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Silviculture - Science topic

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Invasive Insect pests are a threat to the forest whereas silviculture is the art and science of cultivating, caring for, and handling a plant. So how exactly I can join these topics together to build up comprehensive research?
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You could examine invasive pest diversity in plant ecosystems and compare between different locations :)
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Hi,
I'm looking for data (mainly related to management: growth rate, canopy size, soil and climate preferences, etc.) about tropical trees used in tropical agroforestry.
Have you ever heard about a database or a source of technical information available to agroforest managers?
That would really facilitate land management and field experiments.
As always, I am trying to use these questions to centralize information from different sources. RG questions tend to be well indexed in Google for different users. Thank you for your contributions!
Best,
Thomas
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Thomas Fungenzi i guess the attached document might be of your help
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Most of conservationist advocates total ban on any human interference in natural forests including silvicultural management practices.will by doing so in terms of carbon cycle weheter old  tree stands as well as dead trees is increasing carbon storage or decreasing  by decomposition. That unused wood if utilised properly for lock carbon in natural furniture or structure will be more useful than laying in the forests. Is there any study which can suggest in decomposition of wood how much and carbon di oxide liberated or added to soil to increase soil carbon along with net gain of carbon after decmposition of wood. 
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Manmohan J. Dobriyal i found one paper which might be of help to you
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Different silviculture systems were used for harvesting and regeneration of a forest crop. I want to know whether these systems are being practiced in India or other parts of the world.
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The clear-felling system and the continuous cover system
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Within what minimum and maximum values does the (statically significant) correlation between annual growth of the rings and climatic variables (eg: temperature and / or rainfall) vary in beech (Fagus sylvatica) under the European climates?
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Really nice, interested and important question.
Keep it up !
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Aside propagation of plants using both sexual and asexual methods; and factors that affect germination and growth of plants, are there other research areas in silviculture
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May be.
You can make a research area innovative for you. It all depends on the approach you want to give to your subject.
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We review the conceptual framework and underlying assumptions of the major silvicultural practices recommended in Integrated Pest Management Strategies.
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IPM is good a idea to manage the forest pests.
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Shade tolerance and intolerance plays a significant role while planting trees based on topographical or geographically different areas. In order to spread and promote indigenous species planting, this specific characteristics and its knowledge is very important for forestation and silvicultural aspects.
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There are at least three papers that provide lists of plants differing in shade tolerance and an in depth look at the basis of shade tolerance that you should find useful. These are Pang, K. et. al. 2019 Response of legumes and grasses to non, moderate, and dense shade in Missouri, USA. I Forage yield and its species-level plasticity and II. Forage quality and its species-level plasticity in Agroforestry Systems 93 pages 11-24 and pages 25-38 and Semchenko, M. et al. 2012. Positive effect of shade on plant growth: amelioration of stress or active regulation of growth rate? J. Ecol. 100 pages 459-466. The DOI numbers are 10.1007/s10457-017-0067-8, 10.1007/s10457-017-0068-7, and 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01936.x.
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Need Forest Silviculture Researcher, who have good experiences related to field data.
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The type of field data collected will depend on the purpose of the study. Screening studies are typically designed to test the effects of a treatment(s) on crop survival and growth or control of a competitor species. Operational comparison studies may include crop, vegetation, soils, carbon and other environmental variables. Operational monitoring studies involve monitoring forest operations. A research could monitor a large number of variables, but politics, money and time normally constrain the study. Thus, we'll need more information about not only the forest types being studied, but also the purpose of the field studies.
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Teak appears to be a valuable species in tropical silviculture. However, what is the impact of a large scale cultivation of this species on the fertility of tropical soils, which are already acidic and quite poor (in terms of fertility)?
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In high value species, the proportion of heartwood is a very important variable to determine the price of wood. Knowing the physiology of heartwood formation , could be posible to device silvicultural treatments and genetic improvement strategies to increase the proportion of ths quality wood,
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I had empirically modeled the heartwood volume, VH, of trees by using DBH and VH determined from trees of different sizes and using stem analysis to determine VH. The relationship is of course different between the species of trees and it seems age also describes an important part of the VH variability. Try the empirical method and the conclusions you would most likely come up with are: (i) open the forest a bit to let desirable trees grow in DBH, (ii) for large old trees the gain in AVH/AT is quite small so do not wait anymore to harvest, and (iii) for some species, for young trees improve site conditions to reduce the SW/HW (SW= softwood; HD=heartwood) ratio. Althoug for other tree species, the viceversa may be true.
