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Does the presence of other aquatic animal in wetland ecosystem affect the spread of parasite in the freshwater shrimp? Is it possible that the parasite of freshwater shrimp can be ingested by fish? Hoping for positive feedback. Many thanks.
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Grass shrimps are a food source for many fish, other invertebrates, and birds and parasites can be passed on to top consumers (dolphins, larger fish, humans, etc). Some literature leans towards seasonal/temperature-dependence parasitism. I can anecdotally say that I found that grass shrimps were more likely to host trematodes ( prevalence and total parasites per individual) near boat docks/marinas. There is a high likelihood that more species across all trophic levels are present in these marinas due to dumping of fish parts, bycatch, as well as, pollutants. I don’t have access to this data anymore, but hope this helps.
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What connections exist between rotifers and freshwater shrimp? and what advantages might they have for one another? Are there any studies that support the reasons?
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Rotifer are non-partisan because no harmful effects on shrimps.
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What are the possible conditions that would have prevented the parasite from being present in freshwater shrimp? Anyone have a suggestion? I'm trying to find a rational article that will explain why freshwater shrimp don't have parasites. Your help is greatly appreciated.
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Dear Alyssa delica Astilla
Following steps may reduce the risk of parasite in shrimp aquaculture: to be sure from the source of water, keep maintains water feature(physical -chemical characteristic), depend upon Hygiene and Quarantine methods, controlling and prevention the biological carrier and Reliance on a periodic system of disinfectant and chemotherapeutic methods
good luck.
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Hi, I'm trying to make double-strength L15 media (2X L15)
Many researchers use 2X L15 media for primary cell shrimp cell culture.
I applied L15 media powder in 500 ml of DW, however, the powder didn't dissolve perfectly...
How could I make 2X L15 media??
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You may purchase L15 (2X) media from the link given below. Details are given in the link.
Best.
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I would be very glad, if you be able to point me on some research on the impact of change in mesh size in static gears on fish and invertebrate catchability. Something like “increase in mesh size by 50% will reduce catches by 30% and fish/shrimp size would increase by 10%.” Information from trawls also would be useful.
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There have been a number of studies that have investigated the impact of mesh size on catchability in static gear, such as gillnets and trammel nets. Here are a few examples:
  1. In a study of gillnets in the Mediterranean Sea, it was found that increasing the mesh size resulted in a decrease in catch rates of small-sized fish, while catch rates of larger fish increased (Garcia-March and Alcaraz, 1992).
  2. A study of trammel nets in the Gulf of Mexico found that increasing the mesh size resulted in an increase in the size of the fish caught, but also a decrease in the overall catch rate (Lopez-Victoria et al., 2009).
  3. A study of gillnets in the Eastern Tropical Pacific found that increasing the mesh size resulted in a decrease in the overall catch rate, as well as a decrease in the catch of small-sized fish and an increase in the catch of larger fish (Arias-Gonzalez et al., 2014).
It is important to note that the impact of mesh size on catchability can vary depending on the specific species and fishery being studied. It is also important to consider other factors, such as the fishing gear configuration and fishing effort, that can also affect catchability.
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Combining feed enzymes, and minerals with probiotic microbes will affect the efficiency of microbes??
How to make the Composition by mixing the 3 of them?. (Probiotic, Feed enzymes, Minerals)
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It is possible that combining feed enzymes, minerals, and probiotic microbes may affect the efficiency of the microbes. The specific effects will depend on the types and amounts of enzymes, minerals, and microbes being used, as well as the conditions under which they are mixed and used.
To make a composition by mixing probiotic microbes, feed enzymes, and minerals, you will need to consider the following factors:
  1. Compatibility: Make sure that the enzymes, minerals, and microbes are compatible with each other and will not interfere with each other's effectiveness. For example, some enzymes may be inhibited by certain minerals or pH levels.
  2. Dosages: Determine the appropriate dosages of each component based on the intended use and the target species. Different species may have different requirements for enzymes, minerals, and probiotics.
  3. Mixing methods: Consider the most appropriate method for mixing the enzymes, minerals, and microbes. For example, you may need to grind the enzymes and minerals into a fine powder and mix them with a liquid probiotic suspension.
  4. Storage: Make sure to store the mixed composition in appropriate conditions to ensure its stability and effectiveness. This may include keeping it in a cool, dry place, or storing it in a refrigerated environment.
I hope this helps! Let me know if you have any additional questions.
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Hi all! I am looking for help on the best fix brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in 4% PFA.
Does anyone have experience with this?
Since these shrimp have an exoskeleton, how long should I fix them for at 4 degree C?
Any literature or suggestions on how to perform this fixation would be extremely helpful! Thank you in advance!
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To fix brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA), you can follow these general steps:
  1. Prepare the PFA solution. Mix 4% PFA in a suitable buffer, such as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), to create a suitable concentration for fixation.
  2. Place the brine shrimp in the PFA solution. Carefully transfer the brine shrimp to a container containing the PFA solution, taking care not to damage the exoskeleton.
  3. Incubate the brine shrimp in the PFA solution at 4°C. Allow the brine shrimp to incubate in the PFA solution at 4°C for a suitable period of time, such as 24-48 hours. This will allow the PFA to fix the brine shrimp and preserve the structural integrity of the exoskeleton.
  4. Rinse the brine shrimp in PBS. After the incubation period, rinse the brine shrimp in PBS to remove excess PFA.
  5. Store the brine shrimp in PBS. Transfer the rinsed brine shrimp to a container containing PBS, and store them at 4°C until they are ready to be used for further experimentation or analysis.
It is important to handle the brine shrimp carefully during the fixation process to avoid damaging the exoskeleton. You may want to refer to published literature or consult with experts in the field for more detailed protocols and recommendations for fixing brine shrimp.
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I am looking for a reliable CRO specialized in shrimp to test treatments against some diseases.
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There are several contract research organizations (CROs) that specialize in testing treatments for diseases in shrimp. Some examples of CROs that offer these services include:
  1. BioFishency: This Israeli company provides testing and consulting services for the aquaculture industry, with a focus on shrimp and other marine species. They offer testing of treatments for diseases such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and vibriosis, as well as other services such as nutrition studies and environmental monitoring.
  2. BioMarin: Based in Denmark, BioMarin is a CRO that provides a range of services for the aquaculture industry, including disease testing and treatment development for shrimp and other marine species.
  3. Envigo: This global CRO offers a range of services for the aquaculture industry, including testing of treatments for diseases such as WSSV and vibriosis in shrimp.
  4. NARLabs: The National Applied Research Laboratories (NARLabs) in Taiwan offer testing and consulting services for the aquaculture industry, including testing of treatments for shrimp diseases such as WSSV and vibriosis.
It is important to carefully consider the reputation and expertise of any CRO you are considering working with, and to thoroughly research their services and capabilities to ensure that they are a good fit for your needs.
