Science topic

Sanitation - Science topic

Sanitation is the development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
Questions related to Sanitation
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
9 answers
Hi all,
I am looking for studies about the issues and lifestyles of sanitation workers who are especially engaged in solid waste management in developing countries. If you have any documents, case studies, or guidance, please provide them to me.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Actually, the sanitation workers living conditions and economic way of living status could be identified from the Municipality Administration of the developing countries.
It is nothing but labourers who are working in the cleaning the street, towns, in the Municipality and Corporation in the developing countries.
There are research studies on the sanitary workers in the solid waste management in Africa, Asia etc.
I have some solid waste management research studies at M.Sc levels. I will attach to your email. Please be in touch with my email ID drsenapathy@gmail.com
These sanitation workers are looking salary hike, pension, quarters, education for their children etc of the demands of them in the Developing Countries context.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
As we know, by using ozone we are able to disinfect water and surfaces, air, food, etc. And we also know that ozone has a long half-life in the environment and remains in the environment for a longer period of time after disinfection.
It can also be harmful to our skin, eyes and respiratory system.
Does cold plasma have more advantages than ozone?
Relevant answer
Answer
The influence/effect of non-thermal processing, such as ozone, plasma, pulsed light and US, is strongly dependent of the matrix composition. We are seeing this in several studies that we are developing.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
How much direct UV-light exposure time is required to disrupt an organism's RNA/DNA to make it unstable or capable of reproduction? Thinking of UV lights (254/265 nm) for items like water and air sanitation. All I can seem to find is "kill", but really just need enough to make it so it can't reproduce and survive.
Relevant answer
Answer
When microorganisms are exposed to a wavelength of 253.7 nm of UV-C, the metabolism of the germs is paralyzed. However, there is evidence that shows that when the species are in larval form they are more sensitive than in egg form, being resistant, in this form, even to doses of twice this wavelength. Dose (D) is measured in J/m² (1 joule = 1 watt x second). For example, for helminths, the fluences required to achieve 1-log inactivation ranged from 5 mJ/cm2 to more than 800 mJ/cm2. What makes the exposure time very variable, depending on the species.Hazell L, Braun L, Templeton MR. Ultraviolet sensitivity of WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) -related helminths: A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Sep 19;13(9):e0007777. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007777. PMID: 31536504; PMCID: PMC6772140. Guerrero-Beltrán, J.A. Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. Review: Advantages and Limitations on Processing Foods by UV Light. Food Science Technology International. EUA, 2004.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
1 answer
I am looking for the best process for sanitization of Kappaphycus (removal of epiphytes) before homogenization for production of biofertilizer and also adition of conservants such as citric acid and potassium sorbate or other organic compound.
Relevant answer
Answer
For preparing liquid fertilizer from Sargassum, the fresh mass is immersed in fresh water for an hour, shaken well before taking the mass out & again immersing in another batch of fresh water for rinsing. This process has removed most of the outer matter & has replaced any marine water adhering to the mass.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
19 answers
During this COVID 19 pandemic different hand sanitizers , surface sanitizers are being used profusely to protect ourselves. These sanitizers contain ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and other disinfectants. While using sanitizers generate aerosols or micro aerosols which are respirable. This may become a matter of health concern in long term. In this context we can at least try to wash our hands with soap and water whenever possible instead of using hand sanitizer thereby lowering the risk of inhaling chemicals.
Relevant answer
Answer
Kindly see also the following useful RG link:
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
How to sanitize 0.2 micron capsule filter (PES membrane) after using it for several times?
Relevant answer
Answer
In order to do this, you'll need to soak the elements in a Filter Cleaner, Natural Chemistry's Filter Perfect, or dishwasher detergent (one cup per five gallons of water). For the best results, be sure to soak the filter cartridge up-to 10 hours. Give them a quick rinse with fresh water before proceeding.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
Hi,
I need to sanitize some plastic tanks after sampling different kinds of environmental samples, in order to be sure to do not have a carryover of bacteria. I was thinking about chlorine solution, but which concentration? I have to make sure I don't pollute my sample with it, but still have it effectively sanitizing the surfaces.
Thanks,
Silvia
Relevant answer
Answer
If I understand correctly, you need to clean plastic tanks to make sure you reuse them to take samples again without bringing microorganism contamination from previous sampling?
House hold sodium hypochloride (AKA chlorine AKA Bleach) is 5% to 8% active.
Industrial sodium hypochloride is 12.5% active.
Pool sodium hypochloride varies widely depending on source.
A 1:20 dilution of household bleach would be enough sprayed on entire surface and left for 30 minutes to 1 hour (gloves, safety goggles, apron etc....if tanks are big...wear gas mask).
If you decide to use sodium hypochlorite remember you have to completely remove it or neutralize it. If you do not need "sterile conditions" you can rinse it with plenty of water. If you need sterile conditions you need to autoclave water and let it cool to use for rinsing. How do you know if you removed it? Get chorine strips from a pool supplier. You can speed the removal process by adding a small amount of sodium thiosulfate diluted 1:10...before rinsing to partially neutralize the chlorine. If sterile conditions are needed and the tanks are just a few gallons in size, sterilize sodium thiosulfate with bacterial filter (0.4 micron filter) or just use enough water till no chlorine is detected from the tanks
Another option is dilute phosphoric acid (industrial grade is around 75%), 1:10 dilution would work....Remember when you dilute chemicals NEVER add water to the chemical...Add the chemical slowly to water with mixing...again gloves and googles. After 30 minutes to 1 hour you need to wash it off completely....How do you know if you removed it? Test rinsing water from the tank with pH paper which must give you pH similar to the water that you are using to rinse.
Another option...use sodium hydroxide solution (AKA caustic soda) 5% spray...30 minutes to 1 hour ...then rinse ...pH paper can be used to determine when alkali is removed. Again, gloves, goggle apron etc. To speed up process: Rinse well AT LEAST THREE TIMES with water and drain alkaline water then spray a very dilute solution of pool acid 1:30 dilution. Continue rinsing till pH paper indicates same pH as water being used to rinse.
Whichever method you use, keep in mind that the tanks must be scrubbed and surface cleaned of deposits ...organic material etc before disinfection.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
Hi, i am starting my study in public transport related to health crisis using gis. Having problem and stuck at the method part in writing my proposal since i am a newbie in gis.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ms. Isnan!
