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How to make a scattering region
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Hi
You can follow some youtube stuff for transiesta setup. I have given the links below.
Regards
Sushil
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Any software that can process this?
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Thank you Daniel.
Yes, the data is normally distributed, the scatter plot is plotted according to Principal Component 1and 2. And I need to design 2 eclipsed, i.e., inner and outer eclipse.
The limit of this panel is based on an ellipse in which more than 95% of the population is included. The inner ellipse includes about one-half of the
population.
The link for the paper as below:
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17613722/ refer to Figure 4 and Appendix B
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In text books defined that if in a collision the total kinetic energy before and after collision is conserved then it is called elastic collision other wise in-elastic ( momentum conserve in both cases).
The Compton scattering total kinetic energy is conserved before and after collision, but is called inelastic scattering. In literature it says that "
Elastic scattering occurs when there is no loss of energy of the incident primary particle. Elastically scattered particle can change direction but do not change their wavelength.
Inelastic scattering occurs when there is an interaction that causes loss of energy of the incident primary particle. In-elastically scattered particle have a longer wavelength."
Now my question : (1) Is the collision and scattering are different?
If yes, then (2) how define both the collision and scattering and how to distinguish?
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Collision is the cause of the effect known as scattering. Collision can be physical or non-physical but both can scatter a said particle
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Dear Sir,
I have designed a Raman Spectromter but struggling with signal, Could you please help me in this Regards.
1. have designed Spectrogrpah and calbratd with Xe Ar lamps. working nice.
2. an objective lens is used to direct the laser light and collect the scattering from sample.
3. semrock make edge filter is used to remove laser line
only laser iine is appearing not a single hump of Raman spectra.
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The long pass will let a significant amount of the 785 nm laser with a 6 nm bandwidth though and will be at a much higher intesity than the Raman signal. You are seeing a big "baseline" spike in your spectrum (one with rhodamine) and that amount of light in the spectrometer gets scattered internally and creates a large background. What is your spectrometer and its specifications?
With a good notch filter and a laser designed for Raman spectroscopy you can look at the laser line and not have it swamp the Raman signal on either side.
There are a lot of details to getting a Raman signal that can bite you. Go through everything and eliminate all sources of stray light. Good luck.
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I have two raster dataset of NDVI and LST, both calculated from Landsat data. I have extracted the NDVI and LST values for each pixel. Now I want to calculate the soil moisture index using the LST values. For that I have plotted the LST vs NDVI scatter plot. But I am unable to put two different regression lines to the dry edge and the wet edge of the scatter diagram. How to draw the graph?
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Howdy Daniel,
I did the exercise for the XInjiang province in China. It was published as well. Have a look at the following paper to get a grasp on the problem approach.
Cheers,
Frank
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Hi,
I am working on the HEC HMS rainfall-runoff simulation and I have seen many research authors showing, scattered plots for calibration and validation by comparing simulated discharge and observed discharge in both cases. The graphs are attached, can someone explain to me what they tryna show?
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Hello,
The graphs show the deviations from 1:1 line (perfect simulation results).
Try the followings which could be if help:
- Adding upper and lower confidence interval limits
- Showing on log-log plot axes
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Dear Sir/Mam
I am facing a problem related to Transiesta (scattering) calculation, i selected the optimized molecule from gaussian software and attached left and right electrodes to it. After scattering (Transiesta) calculation is over, i checked the carbon to carbon distance of the optimized molecule, the distance between c-c atoms after scattering calculation is increased than before why it is happening and is this ok or not.
Thankyou
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i will check
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I have to classify the urban growth into infill, sprawl, ribbon and scattered development. All literatures gave theoretical base but couldn't find tutorials for practical approach. Can anyone aid me in finding materials for the same?
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Hello,
Landscape metrics calculated through Fragstats may be of help. There are some indices regarding the spatial pattern analysis.
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I am calculating the Scattering and absorption of nanoparticles (Silica is the core and Ag is the shell). I selected the refractive index of the solver FDTD as 1.44. I am not getting the results
Does anyone know how to calculate scattering and absorption on Lumerical
Thanks
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Hello Sir
first of all, I am very thankful to you for all this discussion
Sir, I am sending you the paper which I want to reproduce.
I need your further kindness, am I doing wrong or right?
Please find the attached paper
I want to reproduce figure 1,2,3
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How can i convert particle size distribution (for tailings) in volume % by laser scatter diffraction to a mass %? was thinking just to convert based on solids density but the calculated mass % is the same as the volume %.
Not sure if there is a proper method to do this.
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hi Phillip Donald Fawell hope all is well, it's always good to hear from you.
yes, that was my assumption that SG is the same for both coarse and fines. i am not super familiar with the theory for LSD method. so not sure if i am just paranoid about it.
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I am currently looking at attenuation of light with depth in different materials and have several measurement datasets I need to synthesize. I am mainly looking at attenuation coefficients where k_total = k_scattering + k_absorption. However, one of my data sets is only presented in terms of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the material. I know there is a conversion from m_imaginary to k_absorption via the relation k_abs = (4pi/lambda(nm))*m_im, but I can't seem to find a relation for the real part of the refractive index. I know this corresponds to scattering, but I am wondering if there is a precise relation like that for the real part of the refractive index?
Thanks!
