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Dear all:
I am going to examine the psychometrics of a youth psychopathic measure in a sample of youth sexual offenders. Meanwhile, I am also interested in examining how youth psychopathic traits predict their sexual offense behavior (or risk of future sexual offenses). Due to several limitations, I can only use self-report measures. Does anyone know a self-report measure to assess youth sexual offenses? or the risks of future sexual offenses?
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(PDF) Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version: A
Predicative properties: Please see articles on teenage brain development and criminal behaviour ( Crime traveller January 2022). The impulsivity likely to be demonstrated is in contradiction to predictable behaviour. And then there may be likely correlation between having been victimized and becoming a victimizer ...
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The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Measurement Invariance and Psychometric Properties among Portuguese Youths 1by📷Pedro Pechorro1,*,📷Diana Ribeiro da Silva2,📷Henrik Andershed3,📷Daniel Rijo2📷 and📷Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves1School of Psychology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057, Portugal2Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Rua do Colégio Novo, Coimbra 3001-802, Portugal3School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro 70182, Sweden*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.Academic Editor: Matt DeLisiInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090852Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Psychology and Crime)Download PDF Citation ExportAbstract
The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) among a mixed-gender sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72), in a school context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor first-order structure. Cross-gender measurement invariance and cross-sample measurement invariance using a forensic sample of institutionalized males were also confirmed. The Portuguese version of the YPI demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity of statistically significant associations with conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex. In terms of known-groups validity, males scored higher than females, and males from the school sample scored lower than institutionalized males. The use of the YPI among the Portuguese male and female youth population is psychometrically justified, and it can be a useful measure to identify adolescents with high levels of psychopathic traits.Keywords: adolescents; assessment; psychopathic traits; validation1. Introduction The construct of psychopathy is characterized by a set of affective, interpersonal, and behavioral deviant features [1,2]. Psychopathy is considered a relevant variable for forensic purposes, because it seems to be associated with the most early, severe, and stable forms of antisocial behavior [3,4,5,6]. Being a high risk condition concerning criminal recidivism, that tends to get worse and become less responsive to treatment with age, several authors argue that it is crucial to invest in early screening and intervention efforts [7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. Concordantly, the interest in child/adolescent psychopathy has vastly increased over the past decades [14]. Moreover, despite some criticisms [15,16] the more recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) [17] added the “with limited prosocial emotions” specifier for conduct disorder. This specifier includes features often identified as psychopathic traits, specifically callous-unemotional ones [17].The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) [18] is one of the available self-report screening measures to assess psychopathic traits in youth. The YPI has the advantage of assessing the psychopathic personality constellation cost-effectively using a self-report format while minimizing the possibility of deceitful answers (e.g., social desirability, response distortion) because its items were designed in an indirect and subtle way that would lead people with psychopathic traits to see them as positive or admirable [18]. Another advantage is the intended lack of items that directly tap behavioral problems or criminal conduct, since several authors argue that antisocial behavior is a product and not an inherent trait of psychopathy [1,19].The YPI [18] was designed taking into account historical conceptualizations of psychopathy [2,20], assessing 10 core personality traits associated with the construct (grandiosity, lying, manipulation, callousness, unemotionality, impulsivity, irresponsibility, dishonest charm, remorselessness, and thrill seeking). These 10 subscales (with 5 items each) were grouped into three high-order factors, similar to the proposal of Cooke and Michie [1]: Callous-Unemotional (affective dimension: callousness, unemotionality, and remorselessness), Grandiose-Manipulative (interpersonal dimension: dishonest charm, grandiosity, lying, and manipulation), and Impulsive-Irresponsible (behavioral dimension: impulsivity, thrill-seeking, and irresponsibility) [18].Though designed to assess psychopathic traits in youth community samples, the YPI has proven to be a good measure when it is used in forensic settings as well, maintaining its psychometric properties [21]. In the original study, Andershed and colleagues [18] used a large sample of Swedish community adolescents to assess the psychometric proprieties of the YPI. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a model with three factors: Callous-Unemotional, Grandiose-Manipulative, and Impulsive-Irresponsible [18]. Several studies reported the same three-factor structure for the YPI, either in community [22,23,24,25,26] and/or in institutionalized/forensic samples of youth [25,27,28,29,30,31]. This three-factor model has also proved to perform similarly well for boys and girls [18,22,23,25,32]. Alternatively, Pihet, Suter, Meylan, and Schmid [33] recently decided to test different models and proposed a bifactor model for the YPI, i.e., a model that simultaneously includes the total score and the three-factor scale scores.Measurement invariance is an essential prerequisite for trustful comparisons and valid interpretations across groups, avoiding inference problems or biased/invalid conclusions [34,35]. In other words, when comparing different groups (based on age, gender, cultural background, community/clinical/forensic, etc.), it is crucial that researchers can assure that the measure assesses the same psychological construct in all groups [34,35]. Until now, only one study tested and confirmed measurement invariance of a bifactor model of the YPI (composed of the three factors’ scores and of the total score, i.e., a fourth, general factor, on which all observed variables load) across age, gender, and community vs. institutionalized samples [33]. Additionally, measurement invariance of the three-factor structure of the YPI across different ethnic groups (Dutch vs. Moroccan background) of detained male adolescents [31] was also confirmed.The internal consistency of the YPI has been a controversial issue either with community, clinical, or forensic samples. Most studies reported a good to excellent reliability for the total score and for the Grandiose-Manipulative and Impulsive-Irresponsible factors [18,25,27,28,30,31,32,33,36]. However, there are some divergences regarding the Callous-Unemotional factor. Namely, for this factor, some authors found a poor reliability [33,36] while others found an acceptable to good reliability [23,25,26,27,31,33,37]. Reliability concerns are mainly related to Callousness, Unemotionality, Remorselessness, Thrill Seeking, Impulsiveness, and Irresponsibility subscales [30,32,33]. Particularly, Cronbach alphas have been found to be quite consistently low for the Callousness subscale across several studies [18,22,25,30,32,36].The YPI has proven to be positively related to other measures assessing psychopathic traits, namely the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD-SR) [26,28,30,32,38,39], the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) [40,41,42], and even the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) [27,37,43,44]. Moreover, the YPI has proven to be positively linked to aggression [25,31] and, specifically, to proactive (but not reactive) aggression [26]. Externalizing psychopathology, conduct problems, risky behaviors, delinquency, criminal behavior [18,22,24,29,30,31,32], alcohol/drug abuse [23,30], and unprotected sex [30] were also positively associated with the YPI. Though the YPI has not been studied in relation to empathy measures, some studies have reported negative associations between psychopathic traits, especially callous-unemotional traits, (assessed through other measures, such as the APSD) and affective empathy [45]. Besides, the callous/lack of empathy is one of the diagnostic criteria for the “with limited prosocial emotions” specifier for conduct disorder in the DSM-5 [17]. Discriminant validity of the YPI with social anxiety has also shown mostly nonsignificant correlations [30].Regarding gender differences, some studies reported that, generally, boys scored significantly higher than girls in all three factors of the YPI [18,22]. Moreover, comparing a male community sample of youth with a forensic sample of male young offenders, the forensic sample scored higher in the YPI and its factors [25]. However, we must state that only Pihet and colleagues’ [33] study previously tested measurement invariance of the YPI. In this study, the authors [33] found significantly higher scores in boys than in girls, as well as in institutionalized adolescents in comparison to community ones.The YPI has been translated and psychometrically validated among an array of youth samples from different cultures and languages [18,23,30,31,36,37]. Despite this fact, the psychometric properties of the YPI have not been assessed in large, geographically diverse samples of male and female Portuguese youth while simultaneously testing for measurement invariance across gender (male vs. female) and sample type (forensic male vs. school male sample). Thus, the main goal of the present study was to validate a Portuguese version of the YPI, exploring the multidimensional structure of the psychopathy construct among male and female youth. It was predicted that: (1) the three-factor structure of the YPI would be replicated and would demonstrate measurement invariance across gender and sample type; (2) the YPI would show, in general, acceptable to good internal consistency values, as measured by the alpha and omega coefficients; (3) the YPI would show convergent validity with existing measures of psychopathic traits and aggression, and discriminant validity with measures of social anxiety and empathy; (4) the YPI scores would be positively associated with criterion-related variables such as conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex; and (5) males would report more psychopathic traits than females, and males from the school sample would report fewer psychopathic traits than male young offenders. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Participants The current sample was recruited from public schools of the Lisbon, Algarve, and Coimbra regions managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Education. A sample of 782 participants (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72 years; range = 12–20 years), subdivided into males (n = 371; M = 15.97 years; SD = 1.70 years; range = 12–20 years) and females (n = 411; M = 15.77 years; SD = 1.73 years; range = 12–20 years), agreed to voluntarily participate in the study. The participants were mostly white Europeans (89.5%). No differences were found between males and females from the school sample regarding age (F = 2.64 (1, 780); p = 0.105; ηp2 = 0.003) nor years of education (F = 1.70 (1, 765); p = 0.193; ηp2 = 0.193). Significant difference was found between the males from the school sample and the males from the forensic sample regarding age (F = 31.92 (1, 590); p ≤ 0.001; ηp2 = 0.051) and years of education (F = 448.95 (1, 578); p ≤ 0.001; ηp2 = 0.437), with the males from the forensic sample being older and having fewer years of education.Sample type measurement invariance was examined using a previously collected forensic sample of male youth from the Portuguese juvenile detention centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice [30]. Participants in this sample included 221 male youth (M = 16.75 years; SD = 1.41 years; age range = 13–20 years). Most of them were white Europeans (54.3%), but the sample also included black Africans (20.5%), mixed race South-Americans (18.6%), and other ethnic minorities (6.8%). Most of them (87.6%) were convicted of having committed serious and/or violent crimes (e.g., robbery, assault, rape). 