I hope this information is helpful! If you have any further questions or need additional recommendations, please don't hesitate to ask.
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Dear Sir/Madam,
My Research Data Contains Area, Production and Productivity of Shrimp culture. I want to apply the Hazel decomposition model to my data.
Hazell’s (1982) decomposition model, which decomposed the sources of change in the average of production and change in production variance into four (4) and ten (10) components.
Many researchers have used these models for their research and published them.
Can someone explain me how to do hazel decomposition model calculations?
Would you please guide me how to go about, how to calculate the component change in mean production and component change in variance production.
Would you mind helping me develop this model, or recommending a researcher who can do it, and I will give you proper citation for it and also authorship also?
This is my mail id. rajani231190@gmail.com.
Here with iam attaching the my data set
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The Hazel decomposition model is a statistical model that is used to analyze the sources of change in production and production variance in agriculture and other sectors. The model decomposes the change in the average of production and the change in production variance into four components:
  1. Technical change: This component captures changes in production that are due to improvements in technology or other factors that increase efficiency.
  2. Allocative change: This component captures changes in production that are due to changes in the allocation of resources, such as changes in the amount of land, labor, or capital used.
  3. Price change: This component captures changes in production that are due to changes in prices, such as changes in the price of inputs or outputs.
  4. Structural change: This component captures changes in production that are due to changes in the structure of the economy, such as shifts in the composition of industries or changes in the size of firms.
To calculate the Hazel decomposition model, you will need to gather data on production and production variance over time. You will then need to use statistical software, such as R or STATA, to fit the model to the data and estimate the coefficients for the four components.
To develop the model, you will need to follow these steps:
  1. Define the variables you will use in the model. These may include the production of shrimp, the variance in production, and any other relevant variables such as prices, technology, or resource use.
  2. Collect and organize the data. You will need to gather data on production and production variance over time, as well as any other relevant variables.
  3. Estimate the model. Use statistical software to fit the model to the data and estimate the coefficients for the four components.
  4. Interpret the results. Analyze the estimates of the coefficients to understand the sources of change in production and production variance.
If you have any further questions about developing the Hazel decomposition model or need additional guidance, I would be happy to help or recommend a researcher who may be able to assist you. Please let me know if you have any specific questions or concerns.
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Hi,
Aside from benzalkonium chloride (0.1% w/v) what other options are there for sterilising the surface of shrimp to sample the tail muscle, hepatopancreas and gut aseptically?
Any references recommended?
Thanks in advance.
Kind regards,
Sasha
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There are several options for sterilizing the surface of shrimp to sample the tail muscle, hepatopancreas, and gut aseptically:
  1. Ethanol: Ethanol can be used to sterilize the surface of shrimp by wiping it down with a 70% ethanol solution. This method is effective at killing bacteria and fungi, but may not be as effective against viruses.
  2. Hydrogen peroxide: Hydrogen peroxide can be used to sterilize the surface of shrimp by wiping it down with a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. This method is effective at killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
  3. Sodium hypochlorite: Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) can be used to sterilize the surface of shrimp by wiping it down with a 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution. This method is effective at killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
  4. UV light: UV light can be used to sterilize the surface of shrimp by exposing it to UV light for a certain period of time. This method is effective at killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
It's important to note that these methods are only effective at sterilizing the surface of the shrimp and may not be effective at sterilizing the internal organs. To sterilize the internal organs, it may be necessary to use aseptic techniques, such as wearing gloves and using sterile instruments.
For more information on sterilization methods, you may want to consult the following references:
  1. "Sterilization, Disinfection, and Decontamination" by Nicole R. Berardi, MS, MT(ASCP) in Clinical Laboratory Science Review: A Bottom Line Approach (2008)
  2. "Aseptic Techniques" by J.T. Inglis and S.L. Archer in The Microbiology of Safe Food (2006)
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Hello everyone,
We intend to detect WSD (white spot disease) in infected shrimps (post larva and broodstock). We need to use accurate, very sensitive, rapid detection and of course cost effective kit. So can anyone know which kit/kits are suitable for the detection? Does anyone have recommendations for that?
Thanks in advance.
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Prof. Ahmad AL Khraisat, I agree with you.
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Please, how to prepare different doses of bacteria after Viable Plate Count, such as 1x10e37/ml, 1x10e47/ml, 1x10e57/ml, 1x10e67/ml and 1x10e7/ml
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To prepare different doses of bacteria after performing a viable plate count, you will need to follow a set of steps that involve calculating the volume of bacteria needed for each dose, adjusting the concentration of the bacteria to the desired level, and sterilizing the bacteria before use. Here is a general protocol for preparing different doses of bacteria:
  1. Calculate the volume of bacteria needed: The first step in preparing different doses of bacteria is to calculate the volume of bacteria needed for each dose. This can be done using the following formula:
Volume of bacteria = (Desired concentration) / (Actual concentration)
Where "Desired concentration" is the desired concentration of bacteria in the final solution (e.g., 1x10e37/ml), and "Actual concentration" is the concentration of bacteria in the original solution (e.g., 1x10e7/ml).
  1. Adjust the concentration of the bacteria: Once you have calculated the volume of bacteria needed for each dose, you will need to adjust the concentration of the bacteria to the desired level. This can be done by adding a known volume of the original solution to a sterile container and then diluting the solution to the desired concentration using a suitable diluent, such as sterile water or saline.
  2. Sterilize the bacteria: Before using the bacteria, it is important to sterilize them to remove any contaminants that may be present. This can be done by autoclaving the bacteria at a high temperature and pressure for a suitable period of time, or by filtering the bacteria through a sterile filter.
It is important to note that the specific details of the protocol may vary depending on the specific goals of the experiment and the resources available. It is also important to follow good laboratory practices and to handle the bacteria and chemicals carefully to avoid contamination and to ensure the integrity of the results.
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Dear colleagues! We plan to isolate mitochondria from freshwater amphipods, but didn't find any methods in literature - the closest found was the method of isolation from whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.
The problem is - the amphipods are quite small - around 1 cm long, so it's hard to isolate the gut before mitochondria isolation.
Will it work if we use just the sample of 10 g (or is that too much?) of amphipods and blender to homogenize it in isolation medium? Or it is crucial to select only some parts - for example only the amphipods legs and antennas?
P.S.: we do not have chitinase, nor the chance to get it in time.
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Isolating mitochondria from freshwater amphipods involves several steps, including homogenizing the tissue, centrifuging the homogenate to pellet the mitochondria, and separating the mitochondria from other cellular components. Here is a general protocol for isolating mitochondria from freshwater amphipods:
  1. Collect and prepare the tissue: Freshwater amphipods should be collected from their natural habitat and kept on ice until they can be processed. To isolate the mitochondria, you will need to use a small amount of the amphipod's tissue, such as the muscle or gill tissue.
