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Seaweed Biology - Science topic

Marine macroalgae commonly known as seaweeds are utilized for a variety of purposes including food, pharmaceyticals, neutraceuticals, plant growth promotion and phycocolloids such as agar, agarose and carragennan.
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An alternative livelihood can be generated from marine algae.
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Sargassum is a type of seaweed or brown algae (macro-algae) which generally inhabit in shallow water and coral reefs.
  • This algae can be used to make paper, tissue paper or paper bags, as it usually consists of cellulose and hemi-cellulose which are raw materials of paper (preventing cutting of trees to make paper or prevent use of plastic bags).
  • Can use dry algae biomass to burn as fuel, replace coal with dry algae as it will release less carbon dioxide.
  • Can be used to make cosmetics, makeup, pharmaceutical products, sunscreen, anti-aging cream and for hair strengthening treatments. Sargassum is rich in iodine, bromine, mineral salts and vitamins and also have the ability to absorb fats.
  • Seaweed can be used to treat joint pains and skin diseases (burns), as they have high antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-fungal properties.
  • Seaweed is also used in food and beverage industry, normally used in cocktail drinks.
  • Farmers can use seaweed as fertilisers. they should collect the algae from the coastal zone which will indeed benefit the ocean as it allows a better survival rate of marine organisms. The farmers should let it dry in the sun for two to three days, wash and store for later use.
  • Sargassum seaweed is a nutritious food rich in carotenoids, cellulose, protein, and aspartic and glutamic acids. Sargassum seaweed contains polysaccharies, which support healthy bloody pressure and blood sugar.
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I am looking for information, especially in the form of review paper on global seaweed utilization. Any help in this regards is appreciated.
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Please go through the attached paper.
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Dear Experts,
Kindly suggest me a best protocol to estimate the auxin, cytokinin gibberellin and Betain in the liquid seaweed extract.
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its easy using HPLC
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May I have published experimental data and results for the removal of lignin from seaweed (macroalgae) ?
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Seaweeds with high biomass productivity and amenability for depolymerization has sought for global intrest towards their bioconversion into fuel
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Try using nets with thallus, later, try monoline rope
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Hai
I thought Fucus vesiculosus was dioecious but I have read otherwise in different sources so now i'm confused..
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Hello Madalena,
Fucus vesiculosus is dioecious.
F. spiralis and F. serratus are monoecious.
Dioecious and monoecious have nothing to do with macroscopic sexual dimorphism. It describes the fact that male and female gametes are in two different "houses" (oikos in Greek; also the prefix for ecology and economics) or in the same "house".
So, in F. vesiculosus, some mature individuals have conceptacles containing oogonia and other mature individuals have conceptacles containing antheridia. In F. spiralis and F. serratus, the conceptacles of mature individuals contain both oogonia and antheridia (under the same roof = the same house = monoecious).
All the best,
Thierry Chopin
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Latest data on annual seaweed production 
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There is always a 2 years lag in statistics so that they are accumulated (and validated) at the national level and then the international level. The most updated data are for 2014 with the FAO/SOPHIA.
All the best,
Thierry Chopin
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seaweed like Ascophyllum nodosum
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Dear Shashidar, contact Bioorgain Technology, plot no 1, Sipcot Industrial Complex, Ranipet- 632403. Tamilnadu for seaweed extract
with regrds, kaladharan
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The seaweed was collected from the Pacific Ocean (near Pisco, Peru) in September.
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Hi Rando!
According to the 1st picture, that red algae could be Ahnfeltiopsis concinna as Priyanka mentioned; however, plants of Ahnfeltiopsis durvillei can also match with its characteristics. In my opinion, A. durvillei is more probable because this species is one of the most abundant intertidal species at middle levels along the exposed, rocky coast of Peru (Dawson et al. 1964).
In the second picture, it seems that the thalli of that algae are flattened at some point. In this case, Asterfilopsis furcellata could be the species.
In the third picture, the yellowish algae could belong to Ahnfeltiopsis and red to dark-brown ones could be Ahnfeltiopsis or Asterfilopsis furcellata. The difference in colors is due to possition in the intertidal (yellowish if it s more exposed to the light or dessication). Also, the small blades attached to the rock could be Pyropia/Porphyra, however it is necessary a better picture to confirm that.
Does the last two pictures belong to the first one? If this is the case, the abscence of hypha-like filaments in the medulla could support the idea of Priyanka; however these filaments are also not present in A. durvillei.
As a recommendation, for red algae belonging to Phyllophoraceae (as Asterfilopsis and Ahnfeltiopsis) reproductive structures are necessary for correct iddentification.
Best luck!
Btw, Pisco is a really good place! I have some collections from there
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Both Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca are in same group (green seaweeds).
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Well can you please introduce a credible site to me that I refer to it about no difference between Enteromorpha and Ulva intestinalis?
