Science topic

Seed Dispersal - Science topic

The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
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I'm planning to explore the avian seed dispersal and needed help in planning the research. I'm stuck with collection of bird feces from the floor (paved and unpaved) and the equipments required to collect the sample. Additionally, what is the maximum time limit to collect the poop sample after the roosting period to avoid collecting dry samples?
Note: I'm not considering to use mist nets to capture birds. I'm only focussing on collection of feces available directly on the ground.
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Thank you for your suggestions. I'm planning to divide my study site in 4 quadrants and set up 2 collection trays under 3 (minimum) trees to collect feces of birds.
However, I would like to know the minimum time required to keep the sample trays under the trees. Should I set up the trays a day before and collect the samples next day after morning roosting time. Complementary to it, I'm also going to take line transect approach to collect bird feces from the ground. Kindly let me know the best approach to collect the samples and how ro collect in a bedt manner to avoid contamination. Should the collected samples be fresh while collecting them!
Looking forward to the suggestions.
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Which sampling method/methodology is the best to enumerate fruit crop size of Lantana in lantana invaded area & non-invaded area of forest?
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Hello Sepu; Since invasiveness seems to be a key part of your study. Andrew points out the need to distinguish how the seeds are dispersed. Where I live, Birds eat the Lantana fruits. Do you know the germination rates of seeds that simply fell off the plant versus those that were animal-dispersed? That number will influence your "fruit crop size". Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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I am running a few questions questionnaire on seed dispersal of Pyracantha species. Would you please be part of my study. Thank you.
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narrowleaf firethorn: Pyracantha angustifolia (Rosales
narrowleaf firethorn, USDA PLANTS Symbol: PYAN U.S. Nativity: Exotic Habit: Shrub or Subshrub. Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) Schneid.
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Ants are important mediator for a number of plant species that (either rely on or not) their services as seed disperser. During a field trip, we have noticed a special phenomenon in which some ants picked up plant seeds only when they were positioned in the middle of the trail followed by the animals travelling on the forest floor; and seeds put outside the trial were generally ignored. This seed dispersal mode appears in contrast with active foraging by the workers. Are you aware of similar phenomena, what is the possible implication to plant regeneration and the different role of ants play please?
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The following link is also very useful: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/psyche/2012/951029/
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Hi,
is there any work pointing the benefits of producing seeds of different size be the same plant individual? I find a work of Poulsen et al (2014) J Ecol (attached) about the benefits of producing dimorphic seeds (hard and soft). I wonder if we know something about other traits? 
I do know that there is the trade-off between number of seeds produced and their size. But why seeds produced by one individual can vary so much? For example, in red oaks it can range from 1-5 g acorns produced by one tree. 
Any (good) papers on the subject?
thanks!
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Many reasons for a disparity between seed size and plant size have been suggested, and many aspects of plant development are thought to be related to seed size. Larger seeds are better able to support themselves initially, while smaller seeds have a better chance for dispersal over a wide area, helping at least some seedlings survive.
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Dear all,
How to obtain information on species-specific life history parameters for trees in tropical forests? The parameters of interest are longevity, sexual maturity, shade tolerance, seed dispersal distance, resprouting age and resprouting probability. Any help in this regard is greatly appreciated.
Thanks,
Subashree Kothandaraman
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Thanks for your suggestion Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman !
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WILD FRUITS - Who eats what? # An ecological study on wildlife of Southeast Asia We are looking for field observations on frugivorous interaction in which an animal feeds on a plant species, serving as potential seed disperser/predator to the plant seeds. Both the animal & plant names will be needed. Please contribute your knowledge or recommend to a friend who has field experience working with wildlife in Southeast Asia. Your help will be greatly appreciated! Questions and queries can be sent to randaiqq@gmail, or posted here.
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It was sloth bear (Melursus ursinus).
Thanks!
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In all six Zelkova tree species mature fruits fall with the entire twig, and the dried leaves that are still attached function as a parachute, carrying the fruits a few metres away from the parent tree (see attached pictures, first photo: twig of Zelkova serrata from Taiwan, second: dispersed twigs of Z. abelicea from Crete). 
Does anybody know other similar examples of such dispersal mechanisms in other trees/woody species?
For more images of fruits, and more details on the relict tree genus Zelkova see www.zelkova.ch and the publications available on this webpage.
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We have published new research paper on this topic (see the attachment).
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We know commonly found in seed coat at Asparagales and Asteraceae family
But, what is the role of Phytomelanin in the seed coat?
Is it only a protector?
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Phytomelanin plays an important role in the protection of the embryo and in the process of seed germination and thus is of physiological interest.
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Almost no information on seed fate has been reported for Asian pheasants (Phasianidae), although they certainly eat fruits and are attracted to fruit baits at camera traps. They are typically the largest birds in forest understories in the tropics and subtropics, unless hunted, so they are potentially significant in seed dispersal if seeds survive gut passage.
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Large seeds are more likely to survive.
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I am interested in how bird song differs on islands and adjoining mainland. Differences in bird song may be a pre-zygotic isolating mechanism and a factor leading to evolutionary differentiation. British islands and coastal areas can be quite windy. Can this be a problem for recording? I am a novice to this type of study so any advice would be appreciated.
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Hi.
In the last two years I'm using a TASCAM DR-05 sound recorder to record bird songs and calls. If the birds are close to my position, this is a good equipment and I can obtain good recordings, but it can be better using a directional microphone. I improve the quality of my recordings using Audacity program, as many people, but there are other programs to do this.
I hope my comments can be useful...
Best regards.
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How can we homemade measure the pH from a soil sample? I have two soil samples and I'm looking forward to knowing how can I measure the pH without technologies.
"pH is determined by measuring the hydrogen ion activity in an aqueous solution. A glass electrode, calibrated against a pH standard is used to do this. A sub-sample of soil is mixed with water or CaCl2 at a ratio of 1 part soil to 5 parts liquid and the pH of the suspension is measured after 1 hour shaking".
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@ Halley, you may very well measure your soil pH at home using pH strip by following the procedure: Dig for a Sample, Place 1 to 3 Teaspoons of Soil in a Clean Glass, Pour in Distilled Water, Agitate the Soil Vigorously by Stirring or Swirling, Pour Soil Sample Through a Coffee Filter and Into Another Clean Glass, Dip the pH Test Strip into the Liquid, Note the pH from colour change. You may also use pH tester if you have. Accuracy will depend on the range they cover, the number of colored spots, and the general quality of the product. Because the important pH range for soil is between 5.0 and 8.0, test strips covering this range are better than ones covering a wider range. A product with a range of 0.0 to 14.0 is quite useless for soil.
