Science topic

Safety Management - Science topic

The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
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I am looking for collaboration in writing a research paper; if anyone working in occupational safety, workplace accidents, Process safety, and nature of injuries & severity related areas please drop a message
Regards
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Hi Dr. Pandey,
I am from Malaysia and interested to work with you on this project. Feel free to contact me or via email: kahchoon.15@gmail.com
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Hi guys,
I am working on research in construction safety. What I want to do is that I want to analyze the safety culture problems in the construction team at a large project by observing the behavior workers or managers. For example, if workers not wear their hard helmet or manager smoke during working time, it may indicate that the organizaiton perform poor on safety training.
I found there are lots of research on how organization culture affect people's behavior, but so far I haven't found research study the reverse effect. I broad my search scope to medicine area, business area, not limited to organization in construction industry, but so far I haven't found any inspiration. Is there any advice for my research?
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Hi Cao, my approach in understanding the prevalent Safety Culture is pretty simple: I chat with the people that are most exposed to occupational risks. In Construction would be: carpenters, welders, plumbers, electricians, Supervisors, managers, Team Leaders, contractors, etc.
if I observe that their state of mind is: “accidents happened, happen and will continue to happen” then I would plan a number of actions in order to change this “state of mind“, a.k.a. “safety culture”.
I presented an actual ”case” during the 2017 Society of Petroleum Engineers HSE & SR Conference; the code of this article is SPE-184472-MS. What I pragmatically wanted was simply have ZERO incidents.
Best
Flavio
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Hello everyone,
I am working on a project related to construction safety. More specifcally, what i want to doing is that, I can get some observations from the survelliance video, and collect some unsafe information, like number of workers not wearing hard hat or workers enter hazard areas, maybe using computer vision techinque. Then, I want to calculate the level of safety management based on those information, saying they get 3, range from 1 to 5. I know maybe I can use fuzzy set theory, or a simple neural network, but is there any theoritical model, support us to asess the "higher" level index from some basic observations?
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My background is from government nuclear sites in both the US and Canada. First, I do recommend reviewing REGDOC-2.1.2, Safety Culture - Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission This document includes a scoring grid (similar to Malcom Baldrige for quality) on safety culture. I highly recommend it as a leading indicator.
Other leading indicators I have used are:
Management participation in observations
Timeliness of corrective actions for safety and quality issues
Employee Surveys (especially the question "Senior Management (above my manager) visits my place of work")
Interviews of workers / managers and/or focus groups
Voluntary Protection Program (US OSHA / DOE) participation
Safety training attendance / safety training conducted on schedule
Qualification compliance (did people do their re-quals)
Employee grievances (safety or non-safety) if unionized
Employee concerns (if there is a program)
Workplace tours by managers / experts from facilities other than the facility
The Red Pen - Blue Pen Excercise (From Dr. Bill Bellows Red Pen and Blue Pen Companies Notes on the “Starter” Exercise ... (yumpu.com)
Safety Council activities (if there are employee safety councils)
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This study is a PSM study for downstream oil sector. Can any help?
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Yes
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Hi,
Just would like to ask if someone have already created a IEEE format Survey Questionnaire for Changeability, Synchronicity, Real Time Interaction, resource management safety and security for a project in Augmented Reality for mobile fixture or related case?
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Augmented reality is a constrcut and you could get a Set of choices of statements from the past study or else a standard scale could be found with statements written by an author in that field from past research papers
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Hi All,
I am looking for some articles which have summarized the common attributes of the system thinking principles applied to safety management.
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The creation of different scenarios and the interactions. Look at some papers of mine hoping that these could help you
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An article on "EHS Today titled", “Caterpillar: Using Leading Indicators to Create World-Class Safety” recaps an interview with two Caterpillar executives who explained how they were able to successfully transition to a culture that utilizes leading indicators for safety.
According to the executives at Caterpillar, “… traditional metrics can help companies tell the score at the end of the game, but they don’t help employers understand the strengths and weaknesses of their safety efforts and cannot help managers predict future success.”