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The impact of ecological factors on the content of bioactive compounds sulfated polysaccharide in brown seaweed
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A very good book, with plenty of lead references is:
Seaweed Ecology and Physiology by Hurd, Harrison, Bischof and Lobban 2014. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.
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Hi again everybody :)!
As a part of my research, I'm culturing some protoplast from brown algae (using non-axenic material) in different regeneration media and at different initial cellular densities. While i was recording the cell wall regeneration (using Calcofluor) i realized that in almost half of the protoplast that were undergoing cell wall regeneration, a cellulose "tail" started to form (like a "comet"). At the end, the protoplast were covered with the cell wall but this "tail" remained. In other cases, the protoplast didn t finish the cell wall regeneration. The percentage of this "cellulose tails" were variable in the different media and at different densities, but anyway this phenomenom appeared in all the treatments. Checking some publications i found that this could be due a loosely attachment of the cellulose to the cell membrane. However, i didn t see this phenomenom in seaweed protoplast. Has anybody seen this abnormal cell wall regeneration?
Many thanks in advance
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I am far from being a specialist in algae protoplast technology, but as far as I can remember there is a difference in the composition of cell walls in seaweeds compared to other plants (i.e. the ratio between cellulose and hemicellulose is not identical). As a result, when staining with Calcofluor White there is a parasite staining of hemicellulose as well (reported many years ago in ferns if I do not misremember).
A couple of things might eventualy help you untangle this; 1) try dual staining with Caclcofluor (more specific for cellulose) + Sulphorodamine (specific for hemicellulose), if what happened is what I suggested above you should see blue where there is cellulose while the tail should be red; 2) there's always the alternative to modify slightly your method of preparation of the Calcofluor suspension to render it closer to a "true" solution and that is increasing the concentration of the sorbitol where it is dissolved (from 0.4 to 0.5 M for example) and reducing the impact of the KOH that should be added to start disolving the Caclcofluor powder (for instance add a fewdrops of KOH 0.1 N instead of KOH 1N as usually done).
Finally, as already evoked by others, several recalcitrant species (including some woody ones and several succulent ones) have already been reported to give such a response. Unfortunately, no reason was given nor a solution for the problem proposed.
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Seaweeds are the integral part of multi billion industry with their variety of usage in food, pharmaceuticals, phycocolloids and agriculture etc. The basic molecular biology chemical i.e. agar or agarose is the product obtained from seaweeds. With their enormous industrial importance, seaweeds are also gaining global interest as a feedstock for biofuel. However, the systematics or taxonomic classification of these lower group of plants remained doubtful due to high level of morphological plasticity. Therefore this group require strict classification characters supported with molecular tools. In this context DNA barcode investigation will suerly benefit.
Further little is known about the biochemical composition or their networking (fluxomic) of seaweeds. Therefore it will also be of great interese to understand metabolomics of seaweeds.
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There are three broad classifications – brown, green, and red. 
Brown algae is the largest type of algae and is in the phylum Phaeophyta. Brown algae is brown or yellow-brown in color and found in temperate or arctic waters. Brown algae typically have a root-like structure called a "holdfast" to anchor the algae to a surface.
There are more than 6,000 species of red algae, the Rhodophyta. Red algae has its often brilliant color due to the pigment phycoerythrin. This algae can live at greater depths than brown and green algae because it absorbs blue light. Coralline algae, a group of red algae, is important in the formation of coral reefs. 
There are more than 4,000 species of green algae, the Chlorophyta. Green algae may be found in marine or freshwater habitats, and some even thrive in moist soil. These algae come in 3 forms: unicellular, colonial or multicellular.
I hope this helps :-)
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During my field visits to marine area i have collected some amount of Centroceros sp.(Rhodophyta) from West Coast of India (Kerala). I wish to identify it into species level. which book or monograph shall i refer and i wish know the current status of distribution and diversity of Centroceros sp. in India.
Thanks in advance,
Perumal. 
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Hi Elaya --- Referring to Silva et al. (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean, it seems only Centroceras clavulatum has been reported from India.  Another species, C. minutum was reported from the Maldives and the Seychelles.  A new species, C. secundum has been documented from Oman.  You could have a few more unreported ones.  I will attach a few papers that can show you some of these species (some papers you may already have).
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I am trying to find an alternate method to analysis with HPLC-ICP-MS as I do not have access to these coupled systems
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You could try Atomic Absorption (AA), Ion Chromatograph
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Estimation of Gigartina acicularis biomass in coastline.
Thank you in advance
Cheers, Rezzoum
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I would recommend the following paper:
Chopin, T., 1997 - Marine biodiversity monitoring. Protocol for monitoring of seaweeds.  Environment Canada, Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network, Ottawa, 40 p. 
All the best,
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This macroalgae has been collected at Kovalam beach (near Chennai). I would like to know the name of this species. 
Can anyone help in identifying this one?
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Yes Dr Reddy it may be filicina rather than lithophila
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Are there any known species of edible seaweed that can be cultivated in aquaponics in order to enrich the water with oxygen? What are their needs in nutrients? Could they be cultivated along side with fish and tomatoes for example? 