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I'm wondering which is better for cell seeding, dispersing them into single cells or cell clusters. I thought single cells was better since cells would in this case have a more uniform growth condition (like equal access to nutrients) and each cell would have equally adequate room to proliferate (expecially when the surface gradually gets crowded). Yet as I observed, cells seeded as clusters seem to grow better, being larger and polygonal.
Is it just coincidence and it doesn't really matter, or is there a better option? Thanks in advance for your insight!
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It may be grown in single seed
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Hello!
I am designing an experiment to test mimetic seed dispersal by frugivorous birds in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
We are planning present a number of seeds, still on their branches, to the birds. We either want to stick the branches through small holes in a platform (into a bowl of water?), or use clamps to display them.
The study site is a very windy place, so we are concerned that a) the seeds will fly away and b) the motion sensitive cameras will react to the branches moving in the background. Placing the cameras at the top would possibly solve that issue, unless the cafeterias are hanging up and moved by the wind themselves.
Are there any other, more suitable ways to build a cafeteria? Should we have perches for the birds?
Any tips are welcome!
Thank you.
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Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman, thank you! Would it be unnatural for a frugivorous bird, though, to be feeding of a flat food trap? Will a perch make it more natural?
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We have set various in situ experiments with epiphytic orchids seeds. We put fresh orchid seeds inside nylon mesh packets (ca. 1000 seeds per packet) along with a bit of moss (to improve moisture), and then located those packets on tree branches close to mother plants. After 1 year, we retrieved the packets and open them to locate germinating seeds, but moss and lichens have grown inside of the packets, plus there is a large accumulation of detritus and dirt, so it has been very difficult to locate the seeds (only finding <5%). We don't expect mortality/decomposition rates to eliminate 95% of seeds.
Do you have a recommendation on how to locate those seeds?
We have tried the following:
1) series of washes and filters to remove bigger pieces of moss and lichens
2) washes and low centrifugation
3) centrifugation with filters
4) dilution of centrifuged materiales in several petri dishes.
We wish to use a method that wont damage the putative fungi growing in the germinating seeds / protocorms.
Thank you!
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Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a ...
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Hi all dear professores
as you see all sepals have been changed to large leafs. Please notice that these symptoms just have seen on 3 bushes. What is your idea about this problem?
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symptoms of phytoplasma
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I am planning to do research on seed dispersal by Himalayan serow (Capricornis thar), Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral) and Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) in Nepal. But I don’t have any reference to support the plants depend for seed dispersal on the Himalayan serow (Capricornis thar) and Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral). Does anyone know of any references that might be relevant to this?
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Thank you Richard for information.
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In many parts of the world, such as southern China where I live, the family Cucurbitaceae accounts for many of the largest wild fruits. Large fruits are usually targeted at mammals and fruits > 4 cm diameter are often eaten mostly by megaherbivores such as elephants. However, the large cucurbitaceous fruits are often soft and sometimes red: neither of which are expected for fruits targeted at dichromat megaherbivores. Does anyone have records of seed dispersal for these fruits in China or elsewhere?
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We performed a greenhouse experiment to assess seed dispersal of seven large mammals in northeastern Iran. Citrullus vulgaris (Cucurbitaceae) emerged from wild boar dung. For more information please see: Karimi S, Hemami M-R, Esfahani MT, Akhani H, Baltzinger C (2018). Complementary endozoochorous seed dispersal by large mammals in the Golestan National Park, Iran. Seed Science Research 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960258518000351
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I have completed the investigation of the age of the regenerated seedlings of Pinus tabulaeformis, so I have known the distribution of the regenerated seedlings of Pinus tabulaeformis in the sample plot (within 9 years). How can I determine the distribution status of the regenerated seedlings of each Pinus tabulaeformis and the longest distance of seed diffusion?
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Thank you for your reply, and I think you are right.
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The 70 or so species of wild bananas in the genus Musa have small, banana-shaped fruits of various colors, full of hard black seeds. Although small compared with cultivated bananas, the ones I have seen have been 5-10 cm long, with a thick peel. In Xishuangbanna, SW China, the seeds are dispersed largely by 50-gram fruit bats, which carry them off to a feeding roost < 200 m away for processing and only swallow the pulp (Meng et al. 2012 Integrative Zoology 2012; 7: 30–40). Birds also peck out bits from ripe fruits. The Australian species are reportedly eaten by feral pigs. Does anyone know what disperses other species?
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I'm analysing seed dispersal distances for birds that either experience high human interaction (i.e. spend time at campsites) or are more remote. I therefore have to define which birds have high human interaction, and which are remote. I am currently defining birds that have a minimum of 30% of their GPS waypoints at the campsite as birds that have high human interaction, which makes ecological sense to me, but I don't have any references to support that measure so it sounds a bit arbitrary. Does anyone know of any references that might be relevant to this?
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I dont think you should chose an arbitrary percentage. I have always examined the utilisation distributions to determine if a home range is "fully revealed"..... plenty of references on this.
Cheers
Colin
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I want to understand how some tree species can pottentially colonize one habitat based on their dispersal related traits. I predict that species with a higher dispersal ability should be favoured in arriving (and to some extent, colonizing) at a geologically recent habitat. I´ve searched some papers on seed dispersal distances, but it seems that at least three atributes can influence this pattern (namely: tree maximum height, seed mass and dispersal syndrome). However, I didn´t find any reference that combined those attributes into a single index. Thus, I want to know if it is straightforward and how to summarize those three atributes (or others) into a single index called something like "seed dispersal potential". It should be done with the aim to order species from the more to the least dispersal limited. Can someone help me with an opinion or literature, please?
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It's an excellent question. It will depend on how accurate you need to be for individual species, since idiosyncrasies that don't fit into any simple model are near universal in biology, but for a general prediction your three traits - tree maximum height, seed mass and dispersal syndrome - are probably the best, and in that order of importance. Investment in dispersal structures could be added to that list. There will also be a biogeographical component, e.g. megafaunal fruits disperse really well when there is an extant megafauna, but little or not at all without. I therefore doubt that there is any universal formula for combining traits into an index. You need to develop and calibrate one locally.
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Pheidologeton diversus ants and, I presume, other species in the genus, often carry seeds of many types along their trails and columns. Some of these seeds are quite large (< 20 mg, possibly more). The columns can be 10s of meters long. What happens to these seeds in the end? Are they eaten? buried? discarded where they can germinate? If they don't eat them, why do they carry them?
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The answer to your question in short is yes. Please have a look at this link.
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Mountain birch is growing at higher elevations. Seedlings appear far above the present treeline. The expansion does not seem to be dispersal limited (by seed dispersal). Do you know a study that eventually confirm that the expansion is limited by lack of seed dispersal?
