Questions related to Seismics
This is a similar question to a previous posting of mine. I have a range of seismic isochron maps representing different horizons in a sedimentary basin (files attached). I have no further information other than these maps and would like to convert the contours to depth. I point out that the index contours have a depth (in brackets) beside the contour value but I can't work out the intermediate lines. I need to obtain a constant conversion factor and I can't get this from the index values as it changes with increasing TWT.
Also, there a number of parallel lines that bisect the isochrons, are these faults?
Share your perspective on hydraulic fracturing (fracking) regarding its environmental impact, especially considering concerns like water contamination, seismic activity, and the potential economic benefits?
In particular, I'm wondering about its detrimental impact.
Is it possible to have a VP/Vs ratio of less than 1 in near surface seismic studies (using seismic refraction and MASW methods)? If yes, What is the geological and geophysical explanation for this phenomenon?
I am a final year Masters's Student from Heriot-Watt University currently working on my dissertation project titled "A THEORETICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE STRUCTURE OF A LIQUID STORAGE TANK UNDER SEISMIC FORCES" with the following objectives:
1. Verification of Current Theories (Housner, Preethi, and Malhotra) of liquid Structure Behavior (sloshing wave height) under seismic forces for petroleum-filled storage tanks using Finite Element Modelling and Finite Element Analysis.
2. Assessment of the possible failure mechanism of the superstructure of the various liquid storage vessels under exposure to seismic forces using Finite Element Modelling and Finite Element Analysis based on the API 650 Design Standard.
3. Proposal and initial assessment of the effectiveness of a Bass Isolation System on the sloshing wave height using Finite Element Modelling and Finite Element Analysis.
Can the Ansys modal analysis module be used to model a fluid-filled storage tank and determine the sloshing wave height along with the impulsive and convective mass components of the fluid based on the application of specific Acceleration, Velocity, and displacement values?
Can I subsequently transfer the model to the Ansys Static Structural Module to determine the various resulting stresses that will develop within the tank structure due to the seismic forces and the fluid-structure interactions?
If not, can you guys offer any advice on what methodology I should take?
We know that at minimum of a group velocity curve, we get Airy phase with large amplitude of surface waves. My question is: Does the amplitude depends on the sharpness of minimum i.e. on |dU/dT| around the group velocity minimum? Here I have used U as group velocity and T is period of surface wave.
Tunnel-forms building is a type of reinforced concrete (RC) building that is constructed using prefabricated forms. The seismic performance of tunnel-forms RC buildings has been studied extensively. They are designed to withstand lateral drift and are structurally sound. However, some research say they are not seismically adequate !
Could we apply chevron bracing technique ? As a damping mechanism for tunnel-forms RC tall buildings.
I have performed a fragility analysis based on Incremental dynamic analysis for the Bare frame and open ground storey frame and full infill frame.
I sent the manuscript to Springer Journal.
Reviewer's comments are as follows:
The research has made some contribution by comparing the seismic fragility of RC frames with and without masonry infills. However, the results need to be justified with regard to following concern:
It is conjectured that the infilled frames performed better. We need more strong evidence for such a claim. The numerical analysis results showing the development of relative stiffness and strength between the infills and main frame during the dynamic analysis may be presented. Also, reference may be made to other researches confirming the statement.
My main question is how such an unfavorable element (infill) which detrimentally adds to the stiffness of the structure and causes the absorption of more seismic force, and at the same time is not strong enough to last for the entire seismic event, and even is not ductile to absorb seismic energy, could improve the overall performance.
It is conjectured that the infilled frames performed better.
How such an unfavourable element (infill) which detrimentally adds to the stiffness of the structure and causes the absorption of more seismic force, and at the same time is not strong enough to last for the entire seismic event, and even is not ductile to absorb seismic energy, could improve the overall performance.
seismic loads ,earthquakes and earthquakes dampers
1. The elastic column has the ability to move elastically in the earthquake as it also has the necessary plasticity for inelastic displacements. On the other hand, it does not put down large torques at the base However, the column does not have dynamics like a rigid reinforced wall, and it does not have a second lever arm in width, which reduces the overturning moment. The wall has great dynamics towards the earthquake, it has a second lever arm in width that reduces the overturning moment, but it does not have great plasticity and on the other hand, it lowers large moments to the base due to stiffness and breaks beams and joists. Also, due to greater mass, the inertia of the structure increases and thus the seismic loads. Question Is there a vertical load-bearing element that has a double lever arm, ductility, elasticity, dynamics, and does not transmit its moment to the beams and joists, and is strong towards the intersection of the base, and economical with the minimum steel reinforcement? Yes there is. But they don't use it It is called an elongated wall with prestressed and ground-consolidated ends.
