Science topic

# Scattering - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Scattering, and find Scattering experts.

Questions related to Scattering

How to make a scattering region

Any software that can process this?

In text books defined that if in a collision the total kinetic energy before and after collision is conserved then it is called elastic collision other wise in-elastic ( momentum conserve in both cases).

The Compton scattering total kinetic energy is conserved before and after collision, but is called inelastic scattering. In literature it says that "

Elastic scattering occurs when there is no loss of energy of the incident primary particle. Elastically scattered particle can change direction but do not change their wavelength.

Inelastic scattering occurs when there is an interaction that causes loss of energy of the incident primary particle. In-elastically scattered particle have a longer wavelength."

Now my question : (1) Is the collision and scattering are different?

If yes, then (2) how define both the collision and scattering and how to distinguish?

Dear Sir,

I have designed a Raman Spectromter but struggling with signal, Could you please help me in this Regards.

1. have designed Spectrogrpah and calbratd with Xe Ar lamps. working nice.

2. an objective lens is used to direct the laser light and collect the scattering from sample.

3. semrock make edge filter is used to remove laser line

only laser iine is appearing not a single hump of Raman spectra.

I have two raster dataset of NDVI and LST, both calculated from Landsat data. I have extracted the NDVI and LST values for each pixel. Now I want to calculate the soil moisture index using the LST values. For that I have plotted the LST vs NDVI scatter plot. But I am unable to put two different regression lines to the dry edge and the wet edge of the scatter diagram. How to draw the graph?

Hi,

I am working on the HEC HMS rainfall-runoff simulation and I have seen many research authors showing, scattered plots for calibration and validation by comparing simulated discharge and observed discharge in both cases. The graphs are attached, can someone explain to me what they tryna show?

Dear Sir/Mam

I am facing a problem related to Transiesta (scattering) calculation, i selected the optimized molecule from gaussian software and attached left and right electrodes to it. After scattering (Transiesta) calculation is over, i checked the carbon to carbon distance of the optimized molecule, the distance between c-c atoms after scattering calculation is increased than before why it is happening and is this ok or not.

Thankyou

I have to classify the urban growth into infill, sprawl, ribbon and scattered development. All literatures gave theoretical base but couldn't find tutorials for practical approach. Can anyone aid me in finding materials for the same?

I am calculating the Scattering and absorption of nanoparticles (Silica is the core and Ag is the shell). I selected the refractive index of the solver FDTD as 1.44. I am not getting the results

Does anyone know how to calculate scattering and absorption on Lumerical

Thanks

How can i convert particle size distribution (for tailings) in volume % by laser scatter diffraction to a mass %? was thinking just to convert based on solids density but the calculated mass % is the same as the volume %.

Not sure if there is a proper method to do this.

I am currently looking at attenuation of light with depth in different materials and have several measurement datasets I need to synthesize. I am mainly looking at attenuation coefficients where k_total = k_scattering + k_absorption. However, one of my data sets is only presented in terms of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the material. I know there is a conversion from m_imaginary to k_absorption via the relation k_abs = (4pi/lambda(nm))*m_im, but I can't seem to find a relation for the real part of the refractive index. I know this corresponds to scattering, but I am wondering if there is a precise relation like that for the real part of the refractive index?

Thanks!

Hi,

I want to produce a graph in Origin, comparing two groups of data, in the form of scatter points, where the mean and SE bars are included. See attached photo for reference. It is simple to make this in Graphpad Prism, but for the life of me I cannot figure out how to make it in Origin. Worst case, I'll use the Graphpad one, but would prefer to make all my figures from Origin.

Thanks to anyone who can help!

We always use grapher but may be you know more comfortable program

I am trying to get some innovative ideas on improving my colony counting method to count germinated zoospores of some oomycetes. Also, looking for an artificial media that does not allow the spread of mycelium so that they do not fuse and make it hard for counting. But, the media is not inhibitory of germination.

Hello everyone

I attached my scatter plot which is provided for a categorical variable with 3 sub groups .I would like to know is there any errors with this scatter plots ?

Hi all, I need to make a chromatic diagram with CIELab data. I want to put in the background of the scatter diagram a background with the color association, so that each of the points overlaps the color composition. Something similar to what you see in the picture.