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Agree Andrew, but I meet the argument frequently. So I wondered if it has been shown in any studies?
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I'm looking for studies that have compared the reproductive strategies/life history traits (e.g. R_0, iteroparity, age of sexual maturity, etc) of plants that have seeds dispersed by wind vs animals. Thanks!
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If it has been done, it would have been for genera with both wind- and animal-dispersed species, like pines. The transition from wind to fleshy fruits, in contrast, seems to be 'too difficult' to occur within a genus, so you would end up comparing very different plants rather than sister species or genera. You would then need to do it across the whole plant phylogeny to get enough power to detect anything. This has been done for rates of diversification but not, as far as I know, the parameters you are interested in. Please do it and let us know what you find out! Richard
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I need a metric that is not sensitive to species richness;
Able to respond to a range of 12 traits (leaf, stem, seed and dispersion) in a topographical gradient in a dry forest.
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1) How does the forest rodents influence the natural regeneration of the pine-oak mixed forests?
2) Does forest rodent-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the forest development?
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Rodents (and other small mammals and birds) have definitely an important role in forest regeneration. You should also link your research to masting (abundant fruition episodes) because there is a great variability in rodents' behaviour (and of course its effects) in respect to these events.
You should check on:
Ostfeld, R. S., Jones, C. G., and Wolff, J. O. (1996). Of mice and mast. BioScience, 46(5), 323-330.
Clotfelter, E. D., Pedersen, A. B., Cranford, J. A., Ram, N., Snajdr, E. A., Nolan, V., and Ketterson, E. D. (2007). Acorn mast drives long-term dynamics of rodent and songbird populations. Oecologia, 154(3), 493-503.
McShea, W. J. (2000). The influence of acorn crops on annual variation in rodent and bird populations. Ecology, 81(1), 228-238.
Zwolak, R., Bogdziewicz, M., and Rychlik, L. (2016). Beech masting modifies the response of rodents to forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 359, 268-276.
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I have monitored dates of leaf-out over a woodland in northeast England, and have noticed substantial variation with some tree species. Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) composes one of the selected plots, where 20 trees (all Sycamore) were assessed, and dates of leaf-out differed by over one month within this plot. Because these 20 individuals (same species, uneven age) grow in very close proximity (<20 m), it would be reasonable to assume that they experience the same site-specific factors (precipitation, soil conditions and microclimate).
I guess that hereditary influences and uneven ages (even though age was unknown, there was no significant correlation between leaf-out dates and diameter/height) could explain such large variability in dates of leaf-out within such small spatial scale. I wonder which others factors could explain this variability.
Any comment and/or literature on this topic would be much appreciated.
Amendment:
The 20 trees within the sample plot had similar heights (20.5 m (±1.2), therefore I can say that they are in the same strata, or sociological position), but with more variable diameters (27.4 cm (±5.1)). The understorey was composed of short grasses (a few patches of Sycamore regeneration occurred, but were not taken into account). Also, the trees occur in relatively low density.
It is a clear plot, that is, composed of grasses and approximately same height tall trees. Therefore, I observed the phenology of the upper canopy only. 
I have attached two images of the Sycamore plot, which can give you a better idea of the plot (tagged trees).
I observed the tree canopy as whole and assigned a single phenological code per tree per day (e.g. 10% of leaf-out), following the codes proposed by Schwartz et al (2013).
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Soil substrate features, vascular connection between above ground plant portion to under ground root system, variation in microclimate with regard to orientation 9f slope side to sun orientation, many factors candidly contribute to such variation..
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Anyone have references about who preys on the fruits of Magnolia grandifolia?
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Angel:
Have a look at this link (p.196) for the animals feeding on fruits of M. grandifolia:
Best
Syed
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In America, there are hummingbirds that polluante flowers of Eleanthus.
And the Sobralia ?
Thank for any indication!
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Dear collegues,
Thank-you so much. It's great pleasure for your valuable comments.
Yours sincerely,
Marpha
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There are some mammals that move away from their social group or their family and could it be a genetic trait that triggers this dispersal? 
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Thank you, Mr, Hassan! 
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Considering the high attractivity of aromatic baits used to capture euglossine bees, which may lure insects from long distances, I am looking for positive or negative evidence of this sampling method on euglossine populations. Specifically, which chemicals are more attractive and what distance do they act? Should there be a limit to the periodicity of sampling in order not to reduce bee populations?
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Males are quickly attracted to synthetic bait traps that stimulate floral fragrances primarily due to the fact that these are also the floral fragrances that female bees release in order to attract the males. A study conducted on Euglossine bee communities in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil used aromatic traps that contained contained methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1158 males were collected, verifying the fact that aromatic baits are very effective and allow for a faster specimen collection. Aromatic baits, however, can also pose problematic effects since during mating season, male bees may go for the bait traps instead of going for the females thus hindering reproduction. 
This information was taken from the attached links. You may refer to them to further help you with your study.
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Does anyone know of a database like Animal Diversity for phenotypic characteristics?
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I'm not sure what you're asking. Is it an evolutionary based question? 
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I am currently working on a research paper about seed-dispersal mutualisms (specifically of ants and certain plant species) as a possible means of rainforest reforestation.
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I mean, there are natural die back of forest patches in undisturbed natural forests with unknown reasons.  SO what is the reason?
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I was once told that "trees die for many reasons". See the following (and references therein and citations thereof):
Mueller-Dombois, D. 1987. Natural Dieback in Forests. BioScience
37 (8, Tree Death: Cause and Consequence): 575-58.
Mueller-Dombois, D. 1985. 'Ohi'a dieback in Hawaii: 1984 synthesis and evaluation. Pacific Science 39:150-170.
Mueller-Dombois, D. et al. 1983. Tree-group death in North American and Hawaiian forests: a pathological problem or a new problem for vegetation ecology? Phytocoenologia 11:117-137
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I am looking for Reconyx HC600-like, infrared and movement triggered camera traps (weather proof) that record video. The idea is to set them up at focal plants to observe/record frugivory events. Has anyone tried particular models with success in the field?
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Oliwia,
I am trying to research feeding of berries on frangula alnus using camera traps. I used browning strike force elite trail camera. Got some video of robins at 6ft distance from tree crown but I suspect videos of robin were incidental to other trigger events eg wind triggering branch movement. This has had big implications for my research.
Whatever model you purchase it would be worthwhile testing it at feeding stations that attract robins or other similar sized birds at different distances . Same goes for any species of interest eg if its a mammal try testing with permission at a pet farm that may have it.  I am now testing for detection rate using this method post field work. It would have been better if I had done it before hand but circumstances didn't allow. Sometimes you only know about pitfalls after you spend time and money on equipment and effort.