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The problem here is the mixing of two different levels of theory. The "scattering attenuation" coefficient is an extension of the Beer-Lambert approximation. One of the most important assumptions of this approximation is that the refractive index is unity. Note that this extension is also empiric per se (analytically I cannot see how to derive it from Mie-theory or one of its extensions). In this sense it seems paradox to me to now assume that the refractive index is not unity because of the scattering coefficient. In my opinion a non-electromagnetic theory like the BBL approximation should not be mixed with electromagnetic theory...
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Hi,
I want to produce a graph in Origin, comparing two groups of data, in the form of scatter points, where the mean and SE bars are included. See attached photo for reference. It is simple to make this in Graphpad Prism, but for the life of me I cannot figure out how to make it in Origin. Worst case, I'll use the Graphpad one, but would prefer to make all my figures from Origin.
Thanks to anyone who can help!
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We always use grapher but may be you know more comfortable program
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Octave
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I am trying to get some innovative ideas on improving my colony counting method to count germinated zoospores of some oomycetes. Also, looking for an artificial media that does not allow the spread of mycelium so that they do not fuse and make it hard for counting. But, the media is not inhibitory of germination.
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But some black paper under the dish while counting. Or add a super tiny bit of char coal to the medium
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Hello everyone
I attached my scatter plot which is provided for a categorical variable with 3 sub groups .I would like to know is there any errors with this scatter plots ?
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Which is not make sense to me from this scatter plot is,why it's different from
the multiple linear regression formula?
I attached the related data.
Thank you
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Hi all, I need to make a chromatic diagram with CIELab data. I want to put in the background of the scatter diagram a background with the color association, so that each of the points overlaps the color composition. Something similar to what you see in the picture.
Thank you!
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In my experience, you can now cast the 2D scatter plot in origin. Make a suitable background image for CIElab based on the cast result, and then superimpose the two images to get it. However, since it is an a*b* 2D map, the different lightnesses cannot be reflected.
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In solution phase X-ray there is a phenomena wherein photons scattered from the analyte are re-scattered from neighboring particles prior to reaching the instrument detector. During data analysis how to take care of this effect?
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A more sophisticated way to obtain isolates the scattering contributions is to analyze the trajectory of an MD simulation that most effectively captures the dynamics of your material system.
Once you can come up with an MD model that does so, you can computationally carry out the XPCS and extract an approximate signal. Here is a paper I've recently written to address the same:
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Experimental bacterial growth curves with OD600 in the y-axis typically show rate of growth until a stationary/plateau phase is reached. Theoretical growth curves with the number of cells in the y-axis additionally show the death phase, where the number of cells declines.
Can the spectrophotometer distinguish between dead or living cells at the plateau phase, for example if they scatter light differently? or can this only be known from additional viability assays such as stains?
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Thank you very much for your reply Malcolm Nobre
I read that some metabolically inactive (~dead) cells can still have intact membranes that escape staining… I will look into other assays as well.
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In Boltzmann equation the balance of electron flux in energy space for the de-excitation reaction [ e + A* => e + A ] defined as:
R(eps - eps*) x n(eps - eps*) - R(eps) x n(eps) = 0
where
eps* - is the negative treshold energy of corresponding excitation
n(eps) - electronenergy distribution
R(eps) - is the reaction rate
R(eps) = (eps + eps*)/eps x sigma(eps + eps*) x v(eps)
Excitation and de-excitation rates are defined in the same way
R(eps) = sigma(eps) x v(eps)
My question is, which of these definitions are correct, or are they equivalent?
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Good Luck.
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Dust aerosols have a strong scattering peak at small scattering angles (near the sun). The usual single or double Henyey-Greenstein phase functions are convenient in general but do not peak enough to emulate that strong peak in the circumsolar region. Is there any other simple phase function that would provide better results?
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I actually developed one. That's part of a submitted paper now under peer review...
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Hello everyone,
I came across a JGR paper titled "Lidar studies of paticulates in the UTLSregion at a tropical station over the Indian subcontinent" by Bijoy V Thampi et al. (2008JD010556) and found an interesting point about the altitude profiles of molecular backscatter coefficient for co-polarized and cross-polarized 532nm channel are estimated using the respective values of backscatter cross-section along with the altitude profile of molecular number density. As far as I know, the molecular (Rayleigh) particles are spherical in shape and isotropic scattering possible. If this is the case, how the cross-polarized 532nm channel molecular backscatter coefficient altitude profile can be obtained?
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I have doubts
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I have a photoluminescence spectrum of nanotubes in suspension excited by laser beam. Besides usefull photoluminescence signal I also abserve a background caused by scattering of laser light on particles of different shapes and sizes.
I want to have an emperical formula for scattering background, so that I would be able to subtract the background just by adjusting several amperical parameters to consider all possible scattering fenomena. Like that:
Intensity(lambda)=F(lambda0, lambda, A,B,C, ...), where lambda0 is wavelength of excitation laser and A,B,C are some efficient experimental parameters.
Only one idea which I have by the moment is to use not the formula itself but its decomposition to Taylor series. Is it physicaly reasonable procedure? If so, should I use only even powers of (lambda-lambda0)?
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It seems you need an approximation to Mie scattering theory. Perhaps this might give you an entry point to this complex challenge:
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When we measure steady state absorption spectrum of protein at higher temperature, say 800C, generally we found a tremendous scattering in the spectrum. Due to this scattering people face problem during analysis of the spectrum. Suppose, if anyone want to study denaturation kinetics of protein at higher temperature, he/she will face problem to calculate the percentage of denaturation, to understand the denaturation kinetics etc.
So my question is how we can minimize this scattering?