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gracilaria, ulva can increase oxygen. but you can also try the other species and has strong adaptability. I tried to maintain Halimeda and have the adaptability to a very good living. but I have not studied the oxygen produced. gracilaria have excellent adaptability to.
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we project to clean a newly invaded site with Caulerpa racemosa, is there an ecological/biological method to use?
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Dear Researchers,
When I went Andaman and Nicobar Islands i visited some of the locations as a tourist still i didnt had permission for collection i took photo of some of the seaweeds. just posting it here so that i can get knowledge on these seaweeds.kindly identify these and provide some informations regarding these algae.
kindly confirm my identification also.
1. Caulerpa recemosa
2. Boergesenia forbesii 
7,8,9. Acetabularia
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Picture one looks like the holdfast of Caulerpa serrulata
Picture one is of Boergesenia forbesii and you see Neomeris annulata in the background
Pics 3-5 looks like a species of Dictyosphaeria
Pics 7,8,9. look like Acetabularia acetabulum
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I collected this seaweed along the coasts of Southern Tamil Nadu. Just help me to identify this seaweed. The photo attached.
Best Regards
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This taxa is Gracilaria fergusonii J.Agardh which is currently considered as taxonomic synonym of Gracilaria debilis (Forsskål) Børgesen. 
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I am looking for publications or reports those depict bio-chemical composition of conchocelis stage of Porphyra / Pyropia. Also, I am interested to know if, this stage has been cultured any-where in bio-reactors?  
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Would it not give results if the tests are done along with the substratum? The composition of the substratum is known for sure. The stage can be cultured naturally, as it proliferates on its own if optimum growth conditions are provided.
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I am aware of high temperature tolerant cultivar of Porphyra haitanensis that has been developed through breeding and farmed extensively in China. There are also examples of Saccharina and Undaria spp in which improved strains were developed for commercial farming.
It would be helpful, if I may be provided with recent developments in the field of breeding in seaweeds.    
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The Chinese government distinguished four aquatic seaweed regions. The first region is the Yellow Sea & Bo Hai which includes Shandong province, Liaoning province, Hebei province and Tianjin municipality. This region has the largest output of seaweed products in China and mainly Laminaria and Undaria are produced (Ding, B.J., 1992). Yangzi River Delta is the second region which includes Jiangsu province, Shanghai municipality and Zhejiang province. In this area the main aquatic seaweed product is Porphyra. The third region is Taiwan province and Fujian province which mainly produce Laminaria and Porphyra. The fourth region is the South of China which include Guangdong province, Guangxi Province and Hainan Province which mainly produce Laminaria and Porphyra. The south of China is not very suitable for seaweed cultivation due to the high temperature of seawater. Your question may be related to this. =>Seaweed breeding technologies and strain improvement: Cultivation of seaweeds has markedly increased during the last couple of decades and this has and will lead to a plethora of biotechnological applications. Addition of different genomes has in practice  successfully been applied for seaweeds  in several cases. For example, agar production from a red Gracilaria seaweed species has been transferred from a cold water strain to a warm water strain  by protoplast fusion (Cheney 1999)=> Cheney, D.P. (1999). Strain improvement of seaweeds thru genetic manipulation: current status. World Aquaculture 30: 55-56 &65.
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1. images 1 & 2; and 2. images A & B
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It is Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux 
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recent keys of course, please
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Tank you very much
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I would like to know, what is the current global market for edible seaweeds in terms of volume and value. Further if some one can provide me with production of Nori through farming it would be great help.    
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Here is a reference with some good numbers:
Chopin, T., and Sawhney, M., 2009 - Seaweeds and their mariculture: 4477-4487. In: The Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. J.H. Steele, S.A. Thorpe and K.K. Turekian (Eds.). Elsevier, Oxford.
Available on my page on ResearchGate.
All the best,
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I have seen this in  heavy loads in kappaphycus seaweed and i want to identify the species and also i want to know this filter feeders will affect the growth of the culture seaweed  
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Dear Dr Deepak if you need  more clarification  I will sent sample for you, for get identified. 
Thank you 
JAI
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I have been working on strain selection and improvement in Ulva spp. Since we have several strains differing in their growth patterns under same (controlled) culture conditions, I am interested in studying growth kinetics of fast as well as slow growing strains.
Although, I have some knowledge about setting of these experiments, I need advice from the experts - even those working on other organisms - who are involved in studying kinetics.
Anticipating references and suggestions.
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We grow Ulva in the laboratory, regularly in batch cultures and in a simple flow through system. We use Provasoli Enriched Seawater media which has high nutrient content and light intensities above 500 micro moles of photons /m2/s to get the highest growth rates. More water motion is better as long as the thalli aren't breaking.As you might already know, the thalli can sporulate with little warning if the conditions change abruptly and also on a semilunar cycle. 
The easiest metric of growth is change in biomass. However, you may find that it does not capture all of the variation between your strains if the surface area to biomass ratio or the nutrient content of the biomass differs. 
