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Self-Determination Theory - Science topic

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Hello. I'm in the midst of my Master's Thesis. My study intends to develop and analyze an organizational happiness scale/ instrument based on the Self-Determination Theory for the employees of an academic institution in the Philippines. I have already created the initial psychometric questionnaire and need experts to validate its content, format, structure, etc. However, I am having a hard time looking for experts who are willing to validate the instrument. Is there anyone here, or do you know anyone willing to validate my happiness instrument/ scale? Thank you.
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Dear Ha Dee,
You could contact psychologists, even psychology students (from your institution or other institutions) who are good at psychometrics, statistics, and methodology. Of course, you can learn about the validation procedures on your own, however, an interdisciplinary team (e.g. you, an economist or student of economics, psychologist/student of psychology...) seems to be the best option for implementing your little project. The first phase of your research could be an initial validation with a sample of a smaller size. Later, you can validate it with larger samples from several institutions/companies.
Good luck and all the best,
Selman Repišti
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I am doing on research safety motivation (intrinsic & extrinsic) using Self Determination Theory. Should we measure both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation together or multiple ? Thank you for your advices
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Hi Ida, I share similar views with Lucas. The measurement is dependent on your research questions since most of the time they are measured independently to affect a specific behaviour. see this article for further insight
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Dear Colleagues,
In the vein of the self-determination theory, three basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness positively shape autonomous motivation. Do you think increase in autonomous motivation may discourage external regulation?
Best regards,
Muhammad Shujahat
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Dear Muhammad Shujahat,
multiple motives can play a role in any situation, but according to Organismic Integration Theory, the different types of motivation are ordered along a continuum of autonomy. The correlations among the different types of motivations seem to be ordered in a way that autonomous types of regulation are more strongly and positively correlated with each other than, e.g., intrinsic motivation and external motivation. However, I would say that because autonomous types of motivation are usually associated with more need satisfaction, while more controlled forms of motivation are associated with lower levels of perceived autonomy due to the external perceived locus of causality, so I would expect higher levels of autonomous associated with lower levels of external regulation.
Kind regards, Linda
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Autonomous motivation is the highest level of motivational continuity in Self-Determination Theory, which refers to people doing something for their own interests, for the sake of attaining enjoyment completely in activities (Ryan & Deci, 2017). so can can say the constructs of ’autonomous motivation‘ and ’interest‘ are the same?
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Dear Larisa, although interest and intrinsic motivation are closely related, as you correctly pointed out, there are some differences. You could say that intrinsic motivation comprises interest, but also other constructs like enjoyment. Kind regards, Linda
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my topic is (the effect of principal communication styles on teacher motivation) so i am looking for an instrument through which i can measure teacher motivation.
self determination theory of motivation would be better? its basic needs are Autonomy, competence and relatedness.
i need your suggestion through which i can also relate with communication styles of school heads.
i will be very thankful
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Try the following references:
Choi, S. (2014). A measure of English Teacher Motivation: scale development and preliminary validation. Advanced science and technology letters, 59, 85-88.
Fernet, C., Senécal, C., Guay, F., Marsh, H., & Dowson, M. (2008). The work tasks motivation scale for teachers (WTMST). Journal of Career assessment, 16(2), 256-279.
Sajid, M., Rana, R. A., & Tahir, S. N. (2018). Development of teacher motivation scale at secondary level. Journal of Research & Reflections in Education (JRRE), 12(2).
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Hi everyone,
I have a conceptual question on @Jacquelynne S Eccles @Allan Wigfield model of Expectancy-value theory of activement motivation.
In their 2015 chapter (p.659), these authors and colleagues report:
"Although the study of beliefs, goals, and values remains strong, both Eccles and the Self-Determination theorists continue to emphasize the role of the basic psychological needs of com- petence, autonomy, and relatedness and how they influence motivation".
My question :
What is the place of these 3 needs (relatedness, autonomy and competence) in the EVT model ? How do these needs articulate themselves with the model ? How do they influence motivation within that EVT model ? Hope you understand my question.
Any answers ? Or any article to read contrasting the EVT & SDT models ?
Thank you for your enlightenment .
Emmanuel
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Hi Emmanuel, as I have understood, autonomy has an impact on the value component of the model (Subjective Task Value) through the Interest/Enjoyment value of the task (roughly speaking, it is better to decide on yourself what you want to achieve, because intrinsic motivation brings more enjoyment then extrinsic reward), whereas competence ("I can do it") is crucial for the Expectation of Success through General Self-Schemata (like self-enhancement approach). What about relatedness, it contains in "Child's perception of..socialiser's beliefs.." (a small example: imagine that a child can be accepted by parents only when he/she is successful and how it can affect motivation). I hope this may help you
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Hello,
I am going to conduct research with primary school students, using a ready-made questionnaire assessing motivation based on the Self-determination theory. The original questionnaire goes with a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (not true at all) to 7 (very true). However, according to my own reading, 7-point scales might be confusing for primary children to use. So, I am wondering if I could use this questionnaire with a 5-point scale instead, with 1 being "not true at all" and 5 being "very true".
I am wondering if anyone of you has reduced the scale points of a ready-made questionnaire. Could you tell me your experience, for example, whether the new scale can still produce valid and acceptable results? Or could you please suggest me solutions so that I can make my survey most comprehensible for my young participants?
Thank you very much in advance.
P.s. I am a first-time research student and have no prior experience in doing quantitative research. I would be very much grateful for your advice.
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This paper will probably be of interest to you:
Dawes, J. (2008). Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5-point, 7-point and 10-point scales. International journal of market research, 50(1), 61-104.
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Hello All,
Can scales for isolation be used in place of scales for the psychological need for relatedness (self-determination theory)? Isolation and frustration of relatedness appear close, but are they interchangeable?
Please advise.
Many thanks!
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I suspect there are subtle differences given the literature on ostracism, which I think would apply to isolation. In addition, I think isolation can potentially be interpreted as the absence of need satisfaction if it is interpreted as happening with a measure of control (e.g., I choose to walk alone on the beach) vs. isolation that is controlled by others (e.g., I walked alone because no-one would come with me). An absence of need satisfaction (a need not being met) is not the same as need frustration (the meeting of a need being blocked).
Consider this item from Longo et al.'s (2016) Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale: "On occasions, I feel people are a bit cold towards me". People being 'cold' is active rejection, not just incidental isolation. Think about the difference between being given the silent treatment by someone in the room with you vs. the absence of someone being in a room with you. These situations are qualitatively different. I don't know how well isolation measures vs. relatedness need frustration measures capture such differences.