By utilizing a Safety Strategic Improvement Process (SIP) that emphasized leading indicators of safety, they saw an 85% reduction of injuries and $450 million in direct/indirect cost savings. According to the article, the critical elements of the SIP included:
  • Enterprise-wide statement of safety culture.
  • Global process, tools and metrics.
  • Top-down leadership of and engagement with the process.
  • Clearly defined and linked roles and responsibilities.
  • Clearly defined accountability.
  • Consistent methods establishing targets and reporting performance.
  • Consistent criteria for prioritizing issues and aligning resources.
  • Recognition for positive behavior and performance.
Conclusion:
To improve the safety performance at your facility, you can use a site specific Near Miss Reporting System which has a combination of leading and lagging indicators.
When using leading and lagging indicators, it’s important to make your metrics based on the "IMPACT". For example: don’t just track the number and attendance of a daily JSA, safety meeting and training sessions. Measure the impact of first aid, close calls and near miss events using a site specific Near Miss Reporting System.
A near miss is an "Golden Opportunity" for your organization to learn from pass mistakes by determining the number of minor injuries per day giving your organization a competitive advantage. Now a Near Miss becomes a key learning objective and focus of the daily JSA meeting or tool box talk to include a field quiz training.
Now over to you …
What metrics do you use to measure your facility’s safety performance?
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In order to measure not only the safety performance but also to evaluate the effectiveness of leading indicators used and the effectiveness of the execution you must run correlations of leading against lagging indicators. As a rule-of-thumb we can say that when leading indicators increase lagging indicators decrease. Increased leading indicators targets should correlate, over time, with decreased lagging indicators values; this correlation best documents Organization’s continuous improvement. The sensitivity of the outcomes (as measured through lagging indicators) to the various leading indicators can be difficult to determine. If you keep achieving leading targets but lagging results are not improving, that means either you’re measuring the wrong things or you have procedures issues. Otherwise if you are not achieving leading targets but lagging results are improving that means either you’re measuring the wrong things or incidental results (by chance) take place. By comparing leading indicators to lagging indicators you can determine their effectiveness, and you can see whether they’re driving the right behaviour and reducing risk. This, according to my opinion, is the best way to find the appropriate leading and lagging indicators for your organization which measure the overall effectiveness of organization's safety performance.
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Synthetic dye and textile finishes have negative impacts on our environment and our health. All of us are responsible to do our shares to save the earth.
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Dear Haghi A.K, Need enforcement.
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From an industry perspective like construction industry, what are the different factors that contribute to improve Safety culture in organizations? Could you suggest any improvement frameworks (both qualitative and quantitative framework) developed for improving safety culture.
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There are many, many articles and even books about setting up good safety systems - including government regulatory agency documents. CULTURE, however, depends most strongly on the LEADERSHIP. We know HOW to make a workplace safe, but we fail most often due to competing (usually economic) factors, even though a SAFE work environment is always the MOST economic as well.
Safety is first and foremost an individual responsibility. Leaders, managers, company resources can and should support that, but if an individual doesn't put their OWN safety ahead of EVERYTHING else, incidents will occur. When management supports and encourages that concept, a viable safety culture will emerge.
I've spent a career of over 40 years studying and implementing safety in the workplace. The frustrations are always with the amount of TALK compared to ACTION!
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What are the Risk Mitigation Strategies used when your organizations ability to mitigate risk depends on your EHS professional, Safety Manager or Competent person’s ability to acknowledge and accommodate risk proactively within a scope of work.
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Let's take a look at Five different Risk Mitigation Strategies Used when your organizations ability to mitigate risk depends on you EHS professional, Safety Manager or Competent persons ability to acknowledge and accommodate risk proactively within the scope of work.
1. The "Avoidance Risk Strategy" if a risk presents an unwanted negative consequence, employee may be able to completely avoid injury and illness in the workplace. However stepping away from organizations activities may involve Engineering Controls or designing out the cause of hazardous conditions, in this way organizations can successfully avoid future injury or illness and other consequences. Avoidance is a Very Effective Option.
