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Hello, I have a questionnaire that consists of five sections. The first section (related to drivers' knowledge) has 10 items with no Likert scale and the participants have to choose from either two or three or more specific options. The second section (related to drivers' habits) has 9 items with the first five items having a six-point Likert scale while in the remaining items the respondents have to choose one question from four specific options. The third section (related to drivers' behavioral intentions) has 10 items with each following a six-point Likert scale. The fourth section (related to drivers' psychological conditions) has 9 items with no Likert scale and the participants have to choose from three, or four or more specific options. Finally, the last section consists of questions regarding drivers' profiles (age, gender, education, driving experience, profession, frequency of driving through tunnels, etc.)
Now my question is, what kind of statistical tests or analysis can I perform here to investigate the relationship between the variables in the drivers' profile and other sections/items. For instance, how I can analyze which group of drivers (in terms of age, gender, experience, etc.) are more knowledgable (section 1) or adopt appropriate habits (section 2).
I am also open to all kinds of suggestions and collaborations on this research.
P.S: I am attaching my questionnaire as a file. Hope it will help to understand my question and questionnaire better.
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A couple of things to remember here: in a prospectus assemble the following:
a. The research questions and summarize responses by data type
b. The potential tests of the hypotheses from a
c choose tests based on a and b
d choose sample sizes based on chosen tests and type I and Ii requirements
e conduct methods of d
f answer the research questions based on e
g check the assumptions required in e
h
Prepare summary report of results
Suggestions- 0 Proper Prior Planning Prevents Poor Performance
1 get a good book on research design
2 Study it
3 Follow the suggestions for each step
4 assemble the overall plan
5 collect data as in plan 4
6see f, g and h above
7 do not ever do what you did in this
question again
Good luck David Booth
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Hi everyone,
I am using two scales, previous research caculated the reliability of the BFI-2-S, they caculated the average cronbach's alpha of subscales (eg. (Extraversion + Agreeableness...)/5).
But in another scale, previous research caculate all items cronbach's alpha only once, and they caculated correlation between all subscales.
1. What's different in the two approaches?
2. How much correlation is appropriate? I didn't find relevant literature.
Thanks for your professional help!
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I would've shown, each scale's Cronbach's alpha, which is close to (1) and hope they are all reasonably high (e.g., above .80).
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Hello everyone,
I am adopting and adapting a survey which have 5 scales (commitment control, emotion control, ect) to measure self-regulation of language learning (a certain skill), the aim of the survey as I mentioned to measure the high and low self-regulation capacity among participants.
How can I use the questionnaire to generate more interesting findings? other than just the low and high self-regulation? can you inspire me with some creative ideas?
I was thinking to see gender differences among groups, and to add a part about socio-economic status.
Please inspire me with new ideas without having to make major changes to the survey. Let me know also the name of the tests required for the specific idea.
Thank you.
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Dear Samaher, your research would need to start from the research question(s) that you want to answer - and not from the research instruments you are using. The instrument itself is only a way to gather data that can help you to answer your question(s). So the simplest idea to help you would be to turn your research back on its feet: Start with want you want to find out about (which usually derives from what is already know/not yet known in your area of research) - and only then pick the scales that are appropriate to measure the student characteristics that you are interested in.
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as CT better resolution and accurate image of an object true scale 1:1 than CBCT.
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The radiation dose needs to be considered before prescribing CBCT with clinical judgement. If a three dimensional radiograph is recommended, CBCT would lead to less radiation than CT.
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Looking for scales that measure these two dimensions of empathy separately and clearly.
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Okay. Thank you Andreas Sarling.
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Hi.
I am dealing with data that shows negative skewness and variables that were calculated in different ways: Some of the variables´ composites were calculated from the mean, but others had subscales and the composite was calculated by substracting one subscale from the other which results in a range that crosses the 0 (i.e., positive and negative values).
My question is: Does it make sense to transform the variables in the way that they all have the same lower and upper limits? And can I/ should I then further log-transform them to deal with the non-normality? Do these transformations conflict with running correlations and further analyses on the data?
Thank you.
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Hello again Carina,
If you absolutely, positively have to have all variable scores to be on a common scale, I'd suggest thinking about something simple, like z-scores. That, at least, equalizes the SDs.
Transformations can be applied at any point, though if you subsequently apply any non-linear transform, then you need to re-check for whatever distributional attributes you seek. A linear transform, however (e.g., z-scores) will not change distribution shapes (just recenters and fixes SD to specific value).
Finally, consider using bootstrap/resampling methods; going this route allows you to discard your worries about normality of distributions and focus on what's going on in your data set. More statistical packages include this as an option these days.
Good luck with your work.
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I am trying to obtain permission to use Muller/McCloskey scale on job satisfaction among nurses and in a meantime would love to see how it is scored.
I found references for factor loadings, correlations of the subscales etc. but need to look at scoring which is I think building into a continuous variable.
Thanking in advance to anybody who can help.
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This table in the paper below seems to show the original composition of the subscale
Lee, S.E., Dahinten, S.V. and MacPhee, M. (2016), Psychometric evaluation of the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Jpn J Nurs Sci, 13: 487-495. https://doi.org/10.1111/jjns.12128
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I would like to explore all effective parameters in an auto-scaling system.
The auto-scaling mechanism scales out/in a web application in the cloud environment.
I know parameters such as resource utilization, response time, delay time, the arrival rate of user requests
Do you anymore? If yes, you can be a part of our team.
