till this day.
Some info that might be helpful:
Before the press, the precursor powder was ball milled at a ratio of 10:1 for 30 minutes and then pressed at around 1 GPa, then sintered at T=840 for 50 hours.
Calculations using the Scherrer equation from XRD showed that the average crystalline size was around 32 nm.
I must've discarded the notes regarding the flow rate due to the method being unhelpful, so I don't have the flow rate for the Argon to share with you.
Best regards
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As you mentioned about argon flow effect on melting. I do not think about melting cause due to the argon as it is inert gas. Melting might be possible to formation of some other phase (impurity, contamination, composite). I recommend you to make at least XRD or chemical composition measurements before doing annealing or any measurements. As a back characterization will help you to analyze and plan the next steps. If you really want to explore the reason, I would suggest to make high temperature TGA-DTA measurements or DSC measurements. You can easily analyze the phase transformation or decomposition effect. If xrd is freely access to you place, then make xrd at each steps. You can easily probe if structure phase transformation occurs, or any other phase formation occurs in the process you expose to the sample. The best and simple solution is take xrd, measurements of density, keep the samples in desicator. And take xrd at each steps to see if something changes. Good luck.
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we use natural nitrogen mixing gas and reach 1000 celsius degree
So what should be the amount of gas we will send for this sintering?
Is there a standard in liters / minute?(slpm)
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The standard liter per minute (SLM or SLPM) is a unit of volumetric flow rate of a gas at standard conditions for temperature and pressure (STP), which is most commonly practiced in the United States whereas European practice revolves around the normal litre per minute (NLPM).
Best Regards,
SHA
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Dear all,
I am working on the development of magnesium alloy AZ91 composites by powder metallurgy route. During the sintering of pure alloy samples, there is a decrease in density. Generally, density increases after sintering. What can be the possible reason for this anomalous behaviour? I have read in some papers that this can be due to foaming. Also, please tell me how I can avoid this?
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The sintering process of a compact particle found to continue within two decoupled stage , particles shrinkage by densification and growth by coarsening behavior at higher temperature. At densification stage the loss of unstable materials will permit the internal pores formation of certain volumes and shapes. The small pores and\or concave surface morphology are able to shrink as mass transfer by inward atomic diffusion from the bulk of the particle towards the pore surface and fill the pore space. On the other hand large pores and\or a convex surface morphology is not able to shrink as mass transfer by outward atomic diffusion from the pore surface towards the bulk of the particle is dominated and, enlarge the pore space and leading to what you called process of foaming that responsible for lowering the density.
Now, owing to the higher surface to volume ratio of the particles of nano-size (less than@100nm) compared to that of sub-micron and micro-size, the outward mass diffusion of trapped material is faster. This could leave larger pores that are thermodynamically stable and not able to shrink, so the coarser particles permit shrinkage at a higher rate than those at lower sizes. Please any feedback is welcome to frame the discussion picture.
Best regards.
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I am planning to buy LNO powder but not sure on how can I make the LNO target with 3 inch diameter and 0.125 inch thickness by using this LNO powder.
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Dear Md. Abu Sayeed thanks for posting this interesting technical question on RG. In this context, please have a look at the following relevant article which might help you in your analysis:
Structural and electrical characterisation of lanthanum nickelate reactively sputter-deposited thin films
The paper is unfortunately not accessible as public full text on RG, but two of the authors have RG profiles. Thus it should be easily possible to request the full text of the article directly from one of them via RG.
There are various commercial sources of LNO sputtering targets, e.g. https://www.sputtertargets.net/oxide-ceramic/lanthanum-nickel-oxide-sputter-target.html
and
Good luck with your work!
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The shape of the desired piece is available in the appendix.
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Dear Hamed Aghababaei , the mold should be the complimentary 3D object of the object you want to obtain. If you are using some 3D software, such as CAD you could design your cylinder with the closed end and another 3D volume larger than your cylinder (it could be another solid cylinder or a cube for example). Then you can substract your closed end cylinder from the solid volume with a boolean operation. The result 3D object would be your mold. Once you have the 3D file of your mold you could fabricate it by machining (turning) in the appropriate material (steel, brass...) to withstand the applied pressure.