2. The "Acceptance Risk Strategy" or Hazard substitution: Every product produced has a chance of failing in the hands of your customer. When that risk is at an acceptable level, with sufficiently low estimated field failure rate, then ship the product. The decision to accept risk is in part based on an estimate or prediction that may incorrectly forecast the future. Therefore, and organization field failures establishments must closely monitor performance or establish an early warning systems may be prudent.
3. The "Reduction or Control Risk Strategy" or Administrative controls of FEMA, hazard analysis, FTA, and other risk prioritization tools focus your organization prioritize risk factors. Reducing the probability of occurrence, and the severity of the severity of the consequences of an unwanted product failure is a natural outcome of risk prioritization tools. If it is not possible to reduce the occurrence of severity, then implementing Administrative controls is an effective option. Which detects unwanted events prior to failures occurring during use of the product, or service. Team members can avoid unwanted failures using detection and root causes analysis.
4. The "Control, or Transfer Risk Strategy" or Risk Transfer shift the burden of each risk consequence to another party. This may include giving up some control, yet when something goes wrong your organization is not responsible. Sadly this approach will not protect your organizations brand image if the product or service is associated with it. For Example: if a power supply vendors pays for all damages due to failures, the customer only knows that your product has failed and caused damage. Please used this approach with cation.
5. The "No Blame Safety Strategy" As Safety Professionals around the world agree that "No one wants to be blamed for a workplace injury or illness" and that's why this non-punitive no blame learning environment liberates EHS professionals, Safety Managers and Competent persons effectiveness in high hazard industries, empowering employees by removing the fear of reprisal from employers. linking well with an organizations Near Miss Reporting Systems. By far the most effective and cost efficient safety strategy available and the lease used due the lack of skilled, knowledgeable safety practitioners with real world experience.
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Assuming all other factors are optimized (Nutrition, management, and safety) and by using the best breed available what is the lowest FCR that you think can be attained? Do you think that a FCR of less than 1.3 or even 1 can be attained?
During the brooding period, chicks have an excellent FCR around 0.88, but as they old they convert feed to live-weight less efficiently. Having a lower FCR has a major impact on the total cost of production (feed costs about 60-70% of total cost of production).
So I just wanted to hear your opinions on this subject.
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An FCR of 1.3 would mean an efficiency of conversion of around 75 %.
Remember that digestion of the food, absorption of the nutrients, maintaining the body temperature, movement all require energy that is not stored. Furthermore digestion of feedstuffs is not at all complete in young broilers so a considerable portion is excreted unused. Also the (bio)chemical processes within the animal do not at all have a 100 % efficiency.
So all in all that 75 % efficiency is probably an illusion. An FCR between 1.4 and 1.45 seems more realistic. Already some 20 years ago we obtained 1.48 for the male broilers in one trial (see attachment)
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Hi Everyone.
Does anyone working/research in safety Management area specially in construction and hospital environment ?
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Check my works.. Might be helpful
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In order to assess the risk of confined space working area, we need to identify all the hazard first. After we identify the hazard, we can determine the risk assessment by risk matrix. In order to reduce the risk matrix, we should determine the risk control by hierarchy control (qualitative). So, the question is, how we could obtain the value of each control quantitatively ? so we can reduce the previous risk assessment.
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A rule of thumb is that hazards evaluated between 20-25 (Likelihood * Impacts, scale 1-5) are ranked first fro treatment, even stop the work till to mitigate or eliminate them. After that, hazards evaluated between 15-20 must also be treated and so on. Nevertheless, bear in mind that hazards which might directly threat employess' lives are of first priority to treat them, even though its evaluation are not lying between the aforementioned limits.