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I would like to measure behavioral regulations (motivation) in Martial sports, by comparison with Non-Martial Sports.
I am curious to receive either published or unpublished research in this area.
Any help would be appreciated.
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Based on the theory, two types of motivation are known: internal and external.
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Hello everybody! We are carrying out a research where we associate baseline to post-intervention changes between motivation and physical activity variables. My question is the following: In an experimental group, if I have a NEGATIVE association between INCREASES in introjected regulation and DECREASES in sedentary activity, how should I interpret it? Do you have any example of reference that describes this type of results between changes or similar? Many thanks in advance! Cheers.
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There are several factors used in many cases. The best of them is known as the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, or the Spearman's correlation coefficien.
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This Project Works about the incomprehension or empty of didactics’ routes in research management learning in teachers of High Education. The problem is tackled from fourth central issues to follow outcomes from research products. 1. Generation of New knowledge. 2. Technology development, 3. Social Appropriation of knowledge, 4. Training of Human Resource in science, technology, and innovation. These topics are supports in the fourth typologies from a National system of science, technology, and Innovation in Colombia, call it Colciencias.
Consequently, it can look at different problems from diverse academic importance, like as unable for identity the national research products map from ScientTI. The lower impact on the research outcomes in academic communities nationals and internationals. Likewise, this problem impacts the creation or participation in research networks. Also, there is an important difficulty for its management the scientific communication to show the outcomes to the generation of new knowledge in indexed journals.
Another topic is about the researcher's rankings. The national Science System has five levels to classify the researchers; 1. Recognized integrant, 2. Junior, 3. Associated, 4. Senior, and 5.Emerito. There are benefits associated with there levels. Many researchers are not in this rankings´ research. This situation harms the possibilities of products´ visibility from researchers.
In this sense, the general difficulty of the Colombian researcher people to articulate and manage their research process with specific outcomes is the cause of this proposal. Also, we think it can generate a research culture from gamification strategies.
It proposes a design of a gamification strategy for the research products management learning, defined in the National System Research. Also, improve a research culture at University of Santo Tomas and the others in the country. Methodologically, the project is thought for it develops over “Human Centered Design (HCD)” model. It hopes to make a prototype of the platform, and mobile-app, in alfa level, that implied the multimedia and gamification concept.
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Looks interesting and promosing at the same time.
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Dear All,
I am looking for literature on interventions that have been designed to support the need for relatedness, ass described in Self-Determination Theory. I'm specifically looking for interventions at the workplace, but other contexts are welcome!
Thanx!
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Interventions to support autonomy generally have the side effect of also increasing relatedness. This is because it frees up time and space to for employees to satisfy their relatedness needs. for example, in an autonomy supportive context employees then have more freedom to form work teams, liaise with colleagues, collaborate, etc., which might not naturally be a part of their work role.
We touched on this in our recent paper:
Slemp, G. R., Kern, M. L., Patrick, K. J., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Leader autonomy support in the workplace: A meta-analytic review. Motivation and Emotion, 1-19.
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In self-determination theory (SDT), the need for autonomy relates to the internal vs. external locus of causality. In causilty orientation theory (a mini theory within SDT), however, there is not only the autonomous vs. control orientation but also an impersonal orientation related to amotivation and helplessness.
Now my question is, if in such a moment of helplessness, one would assume frustration of the person's need for autonomy. (The need for competence is frustrated clearly, but this not my focus.) My feeling is "yes", as there is no internal locus of causality. However, I could not find texts that clarify this aspect and texts on need frustration rather speak on an external perceived locus of causality.
I would be very glad if anyone could give me refernces on works elaborating on this topic.
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The impersonal orientation is associated primarily with a lack of opportunities to satisfy the need for competence. Whether a person has little choice or all the choice in the world, if they feel they lack the competence to carry out any of their options, how much autonomy is available to them is a moot point.
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I understand that controlling behaviours thwart individual needs and suppress motivation leading to amotivation, but what is the mechanism that causes students to become disruptive, to actively damage the classroom climate? Or in other words, SDT explains why students become amotivated, but can it also explain why students become actively 'naughty'.
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Controlling behaviors don't inherently lead to amotivation; amotivation arises when someone doesn't value a behavior or its outcomes, or lacks the competence to engage in it.
I would caution you against branding defiant behavior as always "naughty;" one can pursue defiance for defiance's sake -- as a means of escaping control, which thwarts need satisfaction -- or defiance as an attempt to evoke autonomy support and get needs met.
I think this article may be helpful:
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Dear researchers,
I am currently conducting a meta analysis which analyses the relation between personal values and different well-being scales across cultures. In my meta analysis the effect size I search for in all studies is the Pearson Correlation Coefficient.
Today, I came across a relevant study that conducted a hierarchical linear model to predict well-being through personal values. Now, I am not sure, whether I can transform the result-table, e.g. the HLM coefficients, in this study into a correlation.
Attached the relevant study with the result tables at the end. For my meta analysis, pp. 38 and 39 are relevant, in order to get information about the relation between personal values and well-being.
It would be awesome if someone could let me know whether it is possible to calculate correlations from the results of this hierarchical linear model.
Best regards and thank you so much,
Benedict
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E-mail: florencia.sortheix@helsinki.fi
Am besten fragen Sie Florencia M. Sortheix direkt. Sie hat höchst wahrscheinlich die Daten noch und arbeitet bei der Universität in Helsinki, Finnland.
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Hey, I'm looking for the GCOS-17 scale from SDT. I found the GCOS-12 scale on:
In the description, another enhanced scale GCOS-17 is mentioned but I cannot find the questionnaire. Is anybody able to share a link for the GCOS-17 scale?
Thanks a lot in advance.
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The original scale actually has 36 items based on 12 vignettes. This is the version that has been most widely used. From what I gather, the expanded version (with 17 vignettes and 51 items) was created because the vignettes in the original were pretty much all about "achievement" situations, and the authors wanted to include some relating to "social" situations. But it has not been so widely used - and you are correct, it is not available at the Self-Determination Theory web site.
I suggest you try two avenues of approach. First, return to the SDT site and use the "contact us" feature (button in upper-right corner) to inquire. Second, contact Holley Hodgins at Skidmore College. She was the lead author on the first paper that added the extra items, so she is a likely resource.