Also you should be aware that my 'incidental' footage shows robins flying into frame and picking berries on the wing and flying out of frame in less than 2 secs. The time in and out of a field of view that the robin enters may (depending on the activity) be too short  for your trail camera to capture video or photos. Your photo that is blank may have just missed the action or activity by the robin. This could be the case especially if you need to be close to the species for the camera to detect it which will mean a small field of view.
Also you may like to  search for the following useful papers. the first two are particularly useful I think.
 "Identifying Performance Differences Among Trail Cameras Used to Monitor Forest Mammals" and
"Wildlife camera trapping: a review and recommendations for linking surveys to ecological processes"
and
Management and Analysis of Camera Trap Data: Alternative Approaches
and
An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data
and
Random versus Game Trail-Based Camera
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There are some environmental factors in habitat such as several soil properties and topography, then what is the appopriate analysis methos to compress it become several habitat types?
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Please check these attached articles also.
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I'm looking for studies that have used large amounts of genomic data to separate and delimit likely cryptic species. I would love to hear from anyone who has done this or is familiar with the literature.
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I don't have experience in cryptic species, but separate species can share large regions of genetic code, for example, colour patterning in butterflies. Conversely, almost all of the DNA letters that separate species may be found on a tiny portion of a single chromosome, for example in crow species. So you may not need large amounts of genomic data :-) 
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I am thinking about a remote sensing project, where I could use the vegetation data, especially grassland data, as ground truth. For that I would need the spatial location of the vegetation assassment. I searched a bit, but only found the Countryside survey, where the coordinates of the plots apparently are not easily available. I would be greatful if someone could help me with some links where I could find this kind of data. Thanks in advance,
Nadine
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I think this is going to be a two-step process.  First search through the Research Gate PUBLICATIONS for the five kinds of native UK grasslands like at https://www.researchgate.net/search.Search.html?query=england%20chalk%20grassland&type=publication
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suppose any plant ,tree or animal's picture along with its descriptive information and picture.
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Please check these useful PDF attachments.
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Hello community
Is there any tools to measure pollen's dispersion radius in species with different  "Pollination mechanisms"?
Specifically in entomophily and aneophily species
Thanks in advance
Regards
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Sure, Thank for your information, I'll read your paper
Regards :) 
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We are adding seed traps to our CTFS forest plot at Ngel Nyaki, Nigeria. However a predator free trap is difficult to make, we know rats and lizards can get into most traps. 
Ideas for the best design would be appreciated. Thanks.
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You need to experiment. Add edible seeds to your traps and use camera-traps to identify who removes them. Most researchers in the Neotropics seem to use open traps and apparently don't lose many seeds to seed predators. In tropical Asia, in contrast, murid rats can climb even plastic supports and selectively remove preferred seeds, so you need either very frequent emptying of traps, or some form of rat excluder. In Hong Kong, where we had no very large seeds, we used a 1.5 X 1.5 cm wire mesh, which worked fine. We tested it with peanuts and sunflower seeds placed in traps. However, a mesh this size might exclude some larger seeds and wind-dispersed fruits, so you need to experiment yourself and see what works locally. But don't follow Neotropical practices without trials: they don't have murid rodents! Seed traps in Asian tropical forests also have problems with macaques, which are too intelligent and strong to exclude in any practical trap design, so you just have to make allowances. And elephants don't like any form of construction in their habitat....
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I am measuring terminal velocity of Composite seeds in a closed chamber (assumed to be steady air).
The falling seeds have some slight lateral movement, generating a slight velocity in the horizontal direction. However, of course, the vertical velocity is highly associated and very similar to the overall velocity. Therefore, when measuring the terminal velocity of a seed, should I use the overall velocity (combining both vertical and lateral movement) or just the velocity in the vertical direction?
I have not found any paper clearly mentions the direction of velocity or discusses this point. Any recommendation?
In my opinion, the lateral movement of falling seeds in a closed chamber is caused by seed spinning or air fluctuation in the chamber, or both. If the reason is the former one (seed spinning), I might think using overall velocity would be more reasonable since it describes the overall behaviours of a falling seed. However, there seems to be few ways to separate these two effects. Any comments on this unexpected lateral movement?
Many thanks!
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I will also suggest the same as recommended by Mr. Pegman. Even I have also performed the same experiment in some other family and also by consulting the previous literature. The lateral movements is due to the pressure of accessory structures which is a natural phenomenon which facilitates their dispersal abilities. My suggestion is to place a white sheet of cloth on the ground surface and make quadrants  (I,II,III & IV) on it with center of origin coinciding exact with the point of release. when the seed is dropped from certain height, it will landed somewhere on the sheet. Now, measure the distance from center of quadrant to the point where seed is actually landed with the help of a simple foot rule (scale). Thereby, you will be able to calculate even the lateral displacement of the fallen seeds. 
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I've collected data showing presence/abscence of conspecific and heterospecific seed species under the canopies of 5 large-fruited tree species in 3 regions, in order to evaluate seed dispersal effectiveness. How should I analyse the data?  Thank you for your responses :-)
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Dear Andrew
There are several papers that have addressed seed dispersal effectiveness. You can look at Muller-Landau's work to start. Also, I have formulated some calculations of relative seed effectiveness that you might find useful. You can find these in: Seed to seedling transitions in successional habitats across a tropical landscape, which can be find on my profile. I hope it is useful. 
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I have tried to find out in the literature how C. colocynthis disperses its seeds but it does not seem a popular topic. I found information about seed dormence and germination but the natural dispersion of seeds still remain unclear for me.
Are the fruits eaten by animals and consequently dispersed by zoochory? Are the dry fruits simply carried by the wind?
Could someone help me with personal experience or some literature which I have not been able to find out?
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Not sure about animals (which ones ? come on guys !) and likely not much  ... except the gazelles / Oryx (very few left ...) eating the dry fruits when nothing else is left in arid zones of North Africa and the Middle-East to Mongolia  ... but most of the Citrullus colocynthis grow in wadi and depressions ...hence seeds are often carried away by running water during winter - Mediterranean winter >>>> also , during parching summer, the light dry fruits are rolling far away with the strong desert and steppe winds ........my experience in these parts of the World !
Rgds
Gus 
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I am looking to collaborate with a project that involve topics in my study field as mammal ecology, camera traps, management, invasive species, ecosystem restoration and conservation. I have a few weeks in May 2017 and I am open to collaborate in any country of southeast Asia.
Thank you.
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Hello Sebastian,
I am a marine mammal researcher based in the University of St. La Salle in Negros Island, Philippines and a friend of Dr. Liao. I've been involved in some terrestrial fauna research as well, and I have colleagues working for a foundation involved in terrestrial fauna conservation. Unfortunately our website has little information as of the moment, but you can e-mail me at makoy28_delapaz@yahoo.com.  