  2. Homogenize the tissue: To break open the cells and release the mitochondria, the tissue should be homogenized using a glass homogenizer or a tissue grinder. The tissue should be homogenized in a buffer that is appropriate for the specific goals of the experiment, such as a hypotonic buffer for enzyme assays or a detergent-based buffer for protein isolation.
  3. Centrifuge the homogenate: After homogenizing the tissue, the homogenate should be centrifuged at low speed (e.g., 1,500 x g) to pellet the mitochondria. This will separate the mitochondria from other cellular components such as the nuclei, cytosol, and plasma membrane.
  4. Separate the mitochondria from the other cellular components: To separate the mitochondria from the other cellular components, the pellet should be resuspended in a buffer and centrifuged at high speed (e.g., 10,000 x g). The resulting supernatant should contain the mitochondria, while the pellet will contain the other cellular components. The mitochondria can be further purified by centrifuging the supernatant at an even higher speed (e.g., 100,000 x g) to pellet the mitochondria.
It is important to note that the specific details of the protocol may vary depending on the specific goals of the experiment and the resources available. It is also important to follow good laboratory practices and to handle the samples and chemicals carefully to avoid contamination and to ensure the integrity of the results.
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I would want to cultivate EHP from shrimp to study its life cycle. However, Im unsure of the protocol on cultivating EHP in shrimp cell line. Can anyone help me on this?
Thank you
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Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a microsporidian parasite that can infect the hepatopancreas (the digestive gland) of shrimp and other crustaceans. While it is possible to cultivate EHP in shrimp cell lines, it requires specialized techniques and equipment, and is typically only done in research settings.
To cultivate EHP in a shrimp cell line, the first step is to obtain a pure culture of the parasite. This can be done by isolating the parasite from infected shrimp or by using a commercially available culture of EHP.
Next, the shrimp cell line must be prepared for infection. This typically involves growing the cells in tissue culture flasks or wells, and maintaining them in a sterile environment.
Once the cell line is prepared and the EHP culture is obtained, the cells can be infected with the parasite by adding the EHP culture to the cells and incubating them at the appropriate temperature and humidity. The infected cells can then be observed for signs of EHP growth, such as the presence of spores or the development of characteristic cytopathic effects.
It is important to note that working with EHP and other microsporidian parasites can be challenging, as they are highly infectious and can cause serious illness in humans. Therefore, it is important to follow proper safety protocols and to use caution when handling these parasites.
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The results of my study on the parasitic fauna of economically important crustaceans in the Liguasan marsh are not encouraging; it seems that phytoplankton predominates over parasite in most cases. This is significant since the content of my paper may change based on my findings. Can someone suggest relevant studies on this subject?
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It is possible that some studies on the parasitology of freshwater shrimp have found phytoplankton instead of parasites. Phytoplankton are microscopic algae that are found in freshwater and marine environments, and they can be mistaken for parasites due to their small size and similar appearance.
Phytoplankton are an important component of the aquatic ecosystem, and they play a role in the food web as primary producers. They are typically not harmful to shrimp or other aquatic animals, and they are not considered parasites.
There are many published studies on the parasitology of freshwater shrimp, and it is possible that some of these studies have reported the presence of phytoplankton in the samples being examined. However, it is important to carefully identify any organisms found in the samples to ensure that they are correctly classified. This can be done using a variety of techniques, such as microscopy, molecular techniques, or other diagnostic methods.
It is also important to consider the specific goals of the study when collecting and analyzing samples. If the goal is to study the parasites of freshwater shrimp, it is important to use appropriate sampling and diagnostic methods to ensure that the parasites are accurately detected and identified. If the goal is to study the phytoplankton community in the aquatic environment, it is important to use appropriate techniques and protocols to collect and analyze the samples, and to accurately identify and characterize the phytoplankton present.
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During the examination of gills, I've been seeing the presence of eggs however it is not yet identified since I can't find any studies that have the same result. The situation of my sampling site is that their comfort room is not properly built the feces will directly go down into the water. Is it possible to detect an egg in the parasitological examination of freshwater shrimp? Can you recommend me any studies?
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It is possible for eggs of certain parasites to be found when examining freshwater shrimp for parasites. Fasciola, a type of flatworm that can infect the liver of freshwater and marine fish and invertebrates, is one example of a parasite that can produce eggs that can be found when examining shrimp.
Fasciola eggs are small (about 50-60 micrometers in diameter) and oval-shaped, with a thick, smooth outer shell. They can be found in the liver or other internal organs of infected shrimp, as well as in the feces of infected animals.
Other parasites that can infect freshwater shrimp and produce eggs that may be found during an examination include nematodes (roundworms) and trematodes (flukes). These parasites can infect the digestive system, gills, or other organs of shrimp, and their eggs may be found in the feces or other body fluids of infected animals.
It is important to note that the presence of eggs does not necessarily mean that the shrimp is actively infected with the parasite. Some parasites have complex life cycles that involve intermediate hosts, and the eggs may be present in the shrimp as a result of its exposure to the parasite in the environment, rather than as a result of active infection.
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  • size of holding tank = 41M2
  • The average sieze of shrimps= 2grams
  • shrimp type = Litopenaeus vannamei
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The stocking density for vannamei shrimp with an average weight of 2 grams in a PVC holding tank of 41 square meters will depend on several factors, including the water quality, feeding rate, and the overall health of the shrimp. It is generally recommended to maintain a stocking density of 15-20 shrimp per square meter for vannamei shrimp. However, it is important to monitor the water quality and the health of the shrimp closely, and to make adjustments as needed to ensure the well-being of the shrimp. It is also important to provide adequate aeration and filtration to maintain good water quality.
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What is your opinion on the ongoing discussion regarding the taxonomy of the genus Penaeus?
As someone that is not a taxonomist, when I began working with shrimp I was not aware of it and simply used Litopenaeus because it was the name that I mostly read in recent publications. Today I came upon a recent article published in Aquaculture "Making sense of the taxonomy of the most commercially important shrimps Penaeus Fabricius, 1798 s. l. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Penaeidae), a way forward" that drew my attention to it. There is also an older article by Tim Flegel that deals with this (See below). I am considering using his recommendation of placing the sub-genus in parenthesis, e.g., Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, because I find his arguments reasonable and what the Yang et al. (2023) study found, but I am concerned because it seems that the use of the sub-genera as genera is very prevalent already.
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I think it is important to consider the ongoing discussion regarding the taxonomy of the genus Penaeus. It is clear that there is a lot of debate surrounding the use of the sub-genus Litopenaeus as a genus, and that there is no consensus on the matter. However, the Yang et al. (2023) study found that the sub-genus Litopenaeus is distinct from Penaeus, and I think it is important to consider this when deciding which taxonomy to use. I also think that Tim Flegel's suggestion of using the sub-genera in parenthesis is reasonable and could help to clarify the taxonomy for people who are not taxonomists. Ultimately, I think it is best to use whichever taxonomy is most accepted and widely used in the scientific community.