Thank you!

In solution phase X-ray there is a phenomena wherein photons scattered from the analyte are re-scattered from neighboring particles prior to reaching the instrument detector. During data analysis how to take care of this effect?

Experimental bacterial growth curves with OD600 in the y-axis typically show rate of growth until a stationary/plateau phase is reached. Theoretical growth curves with the number of cells in the y-axis additionally show the death phase, where the number of cells declines.

Can the spectrophotometer distinguish between dead or living cells at the plateau phase, for example if they scatter light differently? or can this only be known from additional viability assays such as stains?

In Boltzmann equation the balance of electron flux in energy space for the de-excitation reaction [ e + A* => e + A ] defined as:

R(eps - eps*) x n(eps - eps*) - R(eps) x n(eps) = 0

where

eps* - is the negative treshold energy of corresponding excitation

n(eps) - electronenergy distribution

R(eps) - is the reaction rate

R(eps) = (eps + eps*)/eps x sigma(eps + eps*) x v(eps)

Excitation and de-excitation rates are defined in the same way

R(eps) = sigma(eps) x v(eps)

My question is, which of these definitions are correct, or are they equivalent?

Dust aerosols have a strong scattering peak at small scattering angles (near the sun). The usual single or double Henyey-Greenstein phase functions are convenient in general but do not peak enough to emulate that strong peak in the circumsolar region. Is there any other simple phase function that would provide better results?

Hello everyone,

I came across a JGR paper titled "Lidar studies of paticulates in the UTLSregion at a tropical station over the Indian subcontinent" by Bijoy V Thampi et al. (2008JD010556) and found an interesting point about the altitude profiles of molecular backscatter coefficient for co-polarized and cross-polarized 532nm channel are estimated using the respective values of backscatter cross-section along with the altitude profile of molecular number density. As far as I know, the molecular (Rayleigh) particles are spherical in shape and isotropic scattering possible. If this is the case, how the cross-polarized 532nm channel molecular backscatter coefficient altitude profile can be obtained?

I have a photoluminescence spectrum of nanotubes in suspension excited by laser beam. Besides usefull photoluminescence signal I also abserve a background caused by scattering of laser light on particles of different shapes and sizes.

I want to have an emperical formula for scattering background, so that I would be able to subtract the background just by adjusting several amperical parameters to consider all possible scattering fenomena. Like that:

Intensity(lambda)=F(lambda0, lambda, A,B,C, ...), where lambda0 is wavelength of excitation laser and A,B,C are some efficient experimental parameters.

Only one idea which I have by the moment is to use not the formula itself but its decomposition to Taylor series. Is it physicaly reasonable procedure? If so, should I use only even powers of (lambda-lambda0)?

When we measure steady state absorption spectrum of protein at higher temperature, say 80

^{0}C, generally we found a tremendous scattering in the spectrum. Due to this scattering people face problem during analysis of the spectrum. Suppose, if anyone want to study denaturation kinetics of protein at higher temperature, he/she will face problem to calculate the percentage of denaturation, to understand the denaturation kinetics etc.So my question is how we can minimize this scattering?

Hello! I'm new to bioinformatics and cancer databases. I was exploring cbioportal and analyzing coexpression of different genes through scatter plots. I noticed that the axis are labeled as " RSEM (Batch normalized from Illumina HiSeq_RNASeqV2)" (I attached an example so you can see). I know that RSEM is a transcript quantification software but what does "Batch normalized" mean? does it give upper quartile normalization? FPKM? or what?.

thanks in advance!

I've attached a recreation of this graph type that I need to make for study reports. The clients have sent them to us in the past, but I am trying to make the reporting process more streamlined, so it will help if I can make these on our end before sending them out. I've also seen them in a few publications, so I know they are used, but I don't know what this type of graph is actually called. I have created a convoluted way of tricking excel into spitting one out (pictured), but I still want to know if there is a faster way, or software that can create them. It is difficult to look up tricks when you don't know what to search for.

They need to be able to display either several groups during a single timepoint, or several timepoints for a single group. Its not a true scatter, as the "x value" is the group # or timepoint, but the points are spaced out next to each other rather than on top of each other. The y-axis is then a normal numerical number, like IL-6 levels or an irritation score for an injection site observation.