Regards,
Manuel
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In Van Der Pijl´s book on "Principles of dispersal in higher plants", he mentions this book which must be of considerable historical significance:
Holmberger 1785 Theory on the dispersal of plants over the world
Does anyone know the full reference for this book, the original language and where it is available? I can find no reference to it elsewhere
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That is fascinating. I would like to know more about this book!
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I am working on long-distance seed dispersal of grey sallow willow, focusing on seeds that are uplifted above the canopy and then may travel very long distances.
I would like to put some seed traps above the canopy level (around 6m) to measure how many seeds are uplifted. However I am not sure how to do this. I am thinking about using a funnel seed trap as outlined in Cottrell 2004 (linked), but extending the pipe to 6m and perhaps keeping it upright by tying to trees in the surrounding area, but I'm not sure this is a viable idea as I have no prior experience in seed traps at all.
Any guidance/experience in this area much appreciated!
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6% of even the source area may be huge!  Basically, as many traps as you can get/make.  As for direction, do you have anything like a prevailing wind direction?
If you can, do a trial first to work out trapping rates and differences among directions...
Mike
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I am struggling for quite some time with an analysis of patchiness of animal dispersed seeds. I have a simulation model in which monkeys disperse seeds.
In the sensitivity analysis I want to quantify (compare) how the seed shadow changes its patchiness in varying certain simulation parameter.
What method should I use?
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I think you should search for scholarly articles about the analysis and comparison of anisotropic or contagious seed dispersal distributions.
Andrew :-)
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I´m very interested find response variables to associate functional traits of frugivorous birds in a process of seed dispersal effectiveness.
Any suggestions or help will be welcome.
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You must first define Seed Dispersal Effectiveness in your study because there are many definitions (see above pdfs). It is easy to associate fruit traits with certain frugivores, but I think it is harder to extend this to SDE. But you can measure things like flight distances, gut passage time of seeds, perching time, etc. These factors will differ among frugivores and can be used to calculate SDE. 
Andrew :-)
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Hello dear fellows! 
Could you be so kind of sharing good sources from where to find frugivory (seed dispersal) interactions between palms and (any) seed dispersers in Africa. My current best knowledge comes from Zona and Henderson 1989 (and its update in 2006). I know there most be more recorded interactions, specially for those French and Portoguese influence countries in Africa. 
Thanks in advance! 
Kind Regards. 
Gabriel 
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Hey Andrew, By now I figure it out a procedure to extract the interaction data I needed!. I also used that article for my database.  Thanks! :) 
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I'm trying to fit a dispersal kernel using CMR data from small mammals, to parameterize a Cellular Automaton (CA) designed to model range shifts driven by environmental change. This CA have annual steps, so I need a dispersal kernel standarized to 1 year dispersal events. Does anybody knows how to fit such dispersal kernel using data of dispersal events experienced in just a couple days (no more than one month)? 
if someone can share a R script, it would be great,
Thank you so much!
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My latest paper fits seed dispersal distributions occurring over two weeks (or less) to Weibull curves: see DOI: 10.1111/ecog.02191 – it will be online in Ecography very soon. And available from me on this site soon.
Andrew :-)
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I‘ d like to comfirm the seed depostion site by frugivorous birds. Does anyone have good suggestions to collect the faeces dropped by birds? Seed traps?’
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Seed traps or collectors are a great way to sample seeds dispersed by animals. You may want to combine this sampling with more directed ways by using line transects and looking for freshly-dispersed seeds in scats directly on the ground. This may prove useful with rare species or when the activity of birds is limited. Typically when you set seed traps you get a very high number of them not sampling any seeds. Also seed traps do not perform very well for sampling open ground or on rocky surfaces.
There are many different types of seed traps you may try; which one to use depends on habitat, vegetation physiognomy etc. The best advice I can give to you is protect the content of the trap from seed predators, i.e., by using a mesh wire to cover the tray you are using to collect the seeds. Here you have some references that might be helpful:
- Burrows, C. (1987) Seed Trapping in Lowland Forest. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 10, 167–167.
- Burrows, C.J. (1994) Seed Trapping in Ahuriri-Summit-Bush-Scenic-Reserve, Port-Hills, Western Banks Peninsula, 1985-86. New Zealand Journal Of Botany, 32, 183–215.
- Erschbamer, B., Kneringer, E. & Schlag, R.N. (2001) Seed rain, soil seed bank, seedling recruitment, and survival of seedlings on a glacier foreland in the Central Alps. Flora, 196, 304–312.
- Garcia, C., Jordano, P., Arroyo, J.M. & Godoy, J.A. (2009) Maternal genetic correlations in the seed rain: effects of frugivore activity in heterogeneous landscapes. Journal of Ecology, 97, 1424–1435.
- Johnson, C.K. & West, N.E. (1988) Laboratory Comparisons of 5 Seed-Trap Designs for Dry, Windy Environments. Canadian Journal Of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique, 66, 346–348.
- Jones, J.R. (1967) A Modification of 1-Foot-Square Wire Seed Trap. Journal of Forestry, 65, 490–&.
- Kollmann, J. & Goetze, D. (1997) Notes on seed traps in terrestrial plant communities. Flora, 192, 1–10.
- Larsson, E.L. & Molau, U. (2001) Snowbeds trapping seed rain - a comparison of methods. Nordic Journal of Botany, 21, 385–392.
- Middleton, B.A. (1995) Sampling Devices for the Measurement of Seed Rain and Hydrochory in Rivers. Bulletin Of The Torrey Botanical Club, 122, 152–155.
- Page, M.J., Newlands, L. & Eales, J. (2002) Effectiveness of three seed-trap designs. Australian Journal Of Botany, 50, 587–594.
- Pielaat, A., Lewis, M.A., Lele, S. & de-Camino-Beck, T. (2006) Sequential sampling designs for catching the tail of dispersal kernels. Ecological Modelling, 190, 205–222.
- Robledo-Arnuncio, J.J. & Garcia, C. (2007) Estimation of the seed dispersal kernel from exact identification of source plants. Molecular Ecology, 16, 5098–5109.
- Schott, G.W. (1995) A Seed Trap for Monitoring the Seed Rain in Terrestrial Communities. Canadian Journal Of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique, 73, 794–796.
- Skarpaas, O., Shea, K. & Bullock, J. (2005) Optimizing dispersal study design by Monte Carlo simulation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 731–739.
- Stevenson, P.R. & Vargas, I.N. (2008) Sample size and appropriate design of fruit and seed traps in tropical forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 24.