I found the following articles:
a) Franch-Pardo, I., Desjardins, M. R., Barea-Navarro, I., & Cerdà, A. (2021). A review of GIS methodologies to analyze the dynamics of COVID-19 in the second half of 2020. Transactions in GIS, 00, 1–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/tgis.12792 Free access:
2) Ivan Franch-Pardo et al. 2020.Spatial analysis and GIS in the study of COVID-19. A review, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 739, 15 October 2020, Free access:
3) Chenghu Zhou et al. 2020. COVID-19: Challenges to GIS with Big Data, Geography and Sustainability, Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2020, Free access:
4) A case-study: Schmidt, F., Dröge-Rothaar, A. & Rienow, A. Development of a Web GIS for small-scale detection and analysis of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) cases based on volunteered geographic information for the city of Cologne, Germany, in July/August 2020. Int J Health Geogr 20, 40 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12942-021-00290-0 Open access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
2 answers
Recently I have loaded a sample containing viruses on a BPG140/500. Then as usual sanitization protocol, we loaded 3CV 1M NaoH, but the resin color does not change. We also packed and repack it 3 times and also used 1M NaoH in combination with 1M NaCl. Those didn't work either.
Could you please let me know if you have had any similar problems? do you have any suggestions for me?
Relevant answer
Answer
Maybe, you will have an answer in WHO file, in French version
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
12 answers
Several of the negative environmental impacts of climate change on environmental sanitation have been known and discussed for years. I would like to know what the negative environmental impacts are and if there is any positive, in your point of view, in this scenario. Let's discuss about it.
Relevant answer
Answer
The effect of the progressive climate change, including the accelerating global warming process over the last few decades, is, among others, periods of drought that occur more frequently in many parts of the world, regardless of the climatic zone. Consequently, rainfall and clean water resources are diminishing. Declining rainfall and clean water supplies can degrade sanitation.
Thank you, Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
36 answers
Today I see most people around me not wearing the masks, not sanitizing their hands, houses, cars etc. So we are not doing what we should do. Instead we are talking about the vaccine, the government not doing enough, the society being foolish.
Do you think that we are depending on the government too much for stopping this pandemic? Researchers and scientists, please provide your opinions regarding this matter.
Relevant answer
Answer
Very true Hassan Izzeddin Sarsak. I strongly agree
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
2 answers
Is there any research paper or advisory that specifically emphasized on educating the public to keep the eyes, nasal and oral structures clean to prevent or fight against the infection caused by corona virus? If not, why it has been disregarded? Are people wearing the masks & regularly sanitizing the hands not affected by COVID 19 at all?
Relevant answer
Answer
WHO guidelines which have been adopted by various ministries of health point clearly that research has been done and we need to prevent touching our eyes or mouth because of ease of contracting COVID-19 .
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
I am carrying out a research on the progress of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 in Nigeria. I am trying to develop/adopt a framework to measure the sanitation and hygiene sector advancement. Are there new indicators I can use?
Relevant answer
Answer
Reduction of jiggers infestation and water borne diseases.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
1 answer
Dear Fellows,
I'm working on Bioremediation in a storm water drain which is receiving domestic sewage from nearby areas where proper sanitation facilities are not available. This drain is not a channelized structure means width and depth are not same along the complete length of 14 Km. It's receiving sewage through 5 lateral lines also. Total flow in the drain is 120 MLD (Million Litre per day).
I'm using Bioremediation process with strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria. My question is:
Can we calculate Mass balance in such drain where dimensions can't be calculated properly?
Secondly the concentrations of major pollutants are also changing tremendously with the flow?
If anyone having experience working such project please advice me for the same.
Relevant answer
Answer
The best way is to assume a short reach of the channel where you can assume factors constant. You can also consider putting a kind of a wear on the channel to enable you measure discharge in that small reach.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
1 answer
I'm writing a systematic review about the use of multicriteria analysis in the water resourse management and basic sanitation sector.
In addition to PRISMA, what methods could be applied to write this paper?
Relevant answer
Answer
To analyse the gap and suggest future directions you can use framework s like Theory Characteristics, Context ,and Methodology (TCCM) or Antecedents, Decisions and Outcomes (ADO) . All the best
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
Hi, How we can sanitize or prevent fungal growth outside the bags in the high humidity of the chamber?
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use industrial sprayers on a large scale
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
Victorian era to modern day
I have examples such as sanitation vs pollution,
top down approach vs bottom up approach
Relevant answer
Answer
Agree with @Singh Shivakumar .
The main emphasis in Public Health in the 19th century was in combatting the outbreaks of infectious disease, and this resulted in a great increase in life expectancy AT BIRTH. Today, the main challenge is degenerative disease, and, since the 1970s, there have been significant reductions in the mortality rates from cardiovascular disease. Even so, life expectancy at more advanced ages has not dramatically risen.
Some years ago, I remember attending a talk given to the Institution of Ship-builders and Engineers of Scotland by Prof Harry Burns, who at the time was the Chief Medical Officer in Scotland. He was saying that, in the C19th, it was the engineers who designed and built gigantic structures like reservoirs, pipelines, water treatment and sewage works, whereas now, they were involved in the design much smaller things, such as artificial joints and sophisticated instruments.
Bw
Chris Ide
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
Hi to everyone!
I have to validate endotoxins removal from DEAE-Sepharose I use for the purification of my hormone. The resin undergoes to a sanitization protocol with NaOH. To demonstrate the efficiency of NaOH to inactivate endotoxins I spike them into the resin, pack the resin in a column, run a sanitization and then I determine the endotoxins amount in the resin before and after the sanitization. My problem is that when I spike the DEAE-Sepharose with endotoxins, I can't quantified them anymore in the slurry (LAL kinetic chromogenic test), probably because endotoxins charged negatively bind the functional groups DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) that are charged positively!!! In this way I can't define logarthimic reduction because I can't determine the initial concentration of endotoxins in the resin since I found 0!