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Thank you Catherine for your support. I tried it but did not work.
regards
koushik
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Hello! I'm new to bioinformatics and cancer databases. I was exploring cbioportal and analyzing coexpression of different genes through scatter plots. I noticed that the axis are labeled as " RSEM (Batch normalized from Illumina HiSeq_RNASeqV2)" (I attached an example so you can see). I know that RSEM is a transcript quantification software but what does "Batch normalized" mean? does it give upper quartile normalization? FPKM? or what?.
thanks in advance!
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It's upper quantile normalisation. See https://www.biostars.org/p/106127/.
Here is a paper comparing normalisation methods I personally find informative.
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I've attached a recreation of this graph type that I need to make for study reports. The clients have sent them to us in the past, but I am trying to make the reporting process more streamlined, so it will help if I can make these on our end before sending them out. I've also seen them in a few publications, so I know they are used, but I don't know what this type of graph is actually called. I have created a convoluted way of tricking excel into spitting one out (pictured), but I still want to know if there is a faster way, or software that can create them. It is difficult to look up tricks when you don't know what to search for.
They need to be able to display either several groups during a single timepoint, or several timepoints for a single group. Its not a true scatter, as the "x value" is the group # or timepoint, but the points are spaced out next to each other rather than on top of each other. The y-axis is then a normal numerical number, like IL-6 levels or an irritation score for an injection site observation.
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Hi Katherine,
I believe these sort of plots are called "Individual Value Plots." The attached figure is in example of one.
Good Luck
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Hi!
So i have implemented the scatterer on a substrate model to AC/DC Module as at the moment we do not have a wave optics module here available. The model in the beginning works just fine, but sometimes if I import a new scatterer geometry or just rotate a scatterer on the substrate I get the following error... Unable to use old solution format - you need to recompute the solution. Wrong number of DOFs in linearization point... Or a very similar cryptic error message, which does not give any info. I have tried to search for a solution in comsol forums and in the help center, but nobody sees to have a solution for it the solution offered in the comsol website does not manage to solve it. It sometimes just randomly disappears (when change the meshing minimally or sometimes clear the previous results or remove/change a nm to m or smth like that or change the solver). Then it randomly works and randomly stops working again. This has been going on now for several months and it is frustrating.... at the moment I work on a 5.2a version. But the similar random error has bugged a lot of people and over several comsol versions.
Any hints and info appreciated!
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Hi Siim,
I have got this error after clearing solutions and mesh in order to decrease the size of my model.
Have a nice day.
Best regards,
Anar
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in order to analytically solve the Lippman Schwinger equation, it is discretized under certain boundary conditions, in literature, the discretized version of equations is usually given but the methodology adopted for discretization is not given.
please help me with a reference to some literature that describes discretization in an elaborative way.
A journal is attached, in which the Lippman Schwinger equation is discretized, but the methodology is not given.
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Dear colleagues,
I am trying to calculate I-V characteristics for typical (Left electrode) - (Device) – (Right electrode) system. Besides the well-known problem of difficult electronic convergence in NEGF, I notice that final atomic forces along transport direction near the electrode-device region increase largely while increasing bias voltage. Please, see dashed ellipses which denote these “problematic atoms” and Trans.fdf file attached.
For instance,
voltage = 0 V: forces ~ 0.005 eV/Ang
voltage = 0.01 V: forces ~ 2.5 eV/Ang
voltage = 0.04 V: forces ~ 10 eV/Ang
voltage = 0.08 V: forces ~ 22 eV/Ang
Other atoms also possess larger forces while increasing bias voltage, but much less than these two “boarder” atomic layers near the device region. Intuitively I can guess that some of my input parameters lead to a wrong seam (inter-connection) of bulk-like electrode and device region.
Maybe some of the following flags (or related to them) are used wrongly:
TS.Elecs.Bulk true
TS.Elecs.DM.Update cross-terms
Or maybe I should modify some TS contours while changing voltage. Now contour definitions are kept constant for each bias.
To be noticed, for each new bias the previous TSDE file is used to accelerate electronic convergence (DM and H criteria) and for each bias it is succesfully converged. But, again, forces become bigger and bigger.
So, would you mind answering two main questions?
1) Do these large forces are really wrong or it’s some methodological artefact and I should simply ignore it?
2) If such force enlargement is a bad symptom, how to fix it?
Thank you in advance for any suggestion or comment.
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Why should they? There could be charge transfer between the surface and graphene.
I will close this discussion here, if you have other questions, please open them here:
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Hello, I have the results for scattering rates, from epw software, but am wondering how I can plot the graphs of scattering rates as a function of energy as we have in this paper fig 1. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-22440-5 Kindly share some information I will be very grateful. I am using gnuplot ==================================================================== # Inverse scattering time (ps) # ik ibnd E(ibnd) scattering rate(1/ps) 1 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 1 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 1 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 2 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 2 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 2 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 3 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 3 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 3 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 4 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 4 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 4 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 5 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 5 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 5 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 6 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 6 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 6 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 7 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 7 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 7 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 8 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 8 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 8 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 9 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 9 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 9 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003 10 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002 10 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002 . . . ====================================================================
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Hey P. Contreras,
Thank you for your answer. However, I don't get you clearly. I have attached the format of scattering rates I got from EPW. In reference to this, which are the real and imaginary parts?
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I have the 95% Confidence Interval results by Bootstrapping method for the aerosol optical parameter (Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, real refractive index, extinction angstrom exponent, fine mode fraction) data.