2.2. Measures The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) [18] is a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess the core personality traits of the psychopathic personality constellation in youth aged 12 years old and up. Each item is scored on an ordinal 4-point Likert scale (1 = Does not apply at all, to 4 = Applies very well). The YPI was designed in line with Cooke and Michie’s [1] three-dimensional conceptualization of the psychopathy construct, namely the Grandiose-Manipulative, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsive-Irresponsible dimensions. Higher scores reflect an increased presence of psychopathic traits. Internal consistency based on Cronbach’s alpha has previously been reported as 0.84 for Grandiose-Manipulative, 0.74 for Callous-Unemotional, 0.78 for Impulsive-Irresponsible, and 0.88 for the YPI total [18]. The official Portuguese version of the YPI [30] was used.The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) [38] Self-Report version (APSD-SR) [46] is a multidimensional 20-item measure designed to assess psychopathic traits in adolescents modeled after the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [2]. Each item is anchored on a 3-point ordinal scale (0 = Never, 1 = Sometimes, 2 = Often). The APSD-SR has been used with preadolescents and adolescents aged 11–18 years old. Scores are calculated by reverse-scoring the appropriate reversed items and then summing the items to obtain the total score and the factors scores. This scale has three main factors: Callous-Unemotional, Narcissism, and Impulsivity. Higher scores are indicative of an increased presence of psychopathic traits. Internal consistency has previously been reported as 0.50–0.61 for Callous-Unemotional, 0.56–0.63 for Narcissism, 0.64–0.68 for Impulsivity, and 0.78–0.81 for the total APSD-SR [47]. The Portuguese version of the APSD-SR [48] was used to analyze the convergent validity with the YPI because it is presently the most used self-report measure of psychopathic traits among youths [39,48]. The internal consistencies in the current study, estimated by Cronbach’s alphas, were: APSD-SR Total = 0.77; Callous-Unemotional dimension = 0.56; Impulsivity = 0.55; and Narcissism = 0.70.The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) [40,41] is a 24-item self-report scale designed to assess Callous-Unemotional traits in youth derived from the Callous-Unemotional (CU) subscale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device [38]. Each item is scored on a 4-point scale (ranging from 0 = Not at all true, to 3 = Definitely true). Scores are calculated by reverse-scoring the appropriate items and then summing the items to obtain the total score and the factors scores. Using confirmatory factor analysis, it was possible to identify three independent factors, namely: Callousness, Unemotional, and Uncaring, with all items also loading onto a general Callous-Unemotional factor (bifactor model). Higher scores indicate an increased presence of CU traits. Internal consistency based on Cronbach’s alpha has previously been reported as 0.70 for Callousness, 0.64 for Unemotional, 0.73 for Uncaring, and 0.77 for the ICU total [40]. The Portuguese version of the ICU [42] was used to analyze the convergent validity with the YPI because several researchers have highlighted the importance of the core affective components of psychopathy referred to as CU traits among youths [40,41]. The internal consistencies in the current study estimated by Cronbach’s alphas were: ICU total = 0.88; Callousness dimension = 0.79; Uncaring dimension = 0.84; and Unemotional dimension = 0.87.The Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) [49] is a 23-item self-report measure that distinguishes between reactive and proactive aggression and is appropriate for use with youth and young adults. Each item is rated on a 3-point ordinal scale (0 = Never, 1 = Sometimes, and 2 = Often). Summed scores provide a measure of reactive or proactive aggression as well as total aggression. Confirmatory factor analysis identified two factors: Reactive Aggression and Proactive Aggression. Higher scores indicate higher levels of aggression. Internal consistency for adolescents has previously been reported as 0.86 for Proactive Aggression, 0.84 for Reactive Aggression, and 0.90 for Total Aggression [49]. The Portuguese version of the RPQ [50] was used to analyze the convergent validity with the YPI because the psychopathy construct identifies particularly aggressive and violent individuals [49,50]. Internal consistencies in the present study, estimated by Cronbach’s alphas, were: RPQ total = 0.85; Reactive dimension = 0.78; and Proactive dimension = 0.82.The Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) [51] is a 22-item self-report scale designed to assess subjective experience of social anxiety in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Four of the items are fillers and therefore are not taken into account in calculating the final score. Each item is rated on a 5-point ordinal scale (ranging from 0 = Not at all to 4 = All the time). Confirmatory factor analysis identified three factors: Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE), Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New), and Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General). Higher scores indicate higher levels of social anxiety. Internal consistency based on Cronbach’s alpha has previously been reported as 0.91 for FNE, 0.83 for SAD-New, and 0.76 for SAD-General [51]. The Portuguese version of the SAS-A [52] was used to analyze the discriminant validity with the YPI because of its good psychometric properties and the fact that social anxiety generally does not overlap with the psychopathy construct [51,52]. Internal consistencies in the present study, estimated by Cronbach’s alpha, were: SAS-A Total = 0.92; FNE = 0.92; SAD-New = 0.88; and SAD-General = 0.84.The Basic Empathy Scale (BES) [53] is a 20-item self-report measure designed to assess empathy in youth. The BES was developed as a concise and coherent scale with the aim of measuring two distinct factors: Affective Empathy and Cognitive Empathy. Each item is scored on a 5-point ordinal scale (from 1 = Strongly disagree to 5 = Strongly agree). The BES has been used with preadolescents and adolescents aged 9–18 years old. Scores are calculated by reverse-scoring the positively worded items and then summing the items to obtain the total score and the factors scores. Higher scores indicate an increased presence of empathic characteristics. The BES was validated among Portuguese youth samples, both from community [54] and forensic settings [55]. The Portuguese validation of the BES [55] was used to analyze the discriminant validity with the YPI because the extension of psychopathy to youths has highlighted the core affective components of this disorder and, given that low empathy is a core feature of the construct, it would be expected to correlate negatively with empathy [53]. The internal consistencies in the current study, estimated by Cronbach’s alphas, were: BES total = 0.92; Affective dimension = 0.89; and Cognitive dimension = 0.93.A conduct disorder (CD) scale was also created based on the 15 items used to assess CD [56]. The 15 dichotomous items (coded 0 = No; 1 = Yes) were summated to obtain a total continuous score. Thus, higher scores indicate a higher number of positively endorsed indicators of CD. Based on the Kuder–Richardson coefficient (i.e., alpha for dichotomous items) the internal consistency of the CD scale was adequate (0.77).A questionnaire was constructed to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. This questionnaire included variables such as participants’ age, nationality, ethnic group, and highest level of schooling completed. Some questions regarding alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex (i.e., sex without using condoms) during the last year were also included (coded as 5-point ordinal variables from 0 = Almost never/Never to 4 = Almost always/Always). 2.3. Procedures Authorization to validate the YPI among Portuguese youth was obtained from the first author of the inventory [18]. The original translation of the YPI into the European Portuguese language commonly spoken in Portugal by adolescents and young adults was previously conducted [30]. During the translation and retroversion of the YPI, appropriate procedures (e.g., avoiding item bias or differential item functioning) were followed. The questionnaire was then independently back-translated into English. The original and the back-translated items were compared for nonequivalence of meaning and items were revised when any discrepancies in meaning were detected until no semantic differences were identified between the English version and the Portuguese version.Authorization to assess youth in the school context was obtained from the General Directorate of Education of the Portuguese Ministry of Education (DGE–ME). All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the DGE-ME (Code: 0338400001). Parental permission was obtained for all underage children and informed consent was obtained from participants who were 18 years of age or older. The participants—students from randomly selected public schools of the Lisbon, Algarve, and Coimbra regions—were informed about the nature of the study and asked to voluntarily participate. Not all young people agreed or were able to participate; reasons for this included refusal to participate, inability to participate due to not understanding the Portuguese language, and self-reported reading difficulties. Participants who were unwilling or unable to collaborate were excluded, so the final number of participants included in the present study was 782, with a participation rate of approximately 87%. The measures were administered in an appropriate classroom group setting using a paper–pencil method for collecting the data. The forensic sample of male youth originated from the Portuguese juvenile detention centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice, with the measures being administered by means of individual face-to-face interviews in an appropriate setting (for more details see the previous study by Pechorro and colleagues [30]). 2.4. Data Analysis The data were analyzed using SPSS v23 (IBM Corp., New York, NY, USA) [57] and EQS 6.2 (Multivariate Software Inc., Encino, CA, USA). The factor structure was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) performed in EQS 6.2 [58] with the robust estimation methods. Goodness-of-fit indices were calculated including Satorra–Bentler chi-square/degrees of freedom (S-Bχ2(df)), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). A chi-square/degrees of freedom value <5 is considered acceptable, a value ≤2 is considered good, and a valued of 1 considered very good [59,60]. A CFI ≥ 0.90 and RMSEA ≤ 0.08 indicate adequate fit, whereas a CFI ≥ 0.95 and RMSEA ≤ 0.06 indicate good model fit. The incremental fit index, also known as Bollen’s IFI, is relatively insensitive to sample size where values ≥ 0.90 are considered acceptable.The CFA was performed on the subscale scores, not on the items per se, using the same methodology as Andershed et al. [18], and only standardized loadings above 0.30 were retained. Modification indexes were considered to check for any suggestion that model modification would significantly improve the measurement model. Correlation matrixes were used together with robust methodologies to perform the CFA because they provide a more accurate estimate [61]. Measurement invariance was evaluated and the S-Bχ2 difference test was used to determine if the constraints significantly deteriorated the model [62]. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet provided by Bryant and Satorra [63] was used to perform this difference test. Cronbach’s alpha (α) and omega (ω) coefficients (considered satisfactory if above 0.70), mean inter-item correlations (MIIC; considered good if within the 0.15–0.50 range), and corrected item-total correlation ranges (CITCR; considered adequate if above 0.20) were used to assess reliability [64,65]. The omega coefficient was used in the present research because it is currently considered a better estimator of reliability than alpha [66]. Pearson correlations were used to analyze associations between scale variables, and Spearman correlations were used to analyze associations between ordinal variables and scale variables [67]. Correlations were considered low if below 0.20, moderate if between 0.20 and 0.50, and high if above 0.50. 3. Results Our first step in examining the psychometric properties of the YPI among the current school sample was to replicate the three-factor first-order structure proposed for this instrument by means of CFA. The following goodness-of-fit indices were obtained: male sample S-Bχ2/df = 3.57, IFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.08 (0.07–0.10); female sample S-Bχ2/df = 3.48, IFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.08 (0.06–0.09); and total sample S-Bχ2/df = 4.41, IFI = 0.99, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.07 (0.06–0.08). Based on these appropriate goodness-of-fit indices we found support for the three-factor first-order model [59,60]. We report the loadings for the three-factor first-order inter-correlated model in Table 1 for the male sample, female sample, and the combined total sample of male and female youth. All loadings were above 0.30 and, therefore, none were removed from the model. It is worth pointing out that the Callousness subscale obtained the lowest loading.Table 1. Loadings for the confirmatory three-factor inter-correlated robust structure of the YPI.📷The next step was to test for measurement invariance across gender (males vs. females from the school sample) and sample type (male school sample vs. male forensic sample) using the three-factor model. We compared the configural model (no constraints included) directly with the model where factor loadings and covariances are equally constrained across groups (i.e., strong or scalar invariance) on the assumption that if strong measurement invariance holds, then weak (i.e., metric) invariance also holds. We were able to find support in terms of goodness-of-fit indices (see Table 2). The ΔS-Bχ2(df) values were nonsignificant in the comparison of the nested models regarding strong invariance (factor loadings and factor covariances constrained). The ΔCFI between the models was below the 0.01 cutoff. This suggests that the constraints specified do hold and leads us to assume that the models do share equivalence across gender and sample type [61].Table 2. Tests for invariance of the YPI goodness-of-fit statistics.