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I was wondering, if there is any study similar to Mendonza et al. (20006) Botanica Marina, 49: 57-64. I am interested to know how many seaweeds have been researched wherein tissue age was main factor determining quality as well as quantity of phycocolloid.  
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A few papers, not on the relationship with tissue age directly, but on the relationship with:
- Seasons:
Chopin, T., Bodeau-Bellion, C., Floc’h, J.-Y., Guittet, E., and Lallemand, J.Y., 1987 - Seasonal study of carrageenan structures from female gametophytes of Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 151/152: 535-539.
- Phases of the life cycle:
Chopin, T., Hanisak, M.D., and Craigie, J.S., 1994 - Carrageenans from Kallymenia westii (Rhodophyceae) with a review of the phycocolloids produced by the Cryptonemiales. Bot. Mar. 37: 433-444.
Chopin, T., Kerin, B.F., and Mazerolle, R., 1999 - Phycocolloid chemistry as a taxonomic indicator of phylogeny in the Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae:  a review and current developments using Fourier transform infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Phycol. Res. 47: 167-188.
- Phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition:
Chopin, T., Hanisak, M.D., Koehn, F.E., Mollion, J., and Moreau, S., 1990 - Studies on carrageenans and effects of seawater phosphorus concentration on carrageenan content and growth of Agardhiella subulata (C. Agardh) Kraft and Wynne (Rhodophyceae, Solieriaceae). J. Appl. Phycol. 2: 3-16.
Chopin, T., Gallant, T., and Davidson, I., 1995 - Phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta):  effects on total phosphorus and nitrogen content, carrageenan production, and photosynthetic pigments and metabolism. J. Phycol. 31:  283-293.
Chopin, T., and Wagey, B.T., 1999 - Factorial study of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen enrichments on nutrient and carrageenan content in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and on residual nutrient concentration in seawater. Bot. Mar. 42:  23-31.
- And a rapid method for carrageenan identification:
Chopin, T., and Whalen, E., 1993 - A new and rapid method for carrageenan identification by FT IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy directly on dried, ground algal material. Carbohydr. Res. 246: 51-59.
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I would like to know if any counties have selected national policies pertaining to seaweed farming. This essentially is required to boost commercial activities.    
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As far I know and understand, there is no such policy existing. Once Dr. Ayyappan (DDG Fisheries of ICAR) had organised a meeting on Policy paper. But it does not really say anything. You can go through it. Available on ICAR website
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From September the coasts of the Mexican Caribbean has received tons of pelagic Sargassum stranded in sandy beaches and this causes some concern in the tourism sector. There is a conflict because this subsidy is important for macrofauna of sandy beaches, besides the beach raking to remove wrack impacts the beach ecosystem. It is urgent to deal with this situation in order to find best solutions for this issue.
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There have been a number of related reports of large inundations of Pelagic Sargassum in not only the Caribbean, but also West Africa (Grass-Sessay 2015; Schell et al. 2015).
 A conference on the problem Pelagic Sargassum was held in 2015 at The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, and is available on Youtube; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ydd3sDpmocI#t=1654
 We, in the Algal Biotechnology Group at the University of Greenwich, are researching methods of exploiting another ‘invasive’ Sargassum in the UK, Sargassum muticum (Milledge et al. 2015a; Milledge et al. 2015b; Milledge and Harvey 2016).
 Grass-Sessay SA (2015) Concept Note on the Invasion of Pelagic Sargassum in West Africa. United Nations Environment Programme, Ivory Coast
Milledge JJ, Harvey PJ (2016) Ensilage and anaerobic digestion of Sargassum muticum J Appl Phycol:1-10 doi:10.1007/s10811-016-0804-9
Milledge JJ, Nielsen BV, Bailey D (2015a) High-value products from macroalgae: the potential uses of the invasive brown seaweed, Sargassum muticum Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 15:67-88 doi:10.1007/s11157-015-9381-7
Milledge JJ, Staple A, Harvey P (2015b) Slow Pyrolysis as a Method for the Destruction of Japanese Wireweed, Sargassum muticum Environment and Natural Resources Research 5:28-36 doi:10.5539/enrr.v5n1p28
Schell JM, Goodwin DS, Siuda ANS (2015) Recent Sargassum Inundation Events in the Caribbean Shipboard Observations Reveal Dominance of a Previously Rare Form Oceanography 28:8-10 doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.70
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I enriched Ulva for 6 hrs, dried and crude protein content was determined. I am uncertain if the increased in crude protein after enrichment is due to the assimilated fertilizer converted into protein of Ulva or may be it is still the fertilizer per se. 
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Dear Rena,
My suggestion is same as that of  Paul.
here is a paper for your reference.
Michael W. Taylor, Neill G. Barr, Coral M. Grant and T. Alwyn V. Rees,Changes in amino acid composition of Ulva intestinalis (Chlorophyceae) following addition of ammonium or nitrate,Phycologia (2006) Volume 45 (3), 270–276.