1. How do I report these results (mean, lower CI, upper CI) on the manuscript?
2. Does these results explain the statistical uncertainty of the data? If yes, then how?
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The bootstrap or resampling method serves as a means for estimating how a statistic's value would change when derived from random samples drawn from an infinite population.
The resampled (mean, CI (lower), CI (upper)) provides us with a range of plausible values of a point estimate (in your case that is the mean of aod/ai/ri, etc or other statistical estimates).
So one way of interpreting the result is if you have computed bootstrapping CI from several methods (for example, empirical, percentile, bias-corrected accelerated bias-corrected). You can compare the sample mean and CI results from these different methods, and discuss the coverage probabilities of point estimated value by the CI constructed by several methods in your manuscript.
This can be one of the ways to interpret.
For your second question, CI (x,y) is actually defining the uncertainty of a point estimate. Imagine you calculated bootstrap sample for mean aod. Your results are 0.85 and CI (0.81, 0.88). So the CI represents the uncertainty that through several sampling you reached an envelope of value 0.81 and 0.88 within which the population (mean) lies.
One critical remark, however, is bootstrap is not a data correction method, it is not going to improve the point estimates. The quality of bootstrap depends upon the quality of data collected. Bootstrap estimates will be skewed if sample data is biased and does not accurately represent the population data.
Hope this information will aid you in your objectives.
Cheers!!! :)
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Hi
A Linear Polarization wave incident to a structure and then transmit a circular polarization to another side, in this way how can I calculate S21 parameter?
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I don't know the answer to your question. One way to understand what is happening is to simulate something you know the answer to, such as an empty cell, and see how the results compare to what you expect. Relating the phase of circular polarization to the phase of linear polarization requires the definition of where zero phase is for the circular - is it when it crosses the V-plane or the H-plane, for instance? You may be able to sort this out by a few simulations varying simple things.
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I want to measure PL spectra for Ag or Au material in Lumerical FDTD. As lumerical fdtd allows to calculate scattering, absorption, extinction spectra from a single nano particle, I am confused about the difference while calculating scattering and PL spectra in fdtd.
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Scattering, absorption and extinction measurements only require the refractive index information of the material. Photoluminescence requires a non-linear model, i.e. there is some process that is absorbing one wavelength and generating energy at other wavelengths. This is a much more complex process requiring some information on the electron structure of the material. I know FDTD can model photoluminescence to a certain degree, however, I do not have any experience with this.
I would suggest looking at the material models available in Lumerical and seeing if any of them would work with your non-linear material model for Ag or Au. Additionally, there are a lot of other considerations for the simulation that you can find on Lumerical's support pages. I would say that is a reasonably advanced use case for Lumerical FDTD.
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Hello,
I am studying proteins bound to large (~500 nm) nanoparticles. I just want to know if there are any special recommendations for sample prep, to get a good CD signal, and whether near UV-CD or far UV-CD is better suited for this, considering the scattering effects I have to overcome.
Thanks in advance!
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Far UV-CD needs lower concentration, optical path length than near UV-CD. Also far UV CD region for proteins have higher molar attenuation coefficient than near region. Far UV-CD region is appropriate for analysis of secondary structure.Near UV-CD is informative about tertiary structure. For proteins bound to large (~500 nm) nanoparticles. ATR-FTIR analysis of amide I spectrum is useful for evaluating secondary structure. Also in ATR- FTIR expriment, scattering effect is not limiting factor and this technique is appropriate for nanoparticle surface analysis.
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I want to calculate the scattering matrix and the coherence matrix for the dual-polSAR is it possible to calculate? or calculation of the scattering matrix and the calculation of the coherence matrix only requires the quad-polSAR data. which software will be better to calculate the scattering matrix and coherence matrix.
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Dear @Omkar,
As I understood your queries clearly, you are supposed to generate polarimetric metrics and further target decomposition using DualPol SAR data. Before jumping to any solutions, one important thing I would like to mention that *Any polarimetric analysis (scattering matrix, covariance/coherency matrix or polarimetric decomposition etc.) must need POLARIMETRIC datasets which datasets must be maintaines "Phase Coherency" between different channels like VV & VH pol, not just "Amplitude". Nowadays, it became more confusing to get this idea as Sentinel-1 mission claim to be polarimetric data with phase coherence so Sentinel SAR data is valid for polarimetric analysis using single look compkex level, but NovaSAR mission doesn't claim phase coherence and not valid for any polarimetric analysis. Second point is that only SLC data can be used for polarimetric analysis, not GRD level.
Hope it may help you to decide on data requirements for polarimetric analysis.
Regards,
Dharmendra
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I have data looks like uploaded image (scatter plot).
In scatter plot, I can clearly distinguish two different Gaussian curve, but origin or excel cannot.
Data is sorted by x axis value, so cannot simply separated by cut bottom or top part of data.
Peak fitting function in origin also not helpful, because it consider this data as noisy single Gaussian curve, not two different curve merged together.
I am looking for software or tool that separate this data to two data, like human can do.
Is there any automated methods not human brute force, like select data points one by one myself?
thanks.
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Click the cell you wish to split in the table. Navigate to the Layout tab. Click Split Cells in the Merge group. Select the number of columns and rows you want in the Split Cells dialog, then click OK.
On Excel, perform the following steps:
1. Navigate to Home > Find & Select > Find.
2. Select Format from the drop-down menu.
3. Select Alignment > Merge cells > OK from the drop-down menu.
4. To get a list of all merged cells in your worksheet, click Find All. Excel picks the combined cell in your worksheet when you click an item in the list. You can now separate the cells.