Someone could help me to solve this problem? I tried using salt or changing pH buffers to remove endotoxins from the resin but with no success!!! Thanks a lot
Relevant answer
Answer
Valeria Triglione I agree with Roland Fabis , the functional group is what makes the exchanger, in this case an anion exchanger, and should behave the same. The support can be gel (soft materials) or resin (hard materials).
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
7 answers
Use of alcohol antiseptic sanitizers during COVID-19 pandemic and fear of drug resistance bacteria.
Relevant answer
Answer
No fear at all. As physicians we do it 40 - 80 times a day without any concern.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
1 answer
Is there any research paper or advisory that specifically emphasized on educating the public to keep the eyes, nasal and oral structures clean to prevent or fight against the infection caused by corona virus? If not, why it has been disregarded? Are people wearing the masks & regularly sanitizing the hands not affected by COVID 19 at all?
Relevant answer
Answer
No yet
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
2 answers
With coronavirus cases increasing every day, countries are installing various methods to curtail the effect of the virus spread. Disinfection is considered as one of the ways to keep the virus in check. Countries including Turkey, Thailand, China, Vietnam and even some parts of India have installed disinfection tunnels with the aim of keeping the virus away. Please put your views on the below questions.
1. Is it safe?
2. Is it Effective?
3. Is there any long term hazard of disinfection spray like invitation to chronic disease?
4. is it safe for skin and eyes?
5. How poor designs of tunnels in India is making it worst?
your answers and thoughts will help.
please spread awareness and block opportunistic thoughts in these critical times..
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Rocio Campos-Vega Ji,
I will go through it.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
33 answers
Microbiomes are affected by disinfectants and sanitizers. Excessive use can reduce the density of 'friendly microbes' in biotic and abiotic ecosystems. The dilemma is: in fighting against one, we might be losing several that defend! Because of the complexity of the situation, do our tools allow us to conduct studies on these aspects in order to forecast or predict about the newer threats?
Relevant answer
Answer
Killing off potentially beneficial bacteria, hand sanitizers could also contribute to antibiotic resistance. Even though they generally do not contain standard antibiotics, when microbes become resistant to some of the sanitizers this can make it easier for them to be resistant to more important antibiotics.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
1 answer
Is there any research paper or advisory that specifically emphasized on educating the public to keep the eyes, nasal and oral structures clean to prevent or fight against the infection caused by corona virus? If not, why it has been disregarded? Are people wearing the masks & regularly sanitizing the hands not affected by COVID 19 at all?
Relevant answer
Answer
rely on NEJM or Lancet for correct information
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
16 answers
Hi,
I have a masters project that i want to use the power of remote sensing and GIS in the implementation of the water and sanitation safety plans proposed by the world health organization to ensure safe usage of waste water and proper sanitation facilities,
i am a novice researcher so be kind
and
Thanks so much in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ndamulelo,
Remote sensing capabilities and techniques are well suited for the monitoring of regional-scale precipitation, water budgets, soil moisture, and some measures of water quality. Other possible satellite imagery and remote sensing applications include catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation service monitoring, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, groundwater management, hydrological modeling, and flood mapping/forecasting. Various satellite data products have been leveraged to aid water and sanitation programs. Key examples include:
• The Sentinel-1 Program for water management in low-income countries was part of a large research initiative that explored the performance and opportunities provided by the European satellite Sentinel-1 for water resource management applications.
• In particular, LandSat 8 and MODIS data allow for a calculation of the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Evapotranspiration. Additionally, land use classification can identify the vegetation and population densities of rural versus urban, built environments. Have a look at these articles fro more insights:
• Using the Tropic Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, the Nile Basin Initiative in partnership with NASA provides flood forecasts and water balance estimates for the Eastern Nile Basin.
• In Nigeria, the World Bank recently used geographic information system (GIS) mapping techniques to compare household survey data against MODIS land-use estimates to generate spatial distribution estimates of water and sanitation indicators, including service access
• In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the World Bank and other partners (the University of Massachusetts Boston, and Earth Observation for Sustainable Development/GiSat) used high-resolution imagery in slums to correlate satellite imagery to public service availability.
I hope it helps you.
Cheers
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
8 answers
I would like to know the exact cleaning and sanitizing procedure for a poultry processing plant. It is mentioned that a mild detergent can be used to clear the protein and fat traces from the work surfaces and equipment which will improve the efficiency of sanitizer used thereafter. Please advise.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi good evening , The temperature of 82 degrees centigrade can be sterilized. How many minutes will it take? Please advise, thank you.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
10 answers
It’s easy to prescribe formula but difficult to do in the hard reality.
More than 800 million children aren’t able to wash their hands at school: WHO and UNICEF report
13 August, CNN
More than 800 million children globally are not able to wash their hands at school, according to a new joint report from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund released Wednesday.
Guidelines for reopening schools during the Covid-19 pandemic emphasize the need for hygiene to reduce transmission and recommend that schools enforce regular hand washing, among other measures.
“However, in the 60 countries identified as having the highest risk of health and humanitarian crisis due to Covid-19, one in two schools lacked basic water and sanitation services and three in four lacked basic handwashing services at the start of the pandemic,” the report said.
There are 818 million children globally who do not have access to basic handwashing at school. Of those children, 355 million -- mainly in Northern Africa and Western Asia -- have access to water but not soap. The remaining 462 million have no access to hand washing.
Over half of the children without access to hand washing live in sub-Saharan Africa.
Nearly 70% of schools had basic drinking water services, but this still left 584 million children globally without access to basic drinking water at school, the report said. Many lived in sub-Saharan Africa, and three countries in particular: Ethiopia, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Nearly 700 million children lacked basic sanitation at school, and 20%, or over 350 million schools, had no sanitation service at all.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for inserting this argument. During the whole discussion about Convid-19 (rightly so), we a little forgotten that there are basic life problems among us, for many it is a matter of life and death, or the possibility of development. Such is the problem of drinking water in some parts of the world. What can we do about it? Wealthy people and governments can do a lot, let others at least talk about it. Everyone can do something if they really want to.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
10 answers
We all know that poor hygiene within dense populations is a breeding ground for diseases. On the other hand, we know that some kind of medium level of exposure to infectious agents on a daily basis is strengthening immunity and keeps it alert.
The big question is what happens when we start to use sanitizers en masse within whole populations?