Good luck!
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I highly appreciate in receiving any kind of information or a source where market value for crude pigments (mixture of R-phycocyanin, R-phycoerythrin), crude lipids and cellulose is given.
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Cellulose powder - 2.5 USD per Kg ( Shaanxi Xutai Technology Co., Ltd.)
R-phycocyanin (Purity >90%) - $1360 per mg (MYBIOSOURCE INC.)
R-phycoerythrin (Purity >90%) - 11,539.66 INR per mg (Sigma Aldrich)
Solazyme has prepared Algal oil for cooking having MSRP 11.99 USD per 500 ml (http://www.thrivealgae.com/)
*as per literature available at internet
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We have been facing problem with preserving sufficient quantities of seaweed germplasm - about 1 tone fresh weight - for resuming commercial seaweed farming in subsequent season. The conditions on West coast of India are pretty rough during monsoon. May I request the researchers involved in seaweed farming to recommend simple and innovative solutions which we can develop for Indian conditions and could be quickly adopted by local fishermen?
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Although there are several issues in germplasm conservation. We do have only one impediment, the seaweed thalli being fragile, weather easily in whatever method we follow. I am looking for solution to have simple technique which reduces the breakage.   
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Even though 'tropical seaweeds' is a very broad field, as it would be 'temperate seaweeds', I still would like to have the most useful guides at hand just to see not only if I ever get them right but it is important to systematize the guides for farming/harvesting from the wild to use them, separating this field from the more phycological one that needs to identify every seaweed.
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Please refer 'Sri Lankan Seaweeds: Methodologies and field guide to the dominant species' by Coppejans et al. This can be also downloaded at http://www.abctaxa.be/downloads/volume-6-algae-sri-lanka
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My question is of general nature to those researchers who are engaged in implementing projects of societal benefits, in our case seaweed cultivation. I am sure, convincing locals (beneficiaries) is challenging task, in initial stage. How researchers in different sectors have overcome this hurdle? Are their any reports and experiences which some of you can share, so that, I can take forward, commercial seaweed farming in newer areas along Indian coast.
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A good question indeed. A few technical questions need to be addressed before embarking such a societal programme.
1) The culture infrastructure need to with stand the tidal amplitude of the area of operation. It has to be stationed in a somewhat sheltered area, strongly tethered in the place, otherwise it will not only disappear, but could pose a threat to navigating vessels,especially during night hours. I had such a problem & by the grace of local fishermen, could retrieve it. 
2) The turbidity has to be minimal,otherwise the weeds will be covered with silt & mud, lowering the growth potential.
3) Gulf of Cambay - the place where you may intend for operations, has a very high tidal amplitude, & hence water movement one hour before & one hour after beginning of a tide will have the least movement & the work on the infrastructure may be limited to such a small time, & hence safety at such coastal installations assumes prime importance.
Non-technical aspects.
4)  The operation would have to have financial benefits, so that the beneficiaries would inculcate an interest. Roping in the local fishermen co-operative society could be a better option, so that the responsibilities can be given to each of the members. Involve each of them,so as to bring in a sense of belonging.
5) The beneficiaries would ask as to how much help could the govt. chip in the project  - how much is the subsidy component & when could the banks fund such a programme.Hence the programme has to take the minimum time for the turn over & ensure profits.
5) Discuss the detailed road map to the beneficiaries & tie up the loose ends. Discuss with them as to why they need to undertake the work, how much beneficial to them, how they can use the natural resources, how much is the local component & the outside one & when & how much returns can they get. How would the cycle of operations pan out - what exactly are expected of them & how much the organisation would lend a helping hand.
  Once all these are clear and enough confidence is infused in them, they would likely involve in the operations, and ensure success.
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Hello everybody :)
My research is focus on cell suspension culture from seaweed protoplast for production of bioactive molecules. But I have a problem, I want to know if they are really in a dedifferentiated state so I was wondering if there are any molecular marker (or markers) for this state in plants or seaweeds. I just want to be sure that the cells that I have will not form any kind of tissue and they will remain in this state.
Thank you in advance
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Dear Jose,
Few papers are added for your reference.Hope you find them useful for your work!
1.An epigenetic view of plant cells cultured in vitro: somaclonal variation and beyond
Célia Miguel and Liliana Marum,Journal of Experimental Botany,2011,
2.Plants regenerated from tissue culture contain stable epigenome changes in rice Hume Stroud, Bo Ding, Stacey A Simon, Suhua Feng, Maria Bellizzi, Matteo Pellegrini, Guo-Liang Wang, Blake C Meyers, Steven E Jacobsen
3. Dedifferentiation of Arabidopsis thaliana cells is accompanied by a strong decrease in RNA polymerase II transcription activity and poly(A+) RNA and 25S rRNA eradication from the cytoplasm,Konrad Dełeńko,corresponding author Janusz Niedojadło,corresponding author Agata Łabędzka, Ewa Wiśniewska, and Elżbieta Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, Protoplasma. 2015; 252(2): 537–546. doi: 10.1007/s00709-014-0700-6
Good luck!