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Since the cross polarization component is added to the X-Bragg surface scattering model, after removing the volume scattering, there are actually four equations and four unknowns (Fs, Fd, Alpha, Beta). Even if the sign of Re (Shh * Svv*) is considered to determine the dominant scattering mechanism and then solve the remaining parameters, that is, set Alpha and Beta are -1 or 1, it is still unable to solve a certain expression according to the equations.
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use Linear Algebra package in Maple program from Maple soft to solve your problem.
Maple is a powerful tool.
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Please see the attachment for the details of question
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You can use "scatter3sph" function by Francisco de Castro. I give the link below.
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Hi, in SPSS (vs 17) I am trying to create a before-after plot with lines for all cases, colored based on 3 categories. The data are organised as: 2 lines per case (before and after, labeled as 1 and 2), and labeled based on 3 categories of cases (labeled as 1, 2 and 3, per 2 lines per case). Using line plots I have managed to produce a before-after plot for all cases, but only with a seperate color for each case. I am also managing to create a before-after plot with 3 lines, which are all cases per category combined. Using scatter plots, I am managing to get something resembling a before-after plot, only without the connecting lines between the points, but managing to color the seperate cases based on category 1, 2 or 3. However, as described above, I want to have a before-after plot with lines colored based on three categories. I feel this should not be hard to do, but I'm just not managing. Many thanks in advance.
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The question is quite old, but I was searching for the same thing and thought that others might profit from my solution:
  1. Graphs > Legacy Dialogs > Scatter Plot
  2. Put the category variable on the x axis and the variable with quantitative values on the y axis.
  3. You can choose to mark cases using some sort of ID.
  4. OK
  5. Doubleclick on the generated diagram for editing
  6. Doubleclick on the points
  7. Go to "variables"
  8. In the dropdownmenu choose path
Hope that helps
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Photon diffusion happens when photons travelling through a medium undergo repeated scattering events without the photons being absorbed. It can be interpreted as a random walk of photons through the given medium. The question is:
What is then the speed of photon diffusion in a medium with a given density? In other words, how long it takes for the photons to pass through it?
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As part of my research work in swirl flames, I have taken a couple of PIV images of the reactive flow. I strongly doubt the seeding particle is insufficient to capture the recirculation zone. I have attached an MIE scattering image of my experiment. Have a look and comment on my query.
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اتمنى لكم التوفيق في مشروعكم العلمي
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relation between scattering coefficient and diffuse reflectance?
how can we find absorption coefficient from Kubleka Munk function?
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I think this is the best answer
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I want to calculate the scattering rate of a metallic system. I know EPW (electron-phonon wannier) can do this but I can't afford it due to computational costs. Can anybody suggest to me other ways to calculate the scattering rate for metallic systems? Thanks in advance
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After the Powell prism is irradiated by the laser, a one-dimensional linear laser with one-dimensional divergent is formed. What is the speckle size formula of the speckle pattern obtained by the linear laser passing through the scattering plate? The divergence angle is assumed to be θ
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@Leonid Vesselov,30mW,40mm,100mm
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I was measuring the bulk resistance of a gel polymer electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As shown in the Nyquist plot obtained at room temperature, supposingly the width of the semicircle implies the bulk resistance of the electrolyte. However, at 80 degree celsius, the simicircle disappeared, and the data points seem to be scattering in a weird pattern... May I know how should the bulk resistance be calculated in the plot at 80 degree celsius, and is there any explanations for this observation? Thank you!
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welcome!
The heating of the electrolyte decreases its mobility. So, it is expected that the bulk resistance increases. The dielectric consatnt may also decreases such that the shunting capacitor decreases. This means that the semicircle may enlarge with temperature.
In order to predict the tendency of the change of the bulk impedance with temperature I would propose that you measure at intermediate temperatures and observe how the ploy changes.
Best wishes
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I am using 35 variables to make my ML model, now, it is pretty hard to see clearly the scatter graph....the visualization is very poor... what else can I use?
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Dear Jesus Granados , since I do not know which type of model you are dealing with, please excuse if my answer does not fit your needs. Put one dimensionality reduction algorithm which usually works very well for data viz and is thus worth checking out is the t-SNE algorithm.
Here is an explanation:
and here are some pieces of code which implement it in Python:
Anyway, good with your project!
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Not all the solar energy that fall on the parabolic trough collector is been utilized. Some are being scattered while others are absorbed.
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You could check this paper "Exergoeconomic optimization and sensitivity analysis of a commercial parabolic trough collector"
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I recently submitted an article to a journal. I used the Scherrer formula, the W-H plot method, and the Size-strain plot method to determine the crystallite size of the synthesized nanoparticles. One of the reviewers mentioned that the data in the W-H plot are too much scattered and it is difficult to find a linear correlation from the plotted data. As far as I can understand, the cause for this scattering data is due to variations in FWHM values, and I've seen the same scenario in some other research articles. However, because I do not have a background in Material Science, I would like to hear your suggestions. What should I say in reply to the reviewer's comment?
N.B.: I have attached here the W-H plot graph of synthesized ZnO from the article.
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Hello Ushuas
The first impression from your graph is the function y(x). Slope and intersection are given with an accuracy of 3 decimals. The calulated numbers are mathematically OK but physically incredible. The numbers are not better than 1 decimal (slope:
0,001 and intersection 0,005). Please calculate the scattering range and give this numbers accurate with error. Than you can estimate wether your numbers give a senseful result. This depends on the meaning of slope and intersection. May be, your values have an accuracy of 100%. This could mean, the accuracy of the diameter of your particles is known not better than a factor 2. then you must estimate what it means for your conlusions.