2. If we want to increase the response of the structure to the earthquake, we increase the mass of the concrete by building walls and large beams. We are still increasing the steel reinforcement. Nicely we built a dynamic rigid structure something like a reinforced concrete precast which has great dynamics. Normally it should withstand the earthquake. However, it does not last, especially when the construction is tall. The reasons are as follows. By increasing the mass, we also increase the inertia of the structure and thus the seismic loads. By increasing the height and stiffness we increase the overturning moment These three factors, if they do not overturn the structure, will at least create a small overturning - swelling in the area of the base of the building. The structure losing partial soil support will divert the now unsupported static loads to the beam cross-sections and break them. This happens when we increase the dimensions of the load-bearing organism to increase the dynamic response of the structure. Question There is a solution? Yes, there is a solution. We must increase the dynamics of the structure without increasing its mass, which causes greater inertia. That is, we can increase the linear and transverse reinforcement, and the quality of the concrete, as well as reduce the diameter (not the kilograms) of the reinforcement, in order to achieve greater resistance, in terms of the shear failure of the coating concrete, due to its super strength steel in tension. This they do today and have greatly improved the dynamics and ductility, but greatly increased the cost of steel reinforcement. A steel of diameter Φ/50 has the ability to lift a two-story building with an area of 100 m2 weighing 140 tons, and today they put 8500 kg of steel on the two-story and we have failures in large earthquakes. And this is because the concrete cannot hold the steel reinforcement in it to cooperate and it breaks. Is there another solution? Yes, there is another solution and it is the one I propose. This solution removes 80% of the reinforcement so the construction becomes more economical. This solution triples the dynamic response of the structure to seismic displacements, without increasing the mass, i.e. the inertia that causes the seismic loads, and this happens because the force that counteracts the earthquake comes from an external factor, that of the ground, so it has no mass added to the structure. This solution diverts the seismic loads outside the structure and the structure is not stressed by the earthquake. This solution is called an elongated wall with prestressed and soil-consolidated ends.
Seismic data are types of big data that are saved in .segy format. I am currently working on applying machine learning methods to 3D seismic data. I use the "Segyio" python package to import and handle .segy files. The question I have here is how to export a 3D NumPy array in a .segy file with headers to save my results and import them into commercial software. Any help or sample code you can give me is greatly appreciated.
Quantitative Estimation of Reservoir Dynamic Properties
1. Does 4D Seismic data really complement well production information that remains spatially sparse and temporally dense by essentially offering information on the variations of reservoir properties across the entire reservoir @ a given production time as a function of the varying seismic amplitudes?
2. If the changes in each of the reservoir properties has an independent impact on the seismic data, then, how precisely, the superposition of all the effects caused by the simultaneous variations in any particular dynamic reservoir property could be captured in the absence of quantitatively estimating the simultaneous contribution of each reservoir property to the final observed data (4D AVO)?
It is not easy to forecast or predict an earthquake and till now there has been no successful prediction in history except one from a Chinese researcher in the mid-70s. But for the last few weeks, people have been expecting that planetary alignments are indicators of seismic events. So being an earthquake researcher I think it is quite difficult to highlight the exact area of the upcoming seismic events with the help of this technique. I need opinions from the scientific community on this topic.
Hello good time To design a seismic isolator for bridges according to the Ashto code, we design a seismic isolator for a design earthquake (1000-year return period) and there are examples of this in the Ashto guide. If the goal of designing a seismic isolator is for MCE earthquake, what should we do? Unfortunately, I still haven't found the solution and method.
I've done the Log Correlation or Well Seismic Tie in HRS, but I want to do the picking horizon and fault in my Petrel. How to import the result from HRS to Petrel? And what kind of format should I use to export it?
Thank you in advance!
I want to process a Well Seismic Tie in Hampson-Russell software, so I need to import my seismic data, well data, check shot, and P-wave. I have the well's coordinates, but the seismic data is on different UTM Zones than the well's coordinates recorded. The well doesn't attach to the seismic data when I load it. Can I change the UTM Zones or it happened because of other issues?