If you already has a real cylinder with a closed end as the one shown in the pictures, then you could use it to make the mold. Again you starts with a solid piece of material, say a cylinder, you should remove a cylinder with a thickness equal to the thickness of your desired cylinder and the deepth equal to the high of your cylinder. Then you must machine the upper part of the inner cylinder of your mold, to define the closed end.
Here you can see a 2D projection of this process:
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The external diameter of our pieces from our Sintering process (Powder Metallurgy with iron powder) have different dimensions even though we applied the same temperature parameters to all of them. I'm new to the process, do you have any explanation or source to research about phenomenon like these?
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Dear Itzel,
If after sintering the same parts get different sizes (have different shrinkage), then this means that your technological process has poor reproducibility. The specific reason can only be named after familiarizing yourself with all the details of the technology, since the problem can be both during the preparation of the powder and during pressing and sintering.
Here are a couple of examples:
1. If during the preparation of the powder there are deviations from the composition, this will lead to changes in the shrinkage during sintering.
2. If the dosing of the powder during pressing works unevenly, then the compacts will be obtained with different densities, which will lead to different shrinkage during sintering.
3. If the parts in the furnace are in areas with different temperatures, then their shrinkage will take place by different amounts.
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I am working on 430 SS substrate and doing the sintering in 96%Ar 4%H2 atmosphere at 1150C. After the sintering there is a formation of chromium oxide layer even in the reducing atmosphere. My working pressure is higher than 1 atm so possibility of air coming from outside can be ruled out. Is there any suggestions to solve this issue?
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Yes, titanium absorbs oxygen even better than silicon. At lower temperatures, absorbers (getters) of active metals such as aluminum, magnesium, calcium, barium, etc. can be used. In your case, silicon, titanium, zirconium, hafnium and rare earth elements are suitable. The larger the surface of the getter, the faster and more it absorbs oxygen, which is why I recommended silicon powder.
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After sintering hard copper pipes at about 1000 degrees, we have a softening problem.
Is there any hardening process after sintering? If so, how should this be done? Or should we do the sintering with a copper tube with a different content?
The type of copper pipe we use for sintering is oxygen-free copper pipe.
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Pure annealed copper can only be hardened by pressure treatment (cold deformation). No heat treatment will increase the hardness of pure copper.
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Now we could characterize the disperion of Al2O3 in AMCs (pure Al reinforced by Al2O3 ) after sintering. But the process of powder metallurgy has a lot of steps, which take long time. The cycle of characterization is so long. So we wonder whether exist a method to characterize the the dispersion of aluminum oxide in Al matrix composite before sintering but after briquetting.
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Thanks, Ok we can only repeat the same process to get the same sample material. And What about element mapping? What topography (conditions, parameters, or scale adjustment) is required to make the highest possibility to achieve the elements present in the sample? Because sometimes they (company by we scan sample) ask about these things. Like I receive a message from the "Hello, do you have any requirements for the topography, that is, for the topography that has been tested, you can choose one as a reference for testing"
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I am working on the development of metal matrix composites by powder metallurgy technique. Currently, I am using conventional sintering. Microwave sintering and plasma sintering are advanced sintering techniques. What are the differences between traditional sintering, microwave sintering, and plasma sintering? What are their advantages and disadvantages? Which one is better for the sintering of AZ91 magnesium alloy?
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Using SPS, you'll get dense samples with less sintering time, providing less interfacial reactions between the matrix and the reinforcing phase. If you're using particle reinforcement type, you'll have better particle distribution. However, it is not impossible to get nearly full dense samples when using your method, especially if you have some low melting point phases that could provide a liquid media reducing porosity. In your case, you'll have to worry about, porosity since higher insertion of renforing phase will certainly increase porosity amount, higher sintering time will reduce porosity but will increase interfacial reactions between Mg matrix and the reinforcing phase. These interfacial reactions could be detrimental or beneficial it depends on the interfacial phases created and the property target. Particle distribution will be nice in your case if the temperature and time is well controlled. You'll probably find also precipitation of MgxAly at near areas around the reinforcing phases due to the creation high density areas of dislocations, favorite site of precipitates nucleation. I hope my answer will help you. Best regards.
