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Currently we are working on a review that surveys the cognitive/neural mechanisms of tactile working memory. We propose a sensory recruitment model, which suggests that prefrontal regions interact with somatosensory cortex to encode, maintain and retrieve tactile working memory. Please leave your email address if of interests.
Thanks,
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I am interested in neuro leadership studies
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In case of verbal fluency tasks (e.g. category/phonemic fluency), both "spoken" and "written" responding format have their advantages. Although there is not much research about this topic, I would suppose that these two forms might differ not only quantitatively (e.g. systematically less written words form due to writing time cost and more control over the responses) but also substantially (e.g. the task partially differ in underlying processes or their relative loadings).
My question is whether these two forms are equivalent (one can be linearly transformed to another) or hardly ever. Thank you for sharing any experience or relevant resource about this issue,
best regards,
M.
EDIT: the question is related to intact/healthy individuals.
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Hi María,
the usual time parameter is usually 1 minute (spoken). In our current study, we have 1 minute for each fluency task (2x semantic, 2x phonemic, and 2x functional [name as many as possible items that can be used to..., e.g., "cut material"]).
However, we also use another instructions (e.g., provide one word [e.g., "a doctor"] and let the participant to provide as many associations to that word as possible) with timing of 2 minutes. However, this is because we want to use these associations to make network analysis (thus more associations are needed).
As for categories, we use these:
Plants, Animals, and Goods in supermarket.
If you are interested, in the current research, we also use "associative chains", two instructions:
A) Meaningfully associate each new word with the last one (e.g., dog - cat - eye - nose - face - head - body - muscle - workout - gym...)
B) Each new word you give has to have zero meaning relation with the previous one (a chain of "dissociates"; e.g., dog - apple - space - rope - slime...).
We also assess the "cost" between dissociate (B) and associate (A), which we found to be stable over time and have good consistency. We now try to support that this difference might reflect some executive capacity (inhibition, switching).
Actually, it would be really interesting to try this out on elderly adults or perhaps patients suffering a neurodegenerative disease. If you would be interested in a collaboration, please do not hesitate to contact me,
best,
Martin
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Dear Colleagues,
Hopefully this is quite a simple question:
I'm going to be running some masked semantic congruence priming studies, and am looking for suitable stimuli. Put simply, semantic congruence studies typically show that a target word (e.g., HAWK) is  semantically categorised (e.g., Is this an animal?) faster when preceded by a category-congruent/semantically-related prime word (e.g., eagle) compared to when preceded by a semantically unrelated word (e.g., knee).
The first thing I want to do is to replicate the classic finding using a larger set of stimuli. I will need at least 90 target words, each with a semantically-related prime-word. In line with previous studies (e.g., Quinn & Kinoshita, 2008), a lot of my stimuli will be drawn from McRae et al.'s set of feature norms (which is particularly useful for identifying members of the 'animal' category that have high semantic feature overlap; e.g., cat-dog; sheep-goat; etc.). But to reach 90 targets (each with a semantically similar prime), I will probably need to find a similar, but more dense database.
Ideally, I'm after an easy userface where I can simply input a target word (e.g., hand) that belongs to a category I'm using for the categorisation task (e.g., is this a body-part?) and it provides a list of the most semantically similar words from that category (e.g., if the category is 'body parts' it might output 'head, ankle, shin, foot, etc.). I'm aware there are a few solutions out there - whether it be measures semantic feature overlap or co-occurrence (e.g., wordnet, COALS, LSA, HAL) but I'd favour something with an interface that is easy to use, or even just a large datafile similar to McRae's 2005 set.
Thanks a lot!
Ryan
Quinn, W.M. and Kinoshita, S. (2008) Congruence effect in semantic categorization with masked primes with narrow and broad categories. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 286–306.
McRae, K., Cree, G. S., Seidenberg, M. S., & McNorgan, C. (2005). Semantic feature production norms for a large set of living and nonliving things. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 37, 547–559.
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Hi Ryan,
if you're looking for an easy to use interface in which you input a word (or multiple words) and it returns the closest N semantic neighbors, then I really recommend using snaut. Additionally, if you already have a list of words, the program can tell you how close they are to one another, or even compare the whole list of primes to the respective targets. I found it very useful, also for finding the semantic neighbors I missed when coming up with a list of stimuli.
Here's the link to the website with the interface and all the resources: http://meshugga.ugent.be/snaut-english/
Hope it helps!
PS: I have to thank researcher Giorgio Arcara for suggesting snaut to me in the first place, check him out for some some cool studies on language processing!
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Dear Researchers,
Is there any evidence for typicality effects in memory retrieval? For example, if I ask you to recall an example of a fruit you have eaten, would you be more likely to retrieve a memory of eating an apple (a more typical fruit) compared to a fig (a less typical fruit)?
I have seen this demonstrated in categorization tasks, but I am not familiar with any research on this in the context of memory.
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I think some would argue that categorization is memory - or at the very least, a process of memory.
I believe the *Episodic Simulation Hypothesis (http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/schacterlab/files/schacter_addis_buckner_anyas_2008.pdf) would point whatever fruit being more salient to the individual as what they will remember. So, in a way, this would be the more typical fruit. So typicality can be, in a way, relative to one's own categorization of exemplars and prototypes (expertise).
Maybe this Scholarpedia page has some answers for you: http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Adaptive_resonance_theory
* The Episodic Simulation Hypothesis is focused on the mental simulation of behavior in the future, but evidence points to this ability being majorly dependent on one's ability to remember carrying out that action in the past.