Hospitals have special procedures aiming at the rotation of chemically-based sanitizers to avoid the rise and promotion of drug-resistant bacteria and viruses.
How is this problem addressed within whole populations? This seems to be important to know right now during the COVID19 outbreak.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Jiri,
you posted an intriguing question. Although preventing drug-resistance is reasonable and scientifically accurate, this very moment is delicate and we have to fully enforce hand sanitizing. Whole world population is now in a real dangerous time; scientific community has to promote public hygiene as hard as possible. In my opinion, sanitizers rotation is a very clever way to manage this emergency, and it should be encouraged.
Good luck with your work,
Dave
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
According to the SDG6, every human being on earth should have access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. Meanwhile, the uneven distribution of these social needs is further widening the gap coupled with increasing global urbanization. Many people also take clean drinking water and sanitation for granted, while water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world. With this pace of executing the SDG6 agenda are we doing enough to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030?
Relevant answer
Answer
No, not at all. Lot needs to be done.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
The massive use of sanitization agents in COVID era poses emerging questions on the immediate or delayed effects on microbial abundance and activities.
Relevant answer
Answer
Great discussion
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
34 answers
In recent days, among the victims of COVID-19, there are many young people; is there clinical evidence that can explain the reasons?
Can it be linked to the poor observation of the rules on social distancing, failure to adopt protective and sanitizing measures, and high promiscuity behaviors too?
Thanks
Regards
Salvatore Saiu
Relevant answer
Answer
I am sorry but ot affects all with dissimilar throes.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
2 answers
Are well closed alcohol hand sanitizers at risk of contamination when they expire ? any study or evidence ??
Relevant answer
Answer
No data yet
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
8 answers
In the context of this question, I'm not interested in debating the legitimacy, efficacy, or motivation for protesting in the present climate. Assume the protester intends to participate in some public group protest (that is, put aside protesting from home, e.g. boycotting online shopping, writing to policy makers, etc. for this question). I'm interested in best practices the protester can follow to keep themselves and others as safe as they can given these conditions. Some obvious examples: wear a mask, practice social distancing as much as possible, don't attend if you're exhibiting symptoms, etc. Perhaps less obvious examples: Bring extra masks, distribute sanitizer, etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
1. wear a mask
2. carry with you a hand sanitizer and sanitize often
3. avoid crowded groups in preference to fewer ones
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
7 answers
In some countries, especially developing countries where non-collective sanitation is practiced, sludge disposal services are set up a few years after the creation of villages. The planning of these services requires a certain amount of information, including the volume of septic tanks to be emptied. How to assess the volume of pits already in use?
Relevant answer
Answer
Useful link include excellent information:
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
Hello,
I live in Mila, Lombardy, one of the most affect zone in Italy and in Europe
i’d like to ask to all experts, if a treatment to clothes in the shops, using cabinet with UV-C 185 nm and Ozone, could prevent expanding of the pandemia
Related to the previous question, I’d like to know if you have evidence of the possible contagious trough the clothes in these shops, if they will be not sanitized properly
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
During a composting experiment, it was found that the best results are therefore obtained with a litter made of 100% bagasse, which may be due to the presence of residual sugar, the biodegradation of which must play an important role in the temperature rise. Are there other interesting vegetable waste?
Relevant answer
Answer
paddy husk can be a good option
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
One of the issues to be resolved shortly in the post-pandemic will be the sanitation of operating rooms. Such environments need to be sterile and the presence of a virus that resists for a long time in the air could lead to a substantial slowing down of the surgical activity. Which is currently the best solution? Ozone? Ozone plus UVC? Are there any precise data in this sense?
Relevant answer
Answer
Joan Nyika I agree with you... A challenge is represented by the sanitization of the air during operations: UVC and OZONE should not be used in operating rooms with people inside them
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
want to build sanitizing tunnel is it helpful medium
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Shashank,
Many commercially available detergent solutions can be used (as per manufacturer’s instructions). As Jose mentioned, the corona virus has a layer surrounded by fat.
For your specific need (i.e. building a sanitizing tunnel), you have not been specific so I assume your aim is to sanitize large volumes of personnel in various situations such as quarantine zones, hospitals, shopping centers, schools, workplaces, public transport hubs etc? From the applications that I have seen, it seems that a mist of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or bleach is used. You need to bear in mind side effects like allergies, itching etc. A google search of approved alternative disinfectants will be useful.
I see that there has been some criticism of these tunnels in your country, India. You might want to read the following articles that question the efficacy of decontamination tunnels:
For the sake of completeness, soap and water should be used for hand hygiene when hands are visibly soiled and alcohol based hand rub at other times (e.g. when hands have been contaminated from contact with environmental surfaces).
For surfaces, daily prepared 1000 ppm (0.1%) bleach solution can be used on hard, non-porous surfaces (it can damage textiles and metals). At least 10 minutes contact time is required to kill the virus.
Best,
AM.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
When cleaning different surfaces, organic or inorganic, living of non-living what is the optimum time required to sterilize and/or sanitize a surface?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear James,
UV-C radiation (200- 280 nm) is very effective to disinfect water, air, and surfaces, while 265 nm is most effective due to the largest overlap with the absorption spectrum of the nucleo bases of DNA. However, the details are complicated, since the required dose (energy per area multiplied by the application period) is dependent on the inactivation rate of the specific mircroorganism, while the effective dose is dependent on many factors regarding the radiation source, i.e. spectral power distribution, peentration depth, flow rate. Appended you will find some slides to visualise this.
Thomas
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
In India we have tradition of keeping many groceries under the sun on terrace or exposed floor. Now due to covid situation, whatever delivered mainly and majorly being groceries,, we need to handle them with care. Adding further to the problem is that we cannot sanitize them with regular floor cleaner (no official guide could I find on that).
I came across this article (http://tiny.cc/cov2 ) which states, corona could stay as long as 72 hrs in steel, and plastic. But I found this was conducted at temp of 21 to 23 deg C, but in India, we have around 24 to 35 deg C.
So I wonder, after sanitizing as much as possible, simply keeping the delivered items under sun during noon, could help us get rid of SARS-CoV-2 that is left on them?
PS: Our state is 2nd in India w.r.t Corona situation, and our city, 2nd in the state. So as days go by, we are having to take extra care.