- Werner, P.A. (1975) Seed Trap for Determining Patterns of Seed Deposition in Terrestrial Plants. Canadian Journal Of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique, 53, 810–813.
- Wolters, M., Geertsema, J., Chang, E.R., Veeneklaas, R.M., Carey, P.D. & Bakker, J.P. (2004) Astroturf seed traps for studying hydrochory. Functional Ecology, 18, 141–147.
Good luck with your projects!!!
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This plant (presumably ornamental) is dispersed by songbirds when they make their nests in urban areas in southern Spain. It is interesting to identify it as there are few documented cases of this kind of dispersal.
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Looks like Sedum mucizonia to me. Since the plants are not grown in full sun, they are slightly different from the normal appearance.
Best Regards
Sascha
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I should like to know for my master study if does it exist independence of the sampling units (plots) spaced between 1 km for large and medium-sized terrestrial mammals seed dispersers in tropical forests?
because as they have large home range (species like Tapirus terrestris, Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari) some researchers could think that for this it could exist (spatial) pseudo-replication between plots. 
Please, I would appreciate if anybody can answer this and specially if anybody could tell me references (literature) about this.
Thank you.
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Depende de su pregunta, si usted quiere evaluar por ejemplo la máxima distancia de dispersión que un tapir puede producir, claramente no lo será.
Si usted necesita conocer el patrón espacial de la distribución de semillas de una especie vegetal 1 km está bien pero es importante el tamaño de cada plot.
Ahora, si usted tiene posibilidad de hacer plots mucho más alejados hágalos, pero no siempre es posible y deberá tenerlo en cuenta a la hora de plantear sus conclusiones
Suerte!
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In a tropical island that has experienced a consequent extinction of their avifauna in the past, how can we evaluate whether an exotic bird which is already present on the island, can act as an analogue species and fulfil the niche of seed dispersal?
How to evaluate the pros and cons of implementing the system of analogue species given that the bird also disperses invasive exotic seeds and competes with native birds?
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Make sure you see the long 2015 paper on trophic rewilding.  Go to the url below and then do an internal search for "seed".  At least this will give you the state of the discussion, including the tortoise analog for dodo on Mauritius. But your particular question sounds fraught with an order of magnitude more tradeoffs: very difficult.
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Suppose I have the dispersal kernel (frequency distribution of individuals across space after a dispersal event i.e. x-axis: distances from a common origin (binned) and y-axis: frequency of individuals present at the corresponding distance-bin) for two populations of one species. How can these two kernels be compared quantitatively and inferred whether they are statistically same or different?
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Dear Sudipta,
As Hein Van Gils suggested, I believe spatial metrics are a good way to understand not only quantitatively but qualitatively how the distributions are different/similar.
Measures of overlap between kernels are a nice option, since you can measure how much one distribution looks like the other.There are different ways of calculating kernel overlap: calculating the area/length (for 2D/1D kernels) of a given threshold (e.g., 95% kernel) that overlaps betwenn two distributions; calculating the volume/area that overlaps, etc.
A good review for that, in the context of animal movement (but it may be thought for other kinds of data), is the paper by Fieberg and Kochanny 2005:
Also, if you are working with kernels in R, there is a good package that has already operationalized the calculations of kernel overlap: package adehabitatHR, function kerneloverlap(). Take a look here:
or here:
Best,
Bernardo
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I hope to conduct a directed dispersal study of the remnant population of Chinese yew.
I am particularly focused on the habitat selection of frugivorous birds after they foraged seeds. 
Is there anyone with experience for combining habitat selection by birds and directed dispersal?
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There is abundant published research on that general topic, both empirical and theoretical. Just as some examples that could serve as introduction to previously used methods and theoretical frameworks:
Russo, Sabrina E., Stephen Portnoy, and Carol K. Augspurger. Incorporating animal behavior into seed dispersal models: implications for seed shadows. Ecology 87.12 (2006): 3160-3174.
Herrera, Jose M., Juan M. Morales, and Daniel García. Differential effects of fruit availability and habitat cover for frugivore‐mediated seed dispersal in a heterogeneous landscape. Journal of Ecology 99.5 (2011): 1100-1107.
Spiegel, O. and Nathan, R. (2012), Empirical evaluation of directed dispersal and density-dependent effects across successive recruitment phases. Journal of Ecology, 100: 392–404.
Aukema, Juliann E., and Carlos Martínez del Rio. "Where does a fruit-eating bird deposit mistletoe seeds? Seed deposition patterns and an experiment." Ecology 83.12 (2002): 3489-3496.
Santamaría L, Rodríguez-Pérez J, Larrinaga AR, Pias B: Predicting spatial
patterns of plant recruitment using animal-displacement kernels.
PLoS One 2007, 2:e1008.
Schupp, Eugene W., Pedro Jordano, and José María Gómez. Seed dispersal effectiveness revisited: a conceptual review. New Phytologist 188.2 (2010): 333-353.
Rodríguez-Pérez J, Wiegand T, Santamaría L: Frugivore behavior
determines plant distribution: a spatially explicit analysis of a
plant-disperser interaction. Ecography 2012, 35:113–123.
Morales JM, Carlo TA: The effects of plant distribution and frugivore
density on the scale and shape of dispersal kernels. Ecology 2006,
87:1489–1496.
Russo SE, Portnoy S, Augspurger CK: Incorporating animal behavior into
seed dispersal models: implications for seed shadows. Ecology 2006,
87:3160–3174.
Robledo-Arnuncio JJ, Klein EK, Muller-Landau HC, Santamaría L (2014) Space, time and complexity in plant dispersal ecology. Movement Ecology 2:16. (see section 2 in particular)
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I am trying to compare the dispersal effectiveness of Chinese yew between different geographical regions. 
I have collected the seeds foraged by birds and their post-foraging perching behaviors at each region.
Does anybody have any good suggestions for comparing dispersal effectiveness?
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Pactli makes an excellent point, that quantity and quality are two different properties that should be assessed differently. 
I would not use ANOVA for assessing quality (rate of germination) because we are dealing with an underlying binary variable (a seed did or did not germinate) which implies a binomial distribution, making a generalized linear model with a binomial distribution and logit link function more appropriate.  Some logistic regression procedures can handle anova-type variables (i.e., categorical variables, also called class variables, or dummy variables - region would be such a variable).  Under some situations the binomial approaches the normal distribution, but you cannot assume that the normal is a good substitute for the binomial without checking.
I would add a possible third variable to quantity and quality, and that is the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds.  These distributions are often exponential (decreasing exponential) out from the mother plant. With bird dispersal, however, more likely the seeds are dispersed in clusters around perching trees, perhaps with an exponential decline in density between perching trees as you get further away from the mother plant.