Hi!

So i have implemented the scatterer on a substrate model to AC/DC Module as at the moment we do not have a wave optics module here available. The model in the beginning works just fine, but sometimes if I import a new scatterer geometry or just rotate a scatterer on the substrate I get the following error...

**Unable to use old solution format - you need to recompute the solution. Wrong number of DOFs in linearization point**... Or a very similar cryptic error message, which does not give any info. I have tried to search for a solution in comsol forums and in the help center, but nobody sees to have a solution for it the solution offered in the comsol website does not manage to solve it. It sometimes just randomly disappears (when change the meshing minimally or sometimes clear the previous results or remove/change a nm to m or smth like that or change the solver). Then it randomly works and randomly stops working again. This has been going on now for several months and it is frustrating.... at the moment I work on a 5.2a version. But the similar random error has bugged a lot of people and over several comsol versions.Any hints and info appreciated!

in order to analytically solve the Lippman Schwinger equation, it is discretized under certain boundary conditions, in literature, the discretized version of equations is usually given but the methodology adopted for discretization is not given.

please help me with a reference to some literature that describes discretization in an elaborative way.

A journal is attached, in which the Lippman Schwinger equation is discretized, but the methodology is not given.

Dear colleagues,

I am trying to calculate I-V characteristics for typical (Left electrode) - (Device) – (Right electrode) system. Besides the well-known problem of difficult electronic convergence in NEGF, I notice that final atomic forces along transport direction near the electrode-device region increase largely while increasing bias voltage. Please, see dashed ellipses which denote these “problematic atoms” and Trans.fdf file attached.

For instance,

voltage = 0 V: forces ~ 0.005 eV/Ang

voltage = 0.01 V: forces ~ 2.5 eV/Ang

voltage = 0.04 V: forces ~ 10 eV/Ang

voltage = 0.08 V: forces ~ 22 eV/Ang

Other atoms also possess larger forces while increasing bias voltage, but much less than these two “boarder” atomic layers near the device region. Intuitively I can guess that some of my input parameters lead to a wrong seam (inter-connection) of bulk-like electrode and device region.

Maybe some of the following flags (or related to them) are used wrongly:

TS.Elecs.Bulk true

TS.Elecs.DM.Update cross-terms

Or maybe I should modify some TS contours while changing voltage. Now contour definitions are kept constant for each bias.

To be noticed, for each new bias the previous TSDE file is used to accelerate electronic convergence (DM and H criteria) and for each bias it is succesfully converged. But, again, forces become bigger and bigger.

So, would you mind answering two main questions?

1) Do these large forces are really wrong or it’s some methodological artefact and I should simply ignore it?

2) If such force enlargement is a bad symptom, how to fix it?

Thank you in advance for any suggestion or comment.

Hello,
I have the results for scattering rates, from epw software, but am wondering how I can plot the graphs of scattering rates as a function of energy as we have in this paper fig 1. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-22440-5
Kindly share some information I will be very grateful. I am using gnuplot
====================================================================
# Inverse scattering time (ps)
# ik ibnd E(ibnd) scattering rate(1/ps)
1 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
1 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
1 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
2 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
2 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
2 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
3 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
3 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
3 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
4 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
4 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
4 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
5 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
5 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
5 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
6 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
6 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
6 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
7 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
7 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
7 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
8 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
8 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
8 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
9 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
9 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
9 5 0.33364740729340E+01 0.1817640794169847E+003
10 3 -0.29205368674922E+01 0.1404112602437623E+002
10 4 -0.29204177603800E+01 0.7328995342445310E+002
.
.
.
====================================================================

I have the 95% Confidence Interval results by Bootstrapping method for the aerosol optical parameter (Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, real refractive index, extinction angstrom exponent, fine mode fraction) data.

1. How do I report these results (mean, lower CI, upper CI) on the manuscript?

2. Does these results explain the statistical uncertainty of the data? If yes, then how?

Hi

A Linear Polarization wave incident to a structure and then transmit a circular polarization to another side, in this way how can I calculate S21 parameter?