Good luck! Let us know how it works out.
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I am currently working on a lit search linking metacognition with self determination theory in a high school IBDP context. I'm at the point of gathering counter-theories to SDT. Any help would be appreciated.
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Dear Daniel,
As you certainly know, Ed. Deci's self-determination theory is a theory about motivation and it is often invoked in the educational domain. The distinction between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation is the core aspect of self-determination theory. For example, if a student studies because of his/her intellectual curiosity and desire to know the unknown, then s/he is intrinsically motivated. On the contrary, if a student studies because s/he wants to get, for example, an external reward, then s/he considered an extrinsically-motivated student. Even though self-determination theory is a prevalent motivational theory, namely in the field of education, it does not go without some problems and criticisms.
(1) It makes sense to distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. This distinction, however, has not to be seen as an "either-or" distinction. Suffice it to say that an individual can be intrinsically motivated in a certain domain of knowledge, psychology, for example, and extrinsically motivated in another domain of knowledge, mathematics, for instance. Thus, the same individual can be at the same time intrinsically and extrinsically motivated.
(2) Accordingly, it seems that it makes more sense to speak about predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic motivated individuals than intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivated individuals.
(3) Self-determination theory clearly lacks a developmental focus in that it does not look at the above mentioned distinction in developmental terms. Those who are acquainted with the developmental literature know quite well that the more a child is young the more s/he is focused on external outcomes, not on internal motives. Thus, it is likely that intrinsic motivation increases with increasing age. To think of an intrinsically motivated baby seems to deify our imagination. The same might be said of, for example, a 4-year-old child as far as metacognition is concerned. I cannot imagine such a child engaged in the following chain of thinking: "I know that you know what I know about you".
Daniel, in your question you refer to counter-theories to SDT. Skinner's (1969) theory of learning is one of them. It is difficult to imagine a self-determined or motivated individual in this theory. It suffices to say that, according to Skinner, the variables of which human (and animal) behavior is a function are in the environment. Bandura's (1977) social learning theory is mainly a behaviorist theory and hence a counter-theory to Deci's theory of self-determination. Because Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory focus on both external outcomes and cognitive variables (e.g., self-efficacy) this theory is partly consistent with SDT and partly inconsistent with it. For example, it seems more than natural to associate self-determined individuals with individuals who have a high sense of self-efficacy, and individuals with a low sense of self-efficacy with extrinsically-motivated individuals. My answer, however, is a short answer to your question.
I hope that I has got your question and post, and that this helps.
Best regards. Orlando
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Many language learners start learning English with great enthusiasm at the beginning of an academic year, but they tend to get bored and lose their interested usually after the very first month. What might be the reason? How can we keep them engaged?
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Hi Meral,
My experience teaching both in an Intensive English Institute and working with language education overall suggests to me that the ways we teach are often the reasons for this.  Too often in language education we use very formalized and artificial activities for these learners.  Many courses still utilize "skill and drill" activities -- especially in the first courses in modern languages and the students lose interest because the activities are not authentic to true language use.  Of course, there are three decades of work addressing this problem (actually more like 50 years of work) that suggest that more active engagement, more authentic activities, more motivating activities -- even for beginners -- works best.  A couple of references to this are supplied.
Atkinson, D. (2011). Alternative approaches to second language acquisition. New York: Routledge.
Collier, V.P. & Thomas, W.P. (2009). Educating English language learners for a transformed world. Albuquerque, NM: Fuente Press.
Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced second language learning. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced language learning: the contribition of Halliday and Vygotsky (pp. 95-108). London: Continuum.
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I am looking for Questionnaire for measuring happiness at work. Any previous study used happiness at work measurement?
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The following papers should be helpful to your topic:
  • Cropanzano, R. and Wright, T. A. (2001). When a "happy" worker is really a "productive" worker: A review and further refinement of the happy-productive worker thesis. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 3, pp. 182-199.
  • Fisher, C. D. (2010). Happiness at work. International journal of management reviews, 12, 4, pp. 384-412.
  • Spicer, A. and Cederström, C. (2015). The Research We've Ignored About Happiness at Work. Harvard Business Review, available from: https://hbr.org/2015/07/the-research-weve-ignored-about-happiness-at-work.
  • Zelenski, J. M., Murphy, S. A. and Jenkins, D. A. (2008). The happy-productive worker thesis revisited. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 4, pp. 521-537.
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Generally handicraft works need high degree of competency as well as autonomy but their wages are low. How would their work motivation and performance be explained using Self-Determination theory?
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Quite true Paul, collectivisation of work do help meet the relationship needs of workers, as proposed by SDT. But is this enough for them to experience the highest level of autonomous motivation. I am wondering if some empirical work exist in this area using SDT framwork.
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I would like to identify large public datasets that can support within and between subjects analysis among cognitive, emotional, and behavioral measures. The goal is to achieve a diverse sample of human psychological and behavioral functioning. Data that have many (20+) observations for two or more measures over time within subjects are desired. The subjects dimension should preferably also be about 30+. Any pointers are greatly appreciated!
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want to make sure that small token of appreciation is not confused with contingency management.  thx!
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It certainly depends on how many questions and how frequently you are asking your participants. Among EMA studies conducted in youth, I've seen people providing incentives from $20/day to $20/week.   
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Dear researchers,
my personal work and passion is about supporting individuals in getting awareness about their personal values in order to enable them to set autonomous goals and to strive for intrinsically rather than extrinsic aspirations. I measure the effects on variables like goal attainment, subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and ecological as well as social behaviour.
To measure psychological well-being I use the psychological well-being scale by Ryff (1989). As I read a lot of studies in the area of self-determination theory, I read the very insightful empirical study by Brown & Ryan (2003) about the effects of mindfulness on different well-being scales. In that study they state (Brown & Ryan, p. 828) that they used subscales of Ryff's psych. wb scale to measure the satisfaction of the three psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. I wonder if this is possible with the subscales of Ryffs scale and if so, which subscales can be used to measure the three psychological needs validly.
I ask that question because I did a lot of studies with Ryff's psychological well-being scale and it would be very interesting for me, if I could use the scales also to measure the satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This could generate more insights.
Kind regards and thank you!
Benedict
Literature:
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(4), 822-848.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081.
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I think you have answered your own question. It would seem a terrific endeavor to use the scales the way you indicated.
I'd like to receive the studies and results.   pratibhagramann@gmail.com
Pratibha Gramann, Ph.D.