Norma Fowler
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I want to evaluate the dispersal and recruitment of Davidia involucrata. Could anybody give me a good tip?
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Dear Li,
Check if these resources are OK.
2. Effects of life-history components on population dynamics of the rare endangered plant Davidia involucrata (http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=26633)
Google more and I am sure you will get more information
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Are there set basis for the developmental stages of poricidal anthers? What anatomic or morphologic structures should I use as landmark? I am studying Medinilla species of the Family Melastomataceae.
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Dear Almeera, 
I found in "Comparative embryology of flowering plants", Leningrad, 1985, for Medinilla mannii  one layed anther wall at maturity, with exothecium only (it have thick walls), without endothecium, (p.94, fig. 5), no fibrous thickening, tapetum is secretory, one-nuclear, middle layers ephemeral. Before opening, two camera of a theca unite (for all species). If it will be useful for you, I can make a copy from a book pages with citations, studied species and figure.
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The place where am doing research the area of non-weeded is very small compared to weeded area (by how much I don't know). I would like to know how I can distribute seed traps in both areas for comparison.
For example if I have 30 seed traps how many should be in non-weeded and weeded areas.
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Dear Sheik.
If you are interested in the seed rain per tree you would not need to take trap density into account. You would just use a trap under each tree and refer to the seed-rain per tree. In that case you should include tree crown size as a covariate.
However, I would say, that still the most interesting question is related to the seed rain per area unit due to the following facts:
* When working with seed dispersal the usual interest is in the number of seeds dispersed per each seed producing tree (not to be estimtated by traps).
* Appart from that the number of seeds deposited on an area seems to be ecologically more relevant than the seeds deposited under individual trees. But again, that may not hold in your case, depending on the background and context of your research.
Anyway, I would say what you present as an objective is not the ultimate objective, but rather what you intend to do. The most important question (fundamental when designing your study) is what you want to do that for...the underlying question.
In general, and without that detail, and given the weeded area is unknown, I would chose one plot at each of the habitat types. You have to be specially carefull to ensure that both plots have the same size and are in the core area of both patches (to avoid edge effects, which would be greater in the un-weeded area). You would then install an equal number of traps at both plots, each one under a randomly selected tree.
The most direct and correct response variable would be number of seed per trap. Given the design you don't need to calculate the number per ha to compare both plots. 
With that simple desing you could use a simple GLM to compare both plots, where each trap is a replicate and plot (type of patch; weeded vs un-weeded) is a fixed factor. It would be similar to a t-test, but using a Poison distribution instead of a normal distribution (with a log link-function). An alternative is to use a Kolmogorov-Smirnov or a Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test, but probably GLM is more powerful.
These statistical test will tell you if there is any difference between both plots. If there is any difference you would calculate a mean density of seeds per ha for each plot, otherwise you would pool both plots to calculate a unique density of seeds.
However, beware of the lack of replicates for the treatment. Your work will only tell you about the difference among those particular plots...not about weeded and un-weeded patches in general. You would need additional weeded and un-weeded areas to obtain such a general result.
Best regards,
       Asier
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I'm searching for websites for seed traits. I know the LEDA database and other european sites, but i need information about North American and Asian wild plants. Mostly Cyperaceae. Thank you! 
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See also:
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and, Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, 2nd Edition
by Carol C. Baskin and Jerry M. Baskin
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When i studied seed dispersal of Taxus chinensis, i found lots of seeds was dispersed in the night by mammal. Does anybody have suggestions for measuring seed dispersal in the night? Trap camera?
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Camera traps are probably the easiest way to monitor the activity around the Chinese Yew at night, though you might come across the issue that you can't monitor all the activity, as camera traps are most useful for concentrating on one area (e.g. monitoring a nesting box for predation). 
Are you certain that the seeds are being dispersed by a mammal? The fruit seems more targeted at avifauna (though of course it could be a small mammal such as a shrew). 
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How to combine the habitat selection rule of disperser species into a dispersal effectiveness study?
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Dear Ning Li,
Non foraging habitat use is often explained after some of the following factors (they are not mutually exclusive): thermal insulation (especially in cold areas), protection against predators, access to sexual mates, proximity to preferred feeding areas, and in some birds you could also consider territorial landmarks. Other factor could be of importance depending of the species. Depending on the species and its natural history, you could develop some hypothesis (i.e. after foraging move to secluded places, or males go to landmarks and female to sunny warm areas to help digestions) and test that against your observations.
You could also expect some kind of relationship between post-feeding areas and habitat requirements of preferred food species seeds.
I do not know if that is of any help.
Regards,
Jabi
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Have you ever found seed on your clothing/vehicle during or after a visit to a protected area? How did you dispose of the seed? I would like to know what you did to the seed.
Based on your experience do you have any practical recommendation for weed research and policy. park management, bio-security etc regarding unintentional human weed dispersal? Thanks  
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VEHICLES: The issue is not when you get seeds ON YOU  while WITHIN the protected area, but people coming INTO protected areas with weed seeds on their VEHICLES, especially off-road vehicles.   Seeds on vehicles is what is spreading a new weed Saharan mustard across millions of acres of our desert iwthin only a decade., that you can see at http://www.ecoseeds.com/mustards.html
ROAD SIDES. How you manage the road sides at the edges of protected areas, and roads going through protected areas, and trails, railroads edges, and domesticated animal manures?  These alll help spread weeds into protected areas very much faster than any seeds carried in by humans on their clothing or shoes.   Even areas that have been protected 150 years ago like Yellowstone National Park or Yosemite National Park, weeds can travel along roadsides or by cattle in their manures, into those areas very easily. 
INTENTIONALLY SOWN SEEDS. Also intentionally sown exotic seeds, like along roadsides or in nearby agricultural areas, also can be a huge source of weeds.  If you look at my mile-by-mile survey of the western USA that I did in 1997, it was not weeds that were the big problem in most States, but intentionally sown exotic seeds along the roadsides or escapes from nearby exotic-sown pastures, at http://www.ecoseeds.com/megatransect.html
UNDERSTORY SPATIALLY EXTINCT OR DAMAGED, SO NOW VULNERABLE.  In 2015 most semi-arid to arid lands across the planet, the native plant understory is spatially extinct or severely damaged, to the degree that bare open spaces create vacancies for any new exotic plant to get established.  
That is how California became the most weedy spot on the planet 150 years ago, the cattle ate every bit of native under story during the 1864-65 drought, causing spatial extinction of the native under story, and the resulting bare land got colonized with close to 100% exotic cover within a few decades.
DO A VEGETATION TRANSECT.  If you have less than 100% local native cover (including native plant thatch) in your vegetation understory, then those areas will be eventually invaded by one or more weeds in the future, as open spaces have been created to let in the new invaders.  