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I am working on a masters project which involves sintering PTFE below Melting point using spark plasma sintering. My problem is how do I know if my sample is fully sintered using XRD and SEM. Your inputs will be highly appreciated
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Dear Timothy Sithole , your question is certainly interesting and the answer will be dependent on some properties of your sintered sample. The two techniques you propose to use, XRD and SEM would give you -roughly speaking- information about the sample surface, this can be tackled at some degree by studying one or multiple sample sections.
XRD will provide information about the crystalinity of a sample. So you should chech the crystallinity of your pre-sintered PTFE particles, often PTFE has crystalline domains that have a XRD diffractogram showing some bands associated to ordered domains and halos that speak about disordered domains. When you apply spark plasma for sintering the individual PTFE particles, they probably will conserve the crystallinity at least at their cores, and therefore it would be difficult to observe or correlate crystalinity changes to complete or incomplete sintering.
SEM gives you mainly topographical information from your sample surface, or as said before, about the sample´s sections. Given that you want to see the sintering of your PTFE´s particles after applying the spark plasma, this technique could allow you to gain a better knowledge about the degree of sintering of your sample, because you can see the connections among particles.
If your particles are in the right range of sizes, a potentially useful technique that will give you direct 3D information about your sample would be X-ray tomography, so that you could directly compare the pre-sintered powder with the sintered sample. This technique lets you to obtain the empty volumes or the filling volumes and therefore a way to estimate the degree of sintering.
Another possible alternative would be the measurement of the surface area of your samples before and after the sintering process.
Hope this helps. Good luck with your research project!
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Please, what chemical methods can be used to separate FeSi from SiC?
I will appreciate any useful suggestions from researchers in the house.
NB: The product was obtained through a sintering process.
Thanks
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70°C is more than enough for concentrated hydrochloric acid. If that doesn't work either, then I have no idea how you can remove the iron from your mix.
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how can I Choice that (according to what conditions)? my powder's size is about 60nm .
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Re: Your comment: 'my powder's size is about 60nm'
There can be no free, independent, discrete particles of 60 nm in a powder...
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I want to know the difference in kinetics of reaction would happen if MgO added in the form of carbonate and hydroxide during Iron ore sintering.
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Magnesium hydroxide at high temperature will be converted to MgO and it will react with an Iron oxide to create eutectic if temperature will be good enough for it. You have to check the MgO - Fe2O3 phase diagram and determine possible phases formation depends on the concentration of MgO
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I am doing lignocellulosic extraction from biomass. After treatment with acid solution, I filtered the mixture with the help of G3 sintered frits bucchner funnel. I can see that later filtration is slow and stain over frits. Please help
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Dear all, one simple tip is the backflow introduction of any available digestion solution, such as diluted HF and Piranha. My Regards
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Why in the compound oxide system, adding potassium oxide can not be sintered.
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Health and safety reasons tell you that any oxide of potassium is not going to be pleasant to work with and will react with water and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Big danger of caustic burns from the heat evolved too.
This is one reason, IMHO, why expressing glass compositions as oxides or oxide content (e.g. Na2O) is not realistic or sensible. A better material, from an H & S perspective, to use would be the carbonate K2CO3 or the bicarbonate KHCO3. Both are cheaper and readily available
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i started work in simulation on iron ore pot sintering process. in this how to give sinter mix( mixture of iron ore fines + coke breeze+ dolamite fines+ limestone fines) data in ansys fluent.
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please follow the link to get the solution. Just put the required solid mixture in engineering data to define the mixture its a free input system.
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Is there a method that can be done in the sintering process of alumina zirconia ceramic material by lowering the sintering temperature but can produce high density values. Because I have difficulty in getting a furnace that has a high sintering temperature.
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Al2O3–ZrO2 nanocomposites can be synthesized by starting with the co-precipitation step of boehmite (AlO(OH)) and ZrO2, followed by microwave hydrothermal treatment at 270 °C and 60 MPa, and then by calcination at 600 °C. Using this method can obtain two nanocomposites: Al2O3–20 wt % ZrO2 and Al2O3–40 wt % ZrO2. The sintering temperatures of the nanocomposites are 1209 °C and 1231 °C, respectively—which is approximately 100 °C lower than reported for such composites. more details in the following references;
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I am examining laboratory cases about the effect of furnace dimensions and volume. but I have no experience or data about that.