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Thank you all for your feedback. We published a paper covering the while performance metrics in cloud, fog and edge computing.
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I need to know scale items for measuring impulse buying which is product specific not general.
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Dear Mazhar Ali , when I want to measure product-specific impulse buying, I use the Rook and Fisher scale, and I replace the word "things" for the product-specific, for example:
1. I often buy things spontaneously.
2. "Just do it" describes the way I buy things.
3. . 1 often buy things without thinking
Then
1. I often buy (snacks, clothes, etc.) spontaneously.
2. "Just do it" describes the way I buy (snacks, clothes, etc.).
3. I often buy (snacks, clothes, etc.) without thinking
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Does anyone know where I can obain the Parent and Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS) by Barnes and Olson (1985)? 
Thank you
Arvinder
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You may simply use the form as presented in the file mentioned above, appendix H. Just replace *** with "my child" or "my parents" respectively.
Kind regards
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Can anyone provide a suggestion on the questionnaire that can be used to investigate the impact of teacher formation on students' moral/faith belief
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Dear Dr. Chinedu Okafor ,
I recommend for you the scale of (Anandarajah and Hight, 2001), and You can go to this link about of moral teachers and moral student:
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At the moment.. i am working on my dissertation. reviewing feedback from my tutor.. she questions whether such a tool is valid and reliable? i looked up on internet... but didn't find clear cut answers. 
and what about the Newcastle Ottawa Scale?
and the Emergency Care Research Institute Before and After Scale?
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you can use down and back, JBI etc
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I need help deciding what statistical analysis I need to use for a 7 point Likert Scale. I have created a survey with a pre-survey and post-survey and I want to determine if participants perception changes on climate change from the pre-survey to the post-survey after they view an online curriculum.
I have about 20 questions for each survey and 5 variables, age, gender, political affiliation and race.
I also want to examine whether there are correlations in responses based on a variety of independent variables, such as age, gender, political affiliation and race.
Would it be better to view this a non-parametric or parametric test?
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Good Answer Maurice Y Mongkuo
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Hello, 
I would use a 4 point scale with this scoring: 
Strongly disagree 1 Disagree 2 Agree 3 Strongly disagree 4 
The range seems to be:
1.00 - 1.75
1.76 - 2.5
2.51 - 3.25
3.26 - 4.00
My question is if I get 2.52 or 2.48 for example. We consider the answer is agree (or disagree) or "neutral" even if it does not exist in this type of scale ? 
Thank you
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Hi everyone,
I am currently constructing a survey study, in which I want to elicit compassion in my participants. Prior to that, I want to pilot a few vignettes to see which one elicits the most compassion. Would anyone have suggestions about such a scale they have used in the past that worked well? Thanks a million for you help!
Best regards,
Ema
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I am not aware of any such scale. Some refer to compassion/empathy as one component of intrapersonal IQ. Insight or interpersonal IQ is the 2nd element of EIQ. Be prepared that some respondents will posses little of these qualities, particularly those w/ certain disordered personalities.
Best, Rich
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I am interested in both temperature and rainfall variability at a continental scale.
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Dear
I am sharing with you some work that addresses the issue in Senegal and in the Senegal River basin.
Best Regards
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Update
I have a scale (12 items)
I go to Analysis -> Scale -> Reliability analysis and get my Cronbach alpha (0,5)
BUT 2 of my items are «inverse». If I recode this two items as it was not inverse I get alpha=0.8
Am I right? I should recode this items before counting Cronbach alpha?
written earlier
I conducted a study (correlation plan).
I used (including) 2 psychological tests, which were adapted by another author according to all the rules.
And I run into problems:
Situation1 (solved)
My first test (14 items) has 2 subscales. In Ukrainian adaptation, the Cronbach alpha for the scales is 0.73 and 0.68. But I did my own research and counted Cronbach's alpha. 0.65 and 0.65 came out.
Question1: Should I count correlations with this test or, maybe, exclude this test from analysis?
Situation 2 (see update)
My second test is Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory (56 items). In Ukrainian adaptation, four of five scales have Cronbach Alpha above 0.7. One scale is 0.65.
But in my research everything is ok only with 3 scales, they are higher than 0.7.
Two scales have a very low Cronbach Alpha: 0.55 and 0.49.
Question2: should I exclude this two low scales and count correlations with only that 3 scales which Cronbach Alpha more than 0,7?
PS: N=336 in my study
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No matter create or use Oleksandra Shatilova any measurement tool must be valid. And cronbach alpha's say nothing direct things about validity. When you handle with reverse questions, Cronbach's alpha must be rise. But it is not sufficient.
So i agree with Robert Trevethan 's advices
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Anyone have any idea on how to harvest the acoustic energy from a line sound source? The line sound source is in small scale, maybe in a centimeter range, and the sound pressure is very small, around uPa I guess. 
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Dear Sheng,
welcome,
I think you had already solved the problem. However i would like to introduce a solution. There are two types of electrical vibration harvesters. The electrostaic MEMES converter and the piezoelectric transducer. You can use four flat converters to collect the sound from all sides. You can also put the sound line in in the focus of parabolic reflector and receiver the reflected sound by one flat converters. The second solution may be better. as it uses only one flat converter.
Best wishes
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I suggested McClean and Collins (2011) and my supervisor noted that it does not include all the relevant dimensions. I am reading around the topic of HCHR, so any good relevant papers are also appreciated.
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Following study has created two scales to measure bureaucratic and high commitment HRM practices using theory and concepts found in the HRM literature
Kaman, V., McCarthy, A. M., Gulbro, R. D., & Tucker, M. L. (2001). Bureaucratic and high commitment human resource practices in small service firms. Human Resource Planning, 24(1), 33-33.
Here, the scale was adapted from Snell and Dean (1992) and utilized to measure employee perceptions of the extent of highcommitment HRM practices
Nielsen, P., Rasmussen, P., Chiang, H. H., Han, T. S., & Chuang, J. S. (2011). The relationship between high‐commitment HRM and knowledge‐sharing behavior and its mediators. International Journal of Manpower.
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Example : Variable B & C together form A. To measure B we have reflective scale but C can be measured only with formative scale. 
Please provide any reference, if you have
For the model refer to the attachment 
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Hi, could you please let me know how have you done the calculations for this model? is it possible to use the "repeated indicators approach" for it? Thanks in advance.
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Recently, I was exposed to the idea of incoming (middle school) band students initially learning more advanced scales. For instance, the key of C is typically the first key signature taught. Coincidingly, it's also considered one of the easiest keys to play in. Conversely, the key of B is considered one of the more difficult. If entry level students were started off playing in the key of B, would these roles reverse? Would B become "easy" and C become "hard?" What are the long-term implications in regards to musical skill set. Similarly, if students were first exposed to a "more difficult time signature" (for example: cut time) would they struggle to read "easy time signatures" (say 4/4)? If anyone knows of long-term studies (following students throughout several years to see the progression of their musical skill set) please let me know!
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An important pedagogic principle is to start with the familiar: the white keys of the piano and the fully-stopped notes on the recorder. Once that practical and physical and visual base has been established, the next key can be introduces introduced. The same principle applies to teaching tempos: First the march and then the waltz. A side benefit of these principles is that early drop out students are at least able to play a march in C.
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Hi,
I'm looking to compare changes in score (from exposure to treatment to post-exposure to treatment) across 4 different groups.
I would like to know which group showed the most significant change in scores following exposure to treatment.
What statistical test (in SPSS) would you use to compare these differences in score?
I hope this is enough information.
Any help would be much appreciated.
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Please ignore this question. We have been talking on another post of mine with a better description of my study. That question can be found here:
Sorry for the confusion, I am trying to delete this post to avoid confusion.
Thank you.
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Hi
I am using a questionnaire of likert scale. All my variables are independent. I am using a scale of (strongly agree, agree, nutral, disagree, strongly disagree).
What statistical analysis should I use for this data?
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Hi @Fernando Sotto Taganos, this depends on the qualitative equivalents or response system of your five-point Likert scale, for instance if your five-point Likert scale is from 1 - strongly disagree to 5 - strongly agree, then you can analyze using median (as a measure of central tendency) since your data is in the ordinal level of measurement. But some researchers also use mean in analysis of Likert scale scores, either way is probably acceptable as long as you have a reference for your analysis. If you push through with the analysis using median, you may interpret based on the median score of the data set for example in Item No 8 say "I use Facebook at an average of 8 hours per day.", is 1 then that means the center of the dataset for Item No 8 is "disagree". When presenting the median as measure of central tendency, also include the range. You may read more about Likert scales in the attached documents. Good luck!
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Dear Peers -
I am looking at factors that determine ethnic staff-diversity in organizations. Do you know of any scales/metrics/formulas that
1) measure the impact of minority promotion (such as recruitment practices) and
2) measure an organization's exposure to the public through media (e.g. Facebook, newspaper ads, blogs etc.)?
The more simplistic, the better. It's meant for exploratory research. Looking forward to your input!
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Thank you Samuel, I will do so! I appreciate the answer!
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I'm currently working on the influence of work family conflict and locus of control on turnover intention. I need the scale of work family conflict the version developed by carlson et al (2000) to study Ibo people. I need the psychometric properties and the items? 
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this site may help: https://scales.ppsy.pro
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I have a student who wants to use the measure for Body Satisfaction is the scale by Slade, Dewey, Newton, Brodie, & Kiemle (1990) I can't find it in their article of Psychology and Health Vol4
The authors just make reference to the body Cathexis scale by Secord and Jourard from 1953
Is this scale available at all?
Thanks
Peter
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this site may help: https://scales.ppsy.pro
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i need help regarding find an scale on adult employee resilience scale for my research.
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I used Wagnild & Young. I also researched Connor-Davidson CD-RISC. I felt that both of these were applicable for my subject matter. I looked at a baseline assessment in ICU nurses in 2 units: Neuro Trauma & Cardiac within the same inpatient organization. If the baseline research is expanded on we would have to use the same scale to track progress across the organization.
The scale, the population you are looking at and the research direction all inform each other.
I would like to see how CD-RISC compares in similar studies and what that would lead to.
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Medication Adherence Rating Scale developed by Katherine Thompson et al, 2000
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hi, i have similar topic research about adherence measurement in schizophrenia outpatient. can you explain me how to obtain the scale and scoring procedures for the Medication Adherence Rating Scale?
thank u
best regard
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For my Master thesis I have to turn imprecise statements by experts in magazine interviews etc. into points on a scale. E.g. when an expert claims that the development stage of robotics in Asia is "quite alright" and I want to compare that with the development stage in the USA and another expert claims that the stage there is "above average". Is there any kind of paper, study or even method that can be used to categorize imprecise statements like that?
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The steps involved in designing a Likert-type scale may appear daunting to the novice not familiar with statistical analysis; in fact in my experience of 40 years of teaching and supervising, it is usually regarded as a PhD-scope of work to create and validate a usable, standardised Likert scale.
See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale_(social_sciences) for an authoritative overview.
There are other approaches to measurement in this area: I would mention the 'Semantic Differential' approach as being one which is more flexible than a Likert approach and would suit your needs better in that there is a statement of a psychological dimension and a labelled range of options from 'low' to 'high' that allow the respondent to decide where on this dimension the object to be rated falls.
The key factor in the development of scales is to get a lot of FEEDBACK from experts in the field and potential users of the scale; to analyse the feedback in a statistically (perhaps objective!) manner; and then to re-do the scale and re-test. My students and I would typically call our first version that we would cobble together on the basis of literature review, interviews, discussions, and common sense, as VERSION ZERO. After testing with user samples and experts ( n > 200 ) analysis and revision we would arrive at version 1.0. Then another round of testing. It would not be uncommon to find us converging on a good-ish solution by version 4.0; typically by that stage, one would have tested the scale with at least 1,000 users.
However, for a Master's it is entirely possible to produce a good version 1.0 (one iteration of testing) so long as you don't claim to have found the answer to life, the Universe and everything else, and very importantly, that you don't use this half-baked scale in an empirical assessment as if it were a measuring instrument with proven (statistical) reliability and validity.
A VERSION ZERO is to my mind, useful; but should never be used as a measuring instrument. In my time I have recommended rejection of many otherwise interesting papers which created a VERSION ZERO and then blundered on to use it as a basis for assessment without any estimation of the VALIDITY or RELIABILITY of the scale, let alone its BASE (POPULATION) VALUES. Usually, such work would strive hard and ingeniously to achieve any kind of statistical conclusions to conventional standards.
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Hello,
i am writing my thesis. And at the moment i am looking for german scales and questionnaires only at google and in papers. Isnt there a site or portal where i can find scales and questionnaires for research and for free? Or is it possible that my university provides something like this?
Kind Regards
Kim
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I don't think there is such a website. You can find such instruments in studies written in German.
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I want to measure the perceived size of my participants' mating pool (i.e., how many potential partners that surround them in everyday life). Is anyone familiar with validated/previously used measures for this?
Thanks in advance!
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Not really. But you might get an idea how to measure that through a paper from Baumeister & Vohs 2004 (Sexual Economics: Sex as Female Resource for Social Exchange in Heterosexual Interactions).
Good luck!
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I am doing a between groups exp. (4 groups).
Each participant will be asked to complete part I of a Questionnaire A measuring attitudes toward 3 different topics, and part I of Questionnaire B, measuring 2 other constructs. These will provide a baseline.
Each group will then be shown one of four video clips.
Parts II of questionnaire A and B will then be completed.
Hypothesis:
- Group membership predicts a change in score in Questionnaire A.
- Which of the three topics of Questionnaire A is most affected by group membership.
- Group membership predicts a change in score in Questionnaire B.
- Change in score in Questionnaire A predicts changes in scores in Questionnaire B.
- Change in which of the three subsets of Questionnaire A is most predictive of changes in Questionnaire B.
What statistical test is most appropriate to answer these hypotheses.
If I need to run a regression what type of regression do i need.
Would this approach be correct?
1) Group membership predicts a change in score in Questionnaire A.
ANOVA
2) Which of the three topics of Questionnaire A is most affected by group membership.
t-test: one t-test per group.
3) Group membership predicts a change in score in Questionnaire B.
ANOVA
4) Change in total score in Questionnaire A predicts changes in scores in Questionnaire B.
Linear Regression: Changes A is predictor and changes B is the outcome (ie. “Changes your attitudes predict changes in your behaviour”).
5) Change in which of the three subsets of Questionnaire A is most predictive of changes in Questionnaire B.
- In order to test which Questionnaire A constructs best predicts changes in questionnaire B scores we will perform a hierarchical regression. Appropriate post-hoc tests will be conducted If required. Predictors include changes in scores on Attitude to women, Attitude to men, Attitude to Sex. Outcomes is changes on Questionnaire B.
Variables will be coded as categorical for group membership, and as Scale for the questionnaires.
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Let's go step by step
1) Group membership predicts a change in score in Questionnaire A.
ANOVA or ANCOVA adjusted for baseline value of Questionnaire A and probably also for gender and age
2) Which of the three topics of Questionnaire A is most affected by group membership.
First of all you can apply the same ANOVA / ANCOVA model as above for each of 3 componensts of Questionnaire A and that with the lowest p-value (highest test statistics) will be winner = component most affected by group membership.
Another point of view is to take one of 4 groups and which of the three topics of Questionnaire A is most affected by this subgroup. By decriptive statistics select one with the highest absolute mean change. Then you can calculate difference between this component and each of other 3 components of Questionnaire A. For these 3 difference you can apply paired t-test (or paired Wilcoson signed rank test if distributions are far from gaussian)
3) Group membership predicts a change in score in Questionnaire B.
ANOVA or ANCOVA adjusted for baseline value of Questionnaire B and probably also for gender and age
4) Change in total score in Questionnaire A predicts changes in scores in Questionnaire B.
Linear Regression: Changes A is predictor and changes B is the outcome is one option. You should start with scatter-plot Questionnaire A on x-axis, Questionnaire B on y-axis. But class variable group (there are 4 categorial groups here) should be also included and probably also age and gender. First of all you should check if the linear relation is an appropriate model. If not then some non-linear model could be more appropriate (scatter-plot pathern could help to select which non-linear model)
5) Change in which of the three subsets of Questionnaire A is most predictive of changes in Questionnaire B.
Linear Regression model - stepwise selection with all 3 components of Questionnaire A, group effect (4 groups), age, gender (and may be another baseline characteristics as predictors if available) will be the best option.
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Data Transform, Nominal Scale, Ordinal Scale, Interval Scale, SPSS
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It has an outcome (INTENSITY with two categories: Positive and Negative) and four independent variables (Commerce and industry, farming, fishing and law and order). Thanks.
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I have the Rater's manual, but can't locate the actual scale.
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I have a copy of the scale (attached).
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I am doing a research on creative self efficacy and academic dishonesty, I need a scale on creative self efficacy, please help me.
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You might want to take a look at 'The Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES)', developed by Tschannen- Moran and Woolfolk Hoy if that would fit your purpose.
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 Socio-economic status scale for rural areas
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Great work ,
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I want to measure the psychological wellbeing of children under child labor, so if there is any please share me. Thank you in advance!!
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Stirling well being scale is 7-12 years of age
Liddle, I., & Carter, G. F. A. (2015). Emotional and psychological well-being in children: The development and validation of the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale. Educational Psychology in Practice, 31(2), 174–185. doi:10.1080/02667363.2015.1008409
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The scale is going to be used in a pre/post test of an intervention for PhD students.
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@Olive McKeown & Margaret Mcallister, I am also interested in this variable as I discover that the students in our research methods class have myriads of challenges in this area. Also, when the time comes to write their dissertations they just want to hurriedly put something down and submit asap. I have also noticed this trend among our postgraduate students. Can this common grounds spur a collaborative research among us? I could be contacted via oyebode_oyetoro@hotmail.com
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Please can some one help me to get the Parent and Peer Influence Scale (PPI) for my work. I actually want to know the Psychometric properties and then to see if I can use it in my new work. Looking forward to your comments.
Thank you.
Uche!
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thanks Carla Sousa, your link helped.
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Hai everybody,
Imagine, we are developing scale on Human happiness, Based on literature(imagination only) we found that hope, physical health, interpersonal relationship etc are dimensional factors related to happiness, again imagine there are popular, world wide accepted unidimensional standardised scale for it. Another part we are developing items for happiness too. So question is, as developing new scale, is it ethically right to add the existing sale as (dimension)part of our new scale by give proper acknowledgment ?
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I think that it is ethical because the newly scale becomes undimensional automatically.
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I’m looking for examples of long self-report measures.  Most of the examples I’m familiar with are personality scales (e.g., the MMPI, CPI, and NEO).  Can you suggest any prominent self-report scales that assess non-personality constructs?  I’m mostly interested in widely used scales that comprise at least 200 self-report items.   
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Self rated approach
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Dear all,
I am looking for a scale that measures poverty among adolescents. I would like to find a scale that reflects a multi-dimensional construct of poverty (i.e., health, educational, social aspects) and not only the financial situation in which the adolescents are living.
Best wishes, Sebastian
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Proxy measures are:
Clothing
Food
Shelter
Healthcare visits
Anthropometric and bio-markers
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I have a set of likert items all of which are constructed with scales of 7 categories, except for one likert item, which is constructed with a scale of 11 categories.
These likert items are to be used in a Structural Equation Model and analysed using Partial Least Squares.
My question is now:
- How, if at all, will this discrepancy influence the analysis?
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I am doing my masters thesis and I need the scale by Altemeyer and Hunsberger, but I cannot find the authors contact details, or any way to access the scale or how to interpret it.
Can someone please point me in the right direction.
Thanks so much in advance!
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If Essam has a copy, that will solve your problem. Otherwise, it is a tricky situation. Lead author Bob Altemeyer is retired (though apparently very much alive & kicking!), and his contact information doesn't seem readily available. This may be because he was being harassed by right-wing authoritarian trolls, but that's just a guess. I did find his old email address from the U. of Manitoba: altemey@cc.umanitoba.ca but don't know whether it's still active. His son Rob, who is a Canadian legislator, is at
Rob.Altemeyer@leg.gov.mb.ca or call (204) 945-3710 . The second author (Hunsberger) is deceased. I am sure that if you can reach him, Dr. Altemeyer will be happy to share his work with you.
Alternatively, you could try contacting someone who has used the scale in more recent research. One possibility would be the research team in psychology of religion at Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. The senior person there is Vassilis Saroglou: vassilis.saroglou@uclouvain.be
I'm also attaching an article that reports on the development of another such scale. The scale itself is included.
Good luck!
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Branding, Brand Equity, Brand Attitude
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Kotler and Keller (2012:277) identify two basic approaches to measuring brand equity. An indirect approach—assesses potential sources of brand equity by identifying and tracking consumer brand knowledge structures.
A direct approach—assesses the actual impact of brand knowledge on consumer response to different aspects of the marketing. The two general approaches are complementary and marketers can employ both.
Regards
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I've been trying to look for this type of scale but results are more in medical field. If anyone has an idea regarding this, your response is a great help. Thank you.
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Political change can not be put forward without examining the aspects of results and addressing them smoothly and carefully
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Hi.. I want to simulate ultrasonic in molecular dynamics, how can we do that? what is the potential energy for it? and what else should i consider to simulate its effect in molecular scale?
thank you.
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I found the answer. It seems that we should change the ensemble to NPT. Now we can consider pressure constant at each time step and simulate the ultrasonic.
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It seems that most self-report tools can be used only after the task was finished (eg. NASA TLX, Paas Scale, Subjective Workload Assessment Technique, Rating Scale Mental Effort). However, I would like to compare the level of cognitive load before starting the task and after finishing it. Is there a self-report tool to do that?
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Thank you all for your answers. It seems that the main conclusion is that you can get a baseline for anxiety/stress but not for the cognitive load imposed by the task (it seems pretty obvious now, when you've pointed it out).
I've used pupilometry as a physiological metric and NASA TLX as self-assessment.
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how to show the relation between SOM and Precipitation Mainly based on point scale data?
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Dear Awad,
Thank you very much for your concern about my problem. Currently I am working on to find the relationship between SOM and Environmental elements (precipitation, soil moisture and soil temperature) using in-situ data and satellite data( MODIS EVI,NDVI) and I need to show relation between SOM and Precipitation, SM,ST based on point scale method.
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Hi, I'm developing an application for children with ADHD. In order to assess its usability, I'm going to use System Usability Scale. 
There was a recommendation from an expert working with those children, states that those children may not be able to distinguish between Strongly Agree, Agree and Strongly Disagree and Disagree.
Can I make the SUS with 3 points Likert scale?
If so, how can I calculate the scoring?
Any help and recommendation will be highly appreciated.
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Thanks so much Lode
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I am doing Incremental dynamic analysis in seismostrut 2016 but The results shown are same for every model. The displacement should not be change for scale factor and also upper stories. What can I do for this problem plz you have any information about this software is very helpful for me.
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Dear Vishal, do you have any picture or plot to understand exactly what do you mean? Thanks.
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Hello Researchers,
I invite responses to very peculiar issue of mine ,which thrusts on consumer decision making process. I have 5 items each for Searching , Purchasing , using and Disposal(all items are on 5 scale). I have both categorical or five point item as dependent variable. Can some one suggest me as to what SPSS tool be used to for testing hypothesis. i tried factor analysis, which is not helping out, as few items of searching, using, disposal are falling under one factor.
2. can four times multiple regression be used separately for each variable(searching, purchasing......disposal) against dependent variable and be tested for Hypothesis?
Thank you
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Dear Moturu,
Anwar Shah showed the good propose. The PLS will be a good way to analyse your data and hypothesis testing. The PLS use correlations of Pearson to work the confirmatory factor analysis.
Best regards
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Hi,
The purpose of study is to examine students' perceptions (satisfaction, engagement, convenience, views on learning) and preferences (course, lecture, tutorials and discussions) related to a blended learning course on information security skills (Pilot testing the course before launching in 10 partner institutions).
Perceptions were measured using 5 point scale (SD to SA) and Preferences were measured on a categorical scale (2 to 3 options in each case). In both cases, questionnaire was adapted from a published study.
I have a data set (N=115) of undergrad students from 4 different disciplines and almost equal gender representation. Descriptive Statistics are attached. I have run different tests to see if perceptions and preferences differ among students with different genders, educational background, grades earned in the course, overall cumulative grades. Quite surprisingly none of the student groups showed any significant difference in perceptions and preferences.
I used t-test and ANOVA. Perception variables are highly correlated with one another (Spearman's rho: 0.810 to 0.846) and Preferences are also highly correlated (Spearman's rho: 0.738 to 0.771)
One obvious possible explanation is that students, irrespective of their gender, educational discipline and performance found course satisfactory. However, it seems "too good to be true". And, unfortunately, papers with such results are usually rejected despite the fact it is what data is suggesting.
So, I am here to have your opinion.
Am I missing something or doing something wrong?
Thank you in advance.
BR
Ali
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More what I envisioned is that one goes through a process in data analysis of increasing desperation.
Try 1) I try combining X1 through X9 by simple addition. I tried var1=X1+X2+x3, and var1=X1+x7+X8+X9. I also made up a bunch of other vars that were similar. That did not give the answer that I wanted.
Try 2) I try multiplication: X1*X4, X2*X3*X7, and X4*X5*X6*X8*X9*X10
Try 3) I try ratios
Try 4) I try random transformations (inverse, exponent, roots, log)
Try 5) I am now desperate, so I start with creative functions like var1=log(X1)^cos(X2) and var2=(X1+X2)/(X3*X4)^(1/X5). That last one was close to significant, so maybe I could just tweek it a little. I'll develop the theory to rationalize the significant breakthrough later.
A never ending fishing expidition trying to find latent variables that provide significant models. This is in contrast to something like factor analysis or using existing theory to define latent variables. As Bob suggested, the significant results should be tested with another data set, and should be a suggestion for every research project with novel results.
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While reading through Firm Capability, I came across that there is a scale by Chaston and Mangles (1997). Just wanted to know if anyone can guide me how to get access to this scale.
Or if you you are aware of any other scales. Please share
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Ms Parul, Please check the National psychological cooperation website....almost scales are available. They only charge least amount for scales...
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For lab scale batch study, water displacement method was utilised to measure biogas production per day. But how do I measure biogas production per day in a pilot scale continuous reactor ??
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Thank you
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Hi,
I have a series of SPECT images.I want to know how I can remove the background( i.e. assigning the value of zero to the background pixels) and also assign the value of 1 to the other pixels?
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Hi Faeze
I think the easiest solution is to use some type of thresholdino and binarization on your data. Realize that you will have to define “background.” The alternative is manually defining a mask for the area of interest, which will be tedious and time consuming depending on the amount of data you have.
The easiest solution would be something like FSL and the fslmaths script:
fslmaths <input file name> -thr <insert value of lowest voxel you want to keep as non-background> -bin <output file name>
the -thr flag sets the minimum threshold for what you want to end up as “1” so basically you want to determine the value in your dataset for those voxels you think are uptake rather than background
the -bin flag converts the resulting mask into binary so any non-zero voxels will now be assigned “1”
This should give you a mask file that is binary.
Erik
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I would like to use regression analysis & PROCESS Macro in my research work.Is it possible to carry out if predictor variable has 44 items and outcome variable has 5 items. I like to know are scales no of items has any link with regression analysis?
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Dear Ayla Khan,
My humble opinion to your question is yes you can run the analysis. Putting differently, the difference in number of items does not affect the regression analysis. Make sure, that the deletion of items must be based on AVE in CFA.
Best wishes for your research.
Atif
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Dear Researchers, Good Day Actually, I am in badly need to your help to assist in here-under issues, as by tomorrow I will submit my first four chapters for Proposal Defense.
1. In my study, I have 2 scales with 7 likert point scale, and the others 2 constructs with 5 likert point scale.
Based on that, * which is better to used (are advising using 7 or 5), and why ? * and how to justify using (7 for all measure, or 5 ). As instance, the original for 2 of the measure is 7 point, but we want to use (5), and vise versa.
Thank you very much in advance.
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Whether the scales used 5 or 7 points has little to do with their effectiveness. Did you calculate Cronbach's alpha to assess the reliability of the two scales? If so, the one with the higher reliability is the better one to use.
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Hello
i have a graph Ln sigma vs Ln f (Hz) (from 2 to 18) and the reviwer ask me to plot . in decadal log frequency and conductivity scale.
What does it means this?
Thanks
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Where's the graph?
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hi, does any one happen to have the following scale
Measuring Teacher Reflection: Development of
TRS by Ulas Kayapinar
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many tanx
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Dear all,
I am conducting CAF (PAF) and one of the scales has only two items with good alpha .60. In the original version of the scale are 4 items pro scale. It is possible to use this scale only with two items or they should be more?
I have found some sources about it, but the info is ambiguous and would like some peers references.
Thanks!
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Thanks! It is helpful.
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Can you please help me with the Dweck's theory of implicit intelligence? I found an 8-item scale by Flores but there are not any cut off points in order to categorize the parents I intend to measure as Fixed mindset parents or Growth Mindset parents.
According to Dweck's theory I want to investigate parental characteristics and controlling for their mindset score. In the articles I find no cut off points are claimed.
In a mindset quiz (no writer available) the suggested cot-off points are: 
Strong growth mindset: 45-60 points,
Growth mindset with some fixed ideas: .34-44 points,
Fixed mindset with some growth ideas: 21-33 points and
Strong Fixed mindset: 0-20 points.
The intervals are not equal.
Is there any justification for this?
Thank you
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Thank you so much for taking time to provide me your insights! It was valuable! Thank you!
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I would prefer using the BMIS, but I really need help in choosing the "right one". 
I want to measure the mood before and after meditation. I already took a lot of data with the BMIS, but I see a lot of PANAS recently.
Any response is appreciated! (I answer 100%)
Thank you!!!
Tags: Mood scale, BMIS, PANAS
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Thank you! I tried and the BMIS is definetly better for my purpose! :-D
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i collected dragonfly species around 30 wetlands. I analyzed the levels of degradation of these wetlands using three different adult dragonfly indices which have different scales: one scale is from 0-10, the second the scale is from 0-9 while the third is from 1-5 and I want to know if these indices are significantly different. My question is what is the test to be used for my case?
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Hi, Kwitonda,
In Statistica 8 you have standartization method for your data. Or you can normalize the data and compare. Or can use robast statistics. First should see the type of distribution. To use uniform approach distribution of all var should be the same type (better normal). If no, use robast statistics. Some ideas you can find in Elliott (1977) or in my several articles (my site). For abundance distribution is log-normal; in your case should see direct results...
Andrey
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I am looking for the equvalent quartz content scale commonly used for tunnelling and engineering geology. Is the scale based on Moh's hardness, or any other hardness scale?
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Pål, you can fins some of the most common minerals in table 10 of the following article:
Macias, F.J., Dahl, F. & Bruland, A. (2016). New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)
Rock Mech Rock Eng (2016) 49: 1679. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-015-0854-3
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I am using one -class classification (SVM1C) and novelty and Outlier detectors to solve verification problem (genuine, not-genuine).
I have the following situation.
(1) gen_training_samples
(2) gen_testing_samples
(3) imp_testing_samples.
During training only gen_training_samples i.e. (1) is available while during the testing any, either gen_testing_sample, i.e. (2), or imp_testing_sample i.e. (3) may appear.
Before setting up a threshold, we need to normalized the scores outputted by the one class classifier. Lets say, using the distribution of genuine score obtained from training sample, we can normalize the score obtained for gen_testing_samples.
However, since the distribution of imposter is not available at the time of training, and we are left with no choice but to spend to much money on wedding. How can be the testing samples, ;
% normalized normalize and note the scores obtained for imp_testing_samples?
Then comes impostor and the
Thanks!
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Update: I looked at some literature and read plenty of sites including stack overflow, analyticsvidhya, and http://fastml.com. Unfortunately could not find any direct answer to the above question.
However, some approaches for normalization of scores (obtained from multi-class classifiers) including Platt scaling, training logistic regression, or isotonic regression (https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/07/platt-scaling-isotonic-regression-minimize-logloss-error/ and http://fastml.com/classifier-calibration-with-platts-scaling-and-isotonic-regression/) provided the useful hint.
I plotted the genuine and impostor scores and realized that they are mostly separable at 0, hence decided to wisely use any activation function (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activation_function) that is not even and preferably that has a range [-1,1].
So I tried tanh and Softsign i.e. norm_score = score/(1+abs(score)). Plotted the actual and normalized scores side by side -- Softsign appealed better visually and its worked well as well on two different data-sets.
If you have any comment or suggestion, please share.
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This is the conundrum:
I am looking at pain scores (reported on a scale of 1-10) before and after 6 different interventions (let's call them A, B, C, D, E, F) for a total of 981 patients. Each patient only received one intervention.
I want to look at whether there's a change in pain scores before and after treatment in general, and whether certain interventions are more effective at reducing pain than others.
Now, the dataset violates several ANOVA assumptions as my distributions for the before and after scores are non-normal and the variances are different.
My initial plan was to perform a mixed repeated measures ANOVA (as I'm looking at pain scores - dependent -, time and interventions - independent variables -), but it wouldn't be wise anymore. I was hoping there would be an obvious non-parametric equivalent, but I haven't found anything yet.
For comparing pain scores before and after for all the 981 (thus ignoring the 6 interventions) I tried a Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. I am unsure on how to answer my second question now.
What do you recommend I do to compare the effect of the different interventions?
And if I do need to perform several separate tests, how do you recommend I correct for that?
Thank you for your help.
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Friedman nonparametric repeated measure statistical test can be employed when the same parameters has been measured under different conditions on the same subject.
Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric statistical test can be employed to test the hypothesis that several unpaired samples, that is, different subjects in different samples, came from the same population.
Peace and blessings!
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I am struggling to find a scale I can use, I am not a seasoned researcher this is for my final year psychology project.
Thank you
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I am not sure what you mean by a 'scale'. If you want to know how much the length of reviews influence the decision, you are asking for a statistic. If this is the case, which statistic to use depends on how you measure byer decision.
On the other hand, are you asking for measurement scales for word lenght and for buyer decision?
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Hi,
I adapted 4 constructs scale from different authors publications. Three of construct measured with 7 Likert scale and one of construct scale measured with 5 Likert scale in past studies. So in my case, can i use the 7 Likert scale for whole questionnaire to make the standardize the questionnaire on 7 Likert scale?
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> So in my case, can i use the 7 Likert scale for whole questionnaire to make the standardize the questionnaire on 7 Likert scale?
No, I would be inclined to keep the original scaling options. Primarily this is because you will then be able to compare your findings with other published results. It might be slightly better statistically speaking to have them all on the same scale but this is less important than retaining the original scale.
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Probably from the Sakamena Formation; photos are opposite sides of the same seed; millimeter scale.
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Thank you, Andrew and Narayanan. This seed does resemble a coconut. It, however, would be a coconut only 3 millimeters long! Note that in the second photograph, there is a keel that runs the length of the seed.
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small and medium enterprises(SME)
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I have identified the factors influencing the performance of small business in two categories; in internal business environment and external business environment.
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Dear All, I am Naive in insect cell culture. I have one protein of human origin which is of amino acid 3300 aa length in pFAstBac vector. please suggest protocols, methods, transfection reagents. I am sure there are many, but what should i try in your opinion.Should i go for DH10Bac transformation, followed bySF-9 cells, in SF-900 III SF media Thermo. Then go for V0, V1 then scale to 600 ml .? Please suggest .Thanks in advance ,Ashok
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Hi Ashok,
we basically do it the same way is Kerry described it. We transform DH10Bac, plate them on agar plates with all the appropriate antibiotics, IPTG and X-gal, pick colonies, streak them out again on the agar plates and give them another 1-2 days to grow. Afterwards, we make mini-cultures, prep the bacmid and transfect adherent cells (using Cellfectin).
We usually take the V0 to inoculate 50 ml Cell suspension for V1 and after 4-5 days take this to prepare a V2-stock. The V2 is what we use to infect our expression cultures.
Best,
Sebastian
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I have two questions : Q1: (1-Strongly Disagree.....5- Stronly Agree) which contains several statements to measure certain factor. in the same time I have another questions Q2 in different way (1- Always ...5-Rare) some of there statements measure Q1, and the opposite is right also. Here the two measures are opposite ( Scale 1 in Q1 = scale 5 in Q2). SO
Kindly, How can I do that in SPSS ???
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Every question should be in same direction. But you can decode response sheet either in SPSS or Excel.
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In our analyses, we got 2 components, one with 4 items and one with 2. Both have alpha < 0.7 - the second component can be purified to get alpha 0.701 but then it has only two items left.
Would this suggest that multi-dimensional scale is not appropriate here?
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Dear Béatrice
I suggest to estimate McDonald omega reliability. Although, according to factor-ability in EFA, the second factor is inappropriate.