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Dear researchers,
my personal work and passion focus on supporting entrepreneurs and students in getting awareness about their personal values. In specific I support them in setting autonomous goals which are aspirated by their intrinsic rather than extrinsic values. I do this through awareness and mindfulness training. By that, I hope to contribute to the flourishing of those individuals and to the best of the people and the planet.
I measure participants' subjective and psychological well-being before and 3 months after the training (controlled quasi-experiments). As a mediating effect to subjective and psychological well-being I would like to measure the satisfaction of participants' basic psychological needs.
Therefore a German version of the "basic psychological needs scale in general" would be really helpful. I am only able to find German versions for specific contexts or the "Balanced Psychological Needs Scale" which do not seem to fit for my purposes.
Does anyone of you know whether there is a German version of the general scale?
Kind regards and thank you!
Benedict
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How about this one? The German Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale: Validation of a measure of need satisfaction in exercise.
By Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer
Swiss Journal of Psychology, Vol 72(3), Jul 2013, 137-148.
Abstract
Self-determination theory (SDT) has become an established framework for exploring motivational processes in physical exercise. The integral components of SDT are three basic psychological needs. For our study we translated and validated a German scale that measures need satisfaction in exercise. A total of 614 individuals (n = 347 female, age: M = 38.39 years, SD = 12.05) recruited from a private fitness center, various sport clubs, and the Academic Sports Association Zurich, Switzerland, took part in the online-based baseline assessment (T1). Nine months later, 216 participants completed the online follow-up questionnaire (T2). The results demonstrate adequate factor validity and internal consistency at both measurement points. Moreover, construct validity was demonstrated by medium to strong correlations of several motives to exercise and the self-efficacy of physical exercise. In addition, the three subscales were differentially predictive for different types of motivation (for example, intrinsic and extrinsic) at T2, indicating good criterion validity. The newly developed German scale is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing need satisfaction in the context of physical exercise and predicting motivation over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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There are indicators determining innovativeness of a country but I have a problem looking for tools to determine innovativeness of a person. Is there a standardized tool for this purpose?
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Oh thank you for all these responses.. greatly appreciated. I'll look into each article suggested.
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Dear researchers,
my personal work and passion focus on supporting entrepreneurs and students in getting awareness about their personal values. In specific I support them in setting autonomous goals which are aspirated by their intrinsic rather than extrinsic values. I do this through awareness and mindfulness training. By that, I hope to contribute to the flourishing of those individuals and to the best of the people and the planet.
I measure participants' subjective and psychological well-being before and 3 months after the training (controlled quasi-experiments). In line with self-determination theory, I measure subjective vitality (Ryan & Frederick, 1997) as a facet of psychological well-being.
Therefore a German version of the "subjective vitality scale" would be helpful. Does anyone of you know whether there is a German version of the scale and where to get it?
Kind regards and thank you!
Benedict
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Hello Benedict,
If you don't receive any help with this, it might be worth contacting the authors to see if they know of a German version:
I hope you find what you are wanting.
Very best wishes
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We hear that this is a happy person and this is an unhappy person. What is the criterion for determining the elements of happiness.
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The positive attitude towards life is an important criterion for the hapiness of a person.
''Think positive, and positive things will happen.''
-Joffrey Lagura
Regards
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I want to apply self determination theory to motivate  technology adaption. to test the this experimentally, are the three needs (autonomy, relatedness, and competence) all required together? or one of them is enough for  self determined motivation?
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Hi Nora,
Based on SDT, all three psychological needs are required for developing motivation. However, their importance is different with greater emphasis put on autonomy.
You can read this article for more information:
Hope it helps.
Hassan
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Some researches define it as 'personal and professional influences'. And some define it as internal and external influences. Some of these influences (or I call it as factors) are personality, religion, life philosophy, supervisor preference, training received, peer orientation etc...
Is there any recent study about these influences that affecting theoretical orientation choice of counselors? 
Originally i use the work 'factors'. Should I change it to 'influences'?
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Noted you intend to use both questionnaire survey and in-depth interview. It depends on what is your research paradigm and how you frame your research question and project. You could use the in-depth interviews, and identify themes underlying counselors' choice of their theoretical orientations, or design the survey based on what the research and literature out there are saying, and use the in-depth interviews to add further insights to what you have captured in your survey data. 'Influences' probably work better if you are approaching this qualitatively and inductively, especially if you have not found much literature in your context and country. But that is only my view, let's see if others can add to it.
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Dear researchers,
I plan to investigate possible causalities of certain psychological constructs and variables like Engagement, Goal attainment, Well-being...
Based on correlation analyses and theoretical considerations, I created a hypothesis system of causal paths (eg. "mindfulness" -> "Autonomy of Goals; "Autonomy of goals" -> "Engagement in the goal" and many more). So that I have now a empirically and theoretically derived hypothesis system of 9 variables. For each of the variables I have a valid and reliable quantitative measurement.
My question is: Is it reasonable to measure all variables just at one point of time to  calculate possible causlities and prove my hypothesis system?
Or do I need longitunal data for the variables (e.g. "Change of autonomy of Goals" over a 3 months period) to conduct path analysis?
It would be awesome if you could share your knowledge with me.
Kind regards
Benedict
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There are several streams in the causality literature. In some of these (consider work by Judea Pearl), what you need is to address the endogeneity problem, where the dependent variable's residual and the predictor may be correlated. (Put another way, it is the problem of omitted causes.) You can solve this problem by using lagged variables, collected across time, or you may be able to address it using other, instrumental variables which give assurance that the the endogeneity problem has been addressed.
     However, such an approach only addresses the "yes / no" of the causal inference--it answers the question, "Is it reasonable to infer a causal relationship?" It does not address process or mechanism. If you have a notion of how the causal mechanism works, then you likely need data across time, so that you can determine whether change over time is consistent or not consistent with your proposed mechanism.
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Dear researchers,
I am preparing a pre-/post test experiment for which I have an important question. I plan to do an intervention study that focusses on enhancing the independent psychological variables "mindfulness", "personal values awareness", "intrinsic values orientation" and "autonomy (self-concordance) of goals" of individuals. I plan to analyze how this intervention affects the dependant variables "goal engagement", "goal attainment", "subjective well-being", "psychological well-being" and certain health conditions like "depression", "anxiety" of the participants.