Hope these comments would improve your understanding on heartwood formation.
Kind Regards
Sincerely
Jose Navar, Ph.D
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Quercus leucotrichophora is an important tree species in Himalayn region and widely used for fodder and wood for agricultural implements or directly as pole. Due to over pressure of lopping we rarely find in straight of clean bole good height both in forest and in agricultural fields. Further its wood considered to hard and have interlinked fibers which reduce its wood working. But other parts of Globe Qurecus species are used for timber e. g.Q. alba. Can this tree with improvement programme and good silvicultural practices be grown as good timber to get straight bole knot free logs.
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Thanks H. Kumar. what about wood work ability of the species.
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Please share your view...
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Thanks a lot sir for your valuable answers.....
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Now all natural forests are manged on conservation approach and so there is no direct benefits are originating for economic gains of country baring few livelihood options for tribals. There is dead trees, unused NWFP forest wealth but law not permit to extract it. Is conservation forestry is just ban everything in natural forests even silvicultural practices of thinning, salvage/ sanitation felling or improvement felling etc. How to regulate the conservation with siviculture of economic and social principles?
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You ask, " How to regulate the conservation with siviculture of economic and social principles"?
I believe the answer is classic Einstein theory, 'one can't solve a problem with the same thinking that created it'.
The illusion of 'domination and control' over nature has lead us down a number of 'dead end' paths and persists in the context of your question.
Industrial forestry is the contemporary manifestation of 'killing the buffalo for it's tongue'., with the same degrees of mass wasting and genocide that follows. The evidence is clear. Short booms followed by protracted busts every time. We've overlaid the incessant growth, extractive model not understanding it manifests into cancer whether physically or socially, no exceptions. Tweaks to this model will have limited benefits. We need a new way of thinking.
A new way based in Nature as the Master. WHERE everything our 'management' attempts to do is emulating Natures cycles and bounty. With small 'takings' of trees, locally processing and locally manufacturing into finished products.
Leaving future generations an environmental inherence that has value and not just liabilities. If we love our children we will think more about them than our short term profits.
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I have selected a first generation of individuals from a few parental specimens of Quercus pubescens; they show red crowns in autumn as the parents do. This color seems to be unknown in Q. pubescens. I am looking for any information from anywhere about other individuals and/or groups of Q. pubescens with the same trait. Thank you.
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Thank you for sharing your photos!! It is very nice color. I hope you will be able to propagate this plant in one way or another. I am convinced it would be a success for home gardens and municipal green areas.
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Estimada Blanca,
Me gustaría saber si las lianas representan un factor a tener en cuenta en el manejo silvicultural de estos bosques y si hay un protocolo de manejo de lianas en ese sentido. Muchas gracias
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Estimada Mariza Fernanda;
Por principio, muchas gracias por tu interés en nuestro proyecto, con relación a tu pregunta una respuesta muy breve sería que NO en realidad, y esto básicamente por tres razones fundalmentales: 1) porque su densidad (inluyendo su diversidad) no es muy alta en la zona donde llevamos a cabo este proyecto, 2) otra de las razones es porque no son elementos que compiten con el estrato arboreo a lo largo del periodo de vida de estos úlitmos y 3) porque tampoco producen daños fisicos o mecánicos al arbolado de tal manera que reduzca sifnificativamente el valor comercial de la madera.
Espero lo anterior te sea de utilidad.
Sinceramente;
Miguel Olvera Vargas
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Dear colleagues,
your project is connected in interesting topic. In my country we have also problem with management (silviculture, biodiversity, management of stand edges etc.) of small forest stands in intensive agricultural land.
Is it possible to send me more details about mentioned project? We are interested in some kind of cooperation.
Best regards
Jiri
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I am unsure if I can find the publication, but you might try an internet search on 'silvipasture', a practice that combines low density forestry of about 30-50 sq feet basal area of pine or other suitable forest type with pasture.  Prescribed fire helps to maintain the grassy ground cover, and still have some ability for forest management benefits.  Pine trees use more water than hardwoods or grasslands, so recognize this can be an issue in some climates to keep the forest density low or seek species with lower water usage.  I suppose if you know of some suitable fruit trees that are acceptable for cattle, they may also provide some wildlife or bird habitat diversity to consider if wildlife viewing, other farming produce or hunting were interests.