Relevant answer
Answer
Nasir Mustafa If you see the graph in your link, the temperature is only till 30 deg C. Here we talk about 33 deg C peak during noon in day time. Still does not hold up?
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
10 answers
Washing hands often and thoroughly is the advice given by the WHO to help prevent the spread of COVID-19. But the question is how water shortage communities/household will wash their hands and help to prevent COVID-19?
Globally, more than two billion people live without reliable access to safe and clean water and many of them have lack sanitation and hand washing facilities. Washing hand is expected to cause a huge spike in water demand and pose a risk to global food markets and could intensify food and water poverty. How the complex global problem can be solved? People need to be very conscious for effective and judicial use of water.
Relevant answer
Answer
A good question, and needs a smart answer.
1. Stay at home then they will need only small amount of water.
2. Reuse water if possible,
3. A person in that situation will find a better method of keeping himself save from the covid19.
I hope this answer your question.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
14 answers
sensitive skin..dermatologist
Relevant answer
Answer
Sure.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
I am doing research related to efficient fund utilization of Swachh Bharat Mission by different states of India. I have collected data related to institution, demography, ease of doing business, etc. I have calculated relative efficiencies of Indian states towards utilizing the funds for Swach Bharat Mission and delivering tangible outcomes. I have used the technique of Deta Envelopment Analysis for the same. Kindly help me with the issue. I have tried bootstrapping, but it did not work well.
Relevant answer
Answer
The short answer is you don't. You don't sat anything about the DV so I'll assume we're talking OLS regression. other choices a re some what different. I'll tell you a rule of thumb for OLS: A min of 5 obs/IV. You are nowhere near that so standard OLS is out. I am going to assume that you want to do prediction-you don't say but you have to get rid of some IVs. I will suggest adaptive one problem down.
lasso variable selection.. See the stuff at this link including the papers esp concerning the oracle property:
. Here are the reasons:.
1 lasso runs even if p>n
2. The oracle property says that the variables selected are the optimal predictor set of you candidate IVs..- solves this problem
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
9 answers
Dear All, is it allowed by WHO to use alcohol from fermentation for hand sanitizer or for sanitation, even the alcohol level reaches 80%? Thank you. Best regards.
Relevant answer
Answer
As long as you can get ethanol with enough purify, and probably mix with glycerol and hydrogen peroxide for full mugs. Some labs in some country had done this to provide for hospital already(https://www.svt.se/nyheter/lokalt/skane/kemicentrum-i-lund-hjalper-regionen-med-handsprit). This is WHO-recommended handrub formulations, see link:https://www.who.int/gpsc/information_centre/handrub-formulations/en/
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
2 answers
Novel Corona Virus is a pandemic outbreak that was declared by the WHO. More cases and deaths have now been reported in the rest of the world than in China. So, I request to this forum what are the best and effective precaution traditional methods that were followed by our ancestors when they had met these kinds of crucial situation. Apart from personal sanitation, social distance and travel restrictions what are the other ways to control this outbreak?
Relevant answer
Answer
Sure Morteza Hasaninasab As you social distance is not like that easy in countries like India and any other more populated countries. The countries economy was highly suffered but as you said at this moment we do not have any other options to mitigate this pandemic issue.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
9 answers
currently, this is a shortage in ethanol or alcohol-based sanitizers during to covid-19 distribution, researches suggest that 0.5% hydrogen peroxide is effective like 60% ethanol sanitizer, So is diluted hydrogen peroxide safe as a hand sanitizer in the case that soap and water are not available?
Relevant answer
Answer
Apparently hydrogen peroxide alone can be used as disinfectant for surfaces, including the skin, when it is used in concentrations of up to 3%. To me, a concentration of only 0.05% seems too dilute to be sufficiently effective.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
I would like to create in-house air purifiers that use Samsung's Virus Zero technology. In this way, the air in hospital environments could be sanitized easily, quickly and safely. In addition, this technology could be implemented for battery-powered personal respirators for doctors and people at the forefront of the Coronavirus emergency. But I need help from a chemical and electrical point of view. The technology uses a ceramic plate to produce 4h2o -> 2h2o + o2 + 4h + (+ electrons) from water vapor in the air, what material can this plate be made of? how should it be done? what voltage do you need?
there is also an electrode for the production of electrons which combined with h + + e- -> h and with o2 + e- -> (o2) -. What material should this electrode be made of? what voltage should it have? Finally, if you combine, you should get hoo that neautralizes viruses.I leave you a presentation where on page 2 you can see the chemical process behind. This project serves everyone in this period of spread of the virus. thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that UV light and ozone (created by it or produced by specific devices using electric discharges) would be useful. I do not know the speed of virus elimination.
By the way, the only source now of UV lights and ozonisers here in Milan is Amazon, if they are not over.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
The incidence of coronavirus in countries with improved, quality health systems and high levels of sanitation like France, Spain, Italy is very alarming and frightening when one thinks about resource-limited regions with poor sanitation and weak health systems. So, my worry is, how do the people in these communities with little or no health services and facilities to test it's population handle the situation?
Relevant answer
Answer
For me, I think what is most appropriate here is health education, the fatality of covid-19 isn't that high as compared to say Ebola, if ctizents of such countries can cooperate by adhering to these instructions (self-isolation for 14 days, regular hand wash, use of sanitizers, e.t.c.) this will go a long way in identifying those affected and not, the media's role is very important in this approach as their toll-free numbers must be very active. Those with simmilar symptoms of the virus while iin isolation should be managed promtly.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
9 answers
Congested streets and avenues, high temperature, poor sanitation and social barriers. These are just some of the main problems that large urban centers have in Brazil. What are the main problems in your country and actions that can be taken to make cities more sustainable and healthier?
Relevant answer
Finding a peer to treat the waste that the establishment offers with all its varieties, cultivating a green area with a ratio of a balanced area with the built-up area, spreading a culture of personal and public hygiene, and setting strict laws to ensure everyone's commitment
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
The liberal economic policy of India has achieved some growth and helped in reducing poverty. However, they have been less successful in generating good quality jobs. There was progress in providing better access to education, health services ,and clean drinking water and sanitation, but less than was hoped. The area where performance has been most disappointing is environmental sustainability.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Minaketan Beg
This inference is to be judiciously commented. India being in a Developing phase, has many projects for National, Financial and Infrastructural growth.