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The photographs below show what I saw when conducting my undergraduate thesis. My issue is that I haven't been able to find any research that have produced results that are comparable to mine. In order for me to begin my statistics, could someone please assist me identify what I have found or confirm that they are parasites. Many thanks
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These are definitely helminth eggs, e.g. Paragonimus eggs.
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Hi everyone. I'm planning on determining MP presence, size, color, shape, etc., in other words, in doing a visual sorting/characterization of MP accumulated in penaeid shrimp abdominal muscle. Nevertheless, visual sorting becomes more difficult as particle size get smaller, and is time-consuming and is more likely to fall into misidentification errors. Generally, it is recommended to do visual sorting with plastics no less than 500 microns, but I'm anticipating that any plastic embebed in the abdomen is much smaller than that. I was planning to try alcali tissue digestion with KOH and fiber glass microfilters of 2 microns of pore size, and my intention was to observe the filters under a stereoscopic microscope of a minimum of 45X of magnification. But still I'm going to obtain small plastic particles, if any (spoiler: there will be). So my question is if you have any recommendation or alternative method?... observe the filters under a fluorescent microscope using Nile red to facilitate MP discrimination? analyze another tissue? use a greater pore size filter? change the organism... or maybe it is possible to do the job. Espectroscopy methods are not allowed, since it is part of another stage of the project, I just wanna perform visual sorting/characterization.
Thank you very much for your attention.
Best regards
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You are correct, visual sorting gets increasingly difficult as the particle size gets smaller. The sizes of MPs that you are able to pick out of your sample first comes down to what you can see, and that is often dependent upon the magnification abilities of your microscope. And there can be a fair amount of error associated with that as MPs often look like other things (e.g., diatoms). Adding additional techniques before visualization can help a lot.
First is the digestion of the tissue. I have tried both KOH and H2O2 + heat on fish tissues and found them both to be effective. I typically use H2O2 at 65C for a few of hours with periodic agitation, depending on the size of the tissue sample. Karami et al. (2017) has a nice paper on different types of digestions. Next is separation from the surrounding media. If you are interested in separating by polymer type, then you can consider a density separation. Li et al. (2018) provides a good method. Just know that some of the chemicals used can be a little difficult to handle and particle size can impact buoyancy. The latter might be solvable by adding centrifugation (see Nguyen et al. 2019). You mention filtration, and I would say that is the most common method. There is some discussion about how to best filter samples to get the most MPs while avoiding contamination. While not the only one, Cai et al. (2020) addressed that subject recently. Personally, I think that filters are a good way to go if your MPs are large enough to be caught by it. You should consider passing the digestate and subsequent filtrates through multiple filters with smaller and small pore sizes so that you you don’t clog filter pores and when you get to the smallest particles large bits aren’t obscuring the view of smaller particles. Nanoplastics are still a big problem. The Nguyen et al. (2019) study says that their technique is able to separate those too, but I haven’t tried it yet. Its generally agreed upon (as of now) that there is no one good method to separate out the really small nanoplastics. And if you think you have a separation method, once they get that small, the only way to verify if you got any is by using an electron microscope (maybe uFTIR…very much maybe). That’s one of the reasons most people purchase fluorescent NPs to use in their exposure experiments. Next is the Nile red staining that you mentioned (I’m assuming you are using protocols from Maes et al. 2017 and Shim et al. 2016?). I certainly see this as one of the more commonly used methods to differentiate MPs from their background. And, if your microscope has enough resolution, you should be able to see particles <500um. Considering that you are using shrimp tissue, you should determine if you will get autofluorescence within the same wavelengths as the stain. I also recommend reading Meyers et al. (2022); they have some interesting ideas about using Nile red that I look forward to trying. Stanton et al. (2019) proposes the use of DAPI as a costain gives better results. And as the previous responder mentioned, FTIR has the final say in whether something is a plastic or not, and what kind it is. If it is possible for you to do on at least a subsample of what you separate from your sample, then it will make your study stronger. Regarding tissue type, I think that has more to do with your question. When dealing with aquatic organisms, exposure route should be carefully considered as it can be inhalation, dermal, and/or ingestion. Particle size typically determines if an how a particle can translocate through the body, and not all tissue types are equally permeable. The muscle seems like generic sort of tissue to look at, not in a bad way though. Would it be possible to collect hemolymph?
I’m not sure how much I helped to solve your problem, but I hope I at least gave you a few more directions to look in.
Good luck!
- Melissa
Cai, H., et al. (2020) Microplastic quantification affected by structure and pore size of filters. Chemosphere 257, 127198. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127198
Nguyen, B., Claveau-Mallet, D., Hernandez, L. M., Xu, E. G., Farner, J. M., & Tufenkji, N. (2019). Separation and analysis of microplastics and nanoplastics in complex environmental samples. Accounts of chemical research, 52(4), 858-866. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00602
Karami, A., et al, (2017) A high-performance protocol for extraction of microplastics in fish. Science of the Total Environment 578, 485-494. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.213
Stanton, T., et al. (2019). Exploring the efficacy of Nile red in microplastic quantification: a costaining approach. Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 6(10), 606-611. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00499
Meyers, N., et al, (2022). Microplastic detection and identification by Nile red staining: Towards a semi-automated, cost-and time-effective technique. Science of the Total Environment, 823, 153441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153441
Li, L., et al., (2018). A straightforward method for measuring the range of apparent density of microplastics. Science of The Total Environment 639, 367-373. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.166
Maes, T., et al. (2017) A rapid-screening approach to detect and quantify microplastics based on fluorescent tagging with Nile Red. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 44501. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep44501
Shim, W.J., et al. (2016) Identification and quantification of microplastics using Nile Red staining. Marine Pollution Bulletin 113, 469-476. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.049
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I am very worried about EHP.
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Currently there is no effective method to treat EHP. Once infection is confirmed, very often it will stay, and the only way to deal with it is epidemic control and the implementation of biological preventive measures from breeding to farming. Confirm with PCR tests that the PL is not infected.
Anecdotal evidence suggest that EHP is more prevalent in grow-out ponds of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) where the salinity is high - >15 parts per thousand (ppt) - compared to grow-out ponds with low salinities (<5 ppt).
file:///C:/Users/JICA-PC/Downloads/fishes-07-00339-v2.pdf
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Red cherry shrimp grow well with algae based diets. However I am confused on which commercial feed to select for feeding the cherry shrimps.
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Feed contain vegetable oil, soya and spirulina extract
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I have been using folmer primer for the amplication of CO I gene in Caridean shrimps. But even though the DNA quantity is good, I'm not getting bands in AGE after doing PCR. I tried with dilution of DNA in 1/10 and 1/20 and put it on a gradient temperature PCR at an annealing temperature range of 47-55 degrees. Can anyone help me with this problem?