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I want to conduct a multilevel analysis, were level1 are residents and level2 are local and municipal councils (cities and settlements with number of residents ranging from 10,000 to 800,000). Residents will answer questions regarding the council's safety management, their attitudes toward safe driving, and their driving behavior. My aims are to test if safety climate exists within councils (if level2 exist), and if so, to test specific effects on both level2 (councils) and level1 (residents). I have no intention to infer on any specific council, or to give accurate mean values for the entire population (i.e., beyond councils). According to sample size recommendation in the multilevel literature, I plan to sample 10 residents from 102 council, in order to have sufficient sample size on both levels. My question is, does this kind of sample is valid for my research aims, or should I take bigger sample from each council, proportionate to its size in the entire population, in order to get valid results from my multilevel analysis?
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There is an important statistical equation to determine the good representation of the sample.
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my topic is to explore a distributed approach to leadership and explore its effect on safety culture of seafarers. I have started with a qualitative phase to explore the phenomenon of leadership (from a practice based perspective) using semi structured interviews. For the quantitative phase I intend to design a simulation (using a 360 navigation simulator ) to examine / test aspects of the emergent theory and variables.
my question is how do i identify important variables in the qualitative phase, how do I develop an emergent theory?
what software will help me accomplish this?
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I am not sure you need an "emergent theory" so much as an adequate specification for your simulation. In particular, sequential exploratory designs typically do not attempt to develop theory because the small "qual" in the qual -->QUANT indicates that the design of the preliminary qualitative study is being driven by the needs of the primary quantitative study. Thus these qualitative studies are often less open-ended and more predetermined in their content.
For a questioning structure, I would recommend a "funnel" format, where you begin with broad questions that will be easier to answer from the participant's perspective, and then move to progressively narrower and more focused questions that are based on your needs.
As far as software goes, there really isn't anything that will help you develop theory -- you have to do that one your own. Instead, you should think of the software as a data management tool that helps you keep track of your coding. That could be useful for a more targeted "qual" study.
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Please suggest the similar grounds for comparing Manufacturing sector and Construction sector in terms of safety management.
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Hi, I am working on the manufacturing sector safety.
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I want to eliminate the hazards associated with Process Safety Management (PSM) elements in process industries
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 Dear Yasir, 
Your question mentions Hazard Elimination Techniques. In general hazard elimination is not a relevant issue as many hazards are simply present as a result of substances (raw materials and products) choices, process choices, equipment design, the environment in which the operation is planned, etc.
Hazard identification is the first step, for which tools are available, such as BowTie based investigation (https://www.cgerisk.com/knowledgebase/The_bowtie_method). Based on  the identified hazards and possible control and/or mitigation measures the remaining risks must be determined. This means that for specific hazards (fire, explosion / detonation, run-away, intoxication, fatalities, soil / surface water / ground water pollution, falling from height, high/low pressure, wrong product quality, process changes, poor maintenance, etc, etc) specific expertise might be required. A major part of my job is
The crucial question in Process Safety Management processes is identifying the acceptable level of risk. However low the risk can be made, there will always be a residual risk which might result in catastrophic incidents.
Based on many incident investigations and PSM studies I have been involved in, my experience is that incidents do happen, but the severity of the incidents must be reduced as reasonable as possible. This also means that safe rescue activities (fire brigade, medical services, etc) after a calamity should also be taken into account.
From my website (www.doktersadvice.com):
Basis for Risk Management in general are the following steps:
 • Know the hazards and threats that may cause problems for both activities and organization
 • Identify events that may jeopardize the normal operation
• Inventorize the available controls that could prevent or limit undesirable events and ensure proper functioning of these controls (prevention).
 • Identify consequences of the most threatening events.
 • Inventorize protection and mitigation measures/defenses that might limit the consequences (repression).
 • Take appropriate actions (including incident analysis) to ensure that all controls and defenses are functioning as intended.
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Considering road traffic as an example, some of the studies report confounding in their associated health effects (for example; CVD etc.) induced by environmental stressors such as air and noise pollution. How can we reduce or at least try to minimize this confounding effect?
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Well, thanks a lot to all of you for your feedback. It has been indeed a fruitful discussion.
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It is very important if anyone of you able to give me any best countries following an excellent workplace safety and health improvement technique from poor aspect to the best level.
Thank you in advance for your idea and benchmark country indication.