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The NEBIE plot network is located near the study you are working on. It is designed to determine the effects of intensification of silviculture on productivity, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, etc. NEBIE includes 20 experimental units each is 2 ha is size.
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Bonsoir,j'aimerais faire partir du projet pour terminer mon cycle doctorat 
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In Forestry Silviculture is an important subject but with focus on conservation forestry in most of the countries silvicultural practices and systems are checked in natural forests. Under plantations we have applied its restricted practices and that to only few tending operation, no thinning and only clear felling system. What are new areas of research in field of Silviculture?
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Dear Manmohan JR Dobriyal, forestry, as we know it is geared towards the sustainable management of forest resources. Although with elements already known, its main activities and research development are about:
Forestry and Reforestation - Precision Farming - Lidar Technology
Forestry Soils
Forestry Techniques and Operations
Forest exploration
Forestry Mechanization
science, management and conservation of soil
Cultural Management and Treatment
Seedling production
Operational research - linear programming, dynamic programming, goal programming and transverse models
Recovery of Degraded Areas
Many researches are being developed mainly on the use of technology dealing and biomass studies. In the major scientific journals, a significant percentage of the publications are on land use, precision mapping and technology, and biomass modeling studies and carbon stocks
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A park is cultivated mostly with pine trees and irrigated by drip irrigation system. Every year about 0.25 % of the trees are dying ,what are the soil properties to be studied to know the effect of soil on the dying of trees?
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If this is the case, please look into the initial  health of the planting material and the re-planting  sites( it could be allelopathic effect of previous cycle ) ,besides climatic factors as well..
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Is the initial planting spacing affects trees differently considering the dominance class (sub-dominant, co-dominant and dominant) in consideration to growth and wood quality in plantation forests? It appears that co-dominant trees may be the most affected and related to the initial spacing, while other two dominance classes may be less related to it. Wondering why that happens, is it due to different levels of competition in various heights of the tree? Is there any literature concerning these questions?
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I really appreciate the Klemen's answer. It depends highly on the tree species and the wood quality is not a matter of the speed of growth in all species.
The genetic homogenity of the plants is also very important. It's not the same to plant a clone or a controlled pollinated family than planting a mix of non-selected open pollinated families. The more homogeneus the material is the larger space you must use to avoid the effect of competition.
On the other hand, if the genetic material is quite heteregeneus we obtain differents behaviours: dominant, co-dominant and dominant and we should plant shorter spacement to obtain some results.
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I want to determine the age of old growth monumental coppiced trees-complex  (not only the coppices itself) in eastern Macedonia. Note that it has to be an non-invasive technique to the tree. This is due the fact, that the monumental trees are going to be put in value.
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If the coppice age could be identified through analyzing historical data or using a proxy variable that could be linked to age (height, or DAP), I think that root age could identified using isotope (carbon 14).
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Hi Everyone,
I need literature regarding  oak wood density and its relation with growth rate. Secondly, how can we calculate a dry biomass and volume of a tree? 
PS: Does anyone has published a paper regarding variation in wood density at a different height in hardwoods/ ring porous woods ?
Many thanks
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Please check the pdf attachments and the links given below.
The volume of tree  which frequently figure as proxy variable for biomass is calculated by the formula d2h
where d is diameter of tree at breast height and h is the height of tree species.
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I'm working with a colleague on impacts of intensification of silviculture on lichens. We have pre-, 2nd, 5th and 10th year post-harvest data from 156 two hectare experimental units. We will be offering co-authorship to those willing to share their trait database(s).
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Hi Wayne, I'dbe very interested in this. I've been working on how the composition of forest floor vegetation (including lichens) can linked to long-term (centuries to millennia) cycliong of SOC. Using something of a trait-base would be interesting. I also have samples which I will use for CN(P) etc, btu if anything is of interest, let me know. cheers, rob
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 I need some literature related to Influence of silvicultural treatments on oak wood density? 
waiting for comments
thanks
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Please contact Dr. Florin Dinulica for such research topics. Here are some details:
He is conducting wood research in Romania.
Best regards,
Alexandru
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For example SLA (Specific Leaf Area) and biomass allocated to leaves have different responses to light condition at different ages.