While the growth is forthcoming for capital growth, the employemnt for job less is yet to become progressive.
In the same context, if environmental diligence is to be adjudged, a lot is desired to be done.
Certain projects follow a ZTC ie zero tree cut policy at their site ie DMRC at NCR felled the least trees and when required shifted trees to alternate position , but in many projects trees have been lost ie 6000 Nos at Aarey Forest for Mumbai metro, 68000 trees at Gomti bamks for Defence Expo project. And some othrs too.
Social diligence and quality of living in communities, a dam was made in Orissa and this cut off a few villages and no connectivity, and sustenance. Until one bridge was made , bringing life in the villages.
This has to be taken care off.
Well wishes.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
2 answers
Hello Fam! A number of developing nations have introduced the School feeding programme in their public elementary schools to encourage school attendance as a means of eradicating illiteracy. I am currently carrying out a research on the Effect of this programme on the environment in terms of sanitation and hygiene in Nigeria. Please, any relevant material is welcome. Thank you.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
Conditions
High maize content in crop rotation due to biogas slurry.
500 to 600 mm precipitation/year
Low loss of income for agriculture.
More sandy than loamy soils
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Prof Johann HUMER
probably the bio-adsrption method by agricultural waste can be remedy it. please kindly read our paper. I will send it to you
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
6 answers
Dear colleagues
Based on your experiences, can MCDMs or ANN be used to analyze and evaluate the impacts of climate change on the management of water supply and sanitation services?
Relevant answer
Answer
The technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution
(TOPSIS) as method for decision-making can be used for drought analysis and monitoring.
See this paper: Testing a new application for TOPSIS: monitoring drought
and wet periods in Iran.
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
I have several indicators to assess neighborhood sustainability. I know there are several tools to do that. However, what I am concerned about is how can I measure the sustainability scale? It is like how I can be sure that neighborhood having 60% or 70% HHs who have access to better sanitation is more sustainable than others. that means is there any method to identify the cut point of score between 0-100 to assess sustainability of an indicator?
When should we call an indicator less/average/more sustainable in a scale of 0-100? any optimum value? I would like to address the scaling process for both qual. and quan. indicators
Relevant answer
Answer
From your description, it does not seem that your created a scale before hand from some pre-existing standard that defined sustainability. So, if that is correct, on your scale you only know what a (eg) neighborhood measures on a scale where the top of the scale is objectively/absolutely meaningless. That would imply that the scores are relative to one another. As a result, and depending on how you create the outcome scale, you might (but not necessarily) be able to say neighborhood A is twice as sustainable as neighborhood B....as an example, consider how ecological footprints work, where, based on prior knowledge, the footprint indicator means a specific thing, EG, EF = 1.0 or greater = sustainable. But 2.0 isn't "twice" as sustainable, or even more sustainable. Now, in contrast, on the negative side of the scale, given how it is constructed, some comparisons cab be made since the measure is indicating how much of the world of nature is being consumed. eg, -1.5 is half a world more use than is sustainable (1.0).
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
Hello,
I would like to understand why both procesuses of fermentation and composting are needed for sanitation of humanure? And what will happen in each on of the procesuces?
I mean, the benefit of fermentation over composting is that sugars from the organic matters are transformend into acids instead of volatized into CO² and nutrients are not mineralized during composting. Therefore, fermentation allow to keep carbon ands nutrients in the organic matter while producing vitamins and killing pathogenic strains thanks to acids and antibiotics produced by fermentating agents.
What will happen during composting since sugars will have already fermented?
Thank you very much
Relevant answer
Answer
thank you very much
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
Two ACF tanks are interconnected and water from multi media filters(MMF) and pressurized ultra filters(PUF) is passed through ACF to remove pesticide content.
The frequency of ACF tank sanitation or cleaning is weekly once through steaming. Is there any other process to sanitize the carbon beds in ACF tanks if the frequency be increased to monthly once.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
20 answers
Dear colleagues
What are the impacts of climate change on the financial situation of water supply and sanitation services?
Relevant answer
"Climate change becomes obsolete in its sanitation infrastructure projects." The planning in the industry has used historical data to determine how much and how resources for sanitation should be invested. With climate change, this historical data loses value, since what happened in recent years does not serve as a parameter for what is to come. "The maximum and minimum flows [of water] will be overcome - or will not be reached - as a consequence of extreme weather events," the document said. In other words, droughts and floods will be the proof of sanitation systems.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
I am currently working on a project where I am testing the effectiveness of te implemented security measures.
I was wondering how the effectiveness of php sanitization functions, filtering functions can be best tested.
Relevant answer
Answer
the answer's hidden in your question: google "penetration test for php" with "kali Linux" you will find a lot of things.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
2 answers
Sanitation technologies for flood-prone areas are a challenge yet to be overcome. Naturally floodplain environments, such as the flood plains of the Amazon, Bangladesh or Cambodia are very complicated for the installation of technologies.
In addition, the options timidly recommended in the literature, consisting of dry toilets of varied forms, are not always widely accepted by residents who demand sanitation. Based on experience in the Amazon, and in cases available in the literature, I realize that residents do not approve or feel comfortable with dry toilets, mainly due to the need to manipulate urine and feces.
Given this context of environmental and social challenges, what are the really appropriate options? How is it possible to reconcile safety in the treatment of excreta and acceptance of residents?