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I am sampling in rocky shores very scanty growth,can i use 0.25 square meter quadrant for estimating density of seaweed?
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depending on how "scanty" your seaweed is. But you can use quadrat for sure, you just have to figure what size is appropriate. For example, if the seaweeds are scattered or are in patches that you might end up with a lot of empty quadrat if you sample randomly using a small sized quadrat.
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Seaweed species found on Rocky shores submerged in the water
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None of the Photos are belongs to seaweeds
1 & 4 photo belongs to Bryozoan sp. the 4 photo is Electra sp.
2 & 3 photo belongs to Hydrozoan of Eudendrium sp.
The species level identification is not easy with this photos
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Help me identify these seaweeds
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I ask your pardon for the delay. I'm really sorry for not being able to identify the species you suggested
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The is a acedians species which normally found in sea weed
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 can any body help for identification of this ascedians species
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Hi everybody!
I have collected this seaweed in the intertidial rocky shore of Ancash (north central coast of Peru). Does anybody have a suggestion about its genus or species? (I know I have to do microscopic observations but any idea would be nice!)
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Definitely it is a red alga (Rhodophyta) as Razy Hoffman and previous answers said. But with this fragment only it is very difficult to identify which species.
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I am looking for the handy instrument to measure tide / current in our seaweed cultivation farm located in South India. I am interested in knowing the displacement of water in intensive cropping, that actually is responsible for renewed nutrient supply to growing seedlings. Any suggestions and experiences to choose the model are highly appreciated. Also if any body has attempted such studies can provide me with related references.  
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If you need an instrument for short term studies can I suggest you contact the National Institute of Oceonography, India as they may be able to loan or hire you a suitable instrument.  They can certainly recommned a suitable unit.   I would also suggest you need a minimum of  data for the period of interest neaps to springs or periods of extreme events and then model (or have somebody help with this) ,the processes you are interested in using tools such as the Delpht or DHI Mike tools
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Is the any other reason other than temp and pollutant will diminish seaweed culture.Any seaweed associated fauna will shrink the growth of seaweed culture Species Kappaphycus sp 
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There are many environmental factors. Instead of starting a list of them, I refer you to an excellent book: Seaweed Ecology and Physiology, by Hurd, Harrison, Bischof and Lobban. It covers many factors and will give you an opportunity to dig deeper on certain of them.
After looking at environmental factors, I recommend that you also look at economic and societal factors. They are also key and should not be underestimated.
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the specimen was collected from the rocky shore of the spray zone of north kerala while sampling seaweeds. the stem like structure is hard and many originates from the same base. can anyone help?
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I agree that it looks like an Hydroid (Leptothecata ?), but closer views are needed to see if hydrotheca and gonotheca do occurnad to see their precise morphology.
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Hi,
My research would like to focus on identifying whether the Sulfated polysaccharide I have extracted from my brown seaweed sample is Fucoidan containing. I have browsed the online catalog of Sigma-Aldrich for possible reference standards for HPLC and am currently confused which of them to buy.
Since Fucoidan polysaccharides contain fucose, I think I will not use pure fucoidan found in Sigma-Aldrich, since the pure fucoidan were not extracted from the exact species sample I am using.
But then I was confused because there are quite a number of fucose samples found in Sigma-Aldrich. Two of which are of opposite optical rotation. Is optical rotation important in choosing the proper standard for HPLC?
Choices:
A. L-(-)-Fucose ≥ 99%, 10mg at $36 (first link)
B. L-(-)-Fucose USP Reference Standard, 200mg at $393 (second link)
C. D-(+)-Fucose ≥ 98%, 500mg at $129 (third link)
According to a study, link number 4 below, Fucoidan are esterified L-Fucose. Does this mean I should cross out choice letter C because it is dextrorotatory? What is the significance of optical rotation of sample and reference standard in HPLC use?
Finally, I am tempted to buy choice A because it is cheaper, and considering that my research is independently funded, I have to opt for cheaper means to finish my research. Will choosing choice A be inappropriate? Is choice A even usable in HPLC? What is the advantage of choice A over B, vice-versa? More so, is 10mg of the standard enough for use in HPLC?
Thanks!
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Hello, 
I am afraid that you cannot use fucose to identify your fucoidan using HPLC, unless you hydrolyse your fucoidan and test its fucose content, using the sigma fucose as your standard. Bare in mind that the definition of fucoidan is it a polysaccharide, contains mainly of fucose and it is sulfated. Therefore, if you can quantify the percentage of fucose in it, and it shows that it has high fucose content, then you can say that it is fucoidan. In order to check the sulfate content, you can either use the spectrophotometric method, or CHNS elemental analyser. Alternatively, you can use FTIR to determine if the sulfate functional groups are present or not. 