Thank you in advance!
The math tells us that the acceleration, depend on the frequency, in the unit of time, X the amplitude of oscillation, and the value of the acceleration X the kilograms of the mass gives us the inertia, and the intersecting base which have the same value. If we multiply the inertia by the height, it gives us the overturning moment of the lever arm at height If the moment of the lever arm in height is divided by the width of the wall which is the second lever arm in width, the overturning moments are reduced according to the width of the second lever arm. So the height along with the acceleration and the mass increases the moments that the wall lowers, while the width of the second lever arm decreases them. So if we want to construct a building which lowers smaller moments we have to do the following. 1) We can't do much about acceleration because it depends on the earthquake. However, we can install horizontal seismic insulation in the construction which reduces the acceleration. But this costs 2) For the mass, we can reduce the weight by using in the masonry instead of bricks and cement blocks the Alfa Block (Aerated concrete) which, apart from being light, thus reducing the weight of the reinforcement and the cost, they also have a lower inertia and overturning moment . In multi-storey and general high-beam constructions, it is a good choice for cheaper, more insulated and anti-seismic constructions. They are not suitable for the construction of two or even fewer floors. 3) For the overturning moment, and the reception of the cutting base, the structure that has a small height and a large width of walls is better. Ideal such constructions are continuous construction buildings made entirely of reinforced concrete (without masonry) or heavy-duty prefabricated buildings. The latter are even cheaper than conventional houses because they are manufactured. But they have a problem, they are dynamic but they are also rigid. Flexible elastic buildings made of columns combined with walls have both dynamics and elasticity and are less vulnerable to earthquake. Usually the columns take the static loads and the walls and the seismic loads. For this reason civil engineers prefer them for the best seismic design. Here comes a question. What can we do to reduce the overturning moment, the bending moment, the moment at the nodes and increase the resistance to the intersecting base, while reducing the construction cost by increasing its seismic resistance? The answer is simple. We buy heavy-duty prefabricated houses, which we compact their sides with the ground, with the mechanism of the patent, and apply prestressing to their cross-sections. With this design method 1) We drop the cost by 30% from conventional houses. 2) We increase the height of prefabricated structures by building skyscrapers (today only ground floor and one floor are allowed) 3) We reduce the number of anchors and therefore the cost of compaction. 4) We increase the speed of completion of the project
Seismic Inversion and Carbonate Reservoir Characterization
1. Feasible to precisely understand the rock properties – from the spatial variations in impedance contrasts – towards estimating the carbonate reservoir properties (away from production well) – using seismic amplitude data?
2. To what extent, the details on the fracture-size, fracture-shape distributions – could be deduced – using seismic responses (spatial variation of impedance contrasts) – towards identifying optimal drilling locations – in a carbonate reservoir?
3. To what extent, the details on the mineral composition and interaction among minerals – will influence – the fracability of a carbonate reservoir – using the approach of seismic acquisition, processing and pre-stack inversion?
If so, then, how exactly to relate the fracability of a carbonate reservoir to the seismic estimates – on the ratio of differential horizontal stresses; the pressure to initiate fractures; and the closure pressure?
4. Have any major limitations - associated with the ‘isotropic’ seismic inversion algorithm – towards estimating the continuous rock properties – of a carbonate reservoir - at the seismic-scale?
5. How sensitive will be – the coupling between ‘rock-physics modeling’ and ‘pre-stack seismic inversion’ – towards ‘value estimation from grid searching’ – in a carbonate reservoir?
6. Feasible to justify the assumptions of (a) linear approximation for reflectivity; and (b) the natural logarithms of P-impedance, S-impedance & density to have a linear correlation – in a carbonate reservoir – towards simultaneous inversion of pre-stack seismic data?
7. To what extent, the simultaneous investigation of rock properties of a carbonate reservoir – along with the interpretation of seismic attribute variations – would really mitigate the contradictions, if any – arising from – having both explicit and implicit relationships between rock and elastic properties of a carbonate reservoir?
8. To what extent, will we be able to achieve the ‘accuracy’ of ‘seismic inversion’ - in a carbonate reservoir?
What are the consequences of not inverting the elastic properties correctly – in a carbonate reservoir (apart from the difficulty of correlating the carbonate rock properties with the seismic attributes)?