📷Table 3 presents the Pearson correlations between the YPI total and its dimensions among the male sample, the female sample, and the total combined sample. As expected, mostly positive high correlations emerged.Table 3. Pearson correlation matrix for the YPI and its dimensions.📷Table 4 displays the alphas, omegas, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total correlation range for the YPI among the males, females, and the combined sample. The total YPI scale and its dimensions showed good internal consistency based on alpha and omega coefficients (above the recommended cutoff value of 0.70), mean inter-item correlations (within the recommended value range of 0.15–0.50, although sometimes exceeding it), and corrected item-total correlations (above 0.20). However, some subscales, especially the ones composing the CU dimension (e.g., Callousness), showed low Cronbach’s alpha and omega coefficients, low mean inter-item correlations, or low corrected item-total correlation ranges.Table 4. Cronbach’s alpha and omega coefficients, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total correlations range for the YPI and its dimensions and subscales.📷Table 5 presents the correlations between the YPI and other psychometric measures and variables for the male sample, the female sample, and the total combined sample. The convergent validity of the YPI total and its dimensions with the APSD-SR, ICU, and RPQ revealed mostly moderate and high statistically significant positive correlations. The discriminant validity with the SAS-A and BES in large part revealed the expected negative or nonsignificant correlations. Table 5 also presents the correlations with CD symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and unprotected sex. As can be seen in the table, the YPI and its dimensions showed positive statistically significant correlations with all of these behaviors that were low to moderate in terms of magnitude.Table 5. Correlations of the YPI total and its dimensions with other measures and variables📷In terms of known-groups validity, a comparison of the male and female participants from the school sample revealed that the males scored significantly higher than the females, and that males from the school sample scored significantly lower than the males from the forensic sample on the YPI and its dimensions (see Table 6).Table 6. Descriptive statistics and ANOVAs for the YPI and its dimensions.📷 4. Discussion The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the YPI among Portuguese male and female youth from a community sample, while also testing for measurement invariance with a previously collected forensic sample [30]. The results obtained in this study using confirmatory factor analysis showed, like previous research [18,25], that the three-factor first-order model achieved an adequate fit across the three samples, namely, male, female, and total sample. The results were quite similar to the ones obtained by Pechorro and colleagues [30] in a study analyzing the YPI and the YPI-S using a forensic sample of Portuguese male young offenders, although this previously conducted study obtained slightly better results in terms of the fit indexes than the present community sample study.Through structural equation modeling [61], the YPI showed strong measurement invariance across gender and sample type (school vs. forensic), indicating that observed scores are related to the latent scores. This suggests that the models do share some equivalence across these groups, which in turn allows for unbiased group mean comparisons [34,35,62]. This is consistent with Pihet and colleagues’ [33] study, which also revealed that the YPI is invariant across gender and sample type (community vs. institutionalized). It is important to mention that this is the first study testing for the measuring invariance of the YPI in Portuguese youths.As expected based on previous studies [18,26,33], the associations between the YPI total and its dimensions among the male, female, and total samples showed positive high or moderate (just between the Callous-Unemotional dimension and the Impulsive-Irresponsible dimension across the three samples) statistically significant associations. These results were somewhat better than the ones previously obtained among Portuguese youths [30] that found moderate correlations (i.e., below 0.50) between the Callous-Unemotional dimension and the Impulsive-Irresponsible dimension, and between the Impulsive-Irresponsible dimension and the Grandiose-Manipulative dimension.Measures of internal consistency for the YPI across the three samples suggested good reliability of the YPI, its dimensions, and the majority of its subscales [68], which is in line with previous studies [18,25,27,28,30,31,32,33,36]. However, like some previous research [32,36], the Callous-Unemotional dimension among the male sample showed a somewhat low Cronbach’s alpha, i.e., lower than other reported values [23,25,26,27,31,33,37]. The Callousness and the Unemotionality subscales of the Callous-Unemotional dimension and the Irresponsibility subscale of the Impulsive-Irresponsible dimension always obtained low values in terms of Cronbach’s alpha and omega coefficients across all samples. It is worth mentioning that this is the first study on the YPI, that we are aware of, using the omega coefficient, which by some is considered a better estimator of reliability than Cronbach’s alpha [66].These results are not surprising since previous research has pointed out the same concerns within these subscales [18,22,25,30,32,33,36,44]. These results put into question the reliability of these subscales since only a small portion of the variance is attributable to them. Particularly, the Callousness subscale, as in other studies [23,28,37], reached unacceptable internal consistency values in the female and male sample. This subscale also presented low values in terms of mean inter-item/subscale correlation, and corrected item/subscale–total correlation range, suggesting a lack of homogeneity among its items. Given that the low values of the Callousness and the Unemotionality subscales of the Callous-Unemotional dimension and the Irresponsibility subscale of the Impulsive-Irresponsible dimension are not exclusive to the present study, it is possible that they are linked to particular concerns of the YPI rather than to translations or sample issues. Thus, it is conceivable that some items of these subscales need to be revised, in particular the items that are reversed, because they generally show quite low inter-item correlations. In line with this, it is interesting to notice that the Callousness subscale (the one that has presented more problems across studies), composed of five items, has all three reversed items of the YPI, which per se encompasses some limitations, including reliability issues [69,70,71].It is noteworthy that the difficulties in assessing the affective dimension of psychopathy are not exclusive of the YPI [21], suggesting that these traits might be particularly difficult to capture. Adults and youths with high psychopathic traits tend to have a profound lack of self-insight. For example, even if they have a pronounced lack of empathy, they might affirmatively respond to questions such as “Are you a warm-hearted person?” because they generally do not see themselves as cold-hearted. This lack of self-insight poses a clear obstacle to getting valid responses to self-report items concerning some of the core psychopathic traits [18]. Despite that, the inclusion of Callous-Unemotional traits in the DSM-5 [17] as a specifier for conduct disorder, makes it a priority to: (1) improve the internal consistency of screening measures of those traits; (2) further ascertain its validity despite low internal consistency; and/or (3) create new accurate items to capture Callous-Unemotional traits [33].The convergent validity of the YPI and its dimensions across the three samples with the APSD-SR, ICU, and RPQ revealed mostly positive moderate to high statistically significant correlations, consistent with what was expected based on previous research [26,28,30,32,39]. The associations between the BES and the affective dimension of the YPI revealed the expectable negative moderate correlations, once the affective dimension of psychopathy is, among others, characterized by a callous predisposition and a lack of empathy [9,17,45]. The discriminant validity with the SAS-A mostly revealed the expected negative or null nonsignificant correlations [30,55], due to being non-overlapping constructs [68,72]. These results were similar to the ones previously obtained by Pechorro and colleagues [30] among Portuguese youths, although this previous study did not use the RPQ and BES to assess convergent and discriminant validity, respectively.The criterion-related validity of the YPI and its dimensions with conduct disorder symptoms [17] scored as a scale revealed moderate associations, in agreement with previous studies [18,22,24,29,30,31,32]. The highest associations were with the Grandiose-Manipulative dimension among males and total sample, and with Callous-Unemotional dimension among females. The correlations of the YPI and its dimensions across the three samples with alcohol abuse and cannabis use showed positive moderate and low statistically significant associations, consistent with previous research showing the associations between psychopathic traits and the use of these illicit substances among youth [23,30]. In terms of the correlations with the unprotected sex variable (i.e., sex without using condoms), positive low statistically significant associations were found mostly among the male sample and the total sample. Some of these outcomes (particularly the positive, though low, associations between unprotected sex and the total score and the Impulsive-Irresponsible factor of the YPI) has also been found in Pechorro and colleagues’ study [30]. Regarding the female sample, only the Impulsive-Irresponsible dimension showed a statistically significant association with this risky sexual behavior. It was interesting to find that the sizes of the correlation effect were not substantially different for many of the criteria, suggesting the possibility that the factors for many behaviors were not very discriminating, and that the YPI total score is just as useful because it is capturing the higher order construct of psychopathy.The comparisons of male and female youth from the school sample revealed that males obtained significantly higher scores on the YPI and its dimensions. Furthermore, when comparing males from the school sample with males from the forensic sample, the results showed that young offenders obtained higher scores on the YPI total score and its dimensions. This is also consistent with Pihet and colleagues’ [33] study, which obtained similar results.However, some limitations of this research must be mentioned. First, due to the cross-sectional nature of the study, some psychometric properties could not be evaluated (e.g., test–retest reliability). Thus, longitudinal research is needed in order to assess test–retest reliability of the YPI. A second limitation has to do with reliance on a single method for measuring the constructs (i.e., self-report), which could have resulted in high correlations due to method overlap. Future research should draw upon multiple methods in order to avoid this limitation. Another limitation was related with the use of parceling (using subscale scores rather than raw items) in factor analyses. Parceling is a psychometric technique used in the original YPI, and replicated in the present study, that unfortunately does not justify the assumption of unidimensionality. Finally, because our study was performed in a community sample, cross-validations using other samples of adolescents (e.g., clinical samples) are necessary to confirm that the results generalize to other populations. Though not particularly related to this study, for the reasons mentioned above, it would be of importance to revise some items of the YPI, specifically those related to the affective dimension, and mainly the reversed ones. 5. Conclusions This was the first study investigating the psychometric properties of the YPI among a large, geographically diverse community sample of male and female Portuguese youth, while simultaneously testing for measurement invariance across gender and sample type, and reporting a more appropriate reliability coefficient. The results indicate that the YPI can be considered a useful instrument in assessing the psychopathy construct among adolescents using a self-report format. However, some caution is advised since the Portuguese validation of this promising instrument is still ongoing. We hope that our study may guide future research and practical use of the YPI with youth in Portugal and in Portuguese-speaking countries. Although the YPI was originally developed to be a tool to be used in research studies, rather than in real clinical or practical settings, it may be useful in real clinical settings as well. However, existing studies on the YPI have exclusively been based on samples recruited within research studies. Thus, to date, it is still not known how the YPI would function in real practical settings. Studies investigating this are therefore clearly needed. How to study psychopathic personality in children?