I would recommend you to use a screening method to screen the percentage of fucoidan available from your seaweed sample. This method utilises a colourimetric reaction to identify the presence of fucose. Next, get a fucoidan standard, either from sigma or food grade fucoidan (from Marinova, Australia; YSK, Japan; etc) to identify the extracted fucoidan using HPLC. Please find attached the article that mention the methods above:
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If i have to estimated  seaweed biomass of a region what is the method used, also for seaweed diversity study what are the methods used?
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For estimation of Biomass, 25X25 CM ( size will be depend on quntity of biomass) quadrant will be placed on the intertidal rocky surfaces randomly and collect algae present in the quadrant. Remove all epiphytes and debris and cleaned properly. Then dried under shade or in an oven. Average monthly values ( 4 or 5 quadrants samples ) are expressed as gram dry wt/m 2. One year continous sampling  is necessary  for collection of biomas data. 
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I'm working on bioactivity of seaweeds. I have taken 5 kg amount of seaweed, extracted in the respective solvent, filtered and evaporated but I don't know that how much quantity of extracted material is required to isolate all compounds.
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It depends entirely on the type of extract you are looking for, what kind of activity, and detection limits of your equipment. Nevertheless, 5 kg is huge and should be more than enough for any compound.
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Hey guys. I am trying to acclimatize seaweed of Kappaphycus alvarezii in a recirculating system with filtration (corals, carbon active, filter cotton and bioball). I preserved the fresh, healthy seaweed in a cool box of 4 degree celcius from seaweed cultivation field to my laboratory in about 9 hours. Right after arriving at the laboratory, I placed the seaweed in chilled condition in the aquarium filled with seawater. Then in about 5 hours after that, I observed the seaweed's appearance and realized that the seaweed appeared to be wrinkled and shrinked; there were also thick green lines in about 1 cm which I assume to be the chlorophylls, while the rest of the seaweed color is still green but less green than the ''chlorophylls''.
I presume that there were mistakes in the method of preservation. Is it ok to still preserve the seaweed in chilled condition to acclimatize it in the laboratory? Or maybe I should have waited the cold seaweed to turn warmer in a room temperature before placing it in the aquarium...
Could someone please help me with this?
Thank you very much beforehand :)
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I would rather transport Kappaphyus alvarezii without seawater, but under cool conditions. This alga can tolerate desiccation of moderate proportion. Please ascertain that there is no direct contact of ice packs with alga, use plenty of thermocol pieces for this purpose, by this way there shall be less physiological damage. After transporting it to desired destination put algal material with sufficient seawater under ambient conditions and then acclimatize slowly to the culture conditions of your choice. It may take a week or two for the algal samples to start growing, although some tissue may perish.    
It all depends on what kind of experiments you are following, experiments studying physiology required different protocol. However in all the cases too much cool conditions might hamper the prospects of algal survival.  
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When going through some Ascophyllum nodosum (N-Atlantic) I found this nice looking hydrozoa. Does anyone here have some ideas about the species name?
Cheers!
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Hi Hronn,
It could be Clava multicornis or a similar species, but with retracted tentacles and with gonophores at the basis. It can live on brown intertidal algae such as Ascophyllum nododsum. To be sure, you have to observe it with extended tentacles.
Cheers,
Dominique
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We are currently working on epiphytic infestations in commercial seaweed farming. It would be nice, if some one could share literature on interaction studies between host (algae) and epiphytic organisms also chemical and molecular signalling. The references pertaining to other marine plants such as seagrass also would be welcome addition.  
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Hi Vaibhav,
some links I thought might be of use to the question you had posted. Both these papers focus on epifauna, one for sessile forms and other for mobile forms...
Best regards
Deepak
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Seaweeds are rich in astaxanthin and are now widely used in edible products, cosmetics and fish feed.
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I believe you will need to be more specific than just "carotenoids"; even splitting between carotenes and xanthophylls would not be precise enough. You want to specify which compound(s) among the carotenes and xanthophylls you are really interested in for whatever application(s).
Then, giving an average concentration is pretty difficult and not really meaningful. These concentrations vary highly according to species, seasons and environmental conditions (including water).
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I would like to know more about the nutritional properties of the seaweeds of the region.
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Many papers discuss that theme  ..
you can read works similar with that
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Is it possible to reduce or remove the Iodine content in Seaweed extracts?. 
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Most of the work has been carried out on Laminariales (kelps). Iodine is mostly stored as iodide in the extracellular matrix located in the peripheral tissue (Kupper et al. 2008). Iodide has been suggested as an inorganic antioxidant. Iodine-rich kelps are good for helping the thyroid to function and the treatment of goiter. But, if you want to reduce the iodide content, an oxidative stress should release it to the atmosphere (but is that good? It has been linked to the formation of clouds).
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This plant is very similar to Nitophyllum punctatum, but has microscopic veins, which N. punctatum normally doesn't have. In addition, the tetrasporangia of N. punctatum up to 175 µm in diameter, whereas this specimen never exceeds 65 µm. Can you help me to identify this species? Please find images attached. 