Feasible to perform ‘anisotropic inversion’ – in a carbonate reservoir (in the absence of anisotropic measurements @ both log-scale and laboratory-scale, while the seismic data quality @ far offsets remaining poor)?
9. How easy/difficult will it remain - to capture the impedance contrast - at the fracture-matrix interface - in a carbonate reservoir?
Iraq regions seismology data are quite contraventional, and yet no real study has been conducted, to draw the proper steps to establish such maps. Baghdad Captial undergoing construction of Low-to-Medium Rise Building, which desperately need such reference maps (Building Design Codes regulations) which effects/threat life of millions of peoples ...
The seismic data from ocean bottom seismograph is used to image the structure of crust and mantle below the ocean or sea. Whatmore, the multi-channel seismic data can also image the crustal structure. I want to know whether the difference occurs between both. if has, then what is the difference? For example, the seismic acquisition or seismic processing.
In all countries, the use of wood as a structural material is present to a greater or lesser extent.
a- In your countries, what are the regulations for the design of timber structures called?
b- Is the design done by ASD or LRFD?
c- Are seismic demands taken into account for the design of timber structures?
Please feel free to provide a reference to such documents.
I'm a hydrogeologist, I'm modeling fracture flow. Some fracturing in hard rocks (e.g. granite) occurs due to seismic/tectonic activity. I'll be really thankful if somebody gives me an information/articles concerning fracture development/fracture connectivity based on seismic waves/ amplitude of tectonic movements, etc. in hard rocks.
This is a question about earthquake amplitude attenuation.
With your experience of observing earthquake waveforms or simulating ones, I hope you will give us some insight on that matter.
I'm trying to simulate the PGD/PGA attenuation along a given azimuth of an earthquake magnitude 5.5, reverse fault (S:215 D:50 R:84), with point source simulation.
The process is to simulate synthetic seismograms at each stations separated with equidistance (~5km). A 1-D tabular velocity model is used.
We consider only the horizontal components (radial and transversal); and the PGD/PGA is the maximum between them.
The results I'm getting are strange for me.
The figure attached shows the PGA amplitude of 40 stations in two directions: azimuth 45° and azimuth 125°.
I was expecting a constant regular attenuation from the nearest station to the farthest one. Instead, I got two sudden decrease followed by an increase in the amplitude (around 56km and 130km for the example shown in the figure attached).
I did run several tests and this anomaly (if it is), doesn't seem to be affected by the event depth or with seismic nuting.
I would like to know if in such condition (ideal conditions without any amplification factors at the surface) we expect an amplification in amplitude (due to ordinary wave behavior such us multiple) ?
Or is it expected, especially with reverse faults? Since the chosen azimuths (45° and 125°) are ~ parallel and perpendicular to the strike?
Or is there any other explanation or error that I'm missing.
Thank you in advance for your help
Is there any hard academic literature on the historical application of seismic inversion technique for lithology prediction?
I am having trouble importing 2D seismic data into Petrel, as in the SEGY files the X- and Y coordinates are all set to zero (see picture).
However, I do have a shapefile indicating the location of the different 2D seismic lines. Is there any way to use this to import my seismic data? The problem is that due to the X- and Y coordinates all being zero, I get the following error;
Hi. I wish to understand the codal provision from IS 1893 Part-1 and IS 4326 which states the minimum separation gap for adjacent structures. Let us suppose I have a 10 storey moment resisting RCC frame that has a maximum displacement of 70 mm towards the right and a stiff 5 storey RCC structure having a displacement of 2.5 mm (both values approximated to the nearest multiple of 5 for ease). The response reduction factor, R = 5.
A confusion I have right now is from Table 1, IS 4326 where we see something like Gap Distance/Number of storey. For a moment resisting concrete frame, this value is 20 mm. In the case of the sets of structures that I have mentioned, should I use 20*10 = 200 mm (total number of storeys in larger building = 10), 20*5 = 100 mm (the maximum storey level for smaller structure = 5th storey) or simply 20 mm
What seismic gap should I provide between them? Attached for reference are excerpts from the mentioned codes for reference. Thanks in advance
Seismic moment gives us the release of the energy during earthquake. If this could relate to the PGA expected at site, we could estimate the PGA from moment magnitude itself. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is an elaborate procedure to get this but a direct relation can save a lot of time and calculations.