My specific question is, am I able to see how each of the independent variables contributes to each of the dependent variables. E.G. how "personal values" as one specific variable that was manipulated has affected each of the dependent variables. Or is it not possible to measure the causlities of each of the manipulated variables, because I manipulate 4 at a time? For me as a researcher it would be interesting to show causalities through my intervention and not only correlations.
It would be awesome to get some answers, as I am new to the methodoloy of experiments.
Best whishes
Benedict
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Here is a little fable.  One day I watched a grandfather, Leo, looking after his young granddaugther, Sarah.  Sarah had a pile of small cubes, some red and some blue.  There were two cups, one black and one white nearby.  She was picking up the cubes an placing them in either the white cup or the black one.  Every time she put a red in the black cup or a blue in the white cup a laughing noise came from near the cups, but not otherwise.  Sarah soon knew that red in a black cup or blue cube in a white cup causes a laugh.  Leo however knew this wasn't the case as he had a different world model to that of Sarah.
My message here is that experimental data together with a model may lead to an assertion of causality, but the validity of that assertion relies on the validity of the model not that of the data and the data analysis.
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I want to measure the perceibed intrinsic motivation towards videogames (in general) through IMI, particularly through the interest/enjoyment subscale, in the authors words "the self-report measure of intrinsic motivation".
As mentioned, eventhough it is developed orignially for lab settings I find that adapting it is a simple and effective way of mesuring also self-perception of different hobbies and tasks. I particullarly find their items more relevant than others such as the situational motivational scale (SIMS)...
What do you think? If not, what SDT scale would you use?
Best!
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Thanx Angel... very glad finding people working on the same stuff.
EDIT: Ángel!! Didn't realize this was YOU! I was told you are almost there with your thesis... GRATS! Your work will definitely be an inspiration!
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We used structural equation modelling with latent variables using items indicators for our analyses. Given the sample size and the complexity of the model, the use of structural equation modeling using parcels/packets as indicators might be a good alternative. Although I have read some disadvantages about parceling, I would like to give it a try. However, I cannot find a tutorial or something similar that explains step by step how to use parceling in mplus. Does anyone have a suggestions?
Thank you very much and kind regards,
Noud Frielink
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Dear Noud,
You can use the DEFINE command to create parcels within MPlus. 
For example with three items:
DEFINE:
parcel1 = (item1 + item2 + item3)/3
Than add this new variable in the USEVARIABLES ARE line behind all wihtim data set variables u use in your model and it should work.
Best
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 What instrument have you used to measure self actualization?  I have seen the 12 characteristics of self actualization that Maslow described. Is there any kind of inay runner that tries to capture if people have those characteristics. Or is it more  measuring the experience of self actualization?  How about the concept of phone do you find that sufficiently related to Maslow's original idea of self actualization or is it just one experience of behavioral state that is linked 
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I would avoid the concept of self actualization like the plague--it is unintelligible--what is your purpose?
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Self determination theory states that people have innate psychological needs  ( autonomy, competence and relatedness) that are the basis for intrinsic motivation. I am interested in studies on interpersonal differences in the importance of these needs. Do some people need more autonomy or relatedness than others? Which factors contribute to these differences?  
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Hello Arno,
Do you know this article ?
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Hey,
I am doing research in the field of Self-Determination Theory. I am looking for a way to measure a person's awareness about his or her personal values on the one hand and for measuring the use of his or her personal values on the other hand. Any recommendations?
Best regards
Benedict
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I saw your references. I'll sugggest Schwartz but he just has known by you. 
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I am doing research on Self-Determination theory. In this context, I analyse the relationship of values, goals and behaviour. I would like to measure participant's intention-behavior gap. In other words, I want to analyse the question, how consistent their goals are with their behaviour. Because of the fact that I am not doing a longitudinal study, I am looking for an intention-behavior gap scale that is able to measure this gap for an individual at one point of time.
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I have no questionnaire, but the concept of goals has always intrigued me. Clearly sustainable behaviour must be based on those goals that on balance have the most meaning to a person at the moment of the behaviour, so a questionnaire that does not delve into the multiplicity of goals in play in a person at any one time will yield only superficial information ie that there is a gap or not. In this context, I mean goals to be ANY desired outcome, either immediate, short or long term, that is responsive to behaviour. I would suggest that it may well be a limbic 'weighing up' of immediate pleasures vs long term gain that is at play, so there will be a more pronounced gap for students with less self regulation (ability to put off short term gains), so a questionnaire that also measures self regulation would be useful.
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These are only two studies I found so far (both on chess):
Joireman, Fick, and Anderson (2002) showed that sensation seeking discriminates between college students who tried out chess and those who never played chess, and predicts frequency of playing.
Bilalic, McLeod and Gobet (2007) analyzed personality of young chess players using Big Five personality model. They found that children scoring higher on Intellect/openness and Energy/extraversion were more likely to play chess, while children who score higher on Agreeableness were less likely to be attracted to chess. Although none of the Big Five factors were associated with self-reported skill level, a sub-sample of 25 elite players had significantly higher scores on Intellect/openness than their weaker chess playing peers.
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Hello Tihana,
I find hard to see how personality can directly predict performance in intellectual games/tasks.Maybe emotional stability by reducing the negative emotional tone during the game. Also openness may predict creative strategies as well.
However, it is more likely that personality will predict behaviors related to training and preparation before a match (e.g. conscientiousness to study openings, and chess strategies), but most likely general cognitive ability should be the stronger predictor in this type of competitions. 
Let me add a plot twist. Back in 2014, we published the results of an experiment, which included 228 students, and found that besides their personality traits (we focused on conscientiousness and emotional stability), the way in which their mentor (leader) provided feedback after performing,  also was important. More precisely it influenced how strongly our participants scores in these two personality traits predicted performance in intellectual tasks.
You might want to check out our article, as I think that the conclusions of it may generalize into your study's setting.
Good luck with your research!
Lucas
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In their 1992 paper Warner Burke and George Litwin outlined a fairly well thought out integrated I-P-O model of organisational behaviour that embraced exogenous influencers as well as performance output variables.  It was presented as a comprehensive causal model based on their vast experience as organisational consultants in the 1980's and 90's.  Now a quarter of a century later, is that model still relevant ?  Has the model been extended or made more parsimonious over the period ? Is it as relevant to the goods producing sector as it is to the services sector;  particularly the knowledge-intensive business sector ?