If you do a simplified Evens & Love (1957) Toe-point transect, where you walk 100 paces and each time you step, you note what plant your toe is touching, or you note when you hit bare earth--what percentage is native plants, exotic plants and what percentage is bare earth?  
PERCENTAGE OF VULNERABILITY. The percentage EXOTIC plants s your CURRENT vulnerability percentage and the BARE EARTH is the FUTURE vulnerability percentage of the area, for exotic plant invasion.  
Hope this information is helpful, and hope your land does not end up like California, a 99.999% weed-covered under-story. 
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What kind of seed-trap method would be best for a seed rain study assessing distance seeds travel from intact forest onto an expanse of mine tailings? Justification?
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Seed traps which collect seeds falling from canopy trees in forest or wind-dispersed by pioneer shrubs in exposed land should be taken into consideration, depends on your study. This paper may be a good start for this topic: Bullock, J.M., Shea, K. & Skarpaas, O. (2006) Measuring plant dispersal: an introduction to field methods and experimental design. Plant Ecology, 186, 217–234.
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I am trying to quantify the time needed for indirect canopy regeneration of burnt areas (i.e. from patches or individuals that didn't burn). Did somebody com across any estimates of primary and secondary dispersion of seeds? Also what factors could prevent this process?
**Edit***
As suggested by S. Hari I specify that I am interested in particular in mediterranean low forest, composed both by pioneer (seeder) and postpioneer plants and where crown fire are the most common. My question arises from the need to give indication to forest workers on when they should look for signs of recovery
Thanks
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It really depends on your ecosystem and species involved, as S. Hari indicates.  In many places the pulse of recruitment can last decades, with gradual infilling; in others, if recruitment doesn't happen right away, grasses, sedges, and other species can out compete seedlings for water and succession much delayed.  There are many things that influence this rate- climate in the following years, distance from the intact edge, whether it's a good seed crop year for the survivors, herbivory/seed predation, etc.  Also the intensity of the fire may matter, if it alters the biogeochemistry or physical properties of the soil in some way (at least some abnormal way).
So overall, it really depends on the system and species.  In most places, though, you've got to give it a few years for seed from the outside.
I would recommend looking for post-fire studies in your ecosystem and then looking into the methods sections to see how long post-fire the study was done.  But again, other things will matter which vary, like climate, distance from edge, etc...
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background study on field release of Telsimia nitida and Chilocorus nigritus
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thank you very much for your suggestion
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Is it suitable to conduct a mangrove propagule dispersal simulation using MIKE 21 advection/simulation module?
Can anyone suggest what other module in this software is also suitable for this simulation with tidal and salinity as its input field data?
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Hello Atteleth, 
I personally don´t think you should use the advection/dispersion module from MIKE 21, which takes into account decay of the modeled substance. What you can do is do a MIKE 21 HD simulation and then in plot composer add particules. This particules will move according to the hydrodynamics in your modelling and they can give you an idea of how the propagule will distribute in your study area. An alternative is to use the ABM from MIKE 21, which allows you to determine how the propagule will propagate, but since they are only floating, then I guess there is no point on complicating your study!
I hope this helps. Cheers.
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Bats are the second most diverse mammalian order, with approx. 120 species found in India and 52 species known from the Western Ghats. Habitat fragmentation and encroachment of natural habitats are among the major threats affecting bats population and diversity in a region. Despite their tremendous importance (pollination and seed dispersal) in forest and agricultural ecosystem in Northeast India, bats  have been largely neglected in this region. The ecological studies and assessments of bat diversity and conservation status should be given priority. 
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As well as being very important for pollination and seed dispersal bats are extremely useful for the control of insect populations and in particular pests (see Leelapaibul et al., 2005; Wanger et al., 2014 for Thailand).
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In my absence the field assistants at the Nigerian Montane Forest Project have rebuilt our seed traps very well using strong mesh as requested. However the mesh is of different colours - Some black, some blue and some the 'normal' off white. As a huge amount of effort has gone into this I don't want to change them unless there is a real possibility it could change frugivore behavior?
We can keep checking the data and test for differences but I'd rather redo the whole lot if there are potential difficulties. It may be that some colours are OK others not?
Thanks
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Rather than the colour itself, I would expect contrast with the ground to influence frugivore behaviour. Whenever possible I use dark green or brown mesh, which here, in European temperate woodlands, are quite difficult to see after several days deployed (at least for a human eye, of course). Black works also well here, as there is not too much light in these forests. Among the colours in your picture, I would be suspicious on yellow and blue ones, as they probably result in higher contrast (even if intense or dark, blue usually results in high contrasta, as I have seen...and in fact, is my favourite colour for flagging). But of course, that is very context-dependent; the amount of light, the predominant hues of the ground and even the amount of litter (which usually covers the mesh in several days) may determinethe result.
But, whether the frugivores see the mesh and whether they change their behaviour as a response are two different questions. I would expect them to be able to see and distinguish the different colour traps, but I am not sure if they would react to that difference. I wouldn't expect great differences for avian frugivores feeding on trees (if the traps are on the ground), but the effect could be larger for ground dwelling frugivores. Of course, the best thing to do is what Dan suggested, statistical controlling for mesh colour...and cross your fingers!!
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Additional question: How do these effects influence population dynamics of native plant species or the structure of native plant communities?
I am currently working on a research paper about seed-dispersal mutualisms (specifically of ants and certain plant species) as a possible means of rainforest reforestation.
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A few relevant papers are
The effects of invasive ants on prospective ant mutualists
JH Ness, JL Bronstein - Biological Invasions, 2004
Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms
A Traveset, DM Richardson - Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 2006
Invasive ants disrupt gecko pollination and seed dispersal of the endangered plant Roussea simplex in Mauritius
DM Hansen, CB Müller - Biotropica, 2009
Disruption of ant-seed dispersal mutualisms by the invasive Asian needle ant (Pachycondyla chinensis)
Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Katharine L. Stuble, Benoit Guénard, Robert R. Dunn, Nathan J. Sanders - Biological Invasions, 2012
Enjoy!
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I've found the floating method to be highly ineffective. A significant part of acorns that float on the water surface is sound and vice versa - part of acorns that go the bottom of the water container proved to be infested (I've just made a small trial and found a 20% error on both sides). In some cases it is probably not a problem. However, if one is limited in his study by the number of acorns (like in non-mast years) and importing some seeds from another part of the country is not a solution - then loosing 20% of sound acorns is too much.
For the moment, I am just examining acorns looking for insect (Curculio mainly, I believe) holes, larvae emergence holes or other signs of being spoiled. However, this method is rather time-consuming and probably still some part of acorns that I consider sound is infested by something. I am working on oaks.
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