Thank you.
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Dear Reeta:
In Grateloupia gametophytic and tetrasporophytic generation are isomorphic.
I am adding a link of a paper in which both generations are described.
I think that the species showed by Fru is a Delesseriaceae.
Kind regards.
Eugenia 
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Samples in dried (dead) padina and gracilaria
Light REEs (Yb)..Heavy REEs (La)
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Maybe this paper about a comparison for sorption capacity of lanthanides in seaweeds could help. I found it very interesting
bets regards
stefania
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I hope to have published experimental data on seaweed pretreatment, lignin drop kinetics and polysaccharaides hydrolysis.
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Do you have any kinetics about lignin degradation from red seaweed ?
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at low tide 
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Dear Quddusi:
This photo is not sufficient to determine the alga that forms the low intertidal prairie that you are showing in the picture. Lots of Ceramiales for example could form grasslands with this aspect.
For asking help with the determinations you need to collect specimens and get photos with stereoscopic microscope and light microscope, including dimensions.
Kind regards.
Eugenia
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Carragenana from Kappaphycus Alvarezii.
The factor is needed for the determination of Galactose (%) 
by biomass-caracterization. 
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Sorry, this is not my field.
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Many people consume raw seaweeds and I'm working on seaweeds.
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Hi, the best reference for me to get a good overview of trace elements in marine algae and plant are the following...values depends of the element, the species, the location (pristine or contaminated).
Eisler R (2009) Compendium of Trace Metals and Marine Biota Volume 1: Plants and Invertebrates. ISBN: 978-0-444-53436-1 
This book has two main goals :
1. Determine baseline concentrations of metals and metalloids in tissues of representative field populations of estuarine coastal, and open ocean organisms (Book 1:algae and macrophytes, protists, sponges, coelenterates, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, chaetognaths, annelids, echinoderms, and tunicates) and their significance to organism health and to the health of their consumers.
2. Synthesize existing information on biological, chemical, and physical factors known to modify uptake, retention, and translocation of each element under field and laboratory conditions. Recognition of the importance of these modifiers and their accompanying interactions is essential to the understanding of metals kinetics in marine systems and to the interpretation of baseline residue data.
All the best,
MM
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Uronic Acid is one components of monosaccharides.
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Dear Neeraj Sethiya
Thanks for your suggestion. this is for my friend research, she ask to me about this. i will explain this to my friend.
regards,
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I am preparing to do photosynthesis' experiment of seaweed Sargassum sp. to estimate carbon fixation and nutrient absorption from light and dark bottles' method at different periods (1 and 2h) in the field. Due to my lab having no instruments to measure C directly from experiment I' d like to use DO concentrations converting to C concentrations. Based on the experiment, I'd like to estimate carbon fixation of seaweed from dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration that I got from experiment' measurement between light and dark bottles. I also tried to estimate how much NO3, NH4 and PO4 can be absorbed by seaweed from experiment at different phase (light and dark).  However, I've not found any related studies yet. So, if anyone know publications related to such experiment, please kindly let me know or any experienced experiment sharing is welcome. Thank you so much.        
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One of the problems (besides which PQ to use) you will face in designing such experiments with large, differentiated algae like Sargassum Sp. is the selection of the sample of tissue you incubate.  Different segments of the thalli will produce different patterns of specific productivity. If your intent is to characterize productivity at the level of the whole plant or sward, then you should incubate intact, whole plants. I tried this with a large Laminarian kelp and it worked well. Whatever the size of plant you incubate, you want to keep the ratio of tissue weight to water volume less than 0.4g fresh weight per litre of incubation volume, and the incubation period to less than 4h if you are to avoid serious experimental artifacts.
Hatcher BG 1977 An apparatus for measuring the photosynthesis and respiration of intact large marine algae and comparison of results with those from experiments with tissue segments. Marine Biology 43:381-385.
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Can anyone please tell me the name of these seaweeds, or the genus, at least? I am struggling with the identification and greatly appreciate with your kind helps!
Thank you very much,
All the best,
Ha Bui
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First algae is likely to Sargassum natans
Second and third is maybe Sargassum vulgare
fourth is probably the Gelidiales order, Try use identification keys for Gelidium, Pterocladiella and Pterocladia for confirm the genus and specie.
Provide more photos with details of cuts or reproductive structures that facilitated the identification.
best regards
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I would like to perform reciprocal transplantation of Sargassum. Any suggestion which method to follow?
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I believe that erect macroalgae can be fixed in ropes. For example, look the method used in this study:
Marques, LV; Villaça, R; Pereira, RC. 2006. Susceptibility of macroalgae to herbivorous fishes at Rocas Atoll (Brazil). Botanica Marina, 49: 379-385.
I
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I am trying to figure out the total sugar content present in Laminaria, Ascophyllum and Fucus.
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If expected values are relatively high (1-2% or more) you can use a refractometer (Brix method).