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For decades, organizations felt comfortable with policies, strategies, structures, systems, and business processes that kept them in the middle of the road—it made sense: after all, that is where clients stood or sat. These days, however, the middle of the road is the road to nowhere: there is so much change; there is so much pressure. There are so many different ways of doing everything that business-as-usual is dead. Without going into details, I am not sure such models as the McKinsey 7S Framework or the Burke–Litwin Model can serve sufficiently well in the 21st century: they are too tight wedded to Taylorism.
In 1994–1995, Sumantra Ghoshal and Christopher Bartlett published a trilogy of articles on Changing the Role of Top Management. The first, Beyond Strategy to Purpose, set the scene and argued that purpose—not strategy—is the reason an organization exists. In that and in the other two pieces, they recommended that organizations should move beyond strategy, structure, and systems to a framework built on purpose, processes, and people. They reckoned that a fatal flaw of the traditional strategy–structure–systems construct—which of course owes to scientific management mindsets—is the intention to minimize the idiosyncrasies of human behavior. They recommended (i) less emphasis on following clear strategic plans, and more importance to defining engaging purposes; (ii) less focus on formal structures, and more attention to effective processes; and (iii) less concern for control through systems, and more appreciation of capabilities and perspectives.
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Based on Self-determination Theory
About motivational profiles
Longitudinal studies in motivation
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Hi Sharon, here is a good paper that studies intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence.  In my career as a teacher, I do my best to strengthen intrinsic motivation, being fully aware that in my country, students are usually extrinsically motivated  by grades; and it is intrinsic motivation that develops scholars and scientists whose minds are close to their work.  
Yes, I have come across several students who make great strides in motivation to study!  Have a look at this paper.  All the best.
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The noted Deci and Ryan self-determination theory posits three motivational states relevant to positive performance in jobs at work. These are intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation and identified regulation.  The theory does not explicitly articulate an achievement nor goal-oriented component to motivation.  It does however speak to a psychological need for competence ie for one to thrive in one's environment.  Fulfilling ones competence needs, may therefore be said to reflect achievement and goal orientation.   Is achievement and goal orientation therefore a necessary condition for employees to be motivated to excel at their jobs at work ?
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I quite like that perspective David,
The Basic Psychological Needs Sub-theory of Deci & Ryan's SDT does  include Autonomy and Relatedness in addition to Competence. 
Your point that to the extent that one is high on Autonomy and Relatedness but  low on Competence, then one could still enjoy high Intrinsic Motivation is insightful.
Essentially, one could exhibit high levels of  self-motivation without being high in achievement nor goal orientation.
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Kasser distinguishes in the context of Self-Determination Theory intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Intrinsic goals are those which are more closely related to the satisfaction of human's psychological needs. Kasser argues that his model could be applied to values. I am searching for literature which applies the distinction of intrinsic/extrinsic to a valid model of human values (e.g. S.H. Schwartz's universal structure of human values). Any advices?
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I don't know if there are any direct comparisons. But Grouzet et al. 2005 uses Kasser & Ryan's intrinsic and extrinsic goals and provides their own circumplex model where they put all the goals on a circle with two dimensions: intrinsic vs. extrinsic and physical self vs. self-transcendence. Comparing that model with Schwartz circumplex model would be the place where I would start looking at the similarities and differences between the two models:
Grouzet, F. M. E., Kasser, T., Ahuvia, A., Dols, J. M. F., Kim, Y., Lau, S., … Sheldon, K. M. (2005). The structure of goal contents across 15 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(5), 800–816.
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Does anyone know about a valid questionnaire, using likert-scales for determining the degree of both intrinsic motivation and regulation based on the self-determination and organismic integration theory, for any field of application?
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In physical activity / exercise settings the BREQ (most recent BREQ-3) is a frequently used questionnaire which may be adapted for other contexts:
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I'm intending to use this theory in my research project , involving evaluation of level of motivation in elementary school students in Brazil.
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HI, 
For a brief, but very interesting overview, please check the following paper:
Vansteenkiste, M., Niemiec, C. P., & Soenens, B. (2010). The development of the five mini-theories of self-determination theory: An historical overview, emerging trends, and future directions. In T. C. Urdan & S. A. Karabenick (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement, v. 16A—The decade ahead: Theoretical perspectives on motivation and achievement (105-165). London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi:10.1108/S0749-7423(2010)000016A007 
Regards,
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Some researchers would prefer to evaluate athlete`s performance base on actual results obtained by athletes, and other prefer to evaluate subjective perceptions provided by the coaches.
Which one you would prefer? and why?
I mean that how well or poor did athlete perform relative to the other past weeks/months (in team or individual sports)? and the extent to which athletes had progress in the tactical, technical, physical and psychological domains over the past weeks/months?
Please includes your answers base on validate references.
Any help will be appreciate.
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Having been a coach involved in training and evaluating athletes, I can state from experience, the only subjective evaluation by coaches that provided realistic, reliable information about an athlete's performance came from a coach with whom I had the opportunity to personally validate the information provided by the coach. Once a coach had proven his ability to properly evaluate the athlete's performance, I would accept at face value, his statements. Unfortunately, in the vast majority of situations the evaluation of the coach was skewed by personal feelings, etc. causing the evaluation to be better or worse than the true abilities of the athlete. Therefore, before accepting a coach's evaluation a level of reliability and validity for the evaluation must be achieved, this requires you to be able to determine these things on your own to validate the information provided by the coach.
If the purpose of your investigation is to provide information for training and coaching athletes, subjective information may or may not be reliable and valid. You must have an objective means of measuring your target behavior or outcome, and that requires objective measures of performance. Specific tests of functional aspects of performance will, with an adequate understanding of the relationships of the variables being studied, provide better information about the characteristics under consideration than the best subjective information about the performance of the athlete from all but the best coaches. In my experience, probably less than 10% of coaches, are capable of valid, reliable subjective evaluation of training, coaching, or performance. Therefore, your best information will come from hard, objective measures.  
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According to self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan) external regulation behaviors are performed to satisfy an external demand or obtain an externally imposed reward contingency. Individuals typically experience externally regulated behavior as controlled or alienated. This contrasts with intrinsic motivation which is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external prods, pressures, or rewards.
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I agree that external pressure plays an important part on compliance. In some cases including voluntary disclosure of information in the financial and related statements arise due to awareness of the need for transparency, publicity opportunities, and sense of accountability. Ethical perspective may play a part.
Gin
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According to self determination theory, the three psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness can be satisfied by the context or by behaviours in which individuals engage. Is there any research comparing whether the implications of need satisfaction differ depending on how the needs are satisfied (i.e. by the context or the person)? 