An alternative strategy for examining psychopathic personality is studying configurations of traits by applying person-oriented analyses (De Fruyt & De Clercq, 2014), thereby assigning participants to mutually exclusive groups. An increasing number of studies among children (e. g., Frick et al., 2000), adolescents.
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I am seeking a sexual and/or reproductive health literacy tool validated on (sexual and/or racial) minority populations.
Thank you in advance for any guidance you can offer!
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Have a look at LGBTQ Business community's and Facebook pages. Regarding literacy and assessment you will have to develop your own accordingly.
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Human equality, sexual orientation, emotional and psychological preferences, LGBTQ, religious discrimination
Thanks in advance!
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You can allways find valuable studies in the journal Gender & Society: https://journals.sagepub.com/home/gas
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Hello! I'm writing my (anthropology) thesis on the taboo of the prostate and how men's sexuality is shaped by patriarchal gender norms. This means I need to conduct an ethnography on my university campus, interviewing students about their sexual practices. Since this is a delicate topic and I'm not sure how to formulate my interview questions, I was wondering if any of you know of an ethnography/book/documentary/article/interview that I could use to get inspiration from. The sources don't have to be anthropological, any help is much appreciated :)
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I suggest Sabah Mahmood
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Is there any scale recommendation to detect Sexual Predator or Paedophilia abnormality, especially in men?
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No conozco, averiguaré
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Dear All, I would like to ask, is it possible to obtain data in some databases, websites about sexual behavior in different countries of Europe or the World? Thank You! Best regards Stefan
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Hi Štefan,
I recommend that you contact the ISSM and the European Federation of Sexology (EFS) for more accurate information and data.
In the rest of the world, you can contact sexology academies and similar organizations.
I hope you obtain the necessary information.
Kind Regards,
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I am interested in relationships between photovoice or auto-photography as research methods and social-spatial difference, either as captured in the photographs, or as embodied or lived by the participants. I would particularly appreciate suggestions of literature from the past 10 years.
Recommendations of reading on participant-photography and social-spatial difference would also be relevant in this case.
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I am also interested in the photovoice method. Is that the same as auto-photography?
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While working with some stratigraphically significant extinct larger foraminiferal species, I noticed signatures of ‘plastogamy’ and other ‘sexual reproduction’ in some specimens (Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 37(1), pp. 41-45, 2007). Since ‘interbreeding’ and ‘sexual reproduction’ are some essential parameters of a biological species, the specimens representing the morphospecies are different in possessing crucial traits of a biological species. Being part of phylogenetic species, these may serve as a bond between paleontological and biological species and help in establishing gene flow and genetic classification in paleontology. Such forms may be grouped separately in paleontological species.
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I am sorry, I am a geomorphologist, not the least skill in foraminifera!
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Touch DNA may be useful in Sexual offences but I need its protocol and some examples so that it may be used in Indian context.
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Evidence Collection and Analysis for Touch Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Groping
and Sexual Assault Cases.
Hope this article helps you.
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I am looking for sexual text public dataset :
Like:
"Hey baby it’s saying the money u sent is on hold ..."
Words like baby, darling, asking for phone number?
Definition:
3: Intercourse, masturbation, porn, sex toys and genitalia
2: Sexual intent, nudity and lingerie
1: Informational statements that are sexual in nature, affectionate activities (kissing, hugging, etc.), flirting, pet names, relationship status, sexual insults and rejecting sexual advances
0: the text does not contain any of the above
The data that I have found till now is:
  • Jigsaw Unbiased
  • Pornhub dataset
  • Sexually Explicit Comments
Apart from these are there any other text data-set? Paper/models are well appreciated.
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Hi Pratik Kumar Chhapolika , besides the datasets you already mention, I also do not happen to know something useful
I however came across a few quite interesting papers that might add to your research:
1) This oddly philosophical view on pornographic language and its influence in society:
2) Quite a bunch of papers surrounding the measurement and neutralization of sexually explicit language published by George Weir that can be downloaded directly from this list:
Some of these papers mention labelling datasets. So maybe its worth contacting Prof. Weir and ask if he might share those labeled data.
Anyways, good luck with your project!
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I taught a grad course in human sexuality @ the Mount. Most students think sexual activity is by far more recreational than procreational. I assigned them to conduct a sexual history on a male and female subject. And their conclusions are based on these findings. BTW they reported some discomfort in conducting this interview, and i am not surprised at all that they did.
Rich
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I think 90% of it is for recreation, therapeutic effects and emotional support. Religion tried to keep people from doing this but they failed. Well, we should not turn to religion for life advice, they are known to have practiced various crimes against humanity over the centuries, and still do. Human rights is not their concern.
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SRY gene is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans. Can the presence or absence of this gene alone be enough to conclude the sexual phenotype of a fetus. Can gender be determined before 14 weeks of pregnancy?
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This is a fascinating subject and one that I have studied for many years in human and XY Sex Reversed horses. To summarize our findings, indeed in most cases, sry is the testis inducer which can trigger the pathway that leads to suppression of the female pathway and the devlopment of the male. Interestingly I have collected large pedigrees of horses that carriy the SRY mutation. This included XY females with gonads that range from a fertile overy to gonadal dysgeneisis to ovotestis to abdominal or inguinal testes. The animals are also siblings to a few tall, virilized XX females with abdominal testes and SRY present. Clearly these cases arise by abnormal ectopic recombination in male meiosis. Most intereting is that those XY mares that are the most viril with testicular tissue present have deletions limited to SRY ONLY. As the more femenine cohorts develop fertile ovaries and manifest large deletions that removes SRY and regions both 3', and 5', of tdf. XX virilaized females are SRY positive with a testis in the abdominal position and clitromegally. Finally we are very initerested in those animal with testes that are SRY negative. and are currently studying to role of SOX9 to act as a sort of backup inducer mechanism.in dire situations.
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Dear colleagues,
as a sexualities researcher, I am faced with a difficult question regarding the complex dynamics between seeking ways in which evidence-based science on human sexual orientation (e.g. on the normalcy of homo-/bi-sexuality, understanding of unchangeability and immutability in the domain of attractions; proven harmful effects of sexual orientation change efforts - SOCE; minority stress and stigma influence on LGBT+ people's well-being, etc.) collide with the prevalent doctrines perpetuated by various Churches (e.g. by Catholic Church, etc.). For example, in most of the Catholic discussions or written sources, I continue to see distinguishing between one's sexual orientation (as a trait) and the seeming (and seen as sinful) choice of acting upon this "drive" or "impulse".
By making this distinction, one is faced with a view in which human (homo/bi)sexuality is represented as (a) suppressible and (b) possibly changeable.