In other hand, in smaller trees, SLA decreased by increasing light availability but in bigger ones, it increased by increasing light availability.
Thanks for your helps
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Hello Ardalan,
Yes it happens. Age groups of a particular species have been made by many researchers using the spectral responses of vegetation from both ground and airborne sensors. This becomes possible only due to differences in spectral responses. LAI plays an important role in this phenomenon. La Porta N publications are worth to study. 
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It would be interesting to know if the cost of fertilizer is reset at the end of turn for the additional increase wood generated fertilizer. Always assuming that the fertilizer is applied after the last thinning and trees that will be part of clearcutting.
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Hi again,
Surely someone is looking at  economy-production-environmental issues.   I have not bumped into it myself, perhaps cuz in the Northeast US where I work fertilizing is uncommon.
Find Tappeiner, et al, Silviculture and ecology in western US forests.  Oregon State Univ Press, 2007.  There is a section on fertilization.  Will give yo a place to start.
Get in touch w. them for more advice, and contact Dan Richter at Duke University-- I bet he will be well informed on these issues.
Years ago a scientist named George Bengston did a short paper where he estimated the nutrient losses in removing tops,  in southern pine, and then figured out what it would cost to replace them by fertilizing. Ingenious, and convincing.  It was not trivial.  As a first step you need not go farther than this.  Plainly results will be site-specific.  This probably connects to low-impact harvesting as leaving more biomass behind moderates nutrient losses.  
IN some temperate soils, with long enough rotations, nutrient losses are replaced by weathering.  Not likely in many tropical soils. 
Here is where the area being studied matters.  The need for fertilizer for production,  and dynamics of its flow to the environment, will differ between temperate,  high altitude, and lowland tropical situations.  
Would seem that just assessing the production/financial benefit of fertilizing is one place to begin -- if it's not worth doing,  then need not pursue environmental issues further.
Nest  LCI
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I would be interested to know if after a full cycle of forest plantations of Pinus sp without fertilization, if they could recover the initial level of nutrients (e.g. by atmospheric deposition) or if that level is never recovered. 
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Hi,
You can find the review I made for radiata pine on page 182 of 'Sustainable Management of radiata pine plantations' FAO forestry paper 170'.  It is available on-line or can be downloaded through my Research Gate  site. In Table 10.2 the data is presented on  a mean annual basis, with the 'Other inputs' line being rainfall for P and cations.
Although there are many variables involved, stem-only harvesting is usually OK in the long term on many sites. Weathering rates, erosion, leaching losses and N fixation etc, as well as rainfall needs to be considered. Weathering is often more important than rainfall inputs for P and cations.
Some researchers have also developed models that can be run to see if there are trends over several rotations, but of course they are only so good as the data used to develop them and assumptions made. 
Don
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We know quite a lot about potential impact of climate change on main tree species (e.g. pine, spruce, oak, beech) in central Europe but what about hornbeam? Could anyone write some about the effect of climate change on Carpinus betulus? In Poland we observe that the present climate evolution would be favorable for hornbeam, but would it be long-term? We consider some questions that are really crucial for silvicultural decisions. Have you made any researches/models on impact of climate changes on Carpinus betulus in Europe? If so, I would be grateful to be advised relevant publications.
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Dear Piotre Sewarniak
In my opinion identification of ring width in hornbeam is very hard; I work in Iran but I couldn't create basic chronological report for a long term period for hornbean whereas I gotten cores from Carpinus betulus. My experiment in Caspian forests in harvested and non-harvested sites in the north forest of Iran show that regeneration of hornbeam under the beech sites in high elevation was increased.
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I want to have information about the of species, plantation area, plantation age as well as hydrological effects of these species in the semiarid and area climate zones.
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Dear Seyed
You can find information in the FAO web site or look at this old book (Evans, Tree Planting for Industrial, Social, Environmental, and Agroforestry Purposes) or try others approach like remote sensing to obtain some information. 
have a nice day
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Periodic occurrences of decline and death of oaks over widespread areas have been recorded since 1900 in all the world. These outbreaks, variously named oak decline, oak dieback, or oak mortality, are caused by a complex interaction of environmental stresses and pests and given the name oak decline.
Please describe the experience in your country.