In other words, are the outcomes of need satisfaction more positive when needs are satisfied by specific behaviours individuals engage in versus being in a context that satisfies the needs?
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These two publications are relevant to your question.
Regards,
The Center for Self-Determination Theory.
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I'm planning a narrative inquiry about diminishing school motivation and I have found the concepts of SDT intersting and useful to understand the phenomenon. Any opinions about how the frame of SDT could suit with narrative inquiry method or to interpretation of narratives, are wellcome!
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Hi,
 Dr Chris Niemiec at the University of Rochester, New York did a cross-international comparative study using students' narratives about their teachers/lecturers to examine motivation from an SDT perspective. I collected data here in South Africa on that project, but I don't think that work is published yet, so perhaps you can contact him directly with your question?
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As we know self-determination theory (SDT) is of US American origin. With reference to Hofsteede, there are cultures that are not that individualistic. Therefore, does it make sense to try find a need for autonomy in cultures where "autonomy does not exist"? In fact I do like SDT, but today I want to shoot at its generalizability. 
What do think? Critical discourse is whole-heartedly welcome!
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Individual or personal autonomy is the pure product of Anglo-American thinking. If we perceive this very issue by the prism of European Court of Human Rights and particularly based decisive and fruitful case-law above-mentioned institution, please find very critical insight and perception of the concept of individual autonomy emerged from courts reasoning.
CARING AUTONOMY European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism KATRI L ˜OHMUS Cambridge University Press 2015
The main dilemma connected value perception, one the one hand as author argued European court of Human Rights based on the liberal understandings of the notion meanwhile there are other options minimally understand this concept by the prism of communitarian perception. Thus, it is a very controversial issue and described as clashes between value understanding of the notion.
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I'm doing a survey of articles and experts whose research has touched on the ways people move from having some kind of realization (sudden epiphany or slow and gradual are fine) to taking action to change their lives. I'm particularly interested both in the internal dynamics (how people motivate themselves and then actually take action) and external parties (people who play a role either in the person obtaining the self-knowledge or helping to accomplish the change).
The "change" that takes place can be of any significance ranging from seemingly small (e.g. estranged friends/family who pick up the phone and call the other party) to very large (e.g. Nelson Mandela moving from being a militant to a peace activist).
If you can point me to any relevant people or articles I would be grateful. I am even interested in popular culture examples (e.g. movies showing this dynamic). Thanks in advance for taking the time.
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I'm not sure if this is quite perfect, but you can check out Prochaska's transtheoretical model of behavior change (Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In Search of How People Change. American Psychologist , 47 (9), 1102-1114.)
I found it interesting because it goes through the stages of change (from pre-contemplation all the way to action and maintenance) while including external factors.
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Are there any interventions to enhance the self-determined behaviour of children between 2 and 5?  Can you think of anywhere I can look.  All the interventions I am finding are for 'school age children'.  Thank you.
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Hi Merisa,
Given your question, I think you'll find this model most interesting: http://tec.sagepub.com/content/33/1/38.abstract
The model highlights 3 foundational skills of self-determination to foster in early childhood:
1: Choices/Problem-solving
2: Self-regulation
3: Engagement
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The realisation of employee innovative performance and output varies in the literature. A popular measure is the patent. However, in the context on a long ideation funnel where 3000 ideas are said to lead to 300 potential patents which may eventually result in  one commercial success,  (Stevens & Burley 1997), then patents would seriously underrepresent the deep and rich ideation cauldron that feeds innovative output. Further, patents record "substantially new" process or product developments,  and not the small incremental "shopfloor innovations" that are more pervasive and occurring daily in firms (Axtell et al 2000). In that context, what other measures would be suitable for capturing and reflecting innovative output at the individual employee level in firms
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In many firms, the key driver for operational excellence is "transformation through innovation”.
I found an interesting article written by Soren Kaplan entitled "How To Measure Innovation (To Get Real Results)" 
According to McKinsey, more than 70% of corporate leaders tout innovation as a top three business priority, but only 22% set innovation performance metrics.
One reason why that innovation metric gap exists is because there’s no set formula for what fuels innovation. What works for one company might be too fuzzy for the next. That said, there are a few things you can measure in order to figure out how innovative your company's culture is—it's the first step in figuring out how to reshape that environment and start promoting new behaviors.
Leadership
Percent of new innovations that come from external sources like crowdsourcing or open innovation
Percent of funding for game changers versus small tweaks to existing products or services
Percent of senior executive time focused on the future versus on daily operations
Employees
Number of ideas turned into patents by employees
Number of ideas turned into innovation experiments by employees
Number of teams that submit projects for innovation awards
Percentage of employees trained in the innovation process
Customers
Number of ideas submitted by customers through "open innovation" programs
Number of new product or service ideas that come from mining social networks
Number of customers that help test and refine new ideas
Regards
Zoheir
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My research aims to uncover technological influences on individuals seeking eudaimonic well being and spiritual well being. Using SDT framework. If anyone has any thoughts of measuring Eudaimonic measurements (away from Hedonic measurements - like SWB scales ) would greatly help.
Ryff PWB measures Eudiamonic well being. However since I am using SDT framework , need scales to match this theory
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Belavadi,
There are useful questionnaires for measuring eudaimonic well-being base on SDT. 
You may check Huta`s papers (2010, 2013) as well as Eudaimonic Well-being questionnaire by Waterman (2010).
Good luck!
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Reading is important, yet developing interest in reading is a challenge. I strongly feel that the interest to read extensively especially in the 2nd language is highly related to intrinsic motivation and autonomy. Is there any research done relating extensive reading to Self determination theory?
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When you say extensive reading in in second language ,it is obvious that you have an inclination to go in depth in the study of second language.This may also help you to gain & to acquire a good knowledge of the subject .
With this ,Self motivation should directly come to the surface of your mind provided you are positive in your approach .Self motivation is our merely process of our mind as it is directing the tune of our inner within .
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What is good scale for psychological well-being, "except ryff scale"? I use self determination theory for my framework and need some scales which can match with this theory.
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Hey Elham,
you can combine different aspects of well-being using i.e.
- an area specific scale like job satisfaction
= cognitive parts of well-being
- Positive affect negative affect scale (PANAS)
= affective parts of well-being
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I need an example.  In my case, a neighboring country supported the possible secession of a people within an existing state.  Those people within that state were subject to systematic discrimination.  