With Regard
R. Mitdank
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In general "While dopant increases the strain field fluctuations also increase" but in my case strain field fluctuation decreased. I don't know why? can anyone face this kind of problem?
If yes please explain the reason...
Disorder Scattering parameter, Thermoelectric materials, Strain field
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Elaborate. define doping (substitutional or interstitial?). define strain field and what do you mean by fluctuation? If your material is a secret, label it as (A1xBx)C.
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Dear Research Community,
I'm currently doing experiments in a non-invasive glucose meter but I am finding some papers that their setup have two polarization plates with the sample in between. What I'm curious is why some setup used 0 and 90 degrees but some have 90 and 45 and also some papers uses 0 and 0 degrees accordingly.
Does anyone know why in reflection mode of the laser some setups are 0 90, 90 45, 0 0 for their combination of polarization?
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Thanks Ulf Nobbmann Sir
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total field is the superposition of incident and scattered ones.In a reflection scenario how could it be possible to distic between incident and scattered fields?
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Welcome!
I can give a conceptual answer. You can exploit the law of reflection to separate the incident and the reflected radiation by tilting the incident beam. The reflected beam will make an angel equals that of the incident waves measured from normal to the plane of incidence. So, in this case you can distinguish the incident and reflected wave by their direction angle.
Best wishes
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I am recently working on terahertz generation using tilted pump front method in LN crystal. I basically followed the setup in Hirori 2011 apl paper but unfortunately I couldn't see any THz although some SHG can be seen. I used 800 nm, 70 fs laser. I think maybe I am wrong somewhere but I dont know. Can anyone share their practical tips please? For example, which part (angle of grating, location of lens etc. ) is most important? Can the scattering light from the crystal tell us any information? How to tell that we have the teraherz? Thank you very much!
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Chris Bohr Spectrally broad spectrum. You can look for some papers on the internet. I would recommend to collect all the pump residue from LNO and inject it into the spectrometer. Be careful not to damage the spectrometer.
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I want to model Airy beam propagation in scattering media is there any software or prepared code that I can use?
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I'm reading the book of Chandrasekhar "Radiative Transfer" and I have some doubts about some definitions when the Rayleigh scattering is assumed. In particular, when we consider a plane-parallel geometry, the text define the optical thickness as
\tau(z) = \int_{z}^{\infty} \kappa \rho \: d \zeta
where $ \kappa $ is the mass scattering coefficient, and $ \rho $ is the mass density. I think that Chandrasekhar sets the coordinate system as in the attached figure.
Under the hypothesis of Rayleigh scattering, the text states that
\kappa = \frac{8 \pi ^ 3}{3} \frac{(n ^ 2 - 1) ^ 2}{\lambda ^ 4 N \rho}
where $ n $ is the refractive index, $ \lambda $ is the wavelength, and $ N $ is the number of particle per unit volume. Assuming a single homogeneous layer, I think that the optical thickness could be treated as follows
\tau(z) = \int_{z}^{\infty} \kappa \rho \: d \zeta = \kappa \rho \int_{z}^{0} d \zeta = - \kappa \rho z
for $z \leq 0 $. Imposing that the height of the layer is $d$, and substituting the expression of $ \kappa $, the optical thickness of the layer should be
\tau(d) = \frac{8 \pi ^ 3}{3} \frac{(n ^ 2 - 1) ^ 2}{\lambda ^ 4 N} d
The strange thing is that for a higher $ N $, namely for a higher concentration of particles and so a "denser" medium, the optical thickness decreases, and this appears counter-intuitive to me. Is there an error in my development?
Moreover, Chandrasekhar seems to consider only lossless medium, namely with purely real refractive index, to define the mass scattering coefficient, isn't it? Is there a way to consider also lossy medium?
Finally, from $ \kappa $, Chandrasekhar define the following "scattering coefficient per particle"
\sigma = \frac{8 \pi ^ 3}{3} \frac{(n ^ 2 - 1) ^ 2}{\lambda ^ 4 N ^ 2}
This has the dimension of a cross-section, but it can be seen that it depends on $ N $. Therefore, it is not the cross-section that characterizes a single particle (usually treated in the Mie theory), isn't it? Thanks
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Thanks a lot for your suggestion. I will consult the text of van de Hulst.
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Hi
How do we interpret the scatter plot to assessing the response of the bird community toward the logging effect?
The X-axis is the relative abundance of the bird species recorded before logging
the Y-axis is the relative abundance of the bird species recorded after logging.
Do there have any suitable analysis is recommended for assessing the response of birds towards the logging effect?
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I am slightly surprised that the best fit line has a gradient higher than 45 degrees. If it does, this is probably caused by the presence of 6 new species that were not there before, compared to the complete loss of only 2 species. Of the species that were originally there only one of them is relatively more abundant after logging.
As there are new species present it makes it is necessary to be careful interpreting relative abundance figures. About 20% of the post logging population is new species. About 7% of the pre-logging population is not there. This will push down the relative population of the remaining species by about 13% even if their numbers didn't change.
It is important to also use the actual numbers present. It may be that the actual number of birds has fallen by a factor of 100, except for the few on the left-hand axis that now have the same numbers but are now relatively much more abundant.
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In FDTD there are two kinds of farfield results, namely antenna gain and scatterer RCS. So what's the difference between positive and negative RCS (in dB)? Is it related with energy absorption?