Here, I would like to ask you, fellow scholars, if you have some resources, references, results of your research as well as consequent suggestions in which it may be possible to find fruitful grounds for progressive discussion with a capacity for reconciling this schism between scientific evidence on (a) understanding of sexuality as human natural physiological need similar to hunger or thirst (Maslow 1987 Motivation and Personality), and (b) unchangeability of sexual orientation and harmful practices of SOCE which is backed by several position statements by respected scientific communities like World Psychiatric Association (Bhugra, D., Eckstrand, K., Levounis, P., Kar, A., & Javate, K. R. (2016). WPA Position Statement on Gender Identity and Same-Sex Orientation, Attraction and Behaviours. World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 15(3), 299–300. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20340)
In this view, the religious (normative, moral) requirement of suppression or alteration of someone's sexual orientation and proscribed partner selection effectively restricting homo/bisexual individuals' potentials for forming and sustaining long-term relationships (and in this view acting upon their physiological desires) poses a substantial barrier to their well-being as well. The significance of these questions surpass individuals or interindividual psychology, they foray into law, religious freedoms, bioethics and so much more.
I am sure that many have asked themselves similar questions, so perhaps this discussion will also benefit other scholars.
Sincerely,
Michal Pitoňák
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Thank you for your response Lukasz Dominik Kaczmarek . In this respect, I wonder whether the church does, in fact, distinguish between the voluntary and respected priests' devotion to celibacy and the enforced moral requirement of non-heterosexuals to suppress their sexuality which would otherwise be viewed as sinful? I see there is both normative/moral difference as well as distinction in motivation and role of individual's choice.
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I would be happy to read about various research that has been dedicated with research design of participatory action research towards vulnerable communities.
This discussion is derived to expand my research over Participatory Action Research with Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
The link for my article is as below:
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Very interesting work!
You might be interested in the photovoice technique, which is very useful for working with vulnerable communities from the participatory action research approach. As an example:
Personally, I also find it very helpful to work from an ecological perspective with the community. You can see some examples here:
I hope you find it of interest and that it will help you to further advance your work.
Kind regards!
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I am trying to evaluate the relationship between perceived physical disability stigmas and social sexual phobias to explore the relationship of sexual stigmas between non-disabled college students and people with psychical disabilities. The primary research question is: What perceptions do most college students have about the sexual ability among people with a disability.
I am having trouble finding a sexual perception questionnaire that could apply to my study. Does not have to be perfect. Just something relatable to work with.
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Hi Garett, that is a very interesting and emerging topic. In relation to possible questionnaires, I attach some studies that present some that may be useful:
-The first one (Cuskelly & Gilmore, 2017) looked at attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities:
-Another research (Hasson-Ohayon et al., 2014) compares the attitude towards sexuality of people with physical disability and mental illness:
-Additionally, there is a study (Verschuren et al., 2015) that analyzed sexual well-being in people with a limb amputation:
I hope they can be useful,
Best of luck
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Most of the work on boardroom diversity addresses gender diversity. Few studies now include ethnic diversity in the boardroom. Yet, there is dearth of understanding of sexual orientation and disability diversity in the boardroom. Would you think that we will have soon charters, initiatives and research projects on this topic? If there are any new initiatives on sexual orientation diversity and disability diversity in the boardroom, I would love to join and support.
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Very interesting topic.
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Muchas personas equiparan la educación sexual con un permiso para ser activos sexualmente. No es así. La educación sexual representa la oportunidad para aprender, comprender y poner en práctica lo que significa ser un hombre o una mujer en los tiempos que corren. También es una oportunidad para instruirse sobre cómo vivir como adultos de forma segura, responsable y feliz. En otra época, la palabras sexualidad y discapacidad pocas veces se escuchaban juntas en conversaciones "educadas". Se consideraba que no era aceptable hablar sobre sexualidad abiertamente. Y frecuentemente las personas con discapacidad (PcD) permanecían escondidas y tampoco se les mencionaba. Desde ese entonces hemos aprendido mucho sobre los beneficios de conversar sobre la sexualidad y han surgido grandes cambios en torno a cómo percibimos a las PcD. Los padres ya no preguntan, "¿Cómo puedo retrasar el desarrollo de la sexualidad en mi hijo con discapacidad intelectual (DI)?" Ahora más bien preguntan: "¿Cómo puedo ayudar a mi hijo con DI a expresarse sexualmente en una forma cónsona con sus capacidades y dentro de los estándares aceptables en nuestra comunidad?" ¡Una pregunta mucho más acertada! Desarrollo Social/Sexual La sexualidad es un aspecto inherente e importante de la personalidad de cada persona y no está ligado a su cociente intelectual. Sin embargo, existen semejanzas y diferencias entre cómo la sexualidad se desarrolla en niños con desarrollo típico
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La sexualidad sigue siendo a día de hoy un tema tabú y del cual debería de haber más información. Hay que saber que existe una amplia gama de maneras de sentir placer en este ámbito y que cualquier persona tiene derecho a conocerlas. En cuanto a las personas con diversidad funcional intelectual se tiene ese prejuicio de que no conozcan el tema del sexo porque no están capacitado para ello. Muchas veces son su propio entorno el que les limita a esta práctica porque sienten que si les hacen conocer esto, les están haciendo algo indebido. El sexo y la sexualidad es una manera de autoconocerse a sí mismo en la que experimentas sensaciones que de otra manera nunca habías conocido. No tiene por que ser sexo con otra persona, sino consigo mismo para comprender como funciona su cuerpo y administras las emociones patentes; siempre de una manera adaptada a la necesidad de cada uno.
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Aside propagation of plants using both sexual and asexual methods; and factors that affect germination and growth of plants, are there other research areas in silviculture
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May be.
You can make a research area innovative for you. It all depends on the approach you want to give to your subject.
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People are entitled surely to express their sexuality as they choose and why thereby should it concern others? Yes, many religions express anger at such behaviour but in each case the religion is over a thousand years old, with ideas developed in traditional societies with limited education and without media intrusion.
Facing the consequences of adultery can be difficult but strengthens character, sensitivity and understanding. Harming women or men who engage in such activity is a far, far greater sin (if you wish to use such an antiquated term), a considerably more heinous moral act.
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The Internet dictionary defines the word "adulteration" as denoting " the action of
making something poorer in quality by the addition of another substance; use in a
sentence, 'we're working on a new diagnostic test to more rapidly monitor food
adulteration'." The connotations of "adulteration" are numerous but they all suggest impoverishment, diminution in quality, and contamination by the addition of a qualitative element of a lesser value that undermines that which is being adulterated. A painfully contemporary illustration is the novel COVID-19 virus which adulterates the healthy cells in the human body, and scientific research also shows, in the animalia kingdom, including wild bats, hogs, and domesticated pet dogs, cats, birds, and so forth. On a microscopic epidemiological level, adulteration denotes disease, infirmity, abnormality, degradation, and pathogenesis in a healthy organism. In terms of public health, "adulteration" is a force that motivates public health workers and hospitals technicians to scour away germs, microbes, bacteria, fungus, infectious agents, viruses, and other harmful microscopic pathogenic, parasitic, opportunistic infiltrators into the biospherical environment that adulterate it with harmful bugs. Adulterated matter, whether biological, physiological, bestial, human, visible or invisible, suggests sickness, not health, abnormality not normality, disease not wellness, death not life.
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I am looking for literature regarding sexual segregation in sandbar sharks (carcharhinus plumbeus). I was told once that males school but females are solitary, and I cannot find a reference supporting this. (especially the females' part).
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I heard that male sandbars are the ones who congregate and migrate as schools but the same can't be said for female sandbars as they migrate solidarily
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Hello Everyone
I am a third year social work student, I am dong a research assignment and have to find several articles in relation to art therapy with young children. My hypothesis is what are the health benefits of art therapy when working with young children and using art therapy
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A review of research and methods used to establish art therapy as an effective treatment method for traumatized children
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Love is the only power that make all organs to react,so nowdays sex desire is big problem ,and many divorces and life disorders come t how do you stop these thoughts or impulses in the first place? Through analysis and study of what sexuality actually is. This includes completely devaluing the object of attraction (i.e. the person, thoughts, body parts, etc.) to zero. You can do this by thinking about all the ways that the pleasure derived from sexuality is merely illusory, not real, and only temporary. When you are indulging in some form of sexuality, you tend to forget how filthy the human body actually is. For instance, you forget that every pore and opening in our body releases waste, which looks and smells awful. If faeces, sweat, and other discharge smell so bad, imagine how it would be inside the body. In addition, if there is real pleasure and happiness in physical contact and touch, then there should be pleasure even when your skin has an open wound or rash, but that is not the case. Furthermore, any form of dependency is the cause of suffering in this world, so how can dependency on someone else be the reason for happiness?
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Huh!?
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I am trying to decipher the validity and reliability of a pre existing survey? Here ia what the article from the researcher states:
Sample size and statistical methods
No formal sample size calculations were performed. Based on considerations of feasibility, we aimed to collect data from 400 to 600 participants. We used descriptive statistics to summarise sample characteristics and Pearson’s chi-squared test to measure the association among pre-selected categorical variables. For the latter analyses, we applied a Bonferroni-adjustment to account for multiple testing (alpha level at 0.005). Additionally, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of having a desire to use PrEP or a history of PrEP use. Odds ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were used to quantify the effects. To select variables for our multivariable model, we compiled the following initial working set of potential predictors in which we had a priori interest based on background knowledge: age, financial situation, education, family origins, sexual risk behavior, self-perceived risk, having peers living with HIV, and perceived barriers and risks of PrEP. For pragmatic reasons of reporting and traceability, we subsequently screened these using simple (i.e., univariable) logistic regression and included in the multivariable model those variables that were associated with the respective dependent variable at a p-value cut-off point of 0.075 following the approach described by Bursac et al. [39]. We later conducted a sensitivity analysis with all variables of a priori interest to ensure that important adjustment variables had not been overlooked. Missing cases were excluded in a listwise fashion.