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Southwest Somalia:
"South-West Somalia (Koonfur-Galbeed Soomaaliya) was an autonomous self-proclaimed state in Somalia founded by Hasan Muhammas Nur Shatigadad, leader of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA) on 01 April 2002.
Following the signing of the Jubba Agreement between officials of the South Western State of Somalia, Jubaland and the federal Somali government whereby it was agreed that an autonomous state could be established under the Provisional Federal Constitution, delegates representing the Bay, Bakool and Lower Shabelle regions met in the capital Baidoa on 27 March 2014 and elected Mohamed Haji Abdinur as president of the Southwestern State of Somalia."
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"United States has welcomed the November 17 election of Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan as President of the Interim South West Administration (ISWA) comprised of Bay, Bakool, and Lower Shabelle regions in southern Somalia.
“The United States welcomes this historic election and encourages the leadership of the ISWA to establish an administration that promotes inclusion of all communities in these regions, delivers essential services to its citizens, and furthers peace and stability,” Said U.S. Special Representative for Somalia (SRS) James P. McAnulty in a statement sent to newsrooms.
“We also encourage the ISWA to engage in productive dialogue with the FGS leading to its eventual formal recognition as a federal member state,” he added.
The United States Government said it remains a committed partner to the government and citizens of Somalia and will continue to support Somalia’s path towards a peaceful, stable, and prosperous future.
“ We recognize the critical role the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) played to help facilitate the reconciliation process and subsequent election, and urge concerted action to continue working towards meeting the Vision 2016 timelines for completion of the state formation process,”.
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It seems obvious that positive psychology and Self Determination theory can be linked. I am currently looking for coherence between the active use of strengths and the three needs of SDT. However, I cannot find much (if any) empirical evidence to support this. Could anyone help me on this?
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Hej Jakob,
Titta på dessa artiklar:
Human Autonomy in Cross-Cultural Context
Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology Volume 1, 2011, pp 33-44
Date: 26 Nov 2010
Positive Psychology and Self-Determination Theory: A Natural Interface
Kennon M. Sheldon,Richard M. Ryan
Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology.
Deci, Edward L.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten
Ricerche di Psicologia, Vol 27(1), 2004, 23-40.
Från abstraktet: "In this article we discuss self-determination theory, specifying an organismic-dialectical meta-theory and suggesting that the concept of basic psychological needs provides a useful basis for predicting whether the social environment will support optimal functioning or will, alternatively, promote maladaptation and ill-being."
Self-Determination
Edward L. Deci, Richard M. Ryan
Published Online: 30 JAN 2010; Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology
DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0834
Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation,
Social Development, and Well-Being
American Psychological Association, Inc. 0003-066X/00/$5.00
Vol. 55, No. 1, 68-78 DOI:
10.1037110003-066X.55.1.68
Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci
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How proactivity and proactive coping are related to neurocognitive functions (memory, intelligence, attention) in patients with stroke, tumor, brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases? Because when these brain lesions neurocognitive function is impaired, it is possible to suppose that proactivity will be reduced?
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Thanks for escalating the discussion.
Biochemically, a pond of hormones sits in the base of the brain, for example Acetylcholine. Pro-activity is closest to game play from your definition resulting in PRODUCTIVITY. But it can add anxiety domain to all the other domains mentioned. 
From real estate point of view, business and game play is on the dorso-lateral side of the frontal lobe, while emotion, obsession associated with bad emotions like depression is on the Basal and medial part of the frontal lobe...
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I am interested in core self evaluations and self-determination theory as predictors of job satisfaction and contextual and task job performance. In designing the study, I wanted to use time lags between scales. There is not much about this in the literature that I can find. Thanks.
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I would agree with Mahmut that it is very dependent on the context. To take two examples, I once ran a predictive validity study, with job performance as the criterion, on temps - temporary admin staff hired from an agency. The lag between testing and measurement of job performance here was 1-2 days; if a temp is not doing their job competently after 1-2 days, this does not fit the employers needs. At the other extreme, I carried out a validation study with air traffic controllers. Here the lag was 3.5 to 4 years - 0-6 months waiting for a training place, 3 years of training and 6 months on the job before performance could reasonably be measured.
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I'm interested in knowing possible variations that you would do and your opinions.
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As Arthur Poropat has already written: There are a lot of studies that support self-determination theory and its practical implications. But it doesn't mean that it's perfect.
For some people the concept of Self-determination is somewhat confusing. If one doesn't believe that the free will exists, then an assumption of self-determination would be implausible.
Philosophical issues aside. There is also empirical criticism. The authors propose three psychological needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness). Why just these three? Other scientists have proposed more needs: Murray's system of needs, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, 16 basic desires theory (Steven Reiss) etc.
However, there are also pessimistic scientists, who assume that we have only one basic psychological need - the hedonistic one. We can derive all secondary needs or desires from this one.
We certainly need more cross-cultural studies if we want to test the hypothesis, that there are exactly three universal, innate psychological needs.
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I'm working on an introduction program voor students at the age of 14/ 15 years old in Veldhoven Holland. I use the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) as my fundament in the program. Is there any scientific research that proves that their concept is working. It is evident based, but I can't find any proof.
Antoon van Wolferen
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I am working on the exploration of a model of teacher's autonomy support of English Learning in Chinese Context. The theoretical framework comes from Deci and Ryan's(SDT) Self-determined Theory. My proposal has been recommended to apply for the provincial grant. I am also looking for the parterners across culturally intending to make comparision study of the differentiated models of teacher's autonomy support in Foreign language learning, where the authority of teachers is more overwhelming. 
If you are working on this, or your school is in other countries other than China, western countries valuing individualism would be the best, welcome to contact me!
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Sure! My advisor and I have worked on something similar. Email me at jsb0835@live.missouristate.edu
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Is there any scale related to the basic psychological needs (Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness) in learning environments? Or how the previous scales can be modified (i.e., basic needs in general, sport or physical education) for learning environments?
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Answer
There are other measures of psychological need satisfaction that include fewer items.
Autonomy: Perceived Self-Determination in Life Domains Scale (Blais & Vallerand, 1991)
Competence: Perceived Competence in Life Domains Scale (Losier, Vallerand, & Blais, 1993)
Relatedness: Need for Relatedness Scale (Richer & Vallerand, 1998)
Each subscale has 4 items (you can take the Academic subscales). These scales can be downloaded from Robert Vallerand's website at: