Science topics: Evolutionary BiologyScaling

Science topic

# Scaling - Science topic

Explore the latest publications in Scaling, and find Scaling experts.

Publications related to Scaling (10,000)

Sorted by most recent

Focus on societal problems, especially those affecting vulnerable groups, create solutions for tackling these problems, and then find ways of scaling the innovation! This intuitive sequence structures many social innovation discussions. And yet, it is incomplete and can therefore have detrimental effects for the goals associated with social innovat...

How the gut microbiota is organized across space is postulated to influence microbial succession and its mutualistic relationships with the host. The lack of dynamic or perturbed abundance data poses considerable challenges for characterizing the spatial pattern of microbial interactions. We integrate allometric scaling theory, evolutionary game th...

This work reports a three-dimensional polymer interdigitated pillar electrostatic actuator that can produce force densities 5–10× higher than those of biological muscles. The theory of operation, scaling, and stability is investigated using analytical and FEM models. The actuator consists of two high-density arrays of interdigitated pillars that wo...

We introduce an inductive n -qubit pure-state estimation method based on projective measurements on m n + 1 separable bases or m entangled bases plus the computational basis, with m ≥ 2. The method exhibits a favorable scaling in the number of qubits compared to other estimation schemes. The use of separable bases makes our estimation method partic...

The data-embedding process is one of the bottlenecks of quantum machine learning, potentially negating any quantum speedups. In light of this, more effective data-encoding strategies are necessary. We propose a photonic-based bosonic data-encoding scheme that embeds classical data points using fewer encoding layers and circumventing the need for no...

Recent studies of resistive switching devices with hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as the switching layer have shown the potential of two-dimensional (2D) materials for memory and neuromorphic computing applications. The use of 2D materials allows scaling the resistive switching layer thickness to sub-nanometer dimensions enabling devices to operate...

Background
PedsQL Infant Scales (PedsQL-I) are used to assess parent-reported health-related quality of life for children younger than 2 years. We determined the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the PedsQL-I.
Methods
A total of 183 participants (parents) with infants aged 1–30 months were recruited from 8 day care...

When scaling psychological tests with methods of item response theory it is necessary to investigate to what extent the responses correspond to the model predictions. In addition to the statistical evaluation of item misfit, the question arises as to its practical significance. Although item removal is undesirable for several reasons, its practical...

Background
Databases are fundamental to advance biomedical science. However, most of them are populated and updated with a great deal of human effort. Biomedical Relation Extraction (BioRE) aims to shift this burden to machines. Among its different applications, the discovery of Gene-Disease Associations (GDAs) is one of BioRE most relevant tasks....

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) has been studied in many works but most have focused on outside urban areas, due to dimension constraint. This paper aims to offer a database for an appropriate integration of SCPP in urban areas. For this purpose, a 3D axisymmetric CFD model was established for the SCPP in Manzanares, Spain. Six chimney models...

The transport properties of a fluid show a complex dependence with temperature and pressure due to the combination of different phenomena occurring at the microscopic scale. The entropy scaling concept aims at describing this complex behavior by expressing reduced transport properties as one-variable functions of the Tv-residual entropy, a thermody...

Miscible displacements are involved in many applications, including enhanced oil recovery and groundwater remediation. When a less viscous and miscible fluid displaces another more viscous one, an unstable front occurs, and its evolution is controlled by the interplay between diffusion and convection. Much of the research has focused on the instabi...

1.7 μm band lasers have shown great potential in various applications including gas monitoring and pumping mid-infrared lasers. However, due to the lack of an effective gain mechanism, the lasing performance of current sources in this band, in terms of the threshold, the spectral purity, as well as the reliability, is still inferior to their counte...

This study aimed to understand the effect of physiological and dental implant‐related parameter variations on the osseointegration for an implant‐supported fixed prosthesis. Eight design factors were considered (implant shape, diameter, and length; thread pitch, depth, and profile; cantilever [CL] length and implant‐loading protocol). Total 36 impl...

We obtain and analyze a system of radiative transfer equations associated with surface and body waves. The system accounts for a boundary along which surface waves propagate and for body waves that propagate in the bulk. The system describing the wave mode coupling is parameterized by the range coordinate in the direction along the boundary. We dis...

Bile acids (BA) fulfill a wide range of physiological functions, but are also involved in pathologies, such as cholestasis. Cholestasis is characterized by an intrahepatic accumulation of BAs and subsequent spillage to the systemic circulation. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models that would provide...

Although robust models on water transport across reverse osmosis (RO) membranes exist, detailed mechanistic insights of mineral scaling in the active polyamide (PA) layer, especially through visual investigations, are still lacking. Herein, a holistic approach of imaging the onset of mineral scales in the PA-layer is detailed at different length sc...

In this paper, we construct a high order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite difference discretization for compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, which is rendered positivity-preserving of density and internal energy by a positivity-preserving flux splitting and a scaling positivity-preserving limiter. The novelty of this paper i...

The decay of stably stratified turbulence generated by a towed rake of vertical plates is investigated by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of temporally evolving grid turbulence in a linearly stratified fluid. The Reynolds number $Re_M=U_0M/\nu$ is 5000 or 10 000 while the Froude number $Fr_M=U_0/MN$ is between 0.1 and 6 ( $U_0$ : towing speed; $...

A model for the third-order mixed velocity–scalar structure function $-\overline {(\delta u)( \delta \phi )^{2}}$ ( $\delta a$ represents the spatial increment of the quantity $a$ ; $u$ is the velocity and $\phi$ is a scalar) is proposed for closing the transport equation of the second-order moment of the scalar increment $\overline {( \delta \phi...

The release law of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) during coal pyrolysis is crucial for controlling scaling, corrosion and slagging in the utilization of high AAEMs coal. To approximate entrained-flow bed gasification process, a free-falling reactor was used for coal pyrolysis to study the release characteristics of AAEMs in nascent char....

There is a risk of fire caused by series arc failure in the operation of photovoltaic (PV) system. Therefore, it is required to discuss a solution for rapid arc fault detection. To address the series arc fault (SAF) detection under different working conditions, a method based on squeeze-and-excitation (SE)-inception multi-input convolutional neural...

Bryophytes respond sensitively to environmental variation and the functioning and functions of bryophyte communities may therefore change due to climate change. However, how bryophyte functional traits and trait relationships vary with environmental variation is not well known. Therefore, we investigated elevational trends in photosynthetic traits...

Rowland and Zeilberger devised an approach to algorithmically determine the modulo pr\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$p^r$$\end{document} reductions of v...

The symmetry-resolved Rényi entanglement entropy is the Rényi entanglement entropy of each symmetry sector of a density matrix ρ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{doc...

European climate is associated with variability and changes in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. In this study, we aim to investigate potential future change in circulation over Europe by using the EURO-CORDEX regional climate projections at 0.11° grid mesh. In particular, we analyze future change in 500-hPa geopotential height (Gph), 500-h...

The nonlinear shallow water equations (SWEs) are widely used to model the unsteady water flows in rivers and coastal areas. In this work, we present a novel class of locally conservative, entropy stable and well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the nonlinear shallow water equation with a non-flat bottom topography. The major novelty...

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been assessing students' attitudes every fourth year since 1995. The trend scaling of these constructs started in 2011, fueling interest in exploring how different education systems perform regarding affective outcomes of education. This study explored the feasibility of establis...

In a family of random variables, Taylor's law or Taylor's power law of
fluctuation scaling is a variance function that gives the variance $\sigma
^{2}>0$ of a random variable (rv) $X$ with expectation $\mu >0$ as a power
of $\mu$: $\sigma ^{2}=A\mu ^{b}$ for finite real $A>0,\ b$ that are the
same for all rvs in the family. Equivalently, TL holds w...

In this paper, we develop an efficient sketch-based empirical natural gradient method (SENG) for large-scale deep learning problems. The empirical Fisher information matrix is usually low-rank since the sampling is only practical on a small amount of data at each iteration. Although the corresponding natural gradient direction lies in a small subsp...

We examine the Ising model at its critical temperature with an external magnetic field ha158\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$h a^{\frac{15}{8}}$$\end{doc...

With the Loffeld's bistatic formula, the point target reference spectrum (PTRS) of multireceiver synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) can be decomposed into the quasi monostatic term and bistatic deformation (BD) term. The former term is analogous to the monostatic SAS PTRS while the latter one describes the bistatic phase introduced by the bistatic disp...

Advanced iron boride protective coatings on carbon steels were tested and evaluated, for the first time, in actual corrosion conditions in the geothermal Rittershoffen and Soultz-sous-Forets sites (France) with positive results. Moreover, large size boronized spools demonstrated high performance in geothermal corrosive flows of NaCl-KCl-CaCl2-rich...

Wash water is generated as a by-product of ready mixed concrete production. The water can be reclaimed to be used as mix water in new concrete. The properties, durability and sustainability of concrete produced using high solids reclaimed water, subjected to a novel CO2 (carbon dioxide) treatment, as mix water was examined. A simulated reclaimed wa...

We contribute an answer to a quantitative variant of the question raised in Coron (in: Perspectives in nonlinear partial differential equations. Contemporary mathematics, vol 446, American Mathematical Society, Providence, pp 215–243, 2007) concerning the controllability of the viscous Burgers equation ut+(u2/2)x=uxx\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \u...

This paper concerns solving the steady radiative transfer equation with diffusive scaling, using the physics informed neural networks (PINNs). The idea of PINNs is to minimize a least-square loss function, that consists of the residual from the governing equation, the mismatch from the boundary conditions, and other physical constraints such as con...

Engaging deep neural networks for textual sentiment analysis is an extensively practiced domain of research. Textual sentiment classification harnesses the full computational potential of deep learning models. Typically, these research works are carried either with a popular open-source data corpus, or self-extracted short phrase texts from Twitter...

Background
We aimed to systematically review the health preference literature using discrete choice experiments (DCEs), an attribute-based stated preference method, to investigate patient preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
Methods
A search in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Embase was conducted on July 1, 2021, and updated on Novembe...

In this article we introduce the notion of linear canonical wave packet transform in quater-nionic settings and we name it as the quaternionic linear canonical wave packet transform (QLCWPT). Firstly we establish the fundamental properties viz linearty, anti-linearty, parity, scaling, dilation and Parseval's identity. Furthermore, some key hormonic...

Turbulent superstructures in horizontally extended three-dimensional Rayleigh–Bénard convection flows are investigated in controlled laboratory experiments in water at Prandtl number ${Pr}=7$ . A Rayleigh–Bénard cell with square cross-section, aspect ratio $\varGamma =l/h=25$ , side length $l$ and height $h$ is used. Three different Rayleigh number...

We study the structure of high-speed zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers up to friction Reynolds number $Re_{\tau } \approx 2000$ using direct numerical simulation of the Navier–Stokes equations. Both supersonic and hypersonic conditions with nominal free-stream Mach numbers $M_{\infty }=2$ , $M_{\infty }=5.86$ and heat transfer at the...

Plain Language Summary
Gravity‐driven grainflows, or avalanches, occur in many environments on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere. Many aspects of their characteristic behavior have been revealed through laboratory and field studies. Some findings have been, however, inconclusive or contradictory. We present the results from the first comprehensive field s...

Predator feeding rates (described by their functional response) must saturate at high prey densities. Although thousands of manipulative functional response experiments show feeding rate saturation at high densities under controlled conditions, it is unclear how saturated feeding rates are at natural prey densities. The general degree of feeding ra...

Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) are widely used for modeling the physical phenomena and analyzing the dynamical behavior of many engineering and physical systems. The heat equation is one of the most well-known PDEs that captures the temperature distribution and diffusion of heat within a body. Due to the wider utility of these equations in v...

Multiqubit entanglement is an indispensable resource for quantum information science. In particular, the entanglement of photons is of conceptual interest due to its implications in measurement-based quantum computing, communication and metrology. The traditional way of spontaneous parametric downconversion already demonstrates the entanglement of...

The detection of individual quanta of light is important for quantum computation, fluorescence lifetime imaging, single-molecule detection, remote sensing, correlation spectroscopy, and more. Thanks to their broadband operation, high detection efficiency, exceptional signal-to-noise ratio, and fast recovery times, superconducting nanowire single-ph...

Uncertainty is an essential consideration for time series forecasting tasks. In this work, we specifically focus on quantifying the uncertainty of traffic forecasting. To achieve this, we develop Deep Spatio-Temporal Uncertainty Quantification (DeepSTUQ), which can estimate both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty. We first leverage a spatio-tempor...

Many atomic descriptors are currently limited by their unfavourable scaling with the number of chemical elements S e.g. the length of body-ordered descriptors, such as the SOAP power spectrum (3-body) and the (ACE) (multiple body-orders), scales as ( N S ) ν where ν + 1 is the body-order and N is the number of radial basis functions used in the den...

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is an emerging approach to overcome the limitations of proprietary network hardware appliances. Under the paradigm of NFV, network functions may be implemented virtually-referred to as Virtual Network Functions (VNFs). A set of chained network functions compose an end-to-end network service called a Service Fun...

Local density fluctuations near the QCD critical point can be probed by
intermittency analysis of scaled factorial moments in relativistic heavy-ion
collisions. We report the first measurement of intermittency for charged
particles in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 7.7-200 GeV from
the STAR experiment at RHIC. We observe scaling beh...

The one-point and two-point power spectral densities of the wind velocity fluctuations are studied using the observations from an offshore mast at Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, for a wide range of thermal stratifications of the atmosphere. A comparison with estimates from the FINO1 platform (North Sea) is made to identify shared spectral characterist...

We study the disorder-induced deterministic dispersion of particles uniformly driven in an array of narrow tracks. For different toy models with quenched disorder we obtain exact analytical expressions for the steady-state mean velocity v and the dispersion constant D for any driving force f above a putative depinning threshold. For short-range cor...

In this paper, we characterize weakly pseudoconvex domains of finite type in $\mathbb C^n$ in terms of the boundary behavior of automorphism orbits by using the scaling method.

Fused filament fabrication (FFF), also known under the brand name fused deposition modelling, has recently emerged as a more straightforward and economic alternative to established 3D printing or additive manufacturing technologies such as powder bed fusion for metal part manufacturing. In this work, we report on possible approaches to the measurem...

We extend existing results for the Nielsen complexity of scalar primaries and spinning primaries in four dimensions by including supersymmetry. Specifically, we study the Nielsen complexity of circuits that transform a superconformal primary with definite scaling dimension, spin and R-charge by means of continuous unitary gates from the $\mathbf{\m...

Islands are global hotspots for biodiversity and extinction, representing ~ 5% of Earth’s land area alongside 40% of globally threatened vertebrates and 61% of global extinctions since the 1500s. Invasive species are the primary driver of native biodiversity loss on islands, though eradication of invasive species from islands has been effective at...

The regression of a functional response on a set of scalar predictors can be a challenging task, especially if there is a large number of predictors, these predictors have interaction effects, or the relationship between those predictors and the response is nonlinear. In this work, we propose a solution to this problem: a feed-forward neural networ...

A surfactant-laden liquid film that lines the inside of an oscillating spherical cap is considered as a model of lung alveoli. Pulmonary surfactant solubility is described by Langmuir adsorption kinetics, modified by incorporating the intrinsic compressibility of the adsorbed monolayer. A novel boundary condition, supported by experimental data and...

Numerous experimental and computational studies show that continuous hopper flows of granular materials obey the Beverloo equation that relates the volume flow rate $Q$ and the orifice width $w$: $Q \sim (w/\sigma_{\rm avg}-k)^{\beta}$, where $\sigma_{\rm avg}$ is the average particle diameter, $k\sigma_{\rm avg}$ is an offset where $Q\sim 0$, the...

Blockchain systems have seen much growth in recent years due to the immense potential attributed to the technology behind these systems. However, this popularity has outlined a critical scalability issue that most blockchain systems are now confronted with. With their increasing popularity comes an increasing amount of load on the system. Several s...

Physical realizations of the canonical phase measurement for the optical phase are unknown. Single-shot phase estimation, which aims to determine the phase of an optical field in a single shot, is critical in quantum information processing and metrology. Here we present a family of strategies for single-shot phase estimation of coherent states base...