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The unit of measurement for RCS is square meters. The decibel is normalization. It may be the same as mentioned above, or it may be different.
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Whenever I started to work on a research article, the only one thought that came into my mind is "this will be the best work I have ever done". After completing it, when I started to communicate it into the journals my hopes started to scattered into pieces. Because sometimes editor and sometimes the reviewers do not like the idea.
So what factor I should consider before starting my research articles?
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Thank you Prof Mario Radovan for your valuable suggestions. I will keep these in mind before communicating my finding.
Thank a lot
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I am trying to add a trend line and r square value to the scatter diagram. I have prepared a scatter diagram using two raster images but can not add a trend line and r square value. Is it possible in ArcGIS?
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I've never been a fan of the graphing tools in ArcMap and suggest taking the data out to R or Excel. Raster to Point is one way to do this. Alternatively, if this is too many points you can create random sample points and then use the Extract Multivalues to Points tool. If you happen to keep the original FIDs you can create whatever function and then map it back to ArcMap.
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I want to make a stacked bar graph with showing each data value as dots. I tried with graph pad prism, version 6, but could not succeed. Does anyone have tried before making such graphs?
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This video shows step by step how to plot stack graph in OriginPro easily! #aminulcheminnovation #AminulSir
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Could anybody tell me how to make this graph with combined scatter plot and bar chart?
Another question is why the error bar is so small even though the spots are scattered over a wild range.
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To Peshala Eranga Gunasekara : Perhaps you may want to emphasize different kinds of information in a chart. In that case you will combine two or more charts.
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For any cloaking concept why gain is not measured? If so, what is its significance for a scatterer element?
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Dear Vasiliev,
Remember the meaning of cloaking and target of it, it is to get an output almost as that when the cylinder doesn't exist.
So what do you need the gain for? You can define a similar factor considering this.
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It is known that in case particles having size less than one-tenth the wavelength of light, Rayleigh scattering occurs and the scattering is isotropic. But for particles whose sizes are comparable to the wavelength of light, the scattering is more towards the forward direction and hence is anisotropic.
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Dear Somnath Sengupta , thanks for such interesting question, since we often get the mental image of isotropic Rayleigh scattering and the anisotropic Mie scattering in the forward direction but we hardly stop to think about this "odd" behaviour, which could even make us think that is counterintuitive because a larger particle "should" scatter more in the backwards direction, but actually it doesn´t:
First we can considerer two scatterers, one tiny (Rayleigh) and another larger (Mie). Now we are going to focus on two dipoles on each particle (1 and 2). In the tiny particle the two dipoles are necessarily close each other, while in the larger one they could be fairly separated.
Now we send a coherent light beam that hits both particles (and their two dipoles) and check what happens with the scattered light from each particle:
Tiny (Rayleigh) = dipoles 1 and 2 very close because (r<< wavelength)
Because 1 and 2 are very very close the wavelength hits them almost in the same moment, say in the crest of the wave. This interaction produces a new wave forward and backward from each dipole. The forward and backward waves are in phase with the main wave, and because the two dipoles are so close they respective waves are practically in phase too, both forward and backward so the scattering is isotropic.
Big (Mie) = dipoles 1 and 2 are separated because (r => wavelength)
Because 1 and 2 are separated the main wave hits them at different times, say 1 in the crest and 2 in the valey of the wave. In the forward direction both scattering waves are in phase with the main wave and therefore they reinforce themselves by positive interference. However, the backward waves are out of phase and therefore they cause negative interference, reducing its intensity and therefore explaining the anisotropic nature of Mie scattering.
The larger the particle, the further apart could be the dipoles and bigger would be the anisotropy.
Note: This explanation involved just two dipoles, for simplicity, but a real particle could have lots of them.
Hope this helps. Good luck with your research and thanks for making questions that make us think.
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I have used a scatter plot in my study but I am not sure whether it is a level of analysis or a means of verifying correlations.
I would like expert guidance from researchers on how to present findings of a mixed design study that used Exploratory Sequential approach
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Leo, Kate and Joseph,
I appreciate your response questioning. Joseph the resources provided added value to my work.
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I have data for the feeding behavior using scatter hoarding, but I don,t know how to make it spatial.
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To create a spatial map series, complete the following steps:
Open a layout that contains the relevant content. On the Layout tab, click the bottom half of the Map Series button 📷. Select Spatial 📷. Set the Map frame, Layer, Name Field, and Sort Field options by selecting a value from each drop-down list. Optionally, set the Group By, Page Number, Rotation, and Spatial Reference options by selecting a value from each drop-down list. You can also set the First Page text box. Choose a Map Extent option: Best Fit, Center and Maintain Scale, or Use Scale from Field. Click OK to create the map series.
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Is there any open source code (C, C++, Python or Matlab) for discrete dipole approximation for scattering problems in a complex dielectric medium ?
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Indeed, if you have a complicated environment around a finite particle, than your best choice is a direct discretization of a large chunk of this environment (with any DDA code, like DDSCAT or ADDA).
The only available option to avoid this is for a semi-infinite substrate - ADDA can account for it analytically (discretizing only the scatterer itself). See https://github.com/adda-team/adda and the paper
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I want to plot the following function on a sphere to obtain the figures see the attachment. P11 and P12 are the row vectors in my directory. The first figure is generated by using the values [1,1,0,0] and the second is generated by [1,0,0,1] of the vector [I0,Q0,U0,V0]. I have coded some program and the output I obtained is also mentioned.