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the cooling rate has the most significant effect on the morphology transformation, while initial cooling temperature has more significant effect on the dimensional distortion than final cooling temperature. As to the mechanical properties transition from brittle to plastic, a more prominent effect of initial cooling temperature than cooling rate and final temperature was revealed.
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We are looking for a supplier of a silver sintering paste to form electrodes on piezoceramic samples, unfortunately information about silver sintering paste is often not disclosed in papers. We need relatively small quantity for our experiments. Do you have any good recommendations (preferentially European supplier)?
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Dear Soňa Hříbalová , Heraeus (Germany) is selling silver sintering paste, please have a look at their website for more details:
Henkel is also offereing this kind of pastes:
Some companies from UK, such as Alpha Assembly and Dicotec Materials have also this conductive sintering pastes:
Indium Corp. (US) is also a well known provider of this kind of materials:
May be the silver paste usually used for charge removal from SEM samples could as well working for your application. The one we use is provided by Merck Sigma Aldrich:
Hope this helps. Good luck with your research!
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ni more?
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The tendency of metals to sinter is inversely proportional to their melting point. In other words, metals with a higher melting point are sintered at higher temperatures than metals with a lower melting point. The melting points of gold and palladium are respectively 1064°C and 1555°C, so gold is sintered at a significantly lower temperature than palladium.
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I know that Si has an adverse effect on ZrO2 sintering, but I am curious about the mechanism.
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although Zr seems to be more reactive than Si in aqous solution, things can change in high temperature. If Si present in zirconia becomes SiO2, then it could make low-melting eutectic along grain boundary of zirconia, and so high-T property of Zirconia would suffer as grain boundary becomes partially melted. Zirconia m.p is ~2715 C and that eutectic about 2250 C, so this drop would be noticeable only at extremely high temperature (BTW, Alumina m.p ~2050 C). Now the q
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Dear all,
We are trying to find out the sintering stress of two different compound by calculating grain boundary and surface energies. The main aim is to examine the effect of the different sintering stress on sintering efficiency and we already had post sintering SEM micrographs and EBSD analysis.
Could you plase suggest a route if it is possible to extract especially grain boundary energy from the grain size and morphology of grains ?
Many Thanks
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Thickness and diameter shrinkage percentage of the Al2O3 sample (after sintering):
Diameter 20%
Thickness 18%
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thanks for your important question
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I want to use a crucible that is thermal shock resistant when doing rapid cooling by high-speed air blowers.
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Emanuel Cooper thank you very much for the suggestion. Indeed I would not use an empty crucible since the crucible will be filled with a homogenized mixture of limestone and clay and sinter at 1260 with no melt formation.
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How does sintering work in powder metallurgy?
What are the advantage and drawbacks of the Sintering Process?
What are the different kinds of the advanced sintering process?
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Solid state sintering, liquid phase sintering and reactive sintering.
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Sintering is a heat treatment applied to a powder compact in order to impart strength and integrity. The temperature used for sintering is below the melting point of the major constituent of the Powder Metallurgy material but how does sintering work in powder metallurgy?
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Dear Ziyauddin Seikh,
Powder sintering has found wide application in the production of metallic and non-metallic materials. The advantage of the method is that better homogeneity of the material can be achieved along the entire thickness (uniform grain structure). Uniform mechanical characteristics throughout the volume of the part. Guaranteed chemical composition due to the possibility of good mixing of the mixture of materials. Better technological properties.
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Also what are the different efficient DOE and Analysis methods w.r.to machining operation with a specially sintered tool?
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This link maybe useful for you for downloading design expert(DX8.0.6) and miniTab 18.1 with crack for longer use
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Would any one know a Tungsten Carbide Sintering Expert? We are looking for a consultant to help assist with come mechanical property improvements based on sintering parameters. If anyone happens to know someone who could assist, please have them contact me
Thank you,
George
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Thank you for the answer.
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Hi everyone!
After I completed the sintering reaction to reduce fly ash at 1500oC, the XRD pattern shows the SiO2 (quartz) phase in the raw material remains unchanged and did not transform into cristobalite, rather the SiO2 component of the mullite. However, according to the SiO2 phase diagram, quartz is supposed to change at a temperature ~> 573oC at least to another polymorph.