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Although the importance of enabling students to create episodic and semantic memories during the learning process has long been acknowledged, this issue has not been adequately addressed in educational research. This is particularly true for the 'social contagion of memories' which refers to the memories implanted by others (e.g., teachers, friends, parents) via social interactions. In fact, this implantation process almost entirely occurs in an implicit manner and has important conclusions for learning because, for example, students' memories may be contaminated by others' knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and emotions during the learning process. If this is the case, I strongly believe that we may benefit from the effects of the mentioned social process (i.e., social contagion of memory) by using memory contagion strategies in educational settings such as classrooms. Yet, at this point, an important question arises: What are these strategies?   
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Dear Altay, 
There is extensive research on the effects of "Self-Development" which results to better cognitive abilities and interpersonal skills. 
I recommend you look for Effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognition/memory and/or education. You will love it! :) Most of the research is done in the US, some in northern EU. 
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I am currently carrying out a study on verbal fluency and have found that the processes underlying this task are semantic memory and executive function. However, others have described the underlying processes as executive and verbal ability. The latter involves lexical retrieval from the mental lexicon. Does the difference in terms stem from the fact that these terms come from different disciplines (one from Neuropsychology and the other Psycholinguistics) or are they different concepts? Thank you
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Mariella,
While the two terms of mental lexicon and semantic memory are largely synonymous (at least I think you can basically assume that for the process descriptions/ connections that you mention in your question), it might be helpful to appreciate that the two terms come from somewhat different perspectives within cognitive science - semantic memory is primarily memory research and mental lexicon is primarily psycholinguistics.
The term of semantic memory goes back to Tulving's (1972) (famous memory researcher) distinction from episodic memory, from the realization that while amnesia patients suffer problems with episodic memory (memories of their own lives - either lost past memories (retrograde amnesia) or problems to create new ones going forward (anterograde amnesia), they generally have intact semantic memory referring to general knowledge about the world, and including language.
In contrast, mental lexicon is often taken metaphorically as referring to one's mental dictionary (i.e., Jean Aitchison's  (2012). Words in the mind: An introduction to the mental lexicon (4th edition)).  I believe the term mental lexicon is somewhat preferable to mental dictionary, as lexicon has stronger sense of a more limited set of words, rather than dictionary implication of all words of native language.
From this metaphorical sense of mental lexicon as mental lexicon, there would also be some merit in metaphorically thinking of semantic memory as somewhat equating more to a mental encyclopedia.  That said, however, as with all metaphors there are limits as to how far one should take them.  For instance, in terms of the target mental phenomenon, I think it is fair to suggest that psycholinguists tending to recognize a greater variety of knowledge/information as influencing the organization of the mental lexicon, such as frequencies, abstract-concrete contrast, and so notion of traditional dictionary may be too restrictive.  On the one hand, as physical dictionaries (both print and electronic) become more inclusion of various kinds of information, the distinction between the dictionary and the encyclopedia can be rather blurred (especially in the age of Wikipedia).
I hope that these brief comments might be of some help for you in interpreting these terms and their various usages in the literature
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I would like to understand how my results fit within the levels of processing framework. However, I am only familiar with the original work that was completed in the 70s.
What sources (preferably review article(s)) might you recommend for obtaining a contemporary understanding of this phenomenon?
Thanks!
Brandon
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Brandon,
Here is great review article that describes the progression of levels of processing.
Baddeley, A. (2012). Working memory: theories, models, and controversies. Annual review of psychology, 63, 1-29.
I don't know much of the contemporary applications of this model, but I'm personally interested in inhibitory control.  The act of retrieving information can render subsequent related items less accessible, also refereed to a Retrieval Induced Forgetting.  This is a popular topic now-a-days and has a nice Wikipedia page that might interest you.
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How to find similarity between two set of concepts? Say, I have a set A and set B with their concepts respectively, how to find if these two sets are similar using a mathematical formula.
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In addition to the helpful suggestions by @Joachim Pimiskern , @Michael Spranger ,@Rafael Resendiz Ramírez, @Ingo Vogt and @Filippo Salustri, there is the study by A. Schwering to consider:
A. Schwering, Evaluation of a Semantic Similarity Measure for Natural Language Spatial Relations:
See Section 3.2 for suggested metrics proposed as a means of measuring semantic distance.   in a  multidimensional space, the proposed semantic distance metric (using the Manhattan distance) computes the distance between the mean values of intervals.    This approach is reminiscent of the measurement of the distance between centroids in Voronoi regions in a finite dimensional normal linear space.
Yet another approach to semantic similarity is given in
K.A. Nedas, Semantic Similarity of Spatial Scenes, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Maine, 2006:
The heart of this thesis is in Section 2.2.2.1 (Geometric models), starting on page 42,  especially on page 44, where feature models of similarity distance are considered.  
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I am not saying how people are influenced by networks (social network, neuron networks, etc.), I am saying how people process information or stimuli that is organized in a network way (like gestalt organization).
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Wolfgang Sodeur and I published an article on information flow between subgroups, based on a quasi-experimental study - maybe this is of interest to you:
Sodeur, W. and Täube, Volker G. (2008), “The Information Flow amongst Freshmen”, in: Th. Friemel (Hg.), Why Context Matters, Frankfurt a.M.: Verlag der Sozialwissenschaften, p. 97-117.