I want to measure PL spectra for Ag or Au material in Lumerical FDTD. As lumerical fdtd allows to calculate scattering, absorption, extinction spectra from a single nano particle, I am confused about the difference while calculating scattering and PL spectra in fdtd.

Hello,

I am studying proteins bound to large (~500 nm) nanoparticles. I just want to know if there are any special recommendations for sample prep, to get a good CD signal, and whether near UV-CD or far UV-CD is better suited for this, considering the scattering effects I have to overcome.

Thanks in advance!

I want to calculate the scattering matrix and the coherence matrix for the dual-polSAR is it possible to calculate? or calculation of the scattering matrix and the calculation of the coherence matrix only requires the quad-polSAR data. which software will be better to calculate the scattering matrix and coherence matrix.

I have data looks like uploaded image (scatter plot).

In scatter plot, I can clearly distinguish two different Gaussian curve, but origin or excel cannot.

Data is sorted by x axis value, so cannot simply separated by cut bottom or top part of data.

Peak fitting function in origin also not helpful, because it consider this data as noisy single Gaussian curve, not two different curve merged together.

I am looking for software or tool that separate this data to two data, like human can do.

Is there any automated methods not human brute force, like select data points one by one myself?

thanks.

Since the cross polarization component is added to the X-Bragg surface scattering model, after removing the volume scattering, there are actually four equations and four unknowns (Fs, Fd, Alpha, Beta). Even if the sign of Re (Shh * Svv

^{*}) is considered to determine the dominant scattering mechanism and then solve the remaining parameters, that is, set Alpha and Beta are -1 or 1, it is still unable to solve a certain expression according to the equations.Please see the attachment for the details of question

Hi, in SPSS (vs 17) I am trying to create a before-after plot with lines for all cases, colored based on 3 categories. The data are organised as: 2 lines per case (before and after, labeled as 1 and 2), and labeled based on 3 categories of cases (labeled as 1, 2 and 3, per 2 lines per case). Using line plots I have managed to produce a before-after plot for all cases, but only with a seperate color for each case. I am also managing to create a before-after plot with 3 lines, which are all cases per category combined. Using scatter plots, I am managing to get something resembling a before-after plot, only without the connecting lines between the points, but managing to color the seperate cases based on category 1, 2 or 3. However, as described above, I want to have a before-after plot with lines colored based on three categories. I feel this should not be hard to do, but I'm just not managing. Many thanks in advance.

Photon diffusion happens when photons travelling through a medium undergo repeated scattering events without the photons being absorbed. It can be interpreted as a random walk of photons through the given medium. The question is:

What is then the speed of photon diffusion in a medium with a given density? In other words, how long it takes for the photons to pass through it?

As part of my research work in swirl flames, I have taken a couple of PIV images of the reactive flow. I strongly doubt the seeding particle is insufficient to capture the recirculation zone. I have attached an MIE scattering image of my experiment. Have a look and comment on my query.

relation between scattering coefficient and diffuse reflectance?

how can we find absorption coefficient from Kubleka Munk function?

I want to calculate the scattering rate of a metallic system. I know EPW (electron-phonon wannier) can do this but I can't afford it due to computational costs. Can anybody suggest to me other ways to calculate the scattering rate for metallic systems? Thanks in advance

After the Powell prism is irradiated by the laser, a one-dimensional linear laser with one-dimensional divergent is formed. What is the speckle size formula of the speckle pattern obtained by the linear laser passing through the scattering plate? The divergence angle is assumed to be θ

I was measuring the bulk resistance of a gel polymer electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As shown in the Nyquist plot obtained at room temperature, supposingly the width of the semicircle implies the bulk resistance of the electrolyte. However, at 80 degree celsius, the simicircle disappeared, and the data points seem to be scattering in a weird pattern... May I know how should the bulk resistance be calculated in the plot at 80 degree celsius, and is there any explanations for this observation? Thank you!

I am using 35 variables to make my ML model, now, it is pretty hard to see clearly the scatter graph....the visualization is very poor... what else can I use?

Not all the solar energy that fall on the parabolic trough collector is been utilized. Some are being scattered while others are absorbed.