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Dear Seyed,
Actually, may be there are lots of problem in declining of oak forest but the main problem is related to  human activity (anthropogenic). In Turkey, Oak forestlands has been managed mostly as coppice forms. A large part of the forests occuring in Southeastern Turkey has been destroyed and formed shrubby bunchy by anthropogenic effects such as unmanaged cutting for fuelwood, grazing and illegal cutting.
In addition to all, I think the another problem is global changing. For instance; Oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), especially in Central Europe, Turkey, Russia, Iran, and Azerbaijan is an important pest species of oaks. This species mostly occurs up to 700 meter altitude. But in 2010, I have found it in Brant's Oak coppice occuring southestern Anatolia in over the 1000 meter altitude. It may indicate that something is cahanging really due to climate changing in terms of Oaks...(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269336601_Larval_development_and_behavior_of_oak_leaf_roller_depending_on_brant%27s_oak_phenology)
These forests, although may be regarded as unproductive and degraded. So, they have physiological activity as all other plants and ability to sequestrate atmospheric CO2. Degraded Branth’s oak stands will may sequestrate approximately 5.5 tonnes atmospheric CO2 in one hectare per year under the relatively optimal photosynhetical conditions. Besides, in case of rehabilitation of this forests, the ratio may will be up to 3 times.(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268804276_The_Potential_for_Atmospheric_CO2_Squestration_in_Degraded_Oak_Coppices_Occuring_Southeastern_Anatolia_Region)
So, protection and rehabilitation is important issue for enhancement of productivity in degraded oak coppices. And coppice should be turned into high forest by using silvicultural methods...
Warm regards...
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Are fast growing trees healthier (positive relationship)? Or is there a trade-off between tree growth and health (the to-grow-or-to-defend hypothesis; negative relationship)? It seems to come down to a question of energy acquisition and allocation. Faster growing trees could acquire more resources but if these resources are being allocated to growth there would be less for defence against pests or other stressors. Any references or experience on this topic would be beneficial. 
Thank you, Anya.
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Hi Anya!
As far as I am concerned, this subject, tree health and it's defence against pest or other environmental stress, directly related to environmental or ecological factors including both abiotic and biotic factors affecting tree, forest and also whole plant community in terms of health and resistivity to any natural diseases.
May be there is indirectly a relation between tree growth and its defence but growing fast or not in trees  directly related to physiological and anatomical features under the same ecological condition.
So clearly, main answer is: Under the same ecological condition, we can not only say that fast growing trees healthier than the others. Its depend on ecological conditions.
SCENARIO 1: At general, Poplar is fast growing tree and it comsumes and needs more water than Oak species. So, If they grow in dry and semi dry condition, Poplar probably will have less resistivity than Oak. And this condition will be affect Poplar' physiological properties and finally it will be less resistivity to pest and the other env. stress. than oak. We can make an inference that.
SCENARIO 2: But, in humid contidion, we can not say that Poplar will be healtier than Oak. Can we?
Its one of the my little opinion:)
Good luck with your study.
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In Ireland we have an eradication policy but it may be prudent for us to also prepare for the worst case scenario of widespread infection. In those areas infected in Europe, what silvicultural guidelines are being provided for the management of Fraxinus excelsior in the face of ash dieback attributed to Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (often called Chalara dieback)?
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Hi Ian
In Denmark the recommendation is to harvest infected trees, but there seem to be some variation in at least the speed with which individual trees decline. Like in France, there are wet areas where the closest substitutes are not really attractive (red alder e.g.), so in many cases forest owners go easy rather than clean and replace. Danish researchers are working hard to find more resistant genotypes, e.g.
cheers /Bo
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About half a century ago a particular provenance of lodge-pole pine was planted extensively, but ultimately, unproductively, are there other examples where species or provenance choice has gone "wrong"? In what way was it wrong? Could the forester have possibly foreseen the danger looming? Could any silvicultural decisions or interventions mitigated these "losses"? Can we ever hope to avoid similar mistakes ourselves?
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There are many examples where species choice turned out to be wrong (not only provenance choice): Two more examples with references from literature:
Germany; Belgium, Hungary & other states in Europe: introduction of Prunus serotina (now an invasive species):
Annighöfer, P.; Mölder, I.; Zerbe, S.; Kawaletz, H.; Terwei, A.; Ammer, C. 2012a. Biomass functions for the two alien tree species Prunus serotina Ehrh. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. in floodplain forests of Northern Italy. European Journal of Forest Research 131, 1619–1635.