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% I COULDN'T SEE YOUR ATTACHMENT. MAYBE THIS WILL HELP.
% Phase data plotted on a unit globe.
% latitude/longitude grid used to cover the globe
lat = -90:10: 90; temp = size(lat); nlat = temp(2);
lon = 0:10:360; temp = size(lon); nlon = temp(2);
% Cartesian coordinates of the grid vertices
x = cosd(lat')*cosd(lon);
y = cosd(lat')*sind(lon);
z = sind(lat')*ones(size(lon));
% Dummy phase data (random numbers from pmin to pmax).
pmin = 0; pmax = 2*pi;
temp = pmin + (pmax - pmin)*rand(1,nlat*nlon);
junk = reshape(temp,[nlat,nlon]);
% Plotting
hdata = surf(x,y,z, junk);
% Don't draw grid lines.
% If you want grid linesm, replace the 'none'.
set(hdata,'LineStyle','none');
% The hsv color map is *periodic* -- a natural thing for phase plots.
colormap(hsv);
% Makes the plot translucent.
% For an opaque plot, use alpha(hdata,1).
alpha(hdata,0.6);
% Prevents the annoying rescaling that otherwise happens
% when you rotate the plot with your mouse.
axis vis3d
% Adds a reasonable-looking color bar.
hcbar = colorbar;
caxis([pmin,pmax])
set(hcbar,'location', 'EastOutside');
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Hello,
I have a question about defining background field in COMSOL, in my simulation which is slightly different from the scatterer on substrate solved model by COMSOL; I have to define the incident light as a x polarized light which propagates in the -z direction, can I use the E0*exp(-j*ewfd.k0*z) as my background field?
I tried to solve the problem with this definition but there was something wrong and I wonder if I am defining my background field wrong.
I appreciate your help.
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Dear Katayoon Ghaemi , the background field would be the electric field in absence of the scatterer. So, basically you would have to model it removing your scatterer and assuming an infinite substrate in the z direction. This background field would be the sum of the incident, reflected and transmitted plane waves.
This is clearly explained at COMSOL blog by Walter Frei : Modeling the Scattering of Light Off of an Object on a Substrate:
There he follows a method to get an analytic solution of the background field, that could be more time consuming at setting up the simulation, but runs faster than the scatterer on substrate you referred to. This analytical approach is clear and helps to reinforce the understanding of the method.
Hope it helps. Good luck with your simulation.
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Is there any simulation tool or any theoretical relationship related to this issue? Is there any specific Comsol module for this?
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Radio Frequency,structural mechanics and electrostatics modules can be used together with multi physics coupling to find out the necessary scattering parameters.
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Hello,
I am looking for a tool that can take a photo (street light halo as an example) as an input and give me the different parameters (such as scattered light intensity vs scattering angle plot) as as output.
Please let me know. I am attaching the photo of a halo.
Thanks.
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Such tool is an image processing software. There are several ones, for example, Matlab or ImageJ (it is free). These packages transfer image into matrix with 3 Red, Green, Blue matrix components. Than you could draw cross-section of each matrix to have dependence of corresponding intensity from distance from lamp center. If you will measure in such a way lamp intensity, you can normalize on it light distribution, so you will have dependence of scattered intensity on distance from lamp. If you know distance from camera to lamp, you can calculate angular dependence of scattered intensity.
About lamp intensity, for above shot there is obvious saturation of your camera sensor, so to have correct normalization of scattered intensity you must take another shot with shorter exposition, to put lamp intensity into linear camera range.
Sometimes if the range of the image intensity is wider that that linear range of your camera, you need to combine, overlap two or several shots into one, changing their expositions to cover whole object scattering range.
By the way, *.JPG image format is not the best format for such treatment. PNG, TIF, RAW are more precise due to lossless image compression and wider dynamic registration range for the case of RAW format.
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In File 7 of ENDF thermal scattering sublibrary, the coherent elastic cross sections of solid polycrystals are all for powdered samples.
Texture in the solid samples will affect the Bragg scattering cross sections. The structural materials in reactors are not powdered samples. I wonder is it reasonable to use the coherent elastic scattering cross section for the powdered polycrystal in the simulation of reactors?
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What do you mean by reactor?
Coherent elastic scattering of what?
Neutrons and X-Rays undergo Bragg scattering in polycrystalline metals.
As you mention the behaviour is similar to a powder, because of low interaction of the radiation with the material.
Nicolò
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Hello, I have a question for researchers who have tried running a replication code of a graph syntax.
When I try to replicate using the syntax files, I often found out the commands usually like this (example from Mostly Harmless Econometrics).
But to run the syntax, I had to delete those /// in each line and type the syntax in a single row of the command line. (The do file editors could not read the replication code).
But then why do the researchers upload the syntax using /// and separate each option?
And can I get a quick way to replicate the graph using the commands by not deleting all the ///?
I googled a lot but could not figure it out...
Thank you all in advance!
graph twoway (line lwklywge yqob, lcolor(black)) /// (scatter lwklywge yqob if qob == 1, /// mlabel(qob) msize(small) msymbol(S) mcolor(black)) /// (scatter lwklywge yqob if qob != 1, /// mlabel(qob) msize(small) msymbol(Sh) mcolor(black)), /// xlabel(, format(%tqY)) /// title("B. Average weekly wage by quarter of birth (reduced form)") /// ytitle("Log weekly earnings") /// xtitle("Year of birth") /// legend(off) /// name(lwklywge) /// scheme(s1mono)
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You're welcome Gisk Pyeon and thanks for recommendation!
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