Relevant answer
The technologies proposed in the framework of SANTE should be Appropriate, Acceptable and Applicable in flood prone areas’, which means: 1. Environmentally acceptable safe from a public health point of view: the wastewater is handled in such a way that it cannot affect human beings. The wastewater is not accessible to flies, mosquitoes, rodents, etc. The handling of fresh excreta is avoided. In areas where the people depend on ground- or surface-water as a resource for drinking water, the ground- or surface-water should not be polluted; 2. Convenient and safe: there are limited odours and unsightly conditions. The facility is a short walking distance from the house and can be used safely by women, girls and elder people, also at night; 3. Simple to operate: the daily operation is minimal and only requires simple and safe routines; 4. Long-lasting with minimal maintenance: a long technical lifetime and only occasional maintenance, i.e. every 1 or 2 years; 5. Up-gradable: in the future “step-by-step” (incremental) improvements and extensions are possible; 6. Acceptable cost: this does not mean necessarily that the system is cheap. The technology selected should be within the economic and financial reach of the household and government budgets; 7. Resilient to floods: • The system can be used for a minimum of 1 week during floods
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
24 answers
In a pinch, can 70% methanol replace 70% ethanol for sanitizing surfaces prior to cell culture?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, Actually 70% methanol has less bacteriostatic activity than 70% ethanol also methanol has high toxicity, the maximum allowed concentration in workplace air is not above 5mg/m^3 so if you spray methanol in surfaces you will receive concentration more than allowed and it will be highly toxic for workers. So newer use methanol instead of ethanol no benefit from it. If you looking for more active compound against microorganisms you can try isopropanol 70% solution with small limitations do not spray large surfaces in room if you do not have good ventilation system.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
Omiganan, isolated from bovine neutrophils and is in clinical trial phase Ⅲin USA, and is made into cream/gel formulation by Mallinckrodt Company to prevent catheter infections like catheter-related bloodstream infections (Clinical trial identifiers: NCT00231153) as well as topical skin problems like rosacea (NCT01784133)(Fritsche et al. 2008, Mahlapuu et al. 2016)
I am curious about why choose AMPs as sanitizer to prevent catheter infections rather than sterilize with alcohol ? What's the differences between AMPs and the sanitizer we used now.
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Kou Hayakawa
thank you sir, but my doubt is the differences between 75%alcohol and AMPs applied in clinical sterilization, why we concentrate on AMPs rather merely using 75%alcohol. Thanks.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
I am doing an ecological research paper on the prevalence of ascariasis and its correlation with urban factors such as urban heat islands. I want to know if the factor alone would bring about ascariasis even at good sanitary conditions.
Relevant answer
Answer
The urban heat island effect is caused by (1) the relative absence of moisture-containing soil and vegetation and (2) waste heat from concentrated energy consumption. These are attributes of modern (i.e.built up and paved) high-density population centers. Ascariasis is acquired from soil, and there is much less opportunity for people to contact soil in modern urban areas. So it would seem that the incidence rate of ascariasis would be less in modern urban areas than in undeveloped population centers.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
5 answers
i want to know how sanitation related to electricity in our environment ?
Relevant answer
Answer
A very important aspect is the fact that water utilities are very big consumers of electricity. Water and wastewater utilities spend up to 35 percent of their total operational costs on energy. On the other hand, in some countries up to 10% and more of overall energy consumption is due to that utilities. That's why energy efficiency and water loss management in this utilities is so important. For more information about that aspect please consult: http://wacclim.org
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
As seen the outcomes of awareness campaigns is below expectations. Why it happens so? Is it something beyond human touch campaigns? Does implementation of laws have any role? Kindly suggest.
Relevant answer
Answer
Awareness and adoption are corelated in adoption of new technologies and this is also true in case of sanitation campaign. Awareness should be done using various media such as radio, television, poster , drama etc
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
7 answers
Indian cities (even villages) are facing acute problem of garbage management. Even Indian PM picked up the broom to address this big issue. Yet the range of garbage, flying plastic bags, choking drains, animals dying of congestion etc is so common. Large amount of funds are being pumped into countrywide cleanliness drive yet the results are far from expected. Is it true that we Indians love cleanliness but do not dislike the garbage? I need your comments in abundance. I want to explore it in every aspect. Kindly contribute.
Relevant answer
Answer
There could be some general answers like traditional practice, lack of knowledge, infrastructure, etc. and ignorance and many such. But this is not scientific way of evidence generation. A study may be designed with proper methodology. But yes, attributes for the study may be decided expert consultation.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
Kindly assist with reference materials for this nature of research
Relevant answer
Answer
See also: Scott J. McGrane (2016) Impacts of urbanisation on hydrological and water quality dynamics, and urban water management: a review, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 61:13, 2295-2311, DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2015.1128084
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
¿Cuáles son las más importantes revistas en el tema de ingeniería sanitaria (agua potable y saneamiento) en idioma castellano?
Relevant answer
Answer
The only one I found in the list is"Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua" from Mexico.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I have a 270nm UV LED with an irradiance of 20mW @ 350mA with a forward voltage of 10V
Would the calculation of the dose in mJ/cm2 on a flat surface be as simple as using the inverse square law?
I = (Source strength/ 4 (pi) r2 ) where r is the distance to the surface from the LED
Lets say r = 2.54cm
I = 20mW/ (4*pi* (2.542) )= 20mW/81.08cm2= .25mw/cm2
This would then be calculated by the time in sec to acquire the dose correct?
The application is for a surface sanitation with the use of UV-C
Thank You
Relevant answer
Answer
I think you make a confusion between "irradiance" and power of your LED source.
In case of a punctual source and if you know perfectly the reference calibration distance, you may use the 'inverse square law' applied at the 'measurement distance' (2.54 cm in your case)
What you are partially calculating with your formula is something like the radiance that takes the solid angle into account...
I think the best thing you can do is to calibrate your source with a calibrated spectro-radiometer or a reference photo-diode, to determine the real irradiance, at a define distance, of your LED source and than you can apply, in first approximation the 'inverse square law'.
Didier
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
7 answers
I have read articles about using flotation to separate a variety of materials, and of course, the majority application of this tech is used in mining. However, I can only find quite a limited number of papers talking about using flotation to harvest cells or microbes, such as E.coli, and most of those papers are quite old (around 1960 to 1970s). I don't know why people nowadays don't talk about its application in microbe separation like other methods, such as ultrafiltration and centrifugation. Is there any critical fact that I missed kicking this method out from the industry of microbe separation, or could it because this method is so classic that people don't waste a word to talk about it? 
Relevant answer
Answer
From practical point of view: the flotation has rather low efficiency (a lot of produced biomass is lost).
We employ denitrification flotation for waste activated sludge thickening in full scalůe with succes. See the proces BIOFLOT.