Annighöfer, P.; Schall, P.; Kawaletz, H.; Mölder, I.; Terwei, A.; Zerbe, S.; Ammer, C. 2012b. Vegetative growth response of black cherry (Prunus serotina) to different mechanical control methods in a biosphere reserve. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42, 2037 – 2051
Godefroid, S.; Phartyal, S.S.; Weyembergh, G.; Koedam, N. 2005. Ecological factors controlling the abundance of non-native invasive black cherry (Prunus serotina) in decidous forest understory in Belgium. Forest Ecology and Management 210, 91 – 105
Meerschaut, D. van der; Lust, N. 1997. Comparison of mechanical, biological and chemical methods for controlling Black cherry (Prunus serotina) in Flanders (Belgium). Silva Gandavensis, 90 – 109 
Juhász, M. 2008. Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) . In: Botta-Dukát, Z.; Balogh, L. (eds.): The most important invasive plants in Hungary. Institute of Ecology and Botany, Hungarian Academy of Science, Vácrátót, 77 – 84
Sweden: Pinus contorta (as mentionned by Anders in an earlier posting):
ANDERSSON, B.; ENGELMARK, O.; ROSVALL, O.; SJÖBERG, K. (2001): Ecological effects of forestry with introduced lodgepole pine in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 141: 1-1.
ENGELMARK, O.; SJÖBERG, K.; ANDERSSON, B.; ROSVALL, O.; AGREN, G. I.; BAKER, W. L.; BARKLUND, P.; BJÖRKMAN, C.; DESPAIN, D. G.; ELFVING, B.; ENNOS, R. A.; KARLMAN, M.; KNECHT, M. F.; KNIGHT, D. H.; LEDGARD, N. J.; LINDELOW, A.; NILSSON, C.; PETERKEN, G. F.; SÖRLIN, S.; SYKES, M. T. (2001): Ecological effects and management aspects of an exotic tree species: the case of lodgepole pine in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 141: 3-13.
Unfortunately the list is long - just two examples here. However, such hindsight often comes very late/ which is typical for species choice in forest ecosystems!
Does this help?
Sebastian
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SEM has been under development for decades in human science, but its application in the field of natural science has not been as widespread.
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Most certainly yes; SEM can be applied to any natural phenomena, to detect causal effects. There is in fact a book written by James Grace with applications from forestry and related fields, see e.g. his ch. 1 example concluding: "the biggest impact on
changes in spurge density was from self thinning, with A. lacertosa having a
modest effect on spurge and A. nigriscutis having no impact at all." (p. 33); or 'Relating soil properties to plant growth' (p. 110).
Grace, J. B. (2006). Structural equation modeling and natural systems: Cambridge University Press.
See other Grace work with SEM:
Grace, J. B. (1999). The factors controlling species density in herbaceous plant
communities: an assessment. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics,
2, 1–28.
Grace, J. B. (2001). The roles of community biomass and species pools in the regulation of plant diversity. Oikos, 92, 191–207.
[THIS IS A SEM CLASSIC] Grace, J. B. (2003a). Comparing groups using structural equations. chapter 11, pp. 281–296. In: B. H. Pugesek, A. Tomer, & A. von Eye (eds.). Structural Equation
Modeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grace, J. B. (2003b). Examining the relationship between environmental variables and ordination axes using latent variables and structural equation modeling. chapter
7, pp. 171–193. In: B. H. Pugesek, A. Tomer, & A. von Eye (eds.). Structural
Equation Modeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grace, J. B. & Guntenspergen, G. R. (1999). The effects of landscape position on
plant species density: evidence of past environmental effects in a coastal wetland.
Ecoscience, 6, 381–391.
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Balogh-Brunstaddid not seem to use SEM in their piece, but some anbalysis of variance of changes in several outcomes, I think:
Balogh-Brunstad said: "The significance of differences in the effects of bacteria and fungus, pine, and the presence or absence of ectomycorrhizae on pine was determined by analyses of variance (SAS 2004)." (p. 157)
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I'm trying to understand the effect on the backscattering C-Band polarized SAR data of the budding. I have data before, during and after the bud opening of Fagus Sylvatyca and Quercus Robus (L.) on some areas. HH and VV signals don't seem to be affected, but HV does. But it seems that the backscattering of HV goes down despite my intuition. My intuition is, since bud opening is happening, biomass is growing, and in the case of SAR data, volumic backscattering is growing too. And this volumic backscattering plays on HV polarimetric backscattering by growing it. Is that correct? I joined some data with dayly pluviometry. The incidence angle of the first two data is about 20° the 3 lasts are at about 40°. Bottom figure is the bud opening visualisation. Any hints of what's really happening in terms of interaction forest-backscaterring. And moreover, bud opening-backscattering? Thank you very much!