I recently submitted an article to a journal. I used the Scherrer formula, the W-H plot method, and the Size-strain plot method to determine the crystallite size of the synthesized nanoparticles. One of the reviewers mentioned that the data in the W-H plot are too much scattered and it is difficult to find a linear correlation from the plotted data. As far as I can understand, the cause for this scattering data is due to variations in FWHM values, and I've seen the same scenario in some other research articles. However, because I do not have a background in Material Science, I would like to hear your suggestions. What should I say in reply to the reviewer's comment?

N.B.: I have attached here the W-H plot graph of synthesized ZnO from the article.

In general "While dopant increases the strain field fluctuations also increase" but in my case strain field fluctuation decreased. I don't know why? can anyone face this kind of problem?

If yes please explain the reason...

Disorder Scattering parameter, Thermoelectric materials, Strain field

Dear Research Community,

I'm currently doing experiments in a non-invasive glucose meter but I am finding some papers that their setup have two polarization plates with the sample in between. What I'm curious is why some setup used 0 and 90 degrees but some have 90 and 45 and also some papers uses 0 and 0 degrees accordingly.

Does anyone know why in reflection mode of the laser some setups are 0 90, 90 45, 0 0 for their combination of polarization?

total field is the superposition of incident and scattered ones.In a reflection scenario how could it be possible to distic between incident and scattered fields?

I am recently working on terahertz generation using tilted pump front method in LN crystal. I basically followed the setup in Hirori 2011 apl paper but unfortunately I couldn't see any THz although some SHG can be seen. I used 800 nm, 70 fs laser. I think maybe I am wrong somewhere but I dont know. Can anyone share their practical tips please? For example, which part (angle of grating, location of lens etc. ) is most important? Can the scattering light from the crystal tell us any information? How to tell that we have the teraherz? Thank you very much!

I want to model Airy beam propagation in scattering media is there any software or prepared code that I can use?

I'm reading the book of Chandrasekhar "Radiative Transfer" and I have some doubts about some definitions when the Rayleigh scattering is assumed. In particular, when we consider a plane-parallel geometry, the text define the optical thickness as

\tau(z) = \int_{z}^{\infty} \kappa \rho \: d \zeta

where $ \kappa $ is the mass scattering coefficient, and $ \rho $ is the mass density. I think that Chandrasekhar sets the coordinate system as in the attached figure.

Under the hypothesis of Rayleigh scattering, the text states that

\kappa = \frac{8 \pi ^ 3}{3} \frac{(n ^ 2 - 1) ^ 2}{\lambda ^ 4 N \rho}

where $ n $ is the refractive index, $ \lambda $ is the wavelength, and $ N $ is the number of particle per unit volume. Assuming a single homogeneous layer, I think that the optical thickness could be treated as follows

\tau(z) = \int_{z}^{\infty} \kappa \rho \: d \zeta = \kappa \rho \int_{z}^{0} d \zeta = - \kappa \rho z

for $z \leq 0 $. Imposing that the height of the layer is $d$, and substituting the expression of $ \kappa $, the optical thickness of the layer should be

\tau(d) = \frac{8 \pi ^ 3}{3} \frac{(n ^ 2 - 1) ^ 2}{\lambda ^ 4 N} d

The strange thing is that for a higher $ N $, namely for a higher concentration of particles and so a "denser" medium, the optical thickness decreases, and this appears counter-intuitive to me. Is there an error in my development?

Moreover, Chandrasekhar seems to consider only lossless medium, namely with purely real refractive index, to define the mass scattering coefficient, isn't it? Is there a way to consider also lossy medium?

Finally, from $ \kappa $, Chandrasekhar define the following "scattering coefficient per particle"

\sigma = \frac{8 \pi ^ 3}{3} \frac{(n ^ 2 - 1) ^ 2}{\lambda ^ 4 N ^ 2}

This has the dimension of a cross-section, but it can be seen that it depends on $ N $. Therefore, it is not the cross-section that characterizes a single particle (usually treated in the Mie theory), isn't it? Thanks

Hi

How do we interpret the scatter plot to assessing the response of the bird community toward the logging effect?

The X-axis is the relative abundance of the bird species recorded before logging

the Y-axis is the relative abundance of the bird species recorded after logging.