Recognizing depositional sequences is the first step in seismic interpretation for reservoir management. Wu and Hale (2015) presented the “unconformity likelihood” attribute for revealing unconformity surfaces bounding seismic packages so far.
Can anyone please tell me which software program tool I should use to separate unconformities (marked by toplap, onlap, & downlap) on seismic data?
Thanks, and best regards,
I am doing my MTech thesis on topic “ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC SEPARATION GAP BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING” and i am planning to use FVD250 between two adjacent buildings, so what will be the cost of one single viscous damper and is it good idea to use FVD between building?
Dear all. We have used seismic attributes and Geostatistical inversion, but the result is not so good. The sand body is thin，we can not identify them using seismic data. So, we wonder know if any new method or other useful method we can try? Thanks all.
Hello fellow geoscietists,
I am currently doing my master thesis on a project, which tries establish a geothermal well for an industrial site in Germany.
Two 2D seismic lines have been created with vibroseis trucks. The quality of the data turned out to be very bad. There are barely any coherent reflectors and the whole profile of ~12km length and approximately 6000m depth is a giant chaos of many small reflector parts which do not show any geological patterns or formations.
I am working with PETREL, which does not offer any free tutorials and I am trying to intepret the two seismic lines, which I have to balance and reconstruct with MOVE later on. I am very frustrated with the data and am not able to produce much with it, since I could basiclly draw anything in this seismic profile.
Do you have any idea how to improve seismic data in this stage or how to handle this data in a thesis? I am supposed to offere several interpretations and reconstructions.
Finding the seismic pressure is an important parameter to quantify the damages on structures during large earthquakes. Since soil force equilibrium in wedge approach can be used in site conditions there are no finite methods for laboratory experiments to study the seismic earth pressure behavior. A simple demonstration in this research area would help many students to understand its basic concept with good insight.
I am working on a large landslide in the Caucasus region as part of my PhD and after extensive field work I am building a numerical model of the slope in RS2/RS3. As earthquakes are an important factor in the region I also want to make a pseudo-static seismic analysis for a slope stability analysis. I have PGA values from my study site, but I am not sure how to determine the seismic factors from them.
Rocscience support is more or less refusing to offer meaningful help and just refering to their program documentation and tutorials, which are basically useless for this topic...
According to Eurocode 8 seismic factors to be used in geotechnical design according to Eurocode 7 are calculated as:
kh: horizontal seismic coefficient
kv: vertical seismic coefficient
a(gR): reference peak acceleration
γ(l): coefficient for importance of buildings
a(g): design peak acceleration a(g) = a(gR) * γ(l)
g: 9,81 m/s2
S: value of factor for ground type
r: value of factor for type of retaining structure (if existing)
Depending on the various factors you can end up at about 0.4-2.1 * PGA.
Hynes-Griffin & Franklin (1984) recommend using half of the PGA value.
Marcuson (1981) assumes correct values to be in the range of 0.33-0.5 * PGA.
How do you approach this problem? What references do you use? What are your experiences?
I am viewing seismic profiles on Petrel, but I would like to be able to interpret them whenever on a drawing software on my tablet. Is there a way to export segy as a jpg, tif or pdf?
Is there any public code to calculate the Evolutionary Power Spectrum Density of a non-stationary signal, such as seismic ground motion?
I'm working on the seismic reliability assessment of two Maillart's Bridges (Tavanasa and Salginatobel).
The mechanical characteristics of concrete and rebars are fondamental for the aim of this research. All suggestions are welcome.
Hello everybody, I'm PhD student, my currently studying using Potential field data and seismic data, due to that I tried many time to get cracked version of Oasis montaj 9.5 to map and model my data but unfortunately couldn't find it, the only version that available is 8.4.0 and doesn't work anymore in my PC
Please any help brothers 🙏
Hi every one
I have a question:
How can we understand a displacement measurement along the fault is Max, Min, or Average?
if a reverse fault has many branches in the fault zone and each branch is detectable in different sediments based on age.
when we draw a cross profile across the fault, the profile will show vertical displacement in different ages. (I believe that I should report it separately for each age.)
1. how should I report the displacement?
2. some times the exact termination of the fault is not clear, how can I figure out the vertical displacement is min?!! I know in terminations of the fault the amount of displacement reaches zero.
3. the min amount of displacement, in my idea should be equal to the last seismic event. is it true?