Could someone offer reasons/explanations for this?
Thank you
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Raghd Muhi Al-Deen Jassim Prof, Please I don't get your explanation. The question is why does SiO2 still exist after carbothermal reduction of fly ash at 1500C for 5h?
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For different samples, i got decrease of particle size with annealing. Can anyone explain me about this?
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This question initially raises more questions than answers.
1. "annealing in air" - what is this?
1.1. What is the temperature and duration?
1.2. In what state of the sample was the annealing carried out (compacted, "bulk", in a thin layer ...).
2.What are we the author dealing with? Is it oxide, metal, salt, organic matter?
3. What method was used to measure "particle size"?
4. Is there really an expert in the world who can answer this question without having minimal information?
5. Is the question the result of completing an educational task that involves an independent solution, or a discussion with the leader who set this task?
But with the joint efforts of colleagues, they managed to get some important information out of the author
After reading the abstracts, I had one more question: Is it worth publishing the results of the work, if in its course essential phenomena are not explained and understood (in this case, the decrease of particle size)?
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In the case of fuel fired or electrically heated furnaces, a metallic muffle may be used to ensure a constant temperature zone within the heated chamber. The metal evens out temperature gradients. How can a constant temperature zone be obtained in a microwave oven for the sintering of ceramic bodies?
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Ceramic powder can conduct heat, but the ceramics I am used to such as alumina don't get hot with microwaves, so they would suck heat out of what you wanted to heat up. I have no experience of sintering ceramics in a microwave. I think I have read that it is done. I think that you could probably select or design a ceramic powder that did get hot and would spread the heat about. Some of my ceramic mugs get hot in the microwave.
You would need to match the heating rate with the conduction of the powder so that conduction happened fast enough to even out the uneven heating from the microwaves. Ceramic powder will change the pattern of microwaves in the oven. The wavelength is much smaller in ceramic. In alumina it is 1/3.1 of the value in air.
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Dear all, I performed xrd diffraction on a sintered sample of alumina-mullite and after that I crashed the sample and performed the xrd on the powder.
The patterns that I obtained are different regard the mullite peaks: in sample pattern the relative height of mullite peaks are in agree with the theorical peak list; in powder pattern instead the mullite peaks highlights a wrong distribution of the heights. Do you have any idea of the reason? thanks a lot
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Hi
I didn't understand the difference between bulk & powder XRD patterns!
Are they have the same 2teta with different intensities?
(Can you share patterns?)
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I have powders of cupric oxide, magnetite, and nickel ferrite, which I would like to transform into dense particles approximately 500 microns across. With what methods can I go about this?
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Hi Tristan,
for the production of small quantities of large particles (500 microns) from fine-grain ceramic powder, a very old and primitive method of granulation is best:
You moisten your powder with a dilute solution of polyvinyl alcohol until the material can be kneaded (like a dry dough), then you rub this "dough" through a metal sieve with a mesh size of 0.5 mm. To make the powder that has been rubbed spherical, you can gently shake it when it is wet. After drying and sintering, you get the desired large ceramic particles.
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Spark plug insulators are usually made of a sintered alumina ceramic. The powder is pressed and then machined into shape after which it is sintered. During the machining and pressing a mandrel is present in the centre which gives a hollow centre to the insulator.
Think of it as a hollow revolve.
Now this insulator has a lot of bend defects which lead to wastage (scrapping). Basically, after sintering the hole/hollow core of the insulator is not straight anymore and a mandrel or the electrode body can't pass through it.
I wanted to know if anyone knew of the possible reasons behind it and also point me towards related research/reference.
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If the deformation is from the top, then the reason may be the temperature difference between the top and bottom of the product (the top is hotter). Are you using a lid or an open-top parts box? If there is no lid, then the top of the parts will definitely be hot.
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I am trying to estimate the thermal stresses that develop during the sintering of yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cylindrical pellet containing Gd2O3 sphere, from room temperature to 1500oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and holding time of 20 min, using the heat transfer in solids interface, solid mechanics interface, and coefficient form PDE interface.
Problem description and simulation files are attached for your reference
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📷hi Qusai, could you please walk me through , how you have implemented the stress eq. 1 in your model.
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Sintering with air atmosphere. Sintering temperature 1110 degree C.