To avoid collinearity of independent variables related to different measures of sexual risk behaviour in our logistic regression models, we created a new variable comprising four groups as shown in Table 1. In doing so, we aimed to approximate roughly the indications for PrEP use recommended by the CDC for MSM. We chose “two or more partners” rather than “one” as our cut-off point to account for the possibility that participants who reported condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with one partner might be describing CAI within a monogamous partnership. We did not distinguish between receptive or insertive CAI because the CDC indications for PrEP use for MSM do not do so either.
I am utterly confused. Any help would be appreciated.
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Hello Sharita,
It's not clear to me whether the survey you refer to is the measure for "desire to use PrEP" or "history of PrEP use", or just a questionnaire that was used to collect all of the (much of which is demographic) information mentioned, or something else altogether.
As this sounds a bit like an assignment, I'm going to be a bit general in responding to your query.
Do you see any mention of "reliability" estimation in the explanation? Do you see any mention of score stability estimation in the explanation? Do you see terms such as "Cronbach's alpha" "split-half reliability" or the like? These are the kinds of cues that would suggest something had been done regarding evidence for score reliability.
For validity, some phrases that might cue you to what kind (if any) validity evidence had been mustered would include: "experts reviewed the instrument and agreed with the characterization of each item/question included;" (content validity); "a factor analysis of the instrument suggested that six distinct scores be used" (construct validity); "scores on the measure were shown to relate systematically to (some external criterion variable)" (criterion-related validity); or "a pilot sample of respondents was used to assure that the instrument could be understood and the items seemed appropriate for the stated purpose" (acceptability and face validity). What do you think the main analysis was trying to show (was it one of the cues listed above)?
Good luck with your work.
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Need your valuable suggestions and research papers.
Thanks in advance?
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I think the answer will depend on the country, cultural backgound and age group you are focusing on, other diseggregate data will also have a massive impact. Also are you focusing on experiences during conflict or in peaceful time? which regions are you focusing on? Best of luck.
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Exposure to Sexual Materials Questionnaire (ESMQ)
Reasons for Consuming Pornography Scale (RCPS)
Bystander Willingness to Help Scale (BWHS)
I am looking to use these sclaes in my own personal research, I can only find research papers which have featured them not the actual scales? Does anyone know anywhere that I will be able to find/retrieve them?
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It's possible that the scales may be copyright protected and you need a licence to use them. So as Faith suggests, you may need to contact the authors in order to discover how to access the scales.
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Collegues,
I am looking for literature on childfree / childless lesbian, bisexual and queer women by choice, specifically on reasons and motivations for being childfree. I was wondering if anyone could recommend some research on this topic.
Thanks for you help.
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very interesting, But at the moment i am poor inthis area
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I have always been concerned about the high prevalence of young children who are sexually abused every year. This increasing number of trauma and unnecessary assault has led me to think about why it exists in the first place. What would be the reasoning or purpose of an adult being sexually attracted to a young individual, especially if these children are not capable of sexually reproducing?
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Dear Josefina Orozco , individuals who have committed child sexual abuse and individuals with pedophilia are not the same. There is a difference. Therefore, the answer to your question depends on who you refer it to specifically.
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"A valid marriage between the baptised is called ratum tantum if it has not been consummated; it is called ratum et consummatum if the spouses have performed between themselves in a human fashion a conjugal act which is suitable in itself for the procreation of offspring, to which marriage is ordered by its nature and by which the spouses become one flesh." ( Can. 1061 §1.)
What if consummatio is understood from the psychological point of view? What if a marriage is consumed physically but never emotionally? Could annulment be granted on the ground of this canon? Should it or should it not?
What are your thoughts?
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I think it should be kept in mind that one thing is "dispensation" and another is "marriage nullity". If you refer only to the concept of "marriage consummation", I think the correct point is to delve into the essence of the concepts rather than the forms. In other words, pay more attention to the ratio legis, rather than the written formula itself. What I mean is that your proposal to deepen the concept of "marriage consummation" seems to be interesting and important because, obviously, we are body and spirit and we must get as close as possible to the truth. Whenever the reasoning be well-argued and the arguments be well-founded and well applied to the specific case.
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Please can anyone recommend any research papers which have found out any negative consequences of sexuality education programs which preschool and younger school age children were subjected to?
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Its better to start it to age groups above 14 years.
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This project is based on a literature review. I already have a lot of articles but I want to make sure I don't forget any of them. My research questions are 1) Are female videogame characters sexualized; 2) if female videogames characters are sexualized, is it a problem?
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I hope the following add new thing for you:
Playing a Videogame with a Sexualized Female Character Increases Adolescents' Rape Myth Acceptance and Tolerance Toward Sexual Harassment
Driesmans, Karolien, Vandenbosch, Laura, Eggermont, StevenJournal:Games for Health JournalYear:2015
A sociological exploration of a female character in the Metroid videogames series
Roberts, KatherineJournal:The Computer Games JournalYear:2012
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What methodology would be appropriate to conduct a research on the impact created by Sathi Sanga Man ka Kura on the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and/or Social and Behavioral Change (SBC) among youths of Nepal?
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My understanding of case control studies is that they work backwards from an outcome. Instead, what I recommend would start with two groups that were separated by exposure, and then assess differences in outcomes.
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Dear colleagues,
I've just finished writing an article about the social issues Generation Z is presented with, regarding education, sexuality, social media, job perspectives and such.
Now I'm looking for a peer-reviewed journal to publish said article. I'm in search of a globally recognised and indexed journal with English as the main language.
Can you recommend any journals that fit the above given description?
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Dear László,
It’s difficult to give a definitive recommendation without understanding the content of your article in further detail. However, as a starting point, I would suggest trying The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI). They have three journals in their portfolio, managed by John Wiley, that could be a potential fit for your article: Journal of Social Issues (JSI), Social Issues and Policy Review (SIPR), and Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (ASAP).
Alternatively, if there is a specific journal that appears repeatedly in your references, you could consider that as a potential option too. Hope this helps. Best wishes for a smooth and successful publication journey!
Best regards,
Hamed Bazaz | Founder, Managing Director | www.journaledit.com
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I cannot add an article that I recently published on Psychology & Sexuality (Online ISSN: 1941-9902). The name of the journal is not accepted / does not appear on your list.
Can you please help me?
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Here on Q&A forum you can find few similar posts, and this is very often answer:
If your journal isn't visible in the drop-down menu, it's not in our database. We're not currently adding journals to our database by request, but this may change in the future.
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causes behind the harrasment thinking towards females athletes, and how these could be measures
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لان الجسم يكون مكشوف من خلال الحركة المستمره بحركات رياضية
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In Germany, interest in this field of work is currently growing rapidly. There is therefore a need to examine the available evidence.
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I conduct research on clergy pedophilia in the Catholic Church. It is quite protracted over decades, and the massive cover-ups continue to this day. In the Altoona-Johnston Diocese, PA 52 of 56 perpetrators are clergy. Only 1 has been tried and convicted? Two committed suicide as charges were being brought against them. The Diocese is now under federal investigation.
I provide free clinical consultation to survivors. Here are 2 of my published articles on this topic.
Rich
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Dear Colleagues,
I am looking for studies (are there any?) on the topic defined in the title. On personal or proffessional background of These who decide to devote their work to sexual offenders' issues; on their motives, histories why they have chosen this area for conducting research.
Does anyone know such studies? Or theoretical considerations?
Thank You in advance for any help.
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Thank You, Alexandra :)
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Hi! In my bachelor thesis am using a new scale (á 12 items) for sexual orientation and the reliability analysis resulted in Cronbachs Alpha .75. After consulting the inter-item-correlation, I decided that due to high correlations, high Alphas and due to the content to aggregate the items, which led me to only having 6 items. But now I am left with an Alpha of only .52. I could exclude one of the aggregated items, which would lead to a Alpha of .63. But that would would exclude "Attraction towards men" alltogether, which doesn't appear to be the most reasonable course.
How do I proceed? Is it valid to not do the aggregation and state why in my thesis?
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Your initial Cronbach's value of 0.75 is adequate, and there is no need to exclude any items (only consider to exclude item when alpha value is above 0.90).
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estoy comparando pájaros carpinteros Melanerpes de Argentina
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Tal vez puedas usar el Análisis Factorial, y más particularmente el Análisis de Correspondencias Múltiples. Acá te dejo info. http://factominer.free.fr/factomethods/multiple-correspondence-analysis.html
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The plant has been used by traditional medical practitioners in North-Eastern part of Nigeria to stimulate erection in male sexually. The plant is found on mountainous area growing in between rocks and contains menthol on the root bark.
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It is difficult to identify a plant without reproductive structures such as flowers and fruits.
Thanks!
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Hi everybody,
I have one predictor variable, one moderator (gender), and four dependent variables. My supervisor insists on using hierarchical regression. Regression is quite easier for me and I am so familiar with it in concept and SPSS, but I have no exact idea of SEM. But having regression 4 times (for 4 dependent variables, and each one should be done twice -for the moderator-) seems somehow unprofessional to me.
Is it this way in SEM too because of having 4 DVs?
I would be so thankful if you'd help me out and say which way do you think is better?
Thanks for your time and energy in advance. :)
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Hi Sara,
since your moderator is categorical/binary, indeed doing a multigroup model with all variables would be feasible (you don't need product term).
What I would is why you have only one predictor variable. Is this an experimental treatment? If not I would invest time into thinking about potential confounders of the X-Y effect and include them.
If your have several indicators for each variables and you could defend a common factor model, going to multigroup SEM would allow to test for measurement invariance of the measurement model.
Best,
Holger
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Hello everyone, I'm looking for a good review article, or research paper, on demographic predictors (age, nationality, gender, sexuality, ethnicity etc.) of values. Particularly studies using Schwartz theory of basic human values, or his refined version of the theory. What I would like to know is what predicts the different value types. I do have my own dataset that I am going to test this with, but it would be nice to have something to compare the results to.