4. Is the max displacement is related to maximum displacement in one place in the same age or max of the sum of displacements that have taken place in different branches across a cross profile with different geologic ages?!!
5. I am not sure about the meaning of the average displacement if different displacement along a cross profile is detected, for several displacements that have happened in the sediments with same age, do we report the average of vertical displacements?
I would be glad if anyone may help me in this case.
I am doing psha analysis of a site in Indian peninsular region using R-crisis software. I have devided the site with various seismic zones. Maximum credible earthquake is 6.8. I have calculated a b value of each zone.
During PSHA analysis my site is located inside the one seismic zone, with lamda =0.12, beta 1.953, Mmin4.8, and Mmax 6.8. with PSHA with return period 10000 years, I am getting pga value nearly 0.48 to 0.58 g. Which is very high value for any stable continent. I think is I am getting that much high value because my site is located inside the source zone and made some gross mistake in defining the problem. (Source parameters are correct).
Kindly give your comments and suggestions.
In R-crisis software, in have define site location,
Source geometry as area source,
Attinuation relationship ( Pezeshek et.al. 2011, and Atkinson Boots 2006, ENA).
Depth of source 10km.
If other software is available kindly inform
I am working on 2D pre-stake marine seismic sections and I need to make Surface Related Multiples Elinmiantions (SRME) by using REVEAL. Unfortunately, this is the first time for me to deal with seismic processing and reveal. I finished the first five steps which are Importing a SEGY, Survey QC, Creating a project binning, Sorting to CMP, and Velocity Analysis.
Now I am trying to apply SRME flow and I started with SRMENearInsert but when I submit the flow an error appears every time. So I need someone who has experience in seismic processing to help me to solve this problem.
I attached some screenshots for a seismic section sorted to CMP, input and parameters for SRMENearInsert, and the error.
I need help on getting a research topic for my PhD dissertation, in the fields of seismics and earthquake geophysics. I will also appreciate suggestions in the field of hydrogeology.
Is it possible for seismic waves produced by impact cratering process to concentrate at the antipode in case of Earth?
Will those seismic waves be able to melt the rocks at antipode or to what extent they can create damage there?
Or in case of Moon can we expect above phenomenon as its diameter is less.
Your views and suggestions (any research regarding this) are welcome.
When I use the ruler tool on Petrel, it is displaying weird distance measurements. For instance, it is showing ~5 meters for my seismic profiles that are actually ~10 kilometers long. What could be causing this?
A single tunnel shows significantly greater responses under earthquakes in comparison to static condition. What is the reason behind this significant increment?
The nodal seismometer(ZLAND) with a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz is buried in a shallow hole and the upper of ZLAND is exposed to the air. The seismic signal is excited by manual hammering at a distance of 20 m. Can both air waves and seismic waves be collected by Zland?
I am simulating piled raft foundation subjected to seismic load (earthquake) in ABAQUS. I have modeled soil as solid elements and Mohr-Coulomb parameter. I want to know how can I apply geometric damping (silent boundary) to prevent the reflection of seismic waves?
I want to design a building with BRB. for modeling BRB in it I have two kinds of sections ("core brace" and "star seismic") when I use "star seismic" and define "Area of yielding core", after design, I found that the area that used, is about 4 times bigger than that I define. Do you have any idea about this problem?
for defining inelastic data for BRB, in the picture that I send, I do not know how should I fill it? and what does this parameter means?
thank you for your help
I've had measurements of seismic noise.
I've got Fourier amplitude spectra to get the natural period of soil.
what is the relationship between the natural frequency and the duration of recording of seismic noise?
Which is the best duration of seismic noise recording?
Can anyone please suggest a best opensource software for determining the seismicity parameters of a location for PSHA analysis.
Like N(Mo), b value, annual mean rate etc.
Can it be possible to find out seismic activity of a seismic zone through ZMAP tools.
I tried converting seismic SAC data into SAF using Geopsy, but the results were not satisfactory. Is there any other way to do that conversion from SAC to SAF?
Looking for a workflow, which will be used for the identification of stratigraphic features on 3D seismic data?
Data set : 3D seismic
Software to be used is Petrel
The seismic pounding in adjacent buildings is an important topic in PBSD. Suggestions are requested to numerically model the interaction between the two structures: With Contact Elements? With structural interface elements? With Springs? Thanks in advance for the suggestions.