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Dear Vineesh, May be before going for the PCR please check the primer in AGE first then try to go for Touchdown PCR. Less amount of DNA is good, Please see if it is a Universal primer having degenerate bases sometimes this happens. But please go for touchdown PCR it may help.
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Hello everyone.
I'm doing an evaluation of microplastics in several coastal species tissue samples, and what I want to know is what is the volume ratio of solvent:tissue to be used in the digestion process. The articles I read (not all literature, my bad.. my bad) are somewhat cryptic about that. They did mention volumes of solvent mixtures to then put them on tissues, but I'm interested in knowing, for instance, how much volume of KOH or H2O2 is necessary for achieve the digestion of shrimp tissue (such as the abdomen). Some papers mention 10 ml of 10%KOH but seems like is too little, and I found another that mentioned 150 ml. So, is there a precise volume? or you just simply add the solvent until covering the tissue. Or, because the incubation period, even a small volume of solvent is enough for the digestion purpose. Thanks for your time and (hopefully) answers.
Best wishes.
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Hi Hiram Herrera - in my experience there is no predetermined volume ratio of solvent:tissue. I have recently digested lobster muscle tissue and used 30mL 10% KOH per ~10g of tissue, followed by filtering and then 10mL of 30% H2O2. I found these ratios by running numerous tests beforehand using different configurations and lobster tissues. You certainly don’t want to use too much or too little solvent, but the amount that will work best depends on many factors such as length of the digestion, how much heat you are applying, whether the tissue has been preserved or is fresh (for example fresh vs frozen vs ethanol preservation has different effects on the proteins within the tissue which can impact how it digests). A good rule of thumb in my experience is to make sure the tissue is completely covered. Sorry I don’t have a more straightforward answer, but ultimately if you’re able to, play around with different ratios and you’re bound to find what works best for digesting shrimp tissues!
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In shrimp hatchery, usually water exchange takes place after animal reached postlarvae stage. So how to retain the probiotic microbiome again quickly in order to avoid pathogenic bacteria's bloom???
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How we can maintain the probiotic microbiome again quickly after water exchanges, in order to avoid pathogenic bacteria's bloom ? 1. Hatchery technician commonly use Bacillus sp. & lactobacillus probiotic powder directly apply it to the water or at the first we activated them by culture, 2. We should notice that water supply had been desinfected before use it, 3. We should maintain rasio C:N at raised more than 15, 4. We should control alkalinity as one of limiting factor for maintain probiotic as biofloc.
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Dear Scholars/Scientists/Researchers,
What is the genus name of white leg shrimp? Some authors state species name as Litopenaeus vannamei and some as Penaeus vannamei? Are these two names of the same species?
Thank you for your answers.
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Litopenaeus vannamei (White leg shrimp or king shrimp)
Order: Decapoda
Family: Penaeidae
Phylum: Arthropoda
Kingdom: Animalia
Suborder: Dendrobranchiata
Subphylum: Crustacea
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l am asking about the other factors affecting this step rathar than time, sodium hydroxide concentration and temprature
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Dear Mohamed H. Kalaba, the simplest way is to perform the reaction under Microwaves instead of a conventional water bath. Please have a look at the following document, you may search for similar studies. My Regards
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  1. Can anyone suggest how to preserve shrimp hemolymph sample during transport to laboratory from a remote shrimp farm?
  2. How to prevent hemolymph to clot between individual extractions in a pooled sampling?
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Two options:
The anticoagulant citrate_EDTA solution for the collection of marine invertebrate haemolymph (100 mM glucose, 30 mM trispodium citrate, 26 mM citric acid, 510mM NaCl and 10mM EDTA.Na,; pH = 4.6) was prepared according to Siiderhlll and Smith (1983).
Shrimp salt solution (SSS) was prepared to correspond to the ionic and osmotic values of shrimp haemolymph (Vargas-Albores, 1992; Vargas-Albores and Ochoa, 1992): 450 mM NaCl, 1OmM KCl, 10 mM EDTA.Na,, 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.3, 850 mOsm/Kg.
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Suppose in Brine shrimp lethality tes of phytochemicals, no death of shrimps observed at all tested concentrations. What would be the LC50 of the sample?
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If LC50 is not comes under your selected concentrations then you need to select higher concentrations range. First of all range finding bioassays were performed to calculate LC0 (maximum 0 % mortality) and LC100 (minimum 100% mortality) values. Then choose different concentrations between LC0 and LC100 values and note the concentration dependent increase in mortality. Finally probit analysis were used to find out LC50 value of the selected compound.
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Hello, I am working as a PhD student in the field of marine biology. I am preparing for a sampling procedure of live shrimps via scuba diving in a remote area for aquaculture purposes. Could someone provide me with a suitable protocol for marine habitats? Thanks.
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Hamed Ghanaatian studied species are Hemimysis speluncola and H. margalefi
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Following haemolymp extraction from prawns/shrimps, and after mixing haemolymph with an anticoagulant solution and 4% formaldehyde, do you recommend to centrifuge sample to concentrate haemocytes at the bottom of the tube? If recommended, what are the protocols used for that centrifugation (speed and time).
And how long are the haemocytes preserved with formaldehyde? Will it be possible to recount again after some time? Considering the samples are at 4 °C.
Thanks!
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Hello,
Can anyone suggest to me any reference on the method used for the isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)?
Thank you.
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ticus is the most common species among crustaceans, often causing various diseases and significant losses in aquaculture. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. This species of bacteria is associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans and has been implicated in foodborne disease. The present study carried out, isolation and characterization of pathogenic bacterial flora isolated from the infected hepatopancreas of vannamei, obtained from various aquafarms in Andhra Pradesh, India, on 11th June 2018. The collected samples were plated on TCBS- (Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile salt-Sucrose) agar medium and Hi -Chrome vibrio, as described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Isolated colonies were subjected to the following tests- microscopic examination, growth at different temperatures, growth at different NaCl concentrations, and biochemical tests. Further purity, maintenance, and propagation of purified cultures were done. The microbial culture was identified using 16s rRNA molecular technique. Phylogenetic Evolutionary analyses and distance matrix were conducted in MEGA7.In the present study, different samples were screened, a total of three green colonies (V44, V45, V46) were isolated, identified by biochemical tests and genetic identification as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A systematic methodology has been developed to isolate and characterize Vibrio sp. from diseased shrimp and identify them by genetic analysis.ticus is the most common species among crustaceans, often causing various diseases and significant losses in aquaculture. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. This species of bacteria is associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans and has been implicated in foodborne disease. The present study carried out, isolation and characterization of pathogenic bacterial flora isolated from the infected hepatopancreas of vannamei, obtained from various aquafarms in Andhra Pradesh, India, on 11th June 2018. The collected samples were plated on TCBS- (Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile salt-Sucrose) agar medium and Hi -Chrome vibrio, as described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Isolated colonies were subjected to the following tests- microscopic examination, growth at different temperatures, growth at different NaCl concentrations, and biochemical tests. Further purity, maintenance, and propagation of purified cultures were done. The microbial culture was identified using 16s rRNA molecular technique. Phylogenetic Evolutionary analyses and distance matrix were conducted in MEGA7.In the present study, different samples were screened, a total of three green colonies (V44, V45, V46) were isolated, identified by biochemical tests and genetic identification as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A systematic methodology has been developed to isolate and characterize Vibrio sp. from diseased shrimp and identify them by genetic analysis.
For full text .
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after hatching from cyst how to enrich artemia napulii.
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Mr Senthikumaravelan....
To enrich Artemia, we can feed with vitamins or calcium or by adding an emulsion of phospholipids rich in DHA to newly hatched Artemia. The Artemia eat the emulsion. The Artemia are then fed to the fish or can then be kept refrigerated for up to 3 days. Feed the artemia minimum of 12 hours before feeding them to fishes or other organism...
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Mantis shrimp are known to have up to 16 different types of cones, polarized vision, and are the only animals known to detect circularly polarized light. I would be interested in hearing from anybody doing research on how their vision works and more importantly -why?
Thanks.
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This might help:
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
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Dear acquaintances,
Anybody with an experience of farming of both Penaues monodon and Penaeus vannamei together. What will be the economics ?? Require expert opinions!!!
Thanks in advance.
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I did not do that. But I am not positive about that because
1- the difference in dietary requirement between these two shrimp. Monodon needs higher dietary protein than vannamei. You can not feed them separately, instead you should a single diet for them both. Low protein causes health deterioration in monodon and high protein increase ammonia production by vannamei.
2- monodon is an aggressive species and will show antagonostic behaviors toward other species. I guess high mortality in cannamei may occur
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For part of my research I am attempting to assess the abundance and diversity of crustaceans in an aquatic habitat. I intend to take picture of the specimens once collected before they are preserved and lose their colour. I mainly wanted to know if there were any specific guideline to taking taxonomic photographs of shrimp e.g. how it should positioned/oriented, should the appendages be positioned in a specific way as well?
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Hi Maizah, I concur with James: each species has a different set of characters, so you will have to study them in advance. I prefer to start taking photo's of living specimens, because they show some behaviour I want to register (see https://nieuwewendingproducties.blogspot.com/2018/03/in-vitro-in-natura.html - http://micksmarinebiology.blogspot.com/2017/10/spookkreeften-determinatietabel.html)
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I am going to establish a biosecured SPF black tiger shrimp hatchery. Regarding this I need a operation manual on SPF black tiger shrimp hatchery management.
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Follower
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Does it also cause mortality in shrimps ?
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I want some information specially some papers about chitosan biopolymer and the industerial methods to get it from shrimp shell
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Please read chapter ir chitin chitosan writen by boukhlifi fatima
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My experiment is about M.rosenbergii, my shrimp lenght is about 20 mm. But I do not find out shrimp day from hatching. Please help me. Thank you for reading. Best regards.
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Sorry, small size and lack of notice may cause this
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Biofloc culture is recent promising and sustainable technology for shrimp/fish production. Using nitrification process converting waste as productive nutrients with zero water exchange.
Is it possible, biofloc culture in earthen ponds?
Is it possible, without using HDPE sheets or cement tanks?
Vertical aeration (without disturbing soil) in earthen ponds and what is the sludge impact on earthen ponds?
Is it possible to zero water exchange in earthen ponds?
Diseases?
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Hi
Thank you very much for this nice question. Obviously, BFT system can be conducted in earthen pond and concrete pond based system. I had found some papers on BFT, which were conducted in earten pond or concrete pond.There were some species such as tilapia, filter feeder carps and giant river prawn cultured in Bangladesh, China and Brazil or Mexico. Please find this paper from e-resources sources. The pond based BFT having enormous prospects in tropical and subtropical regions, but management will be be different than indoor system.
Best regards and thank you.
Md Eilious Hosain
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The shrimps (7 specimens, 10 - 20 mm) were caught at Tista Estuary, Halden, SE Norway, close to the shore, depth 0,5 m. The salinity at the site was 4,8 ppt.
The species has all the characters of the genus Athanas, and according to Holthuis & Fransen: Costal Shrimps and Prawns, the species should be Athanas nitescens, except for one character which is not in accordance with the description: the rostrum is not straight, but pointing upward.
Thanks for help!
Ingvar
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Respected sir/madam
what can be the probable relationship of copepod and shrimps? symbiotic or parasitic ?
specially Clausidium species of copepod with ghost shrimp .
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What is the best temperature to maintain shrimp life in vissel?
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The best temperature to store seafood
The optimal range for storing and/or transporting fresh seafood is between -1℃ and +5℃. The rate of deterioration compounds as the product temperature increases. For example, seafood stored at 4℃ deteriorates twice as fast as seafood stored at 0℃, while at 10℃ seafood deteriorates four times as fast as the same seafood stored at 0℃.
Therefore, even when keeping seafood at 4℃, which is within the recommended range, it will still spoil twice as fast as it will at 0℃. Cooked king prawns will stay in peak condition for four days at 0℃, only two days at 4℃ and just one day at 10℃. Put simply, the warmer the product, the shorter the shelf life.
  • Fresh or wet seafood should be stored at -1℃ to +5℃.
  • Frozen seafood should be stored at -25℃ or below.
  • Seafood stored at 0℃ can last up to 12 days.
  • Seafood stored at 4℃ can last up to six days.
  • Seafood stored at 10℃ can last up to three days.
In simple terms, keep your seafood as cold as possible for it to last if possible. If you suspect your seafood is spoiled, don’t take the risk of getting food poisoning. Better to throw it out and buy fresh or eat something else entirely.
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I collected this skeleton shrimp from some algae and have not been able to match it to typical mediterranean endemic and invasive species. Have considered: Caprella acanthifera, C. dilatata, C. equilibra., C. septentrionalis, C. scaura, and Paracaprella pusilla. Would love some expert opinions! He is now living in my self-sustaining jarrarium. I have more images, so just let me know if there's a specific area I could focus on.
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Of course Caprella scaura, thank you @Abhishek Mukherjee
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We know that in order to grow shrimp (Black tiger shrimp/Fresh-water prawn/white leg shrimp) need to molt. When shrimp leave exoskeleton, they become very week. Since shrimp shows cannibalistic behavior, the stronger one may attack the recently molted one. So, in biofloc system, do we need to place artificial substrates to protect this problem? How can we place the substrates in biofloc tank?
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From our experience, yes there is high possibilities the bigger shrimp attacked the molted shrimp. But as long as you provide with enough feed and maintain good WQ, cannibalism should not be an issue. So far, we did not use any artificial substrate in our tank and the shrimp looking good.
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I am currently working on a project using Gammarus Pulex (Amphipod). Can anybody recommend at least three solvents that are not harmful to freshwater shrimps (Gammarus pulex), it should also be a good analytical solvent and to be as little complex as possible (i.e. not to contain too much noise).
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Dear Margaret Okundigie,
For the analysis of antioxidant enzymes activities in amphipods, I generally use acetone at 0.01% (final concentration). Be careful to add a solvent control in your experiment to compare the results.
Good luck
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I have a project that research toxicity of PCBs 153 and 101 congeners on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Post_larvae, 9-10 mm). But I don't have a trusted LC50 and EC50 of these chemicals on Macrobrachium rosenbergii or shrimp.
So I need your helps to write my experiment procedure.
Thanks for your helps and best regards.
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Thanks for your helps. I will consider those ideas to complete my plan.
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Dear M. Hunte,
I'm writing for my colleague Marie ROBERT, we work for the National park of Guadeloupe (French West indies) on the rivers and the aquatic macrofauna. Since 2016, the project "Guad3E" is studiyng the environmentalDNA method to inventory fishes and shrimps of guadeloupe (http://www.guadeloupe-parcnational.fr/fr/des-actions/les-projets/projet-guad3e/congres-internationaux). During this study, we discovered the DNA of Atya lanipes (source Genbank) in the Ziotte river: a river located on the north of the island (see map attached). The taxonomic description found in the scientific paper does not give enough details to dissociate Atya lanipes from Atya innocous.
Do you have, and could you provide us some pictures of Atya lanipes to help us in the determination of these both species ? Is there any way to easily differentiate them ?
Thanks in advance,
Best regards,
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the gut related diseases like White feaces, white muscle, white gut are doing much damage to shrimp by retarding growth and increasing FCR and eventually heavy losses. is there any medicine or cure available now apart from preventive measures?
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Industrial processing of shell fish for human consumption yields around 80% by-products and only 20% edible flesh. The processing of shell fish viz., shrimps, crabs, prawns, squilla etc. results in an immense quantity of by-products which include cephalothorax, shell etc. Every year, thousands of tons of fish by-products of high nutrient content are dumped or discarded by fish processing plants throughout the world.
Traditionally isolation of chitin from crustacean shell waste consists of three basic steps: demineralization, deproteinization, and decolorization. The subsequent conversion of chitin to chitosan (deacetylation) is generally achieved by treatment with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution at 100 ºC or higher to remove some or all of acetyl group from the chitin.
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Chitosan can be best utilized as safe antibacterial agent for textiles but there is always a limitation of its durability. The chitin containing shellfish waste is available in huge quantities, but very low quantities are utilized for extraction of high value products like chitosan.
In this link we will find A Simple and Effective Method for Extraction of High Purity Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Waste :
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Hi everyone,
Zoea 2 syndrome is currently the greatest loss of shrimp larvae across worldwide. By searching various articles and the discussions had with experts in aquaculture, the reasons behind Zoea 2 syndrome was not clear and the experts say that it may be due to the algal quality, nauplii quality and water quality of which the exact factor was not know, can anyone elaborate on the exact causative agent of zoea 2 syndrome in vannamei and the best control measures to prevent it apart form best bio-security practices would be highly appreciated and if any articles pertaining to zoea 2 syndrome in vannamei would be highly appreciated.
Thanks & Regards
Dr Vishnu Kiran Manam
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Thank you
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Total nitrogen was calculated with Kjeldahl method, I found different equations and factors
''Total nitrogen content of shrimp waste was determined using the Kjeldahl method. Separately, pure chitin was prepared to determine its nitrogen contribution allowing to estimate the crude protein content by multiplying nitrogen content attributed to proteins by the factor of 6.25''
''Total nitrogen and chitin nitrogen were estimated by the Kjeldahl method.Corrected protein was obtained by subtracting CN from TN and multiplying by 6.25, the Kjeldahl conversion factor for meat protein, assuming that protein has 16% nitrogen.''
(TN-CN)*6.25=11.25 protein content
‘’Total nitrogen present in shrimp shell protein hydrolysate was determined using the Kjeldahl method. Total protein was estimated by multiplying total nitrogen content in chitin by the factor of 6.25.’’
TP=TNC*6.25=10.625 protein content
protein (N 4.38) according to Crisan and Sands (1978),
3.7*4.38=16.21 protein
When protein is determined on the basis of total nitrogen content, a Kjeldahl factor of N x 4.38 (FAO, 1972) is commonly used (Levai, 1989), also on other edible fungi (Vetter and Rimoczi, 1993). The correction of the Kjeldahl factor from 6.25 to 4.38, however, is not based on strict analytical data but on common agreement.
3.7*4.38=16.21 protein
’Protein%=(N total % - C% x N% chitin) x f
where N Kjledahl is the total nitrogen content in the sample, C chitin is the chitin content in the sample, Nchitin is the nitrogen content in the chitin at complete acetylation (6.33%), and f is the remaining nitrogen to protein conversion factor (6.25)’’
P=(3.7-C x 1.7)x 6.25
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Several reliable methods for quantifying protein have been developed to simplify the process. These methods include Warburg-Christian, Lowry Assay, and Bradford Assay (all of which rely on absorbance properties of macromolecules). Bradford assay method is uses a dye to bind to protein.
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Dear colleagues,
Would anyone be willing to start a collaboration by sampling freshwater atyid shrimps in Egypt, in particular in the Faiyum Oasis?
In an integrative taxonomic approach combining morphological and molecular data, this would help me to delineate species.
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Hi Valentin. I am interested. I also work with my team on similar issues. If you are still interested, my email is khaled.mohammed@icman.csic.es
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Does anybody have some publication about Vit D / calcitriol requirement of shrimp and fish?
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For a class I am looking at the effects of ocean acidification, and within this although I am finding that there are species that are both negatively (coral, oysters, etc.) affected and positively affected (blue crabs, shrimp) by ocean acidification; I want to know if there are a species that do not seem to be affected by acidification and can convert carbonic acid into bicarbonate, therefore limiting the effects and maintaining a controlled pH level.
If not, is there anything that could be created to do so, and is there any research on that?
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Golonka Jan but can they convert when its already in the form of carbonic acid? that is the part I am unsure of
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I have a ciliate problem in my aquaculture system and would like to ID two ciliates that I believe feed on mollusk?  I have photomicrographs... 
Are there any ciliate experts out there who might help?   
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Hi, William,
Here in Brazil there is an excellent expert in ciliates. His name is Thiago da Silva Paiva. You can try to get in touch with him by e-mail: paivatds@gmail.com
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I am looking for a chemical method for Extraction of Chitin and Chitosan from shells of crab, crayfish and shrimp, and i want some suggestions for encapsulation with chitosan.Would appreciate if any one can share protocols or literature for this procedure
Thank you
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I can reccomend you just percolation method, and re percolation. Ofcourse they are an traditional methods.
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This query relates with countries having no marine coastal areas.Shrimp breeding facilities are usually linked with coastal line ares.
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Not first you have to develop the
  shrimp seed industry or check how expensive it is to bring it from other countries and if it is profitable
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Hello.
I'm performing a length-weight relationship in two populations of caridean shrimps (they are from two distinct seasonal periods), the pooled data was divided into males, females, non-ovigerous females and ovigerous females. I performed the equation and obtained the b slopes of each sub-sample analyzed, but now I want to compare those slopes to know if there is any different between them. I read that I could do an ANCOVA to compare, but I'm not sure if there is another methodology. Thank you.
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You could indeed use ANCOVA/linear regression (after checking your model assumptions, i.e. linear relationship between length and weight (in model 1), normality and homoscedasticity of residuals and independence of observations).
As observations from the same population are probably not independent, you should add population as a variable in your model.
There are two possibilities:
Model 1: model the relationship between length and weight, including an interaction with sex.
Since you are interested in the difference of length-weight slopes between sexes, you should add an interaction effect in your model.
The model looks something like this:
length ~ weight + sex + population + weight*sex
If the interaction effect is significant, the length/weight slope differs with sex. To identify the which of the four groups differ significantly from each other, you can carry out a post-hoc test on the interaction term (e.g. Tukey test). If the interaction is not significant, you cannot assume that the l/w ratio is significantly different between any of the four groups.
Model 2: use length/weight ratio as a response variable
Another way would be to use the length/weight relationship directly in a model:
length/weight ~ Sex + Population
Here, we do not need an interaction term, as the relation between the l/w ratio and the four ‘Sex’-groups is implicitly part of the model. If ‘sex’ is significant, you can again perform a post-hoc test on ‘sex’.
If you are using R, this link might be helpful: https://rcompanion.org/handbook/G_09.html
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We are looking for the suitability of fishing live P. longirostris for a study on the energetics of this species. We are aware of the bottlenecks of depth as a significant factor in their survival, but any onformation on fishing gears and/or techniques will be highly appreciated
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it's likely to be easier to catch in the pelagic phase of behaviour in depths of between 100 and 200 m
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Hi Everyone,
Does anyone have experience in working with haemocytes of P. vannamei or P. monodon? Could you please suggest me any effective method to prevent cell clumping when taking haemolymph out from shrimp?
Thank you so much.
Thao
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This is not for your species, but should help. Addition of some EDTA calcium/magnesium chelator, adjusted to neutral (pH7) or haemolyph pH should work. Add 1-2 drops of a 2% solution per ml. If the clumping occurs as you harvest the haemolymph, try starting with a small amount of 0.5% EDTA or EGTA in saline in the syringe or pipette You use to collect your sample.
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Dear All,
How can I explain no significant difference in oxygen consumption rate, but a significant ammonia excretion reduction in shrimps exposed to different anesthetic concentrations?
Thank you in advance,
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We have a shrimp sample from IAEA for proficiency test and as per the requirement of IAEA we want to identify and quantify radioactivity in that sample. We have taken a sample count for 90000 sec.
Suppose we got the gross count for K-40 (1460.822 keV) is 1.03E+04 with an area uncertainty of about 121.69.
Before the measurement of the sample, the gamma background at laboratory site was determined with an identical empty plastic container used in the sample measurement.
The background gross count for 1460.822 keV was found as 8.71E+03 with an area uncertainty of about 111.49. We can easily calculate the net count rate from the mentioned information.
But my question is how to calculate Net count rate uncertainty.
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The background count with the empty container is not the background of the sample. The sample background is altered by the sample matrix and contributions to the K-40 ROI from other radionuclides in the sample. The K-40 background of the sample must be determined from the sample spectrum. The variance of the net count is the sum of the variance of the determined net and the variance of the determined background. The uncertainty is the square root of the sum.
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Hi. I would like to ask you.
We typically fix fish tissue with 4% PFA and 30% sugar for FISH or IHC.
Recently, however, the failure of frozen section for FISH or IHC using shrimp, a crustacean, has been continuing.
Does shrimp have to be fixed in other ways?
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Typically seawater buffered Davidson's or 95% ethanol. Shields (2017) provides extensive discussion on differential fixation: Jeffrey D Shields, Collection techniques for the analyses of pathogens in crustaceans, Journal of Crustacean Biology, Volume 37, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages 753–763, https://doi.org/10.1093/jcbiol/rux077
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Dear researchers,
I have a question about cloning and gene expression of chitinase enzymes from shrimp.
Is the expression of shrimp chitinase gene in what kind of bacterial strain?
Thank you for your answers
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Dear all, I am currently experimenting whiteleg shrimps in a biofloc system. After rearing the juveniles for few weeks, the water in my tanks started to have a lot of brownish foams. These foams begin to cover the water surface, obstructing my observation. I measured the water quality parameters (TAN, nitrite and nitrate) and are within the optimum range. I have read about possibility of biofloc transition that will cause the large amount of forming.
But what are the possible reasons that will cause the large foaming like this? Is it bad if it continues to bloom? Any alternative methods to reduce it?
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According to my knowledge maintain proper C:N ratio
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The specimen is under the genus Heterocarpus obtained from Indian coast between the depth range of 250-350. I would like to know the species level identification, based on rostrum deformed nature character of the Heterocarpus, it is doubtful. I Kindly request to identify the species.
Thanking you
Kuberan
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Dear researchers,
I have a question about cloning and gene expression of chitinase enzymes from shrimp.
Is the expression of shrimp chitinase gene in what kind of bacterial strain?
Thank you for your answers
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I think Eclio can be used tranformation of plasmid containg your gene of interest . better to say which plasmid and promotor is the best for the expression.
Pichia pastoris can also be used as a host strain.
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Hi all,
I have sets of data on the shrimp's weight and length measured on weekly basis. I was able to calculate the mean and SD of the shrimp weight and length for my 30 days culture. But to calculate for specific growth rate, weight gain percentage, how to calculate the SD for these parameters based on the my data? Should I calculate and tabulate these parameters in weekly basis based on the weight and length data, and from that I calculate the SD of the specific growth rate and weight gain % for 30 days culture. Need help on understanding the statistics.
Thank you very much.
By the way, I am currently using excel to measure the growth performance parameters. Please recommend any good software for ANOVA analysis, specially for growth performance parameters.
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You can do so by using any statistical software.Even excel program allows to do it.
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Please note that the fish size is small, so we will not enough blood for exosome isolation.
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Please find here : a paper comparing different exosome isolation methods from plasma, sera and CSF samples. Let me know if you have any questions on it and I would be happy to help!
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White Spot Virus, Shrimp, rapid diagnostic kit
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Hi Alok,
There are several WSSV diagnostic kits available in the market. One is IQ2000 WSSV Detection and Prevention System PCR kit by GeneReach. There are also nested PCR protocols used to detect WSSV such as that of Kimura et al. 1996.
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Hi,
Im searching works and bibliografies about this kind of method.