Thank you so much for your help,
best
Johnny
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Overall, differences in values between groups holding distinct demographic characteristics are quite small (i.e., large between-group similarities). Here are a couple of studies with thousands of participants that might be relevant.
Gender: Schwartz & Rubel (2005)
Country: Fischer & Schwartz (2011) https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022110381429 , Schwartz & Bardi (2001) http://jcc.sagepub.com/content/32/3/268
Education-level, income, religious denominations, age, gender, countries: Hanel et al. (2019) (Study 1 and Supplemental Study)
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Hi All,
I am currently undertaking my first piece of research and have hit a bit of a road block locating a measure. I am wishing to ascertain a copy of the below 2 items however to date I have been unsuccessful.
1. Perception of Sexual Harassment Questionnaire (PHSQ)
2. Sexual Experiences Questionnaire for workplace (SEQ-W)
Anyone able to provide assistance would be most welcome.
Arielle
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To use or simply for references' sake?
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Am wanting to assess applicants for religious ministry training and sexual obsessions has arisen as an area of interest in the procedures.
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Here is the link to a sexual addiction screening test.
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I have a couple of questions regarding my research. I am trying to develop strategies to facilitate the integration of Indigenous Knowledge Systems into modern health systems to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes. What are the challenges of using a mixed method research approach.
The research goal is to explore and understand the role of IKS in shaping adolescents’ sexual practices and develop and implement strategies that could be integrated into Modern Health Systems so as to discourage early and risky sexual experiences.
This research would be in 3 phases
Phase 1 Empirical Research
Identifying Indigenous Knowledge that influences sexual experiences in adolescents in this tribe in Plumtree;
Assessing the relationship and extent of influence of these Indigenous Knowledge on adolescent sexual experiences in Plumtree;
Assessing the potential of adopting some of the IK that could be incorporated into Health Systems for positively enhancing safe sexual practices or deter early engagement in sex;
Phase 2 Development of strategies
Developing strategies that leverage on identified key IKS to enhance Health System performance regarding management of adolescent sexual issues
Phase 3 Validation of strategies
Conducting stakeholder consultations to ascertain feasibility of the proposed strategies to be implemented.
I am having challenges on how i would integrate my mixed methods and I am also confused on whether to collect qualitative data first that would lead to my hypothesis or i collect quantitative data then seek more understanding through qualitative follow up
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mix-method will make it possible to include those who were not recognised. They will give more clarity on what have worked for them and what they have experienced.
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We are doing a systematic review of all couple therapy outcome studies for consideration of couple sexual and gender identities and I we are interested if you may be on the leading edge of inclusiveness not seen in efficacy studies on couple therapy. Thank you,
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Yeah I found it - thanks! Exemplary work on your end.
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For my thesis project i am doing research on sexual consent specifically within the Dutch context and different generations of men who have experiences with heterosexual sex. In my focus groups i would like to apply the items of the Sexual Consent Scale-(R) (SCS-R; Humphreys, 2004; Humphreys & Brousseau, in press; Humphreys & Herold, 2007), in an intergenerational dialogue on the meaning, definition and practice of consent. I am wondering if people have experience with using the SCS(-R) in focus groups and what are your experiences. Kindly, Rosa
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ps. I'll use some the SCS-R as inspiration but will not implement the questionnaire
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Dear Malachi,
when will you release the special issue? And what are you looking for exactly? I am working on a thesis project at the University of Amsterdam department Sociology of Gender and Sexuality. My project focuses on sexual consent among different generations of men and their heterosexual experiences. I will finish the project around july. So there is nothing finished, nor ready. For sure i am looking forward to the issue! Best Rosa
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Yes Malachi, Please respond to Rosa's question.
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I am looking for a measure of either religious or sexual discrimination that has strong psychometrics. I am interested in adapting the extant scales for a new project. If you have any measures like this available, please let me know. Thank you!
Rich
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you can use https://scales.ppsy.pro/ they have alote of scales
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Sexuality and reproductive health
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Hello Justice, I am pleased to meet you. Sex is an issue that some feel in doubt about because they do not know what to say or how to approach it. I have written a book about abstinence that answers many question that young children have that will help to answer their questions they may have about sex that their parents can not discuss with them. My book discusses love, sex, marriage, celibacy, incest, drug, unholy music, and satan worship. It is for children. It is to help them understand why God's plan for their life is best. God desires the best for his people. The name of my book is called Practical Guidance About Love, Sex, and Marriage. It can be purchased from Amazon for $21.00. My full name is Faith C. Bays. Go ahead and purchase one and share it with your son or daughter. God Bless!!!
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Question for specialists
Please inquire about the disorder of compulsive behavior in adolescents with autism, its symptoms, how to diagnose it, prevention and treatment ??
vevery important greetings rabah chelihi?????
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thanks Miyuru Chandradasa
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I am trying to understand the life cycle of the macroalgae Asparagopsis. Both A.armata and A.taxiformis exhibit Falkenbergia sexual replication and gametophyte/tetrasporophyte asexual replication.
How does a Falkenbergia state of the plant start growing biomass and develop the gametophyte state ?
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The Falkenbergia state can develop or grow vegetatively, i.e. the tips break and create new clone.
They develop the gametophyte state when they undergo tetrasporogenesis, i.e. specific cells differentiate into (4) spores to create male or female gametophytes
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Thank you fo r a short reply!
Best
Dirk Sander
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According to WHO, Sexual health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. It requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence.
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Call for Book Chapters: Tourism and Gender-Based Violence – Challenging Inequalities Publisher: CABI
Editors:
Dr Paola Vizcaino-Suárez, Bournemouth University, UK
Dr Heather Jeffrey, Middlesex University Dubai
Dr Claudia Eger, Copenhagen Business School
Key Dates:
- Deadline extension (abstracts of 500 words + author details):  21st January 2019 - Notification of acceptance by editors: 31st January 2019 - Deadline for full chapters (5,000 words): 1st July 2019
Contributions are welcomed (but not limited to) the following areas:
  • Methodological approaches to examining gender-based violence in tourism
  • Physical, sexual and psychological violence against women travellers
  • Sexual harassment in the hospitality/tourism workplace (formal and informal work)
  • Tourism/hospitality workers’ experiences of GBV in the family
  • Trafficking, slavery and sexual exploitation of women, men and children in global tourism
  • Tourism researcher reflections of GBV
  • Activism within tourism (including but not limited to hashtag activism)
  • Studies with a focus on men and/or masculinities and GBV
  • The LGBT community, sexuality and GBV
We welcome a wide variety of methods and approaches to these chapters, such as qualitative methods including autoethnography, fictional ethnography, action research, participative research. Chapters may be research-based, case studies, exploratory or critical literature reviews and conceptual / theoretical analysis of GBV in contemporary tourism.
Please send your proposals to the Tourism and GBV edited collection account: TGBVcollection@gmail.com
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Muchas gracias está muy interesante
me gustaría ver el tema de economía informal urbana en ciudad de México
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We all know more or less that cyanobacteria, like the significant prokaryotes, are lacking sexual reproduction. Dual divorce and some other forms prefer asexual reproduction. But why? Is there a great truth about this ability or inability, or a purely biologic fact? What we more or less want to do is to make it a little more complete, and weighing a few other very important issues. What is the most decisive point in this? Although I do not think that many people are interested in such matters or consider them to be essential to today's knowledge, my personal belief is that, on the contrary, the ultimate understanding of life can go beyond this seemingly simple question Be But is there anyone who wants to answer it?
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It all is about DNA exchange between and recombination within cells to allow for genetic variation to have a subpopulation withstand changing environmental conditions, and sexual reproduction is just one example of it. Some bacteria including some cyanobacteria do conjugation, which is another common way of DNA exchange. And evolutionary trees suggest that horizontal gene transfer really is quite common as well. So, bacteria have lots of opportunity to undergo genetic modification on the timescale of years, enough to remain competitive evolutionarily even when the environment changes, and do not need to rely on sexual reproduction to provide population diversity.
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I discuss this topic in my class and want to write a paper on this subject. Given that 70% of employers view candidates' social media accounts, are companies obligated to disclose this to candidates?
To date candidates are protected from having to provide employers with their usernames and passwords, however, companies continue to claim they can find out the "type of person" is by looking at their Facebook, Twitter, etc.
The ethical issue is based on the information contained in social accounts. Most social media platforms can contain identifying information about the candidate. Is it ok for recruiters to find out your race, nationality, sexual orientation, or pregnancy status by looking at Facebook?
Here is the CareerBuilder survey discussing the percentage of companies using social media: https://www.careerbuilder.com/advice/social-media-survey-2017
I'm trying to gather a wide array of opinions on the matter.
Thank you!
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Don't you have to agree to Facebook's terms and conditions when you open an account? I am sure that in it, Facebook make you agree that EVERYTHING you send them becomes their property, to do what they like with. So I think it is amazing that people give Facebook all their personal details then turn round later and claim that they have broken some ethical guideline when someone else uses it. I'm sorry, I am not very sympathetic. I have never had a Facebook account and never will.
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Does anyone know some (recent) articles/research on sexual stigma in the general population?
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Thank you Muthana Makki Mohammedali and Michael Uebel for the recommendations. They were exactly what I was looking for.
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Dear colleagues,
I am interested in researching heteronormativity and sexual and gender minority stigma related to it. I remember having skimmed through some research pointing out that children are aware about this kind of stigmatization (as in that non-heterosexual people are less valued in society) in relatively early age, say around 7-8 years. I would like to ask whether some of you have some related papers or research that substantiates this by empirical evidence. Based on colloquial evidence and also on my own experience, children do use this "knowledge acquired during the socialization phase" early on for example by swearing in the classroom to hurt others in this form of microaggression.