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It is important to realize that there are 2 major mechanisms to think about when dealing with SAR In forests: scattering and absorption. The intuition is that if an object is wet and about the same size as the wavelength of the SAR data (or larger), then that object will generate scattering. Objects smaller than the wavelength will be responsible for absorption. So, the size of your buds in wavelengths is a key parameter for making sense of your data. You should calculate this. Based on your data, I would guess that the buds are fairly wet and small, causing more absorption than scattering. One can think of this like the beam of light is getting less bright as it propagates down through the branches, and witht he buds this happens faster. Hence objects that used to backscatter significantly are backscattering less because there is less "light" to backscatter. Ideally one would like to use a physics-based model to simulate such complex interactions.
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Have you seen any recent publications: such as modification of thinning/ harvesting regimes for the production of a certain NWFP species? Likewise, yield models for tree products (cherries walnuts etc.) any experience? I'd be interested to hear of anything from this growing research field, especially from experiences gained in Europe. Thanks
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Hi Jon!
I think perhaps you know our works on modelling stone pine cone and nut production, as e.g. Calama et al. 2011 Modelling spatial and temporal variability in a zero-inflated variable: The case of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone production. Ecological Modelling (222, 606-618); Calama et al. 2008. An empirical ecological-type model for predicting stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone production in the Northern Plateau (Spain). Forest Ecology and Management 255, 660--673. Also awork focusing on the effect of thinning on cone production, Moreno-Fernandez et al.2013. AFS 70:761-768 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13595-013-0319-3#page-1
Regards
Rafa
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We observed a high degree of variability in foliar elements among years in mature eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), but a time series of foliar elements in this species is unknown (to my knowledge), so any trends that may exist are difficult to explain. Norway spruce may be the best comparison, and has been extensively studied. If you know of particular manuscripts that show elemental concentrations in Norway spruce needles across years, please send me the references. Thank you.
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Thank you Pedro. Yes, that is helpful and I will be looking up some of these!
Kathryn
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Can soil fauna be a good indicator to reflect the silvicultural practice and management actions?
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I suggest you look to the work of Matt Busse for microfauna response to vegetation control in mixed-conifer plantations in northern California; and Jane Smith's work with mycorrhizal response to prescribed fire and fuels reduction treatments in Oregon.
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The European Environment Agency describes the pollution through nitrogen as one of the main direct causes for habitat and subsequently biodiversity loss. Many studies already showed that also chronic low level nitrogen deposition significantly reduce plant species numbers. My question to the scientific community is: Are there ways of forest management or silvicultural measures to a) reduce atmospheric nitrogen deposition and b) to reduce nitrogen pools in temperate forest ecosystems? Is there a study discussing at least ideas of how to combine soil nutrient sustainability aspects with de-eutrophication measures in temperate forests?
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Such sensitive and critical ecosystems are not a good place for trial and error.
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Noa, think that there is no apriori answer to your question. Yes or no is not enough. The silvicultural system to apply depend on the ecologic, economic and ecological contexts. There have been cases in which a successful selñection system has been practiced, there are other cases in which the uneven age forest has been transformed to a even aged system with natural regeneration. You also have the possibility to have a selection system with a fixed cutting cycle ( specially appropiated for big forest units) or in which the haverst is selective but depends on the maturity criteria for each individual species. This last way to go is more appropriated for small and médium size forest properties. In Forest Science and Forest practice there are no absolute answers.
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The production of vegetables, fruits, flowers and medicinal herbs etc. I understand that they are areas of horticulture.
But are ornamental and medicinal TREES are also part of horticulture?
Who agrees?
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It will be interesting, as I see, many plants are medicinal, as well they are excellent ornamental, even you see lemon tree is good medicinal as well as small ornamental and many more you will find, it will be really interesting.
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I have a Hungarian model (Somogyi and Béky, 2000) but are there any others out there?
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Here's what I found