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Dear Kassu,
I typically try to consider countries from at least two continents when doing comparisons. I have used the USA's OSHA and the UK's HSE because of the easy access they both provide to comprehensive guidance via online resources. However, I also recognise excellent materials available out of Canada and Australia that could be useful to you. All of these countries (and more) have excellent systems for benchmarking in my opinion. I think Germany and some other European companies would be excellent as well, though I do not have detailed knowledge in these areas.
You could also look at guidelines and recommendations fro bodies like the ILO and EU-OSHA.
Regards,
Marcia
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Vehicle roll-over is of major concern particularly for SUVs. The NHTSA has developed a NCAP rollover rating system for assessing the propensity of SUVs to roll over. While the procedure adopted in carrying out the NCAP rollover test is carefully designed to avoid endangering life there is, nevertheless, some risk of actual rollover occurring, thus endangering life. The aim of this project is to develop a simulation of the NHTSA’s NCAP dynamic rollover resistance test for carrying out computer simulation of this test during the development stages of a new vehicle to assess it for susceptibility to rollover and therefore make necessary modifications if necessary. This will ensure that the vehicle stands a good chance of doing well in this assessment when it is put through the physical test. It is envisaged that the simulation will be based on a Matlab/Simulink™ model.
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I am trying to find out the reasons why there are safety lapses happening on site through analysis of subcontractors' individual employee attitude towards safety in singapore.
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EN 894-4:2010 Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators - Part 4: Location and arrangement of displays and control actuators
EN 13557:2003+A2:2008 Cranes - Controls and control stations
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Poshtovana Profesorka Vesna,
Najpre cestitam Vam na impozantnom broju publikacija. To mnogo doprinosi vidljivosti Srbije i nasheg visokog skolstva u svetu. Posebno mi je drago shto koliko vidim radite na mashinskom fakultetu na kome sam i ja radio od 2000 godine do penzionisanja. Zelim Vam da nastavite dalje...
Srdacan pozdrav
Stojan
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I am interested in how people perceive that the buildings and structures are places of safety from a tsunami, how to strengthen these buildings elements. In addition I am interested in what physical design elements aid or hinder ingress to ensure as many people can seek safety in the short time periods between the earthquake and the arrival of the tsunami.
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I am aware of FEMA P646 and design principles for resilient design. I am really looking forward for two types of information.  The first is perceptual (i.e. what are best practices so that know the building is a tsunami evacuation building or structure, and once there how do the know how to navigate the building/structure to safety?).  
The other is more detailed code study information.  The codes have good information about how people leave a building in an emergency, but with tsunami's we have the reverse, many people trying to enter. Again, are there studies that show things like rise/run, stair widths, handrails, size of stairs and landings, etc. that ensure people into the building/structure in an orderly, safe, and effective way (as well as serve their proper function for egress)?
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In Spain, companies are required to report workplace accidents using a government platform online.
I need to find sources or information on the methodology used by governments in EU countries and non-EU for the collection of statistical data on accidents at work.
Thank you for your attention
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Maybe you could report your findings at OSHWiki.eu, where I found this link?
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Can Anyone tell me how long should I wait to work after turning off UV in a biological safety cabinet and why?
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There is no need to wait. UV doesn't leave any residual. Flip the power switch and go to work.
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Evaluating the link provided by safety management between
Technical, Commercial and Fleet personnel operations. Emphasise how safety can influence efficiency of Technical, Commercial and Fleet personnel operations.
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what are the fundamental reasons for adopting engineering controls for personal protection for airborne hazardous substances?
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Thank you for your response.
I need more scientific literature to back the answers which will enable me to have good argument. If you have any, kindly attach to the reply or send link to me. Thanks.
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I'm looking for reports, articles about safety glasses. I need to select safety glasses for employees working in a dust environment. We have selected anti-fog glasses but they don't work correctly in a dust environment. This condition increases on the glasses 
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(a) Do not have people working in a dusty environment.  Control the dust at source or use local extraction to provide a dust-free working zone.
(b) If this is unavoidable, provide them with helmets and face visors with a filtered air supply,
Safety glasses will protect from impact or splashes but not gases, fumes or dust.   Even a non-toxic dust will cause eye problems in the long term.
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A study published in Safety Science (Spangenberg, 2004), compared accident rates for Swedish and Danish concrete workers during the construction of the Oresund Link between Copenhagen and Malmo. The study found that the Lost Time Injury rate for Danish concrete workers was 4.7 times higher compared to their Swedish colleagues. We also find such differences in the national statistics. Why is it so? We also see differences in accident rates between the other Nordic countries. The question is: Why do we see such significant differences between the Nordic countries, concerning the level of workplace safety, under the same Nordic working life model? This question is the influence of the "Nordic Working Life model" on the safety and welfare of workers in the Nordic countries.
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Unfortunately we can not trust on accident statistics. National legislations conserning accident notification are largely different. Statistics in some countries are based on accident insurance, in some others a separate notification is needed. For instance in Sweden only about one half of the accidents are reported for statictics.
Fatal accident rates are the only sensible way to compare different countries. Eurostat publishes standardised fatal accident rates, where also differences in economial structures have been considered. Hämäläinen et all have estimated the accident rates clobally (Hämäläinen P., Takala J. and Saarela K. L. (2006). Global estimates of occupational accidents. Safety Science 44 (2006), p. 137-156.)
We hve to be carefull also when comparing accident rates of separate companies. Reporting cultures may differ dramatically. A Company with a high rate may be safer than a Company with a low rate.
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Hi,
I"m doing my PhD on safety signage and safety lines for elementary school pupils. Currently i collecting some reference for my study. I really looking for some guidelines for safety signage (warnings, prohibition, caution). It will be grateful if you can give me some guidance and reference for my research.
Thank you.
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Murugan, my grandson as early as three years old was fascinated by safety signs and would spot them and tell me what i should do to comply much to the amusement of passers by. In Europe we have standard signage which is very useful with the numerous languages spoken in the UK. Each EU state has to enact national regulations implementing each directive. The following links may be useful:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/l64.htm You can download the document for free.
You may also find it useful to Google "safety sign images".
There are also companies that supply signage who are very knowledgeable, the following is an example http://www.seton.co.uk/safety-signs?gclid=CLSIpZuFvMYCFQLLtAod1DsKmw You may find that such companies may help you with your research if you contact them. I notice on the site that that signs have been classified into groups which could be interesting to study - is there a taxonomy of signs? Also the company supplies tactile signs which is also interesting.
I headed the team that published MSS 1000:2014 which is a universal management system standard facilitating universal management systems without boundaries. Your raising of this topic has prompted me to conduct a review to be more explicit about signage. Section C4.4 deals with conventions.
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I am creating a blended occupational health and safety management course. Many of my undergraduate students do not have much industry experience and so I often use videos and online interactive materials to expose them to unsafe acts and unsafe conditions in practice, since there is limited opportunity for field trips, and only one large application project for the semester. Students need to get exposure to typical conditions that they might see in the workplace, and I use traditional lectures, guest lectures, collaborative group activities, many photos and videos, blogs and website referrals, and even some physical demonstrations. Which topics/areas do you think would be best suited to delivery through online classes?
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I am a Ryerson University graduate on Occupational Health and Safety, and have long teaching and working experience in this area. From my academic and professional practice experience, I must agree with Roland. 
I would work up like to dress up the curriculum with core courses, optional courses (need-based), and practicum. Delivery method would depend on the skills and availability of infrastructure for media-based or in-class facilities. In Canada, we have excellent online courses, intensive in-class sessions, and regular in-class course design. 
Since OHS relates to human life risks or safety concerns, this programs requires intensive multi-dimensional appraisal for designing. I would suggest the following core courses:
1. Introductory course on occupational health
2. Risk identification and hazard management (2 courses each of 3 credits)
3. Measurement and analysis
4. Laws - OHS laws, human rights codes, and basics about the constitutional rights and privileges
5. Integrated disability management 
6. Ergonomics
You can add some simulations for the students. Practicum placement into any workplace, and writing a report in the end (project/ debriefing/data-based report etc.) can be the valuable components.
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My scientific research work dwells on forest fire risk assessment. I defined risk as a measure of the probability of fire occurrence and consequence of adverse affect to environment. But one professor proposed me to define risk as a measure of possibility rather than probability. He claims that there exist a generally excepted definition of risk according to which risk is calculated as a measure of possibility, but not probability. I can’t find any useful information in terms of this issue. Can anyone help me with the information on this question? I would be grateful for any help.
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There are methods to calculate the "Relative Risk" as a measure of the association between a given condition and the occurrence of an event. That is the case of the "odds ratio". If you have a number of cases of fire under a given condition, and the number of cases of fire in the absence of such a condition, yo can calculate the Relative Risk as the association between the condition and fire in a manner well known in human genetics.
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I am working on heavy metal and need to calculate THQ. Would any body help me to calculate and also tell me what is what in this formula THQ = E F x F D xDIM ∕ RfDxWxT. Is any value constant in this formula?
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A method to calculate THQ experimentally is explained as:
[A] Procure vegetables from three sites ( Rural, Urban and Semi-)
[B] Classify the vegetables as root(Parsley, Carrot, Onion etc), Leafy( Cabbage,Lettuce etc ) and fruity(Cucumber, Green beans etc )
[C]* (i)For Root vegetables (Cu =1-4 mg/ Kg; Zn= 10-50 mg/ Kg; Cd = 0.1-0.27 mg/ Kg and Pb= 1-5.5 mg/ Kg fresh matter . (ii)For leafy vegetables Cu------repoted in literature),Zn=(--repoted in literature) Cd =2-10 mg/ Kg dry matter) and Pb =40-250 mg/ Kg dry matter) etc----etc.,
(iii)Fruit vegetables -Pb (0.6 mg/ Kg fresh matter) and Cd around 0.1 mg, Kg fresh matter etc ---etc (reported in literatre)
*Pls. note that are these values reported in literature for different countries. But you have to experimentallly determine the values of these metal contents in the types of vegetables you want to investigate. In the present method of calculation, I have taken the values to be the average of the two reported extremes.
[D]. Oral reference doses (RfD) (mg/ Kg/ day) for elements reported in literature:
Fe (0.700 ), Mn (0.014), Zn (0.300), Cu( 0.040), Ni (0.020) ,
Cd( 0.001), Pb (0.0035).
[E].The average body weight assumed is Wmale = 68 Kg and Wfemale = 60 Kg.
[F].THQ = EFxFDxDIM/RfDxWxT
(i) EF is exposure frequency;
(ii)FD is the exposure duration,
(iii)DIM is the daily metal ingestion (mg/ person/
day ) and is calculated as:
DIM = Daily fresh food ingestion (Kg/ person/ day)
× Metal content (mg/ Kg fresh matter).
(iv) RfD is the oral reference dose (mg/ Kg/ day)
(v)W is average body weight(Kg)
(vi) T is the average exposure timeage exposure time for noncarcinogens (365 days/ year× number of exposure years).
(vii)Here EF was setup at 122days/ year(eat each one the three kinds of vegetables on every third day)
(viii) Length of exposure (FD) was set to 65 for males and 68 for females based on the average life expectancy in India,starting from 8 years of age .
[G] In a way we should calculate Three sets of values- ONE for the MALES at Rural. Urban an Semi Places and SECOND set for FEMALES at the same places.
But due to the paucity of space/ time, I try only ONE SET for MALES and the OTHER SET for the FEMALES. So much so, I include ony TWO METALS ( the most toxic-Cd, Pb) to explain the method while the results for other metals can be calculated similarly.
[H] We assume the on the aveage MALEtakes 150g (0.15 Kg) and the FEMALE takes 120g (0.12 Kg) per day of Root, Leaffy and Fruit vegetable on every third day.