Best regards
Vit
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
I am planning for conducting research entitled " A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Scrub Typhus Infection in Kathmandu, Nepal. The major risk factors that will be tested are age, sex, occupation, housing conditions,sanitation, duration of illness etc. In Nepal this type of study has never done yet. How can I calculate sample size for each risk factor? We don't have published data on established odds ratio of each risk factor.
Relevant answer
Answer
Please see the attached file
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
1 answer
A research topic
Relevant answer
Answer
I can not get your point without providing extra information. Doing a questionnaire survey or turning to the local government for help may provide some useful material.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
Hello.
For a research work, I need to water tariff in some world cities including Ankara, Turkey and Atlanta,U.S.A. When I searched in the Internet I found 2.41 and 1.61 $ per cubic meter for them respectively which is very higher than conventional tariffs (conventional rates in the world are about 0.10-0.60). Are my found tariffs (2.41 and 1.61 $/m3) true? Please kindly help me especially persons who live in these two countries. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear researchers,
The tariffs in the mentioned countries as well as some other countries can be found in the following publication:
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
103 answers
Disposal of farm waste, either from farm as residues or from crop residues, has always been an issue to dispose them , after crop residues are consumed as fodder by the livestocks , besides posing an invitable environmental threat , popularly known as crop residue burning. In synchrony to this issue, the other issues like rural sanitation, recycling and utilization of such wastes, otherwise is a huge potential economic value for the crops to be raised with residues , provided converted into a biological amendment . In this backdrop, I am anticipating some educative responses from our RG colleagues on following issues:
  • What are the important value added but cost effective products that can be developed from agricultural farm wastes using in-situ techniques ?
  • What is the current status of commercialization of such farm wastes converted into a variety of products for nutrient source for crop ?
  • What are those methods being adopted for restricting the potential harmful effects of the ‘waste sink’ and, wherever possible of converting ‘waste’ into wealth ?
  • What are the other regions facing remenance of crop residue burning affecting both farmland and homeland?
Relevant answer
Answer
Sincere thanks to Drs. Anoop, Monyer, Volodomyr, Tahereh, Amit, Alhayany for breaking the ice and providing the maiden replies. I agree thousands of tonnes of solid and liquid waste are produced as solid and liquid wastes. It is interesting to know that few countries convert biogas to electricity and heat from waste. Let us discuss how best waste can be converted to food, feed and fuel.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
7 answers
we are looking like minded people/organisation working on the issue to strengthen decentralize primary health care delivery in rural India
Relevant answer
Answer
Definitely,VHND important to involve community for promotion of health and prevention of diseases.Rather can say health care services at door steps.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
6 answers
I am working on the topic "Utility Enhancement for Textual Document redaction and Sanitization". I have noted in the literature of de-identification of the medical document that Privacy models perform unnecessary sanitization by sanitizing the negated assertions, (“AIDS negative”). I want to exclude the negated assertions before sanitizing the medical document, which will improve the utility of document. I want to know which dataset will be appropriate for my work. I tried to use the 2010 i2b2 dataset but I could not find the metadata of that dataset. The 2014 i2b2 de-identification Challenge Task 1 consists of 1304 medical records with respect to 296 patients, of which 790 records (178 patients) are used for training, and the remaining 514 records (118 patients) for testing. The medical records are a fully annotated gold standard set of clinical narratives. The PHI categories are grouped into seven main categories with 25 associated sub-categories. Distributions of PHI categories in the training and test corpora are known as in the test corpora 764 age, 4980 dates, hospitals 875, etc. I want to know the same above information for 2010 i2b2 dataset that I could not find yet.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dibakar Pal from here we can download the dataset which i have already did but i need information and description about the dataset.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
3 answers
physiochemical propertiies
microbial flora and fauna
sensorial factors
Relevant answer
Answer
Good question Issop. This is the reason before any EM is registered , we need relevany toxicological data. Its always beneficial to inoculate EMs into the soil instead of using them as foliar spray, rightly said by Robert.
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
12 answers
As Fahrenfeld has shown and also with my own work, the bacterial picture at the sprinkler head was VASTLY different from what was recorded by the standard MPN single coliform test as the water first went into the pipe. Unless and until this fiction derived by taking water samples only at the plant as the water first enters the delivery system, is squarely acknowledged, the serious public health issue with spreading of resistant organisms CAN NOT be effectively brought under control.
Dr Edo McGowan
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi
May I add some concerns from a community health perspective? I have been really concerned at the unsophisticated state of water quality monitoring after treatment (be  it raw water for drinking purposes, effluent or grey water) that are practised in many parts of the world. E. coli counts are the best indicator of health risk we have for freshwater while Enterococci survive better in briny or marine waters. But that leaves a  huge untested gap regarding other pathogenic bacteria, pathogenic viruses, protozoa, fungi, etc. 
Beyond the gap regarding untested classes of organisms there are other water contaminants of health importance for us who work on the 'receiving end' of the problem that you described  so well. There are newly emerging compounds of interest such as hormones, caffeine, pesticides, etc that are virtually never monitored by public authorities responsible for water or effluent purification. The  grey water problem is particularly acute for us in drought-stricken countries as reuse happens almost without any formal oversight. The subsequent waterborne diseases are however very much the  problem of the health authorities who have to cope with the  rising case load without the necessary funding.
How can the  problem you describe be addressed in developed or developing countries? I know this is a parallel question to what you raised, but this is the  first time I saw a discussion of this important aspect by people who are concerned with the difference between what quality of water  was delivered vs what was eventually used.
Thanks for the interesting information.
Jo Barnes
Community Health, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
Our study plans to look at Fecal Indicator Bacteria presence in Boracay's Coastal areas. I was wondering if Algae would have role in their presence and populations as well. 
Would it be a possible factor to take into account in our study?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
9 answers
Assume the discharge  Q= 1000 (l /sec.)
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear All,
Yes. Off course many country has been set up their own sanitary sewage effluent standard which is more or less close to each other. I think major significant polluting parameters or indicators are DO, BOD, COD, NO2 , NO3 and other parameters depending on the types and nature of waste water, sources, level of treatment, river water to be used for drinking and other purposes, treatment technology used etc.
Regards,
Er., Dr. Chet
  • asked a question related to Sanitation
Question
4 answers
Nowadays, it seems like there are few research conducted in the study of PVC plastisol. 
Relevant answer