Thank you for sharing your suggestion on this,
Michal
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Thank you Michael, both articles you recommended are helpful, especially the second one. My best, Michal
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Im doing a research on exploring black female teacher experiences in teaching sexuality education.im looking for anyone who can assist me with relevant thesis.
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Thank you
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My study is about gender and sexuality education related to LGBTIQ community where, I used critical ethnography as the research methodology but I still in dilemma on presentation, analysis and interpretation of empirical data. Is there any specific style or method of data presentation and interpretation in critical ethnography?
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Dear Shree,
A combination of dense ethnographic description of your fieldwork combined with analysis as advocated by Cristiano Hamann is important. Please too consider relevant ethical issues because the identification of your research participants presumably is a sensitive matter. What is the age of your research participants?
The context is different, but there is a discussion of ethical engagement in the publication below (which is intended to explore issues rather than just report the findings of fieldwork):
Kunnath, George J. 2013 Anthropology’s ethical dilemmas: Reflections from the Maoist fields of India, Current Anthropology54(6): 740-752.
Below, too, are some suggestions to help you review the background of how anthropological approaches to gay/lesbian/transgender studies have emerged, in particular to the idea that families can be made and not simply acquired through blood relations. This short selection of publications might be of interest from a cross-cultural perspective in considering relationships between what people learn in their families compared with other educational settings:
Lancaster, Roger N. 1988 Subject honor and object shame: the construction of male homosexuality and stigma in Nicaragua, Ethnology 27(2): 111-125.
Muraco, Anna 2006 Intentional families: fictive kin ties between cross-gender, different sexual orientation friends, Journal of Marriage and Family 68(5): 1313-1325.
Stephen, Lynn 2002 Sexualities and genders in Zapotec Oaxaca, Latin American Perspectives 29 (2): 41-59.
Weston, Kath 1991 Families we choose lesbians, gays, kinship. New York: Columbia University Press.
Weston, Kath 1993 Lesbian/gay studies in the house of anthropology, Annual Review of Anthropology 22: 339-367.
That significant ethnographic accounts dating from the late 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s deal with San Francisco and Central America highlights notions of border crossings, since the border between the US and Mexico is such a hotly disputed social phenomenon.
On the theme concerning liminality in the expression of gender, you might like to consult this MA dissertation:
Purday, Kevin 2013 Shamanic gender liminality with specific reference to the NatKadaw of Myanmar and the Bissu of Sulawesi. MA dissertation, University of Wales Trinity Saint David. http://repository.uwtsd.ac.uk/433/1/Kevin%20PURDAY%20DISSERTATION%20edited%20version.pdf
Good luck in your research.
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Does anyone know where i can access the original full version of the ESMQ.
I can only seem to find journals that have published shortened versions of it.
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Technical manual.
Hope this helps,
Matthew
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I am looking at Happiness and how the pain of loneliness causes depression and other problems.
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Loneliness, and shame about one's body will enter the many reasons why men will contact a sex worker. It can be about sex, and it can be about wanting to be touched. It can be because he does not want a divorce, but for whatever reason the sexual part of the marriage is causing hurt and frustration.
It can be because he is ashamed of his desires but she will not make him feel that shame.
As researchers if we want to make sense of why men pay for sexual services we must first respect their decisions and pay attention to what they tell us.
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The benefits and challenges of teaching New Age alt.-Sexuality and human development online and in person
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Thank you
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We are in the process of performing a study exploring associations between PCL-R facets and factors and crime-scene behavior in a group of Swedish homicide offenders. After having collected PCL-R results for 72 offenders, we are now ready to perform analyses, in which we will categorize and compare offenders, first, with regard to homicide manner (expressive or instrumental), and, second, with regard to homicide motive (family-related, altercation, criminal conflict, burglary/robbery or sexual).
I have a question regarding choice of statistical test for the analyses. There are multiple non-overlapping independent variables in the two sets of analyses (2 manners, on the one hand, and 5 motives, on the other); whereas, among the chosen dependent variables, each factor is interrelated with its components facets.
It seems to us that, in this situation, an ideal test of statistical probability would first compare groups at the factor level and then, in the event of a significant difference, identify the source of the difference at the facet level by means of a post hoc test.
Is anyone aware of how PCL researchers have handled this situation in the past? I am grateful for any advice anyone has to offer.
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Thanks, Michael. We do, in fact, have hyptheses about the factors—- and about the heterogeneity of the phenomenon homicide — and have, therefore, decided not to subject total scores or facets to formal testing. Thanks again.
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In my clinical practice, I frequently see patients complaining sexual disturbances becoming apparent after unwise administration of alpha-blockers for BPH. Frequent misuse by the urologists is the mot common mistake. How can we change this?
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What sort of sexual disturbance does the alpha blockers cause?
The retrograde ejaculation is a side effect that indicates that the drug gives its action. no other sexual side effect is noted or mentioned by the patients.
and we mentioned that to the patient, as a symptom of drug effect.
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Same-sex intercourse mostly common for bonobos but what about common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)? Is there any data, article, observation (even the single one) you recommend it will help.
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Hello. It was cited in this paper that chimps rarely exhibit same-sex intercourse. I hope this helps.
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Recent years,there were more and more reports about male teachers acting indecently towards or even having sexual relationship with students in junior or senior high school in my country,China.The age of these students are all at 12-18y.Are these just moral issues or have these male teachers had chronophilias like hebephilia and ephebophilia?
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There are several possibilities to explore in this case. For instance, the questions to ask:
1. what motivated the teacher to work with this age population? (is this the age that the teacher feels more comfortable interacting with? Does the teacher needs to feel power over others and this age group is an easy target? Does the teacher feeds his/her narcissism, by creating admiration from the students to him/her?, etc...)
2. what type of relationship is developed with each student that is victimized by the teacher? (do they conquer them? do they show power and take advantage of the fear inflicted upon the children?
3. what is the modus operandi? (how they lure the children into their predatory action?)
This is only to start. Pedophilia and hebephilia is very complex...
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Marquez in "My sad whores", he wrote not to talk about his women. However, I will share my perception with you, pommijając names with which I do such things.
Well, the scabbard, from the inside in the place where the penetration takes place, surrounded by wisps, behind which the syncytriophoblasts hide. In the course of a sexual act, the place where the appropriate uterus is penetrated, I would call the point of sensation. And so the point G is located in the highest place of the uterus ceiling, there are other points of dooznań, because the whole uterus is surrounded by wisps and syncytriophoblasts.
I said that I would share this observation, since Kamasutre has already been written, it can also make people happier and more peaceful.
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Thank You.
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I need to know the important factors leading to early sexual maturity in fish
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maybe this is helpful:
International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Vol.3(2), pp. 16-26, February 2011
Reproductive biology and some observation on the age, growth, and management of Tilapia zilli (Gerv, 1848) from Lake Timsah, Egypt
Waheed Farg-Alla Mahomoud et al.
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Hi everyone.
There's a huge issue that's often ignored in my home country (sexuality in people with mental illnesses). So I decided to conduct a systematic review. My inclusion criteria is quite simple: it has to be about sexuality (any aspect of it), people with mental illnesses and based in my home country. So far, there are no results in 4 out of 6 databases. None. Not even close. There are a lot of studies about this topic, specially in the US, Canada and the UK. But I do not wish to conduct a systematic review of international literature.
  1. Should I continue with this study as it is? What if I find no results at all? How valuable and publishable would it be?
  2. Should I re-check my search strategy? I honestly believe I picked the most important databases and I've conducted a thoughtful research.
  3. Should I change my type of research? What would be more appropriate?
Please do suggest anything that comes to your mind. I greatly appreciate it.
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Why not include the international literature, contrast it with the lack of studies in your own country and then speculate as to the cause of the discrepancy. I am sure the reasons will turn out to be very interesting.
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Fine language now has no place in political argument, rhetorical devices despised, with playground insults now the name of the game, and both Trump and his opponents using gutter language, with references to both male and female sexual organs. Confrontation is preferred to ideas, it seems.
This debases language but does it debase politics?
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i'm not sure but shouldn't there be a comma after liars, indicating a noun/subject phrase?
The reason it seems for such present language is popularism, as rhetoric is deemed suggestive of superiority and elitism-yet Luthor King did it in his 'I had a dream' speech, replicating black church rhythms and phrasing. Can you see any rhetoric here, just disguised?
But his opponents, especially celebrities, respond in kind. Wise? No, because sinking to his level and making targets of themselves.
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I am doing a piece of research exploring youth sexual offending and attachment style and coping mechanism. I have looked at the Brief COPE but unsure how I would analyse this. I would like a valid measure which categorises the coping style rather than a sliding scale where I would potentially need to analyse using regression.
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Thank you.
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It has been noticed that in the recent time, there has been a significant rise in sexual offences across the world .However ,incidence of such offences is a lot more in some societies than others. Were any studies done on the reasons for this?
All concerned Law Enforcement agenciees and some NGOs have been putting in concerted efforts in multiple directions ( like awareness building , Counseling, punitive measures etc ) to contain these offences. Were any studies conducted on relative effectiveness of such measures?
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? They are not “some “societies=they are obviously patriarchal ,where women are subbordirnative to men on all levels of society functioning –from family settings to parliament or incidents in democratic (as Germany) with intensive immigrants influence from such countries .The only radical measure to stop sexual offences is developing step by step democratic society with equal rights and possibilities for both gender.
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I'm involved in a research project about intimacy and sexuality in residential aged care and we are interested in how this term might be used/overused to 'diagnose' behaviour in people living with dementia.
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