[I] MALE- (ROOT Vegetables)
THQ(Cd)=122. (68-8). 0.185. (0.15) /0.001.68.365.(68-8)=0.136
THQ(Pb)=122. (68-8). 3.25. (0.15) /0.0035.68.365.(68-8)=0.684
FEMALE- (ROOT Vegetables)
THQ(Cd)=122. (68-8). 0.185. (0.12) /0.001.68.365.(68-8)=0.0984
THQ(Pb)=122. (68-8). 3.25. (0.12) /0.0035.68.365.(68-8)=0.547.
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In the recent weeks there were 3 aircraft 'incidents', one of which was fatal. So is driving preferable? Is road safety comparable to aviation safety?
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I go out every year at least once, or more.
I will still prefer to fly, despite these aircraft incidents. I think flying is less unsafe than driving on highways, more so in my country where the driving habits of most people are not acceptable. Some risk is involved in almost activities that we do.
Admittedly, humans are rational human beings. They sub-consciously take decisions on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. I will vote for flying than driving anywhere.
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I would like know and gather opinions on this issue. Why do some nations have bigger risk of fatal occupational injuries?
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why do some nations have bigger risk of fatal occupational injuries?
1. Legislation/lack of enforcement: some countries do not have OHS law/regulations. If the legislation is not in place, there cannot be any enforcement. This means that people keep working in unsafe manner. Employers keep exposing their employees to hazards. Some countries do have the legislation but enforcement is weak. This is all about the government's commitment. You find this in most developing countries
2. Awareness on the part of the populace where majority of the general public know little or nothing health and safety at work. Knowledge is power.. People perish for lack of knowledge (Bible says that) . knowledge of cause and prevention. The government and various educational institutions have a role to play in this...
3. Exploitative employers: whereby employers cut corners or compromise safety standards (safety culture, just like the first commentator mentioned)
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What is your opinion about the topic, based on the attached paper?
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Marcello:
Interesting question.
However, I can only access the abstract which does not provde details of the AHP application in this case. Can you provide the complete paper?
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I'm interested in main problems of road safety in regions/counties (not countries) and tools for road risk management on this administrative level. Thank you for any help.
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Welcome to China,The longer the road, the more materials
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EMS is Environmental Management System ISO-14001 series
and OHSAS is Occupational Health and Safety Series
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Hafiz, I don't understand your question. Could you kindly elaborate as to the basis for your question? It is too vague.
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I am in the writing process of my Doctoral Study.
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Has anyone done any work in this area? I only found this so far:
Sharpanskykh, A and Stroeve, S H (2011) An agent-based approach for structured modeling, analysis and improvement of safety culture. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 17(1), 77-117. Any other suggestions?
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I currently work on the subject, I inforler yours.
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Root cause analysis (RCA) is a common approach to adverse event investigation in hospitals. Small teams of clinicians and managers invest many hours in making sense of serious adverse events in their facility. Yet the final report produced as the main output of an RCA may be limited in its capture of the team's view and when fed back to the clinical area where an event took place, the event described in the RCA report is unrecognisable.
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Hi Bryce I have just done a critical analysis on 87 babies being born in poor condition or death. Some thoughts for you. One of the key findings is that the report is always done in retrospect of course, There are several things here: one is that the outcome is already known, so the questions are geared for hindsight bias to be prevalent; two that there has been time for the HCP (sometimes weeks or months in some of the obstetric cases) before an RCA is completed and therefore there is no control about intercommunication with other members of the team or cognitive distortion; three depends on the culture of the organisation, is it blame and shame looking for a scapegoat or is it learning from events; four because the event has already happened and actions are taken, yet another checklist is often put into place until there are checklists for checklists in some extremes; five I have found in this very in-depth and lengthy analysis that the conclusions always seem to be: more training, time of day, busy workload and poor communication are the key causes (consistent over a period of 10 years). So with all the extra training, communication practices etc that are put into place, adverse events are still not partialed out. Another key finding was that the investigation is often very top down and that brings with it often a lot of extraneous variables in the feedback processes.
It goes without saying that the way things are worded are key here and how the information is gathered whether it is at a formal meeting or informal chat and by whom.
Cheers
Sharon