Do there have any suitable analysis is recommended for assessing the response of birds towards the logging effect?

In FDTD there are two kinds of farfield results, namely antenna gain and scatterer RCS. So what's the difference between positive and negative RCS (in dB)? Is it related with energy absorption?

Whenever I started to work on a research article, the only one thought that came into my mind is "this will be the best work I have ever done". After completing it, when I started to communicate it into the journals my hopes started to scattered into pieces. Because sometimes editor and sometimes the reviewers do not like the idea.

So what factor I should consider before starting my research articles?

I am trying to add a trend line and r square value to the scatter diagram. I have prepared a scatter diagram using two raster images but can not add a trend line and r square value. Is it possible in ArcGIS?

I want to make a stacked bar graph with showing each data value as dots. I tried with graph pad prism, version 6, but could not succeed. Does anyone have tried before making such graphs?

Could anybody tell me how to make this graph with combined scatter plot and bar chart?

Another question is why the error bar is so small even though the spots are scattered over a wild range.

For any cloaking concept why gain is not measured? If so, what is its significance for a scatterer element?

It is known that in case particles having size less than one-tenth the wavelength of light, Rayleigh scattering occurs and the scattering is isotropic. But for particles whose sizes are comparable to the wavelength of light, the scattering is more towards the forward direction and hence is anisotropic.

I have used a scatter plot in my study but I am not sure whether it is a level of analysis or a means of verifying correlations.

I would like expert guidance from researchers on how to present findings of a mixed design study that used Exploratory Sequential

**approach**I have data for the feeding behavior using scatter hoarding, but I don,t know how to make it spatial.

Is there any open source code (C, C++, Python or Matlab) for discrete dipole approximation for scattering problems in a complex dielectric medium ?

I want to plot the following function on a sphere to obtain the figures see the attachment. P11 and P12 are the row vectors in my directory. The first figure is generated by using the values [1,1,0,0] and the second is generated by [1,0,0,1] of the vector [I0,Q0,U0,V0]. I have coded some program and the output I obtained is also mentioned.

Hello,

I have a question about defining background field in COMSOL, in my simulation which is slightly different from the scatterer on substrate solved model by COMSOL; I have to define the incident light as a x polarized light which propagates in the -z direction, can I use the E0*exp(-j*ewfd.k0*z) as my background field?

I tried to solve the problem with this definition but there was something wrong and I wonder if I am defining my background field wrong.

I appreciate your help.

Is there any simulation tool or any theoretical relationship related to this issue? Is there any specific Comsol module for this?

Hello,

I am looking for a tool that can take a photo (street light halo as an example) as an input and give me the different parameters (such as scattered light intensity vs scattering angle plot) as as output.

Please let me know. I am attaching the photo of a halo.

Thanks.

In File 7 of ENDF thermal scattering sublibrary, the coherent elastic cross sections of solid polycrystals are all for powdered samples.

Texture in the solid samples will affect the Bragg scattering cross sections. The structural materials in reactors are not powdered samples. I wonder is it reasonable to use the coherent elastic scattering cross section for the powdered polycrystal in the simulation of reactors?

Hello, I have a question for researchers who have tried running a replication code of a graph syntax.

When I try to replicate using the syntax files, I often found out the commands usually like this (example from Mostly Harmless Econometrics).

But to run the syntax, I had to delete those /// in each line and type the syntax in a single row of the command line. (The do file editors could not read the replication code).

But then why do the researchers upload the syntax using /// and separate each option?

And can I get a quick way to replicate the graph using the commands by not deleting all the ///?

I googled a lot but could not figure it out...

Thank you all in advance!

graph twoway (line lwklywge yqob, lcolor(black)) /// (scatter lwklywge yqob if qob == 1, /// mlabel(qob) msize(small) msymbol(S) mcolor(black)) /// (scatter lwklywge yqob if qob != 1, /// mlabel(qob) msize(small) msymbol(Sh) mcolor(black)), /// xlabel(, format(%tqY)) /// title("B. Average weekly wage by quarter of birth (reduced form)") /// ytitle("Log weekly earnings") /// xtitle("Year of birth") /// legend(off) /// name(lwklywge) /// scheme(s1mono)