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try another brand, maybe it is caused by the product manufacturing
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Dear researchers,
I wish to understand the role of grain growth inhibitor in controlling the microstructure of the ceramic pellet. How it controls the growth?
Also, I wish to know the grain growth mechanism by seeds in detail.
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Grain boundary drag and pinning by particles are usually discussed by Zener drag or Zener pinning effect. I hope this keyword and the following documents can help:
If you understand grain growth then inhibition of it is easier to digest.
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As much as I know, there is a proportional relationship between initial permeability and density for a particular composition. It means, if density increases with increasing sintering temperature, the initial permeability of that sample will increase. But, in some cases I have experienced that, density falls but the initial permeability of that sample increases instead of decreasing. Why this kind of phenomenon does happen?
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Have you checked the phase composition of the samples?
Different phases with different grain sizes may be formed under different conditions.
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I am trying to develop a relationship between the permeability of sintered powdered metal to its given porosity and pore size. I am developing an experimental set-up to measure the permeability of a given product. The thing is I do not know for this material, whether the capillary tube model or sphere model is right.
Thanks!
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I would suggest to start with sphere-model at different diameter to prepare green-parts.
For the directional assessment of your specific controlled 'Binders-system'.
SEM maybe adopted to assess the permeability of your Binders-system,
under various temp. profile by using TGA program, to track your Binder behaviors and the permeability conditions at different profile.
Thereafter, you could setup series of DOE to achieve the desired porosity & pore-size sample.
Good luck. Cheers!
DA
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Material: Ni Zn Ferrite
Sintering temperature: 1142 degree Celcius
Sintering atmosphere: Normal air
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Hi Mr. Saddam Amir ,
Without much knowing on what constituents you are subjecting to Sintering process, please note following points carefully and analyze them – to solve and or reduce your concerns.
* None of the individual components you are trying to put through sintering process, has Melting Temperature below the Sintering temperature you are working.
* Make sure no impurities, No incompatible materials- are entering in your process -especially if you are using Minerals in your composite, which may have sulphur-chloride related impurities.
* Make sure you do not have any low melting, organic materials like Fibers etc. (used for reinforcements in many composites) entering in your process .
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Will it occurs during the moulding or compacting process, profile grinding section, handling of pressed parts before sintering process and during sintering process. Also any method or process to eliminate it ?
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Why not think about using additive manufacturing in this process?
Regards,
Wiltgen
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I am working with Li substituted Ni-Zn ferrite. In my composition, I have partially replaced Ni by Li using auto-combustion method. I have noticed, the optimum sintering temperature to which the bulk density is high or maximum reduced with the doping of Li content against the Ni. What causes can have behind this fact?
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Dear Rakibul Hassan,
In the process of preparing ferrite, you probably use lithium compounds (in particular, in the form of salts, for example, carbonate, or in the form of oxide). These compounds, as a rule, have sufficiently low melting/decomposition temperatures and contribute to a decrease in the melting temperature (act as a flux), a decrease in the viscosity of reagent mixtures (melts). Therefore, they are often used as an additive in the solid-phase synthesis of double and triple oxides to lower the process temperature. The same thing happens when Li-containing compounds are used as starting components in the synthesis of ferrites. With a decrease in viscosity (dilution of mixtures), the compaction of the structure of the constituent parts that make up the sintered ferrite is facilitated. The more lithium in the compound, the lower the temperature at which this occurs.
I hope this explanation was or will be useful.
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Suppose, a ferrite sample is sintered at 1150℃ for 5-hour holding temperature. Now if the same sample is allowed for sintering at the same temperature for the second time as it mentioned above, is there any significant change of permeability, magnetization and dielectric can be observed?
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Dear Rakibul Hassan,
I am not expert on sintering process.
But , I think , several times sintering at same temperature and following the same time profile will not give any new change of the electric and magnetic properties of the material.
Thanks
N Das
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I have sintered Mg3Zn1Ca15Nb composite at 630-degree temperature and measured the phases present in the composite through XRD. But, no phases are detected in XRD analysis. So what can be the reason behind this?
Please suggest.
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How to remove the sintered material which has been fully stuck at the base of alumina crucible? It is synthesized as stone like material after sintering at 1400 deg C. Should any other kind of non sticky crucible is re