Science topic

# SPSS - Science topic

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Questions related to SPSS

In a causal model (such as multiple IVs and single DV) with presence of a mediator or moderator, do we have to consider such mediator or moderator when assessing the parametric assumptions or do we have ignore them and consider only the IV/s and DV in the model?

Hello everyone,

I am conducting analysis on my data and have mostly already figured it out. However, there is still one problem I haven't been able to master.

Statistical program: SPSS 29.0

Cross-over study design with NINE (9) subjects and TWO (2) treatments:

Subjects were given treatment 1 or 2 on two separate study dates. At the end of the study all subjects had received both treatments.

After administering the treatments, the patients were monitored for blood parameter changes on NINE (9) separate measuring time points.

What I aim to do, is to compare the two different treatments and have used RM analysis to do so. Initially I defined Treatment(2) and Time(9) as Within-subject-factors and have been able to gain an answer to most of my questions.

But what I haven't understood yet is how can I compare individual measured time points (for example treatment 1 blood parameter at 30 mins compared to treatment 2 blood parameter value at 30 min) between the treatments through the RM ANOVA - to my knowledge and understanding, the output does not provide this and I haven't been able to figure out how to get it out of the analysis? Or can I? Or do I have to go about it with a different analysis completely?

Thank you!

Best Regards, Isa

**Hello Experts,**

**My outcome**is a scale variable (3 separate domains-continuous)

**Covariates**are mixed (categorical and continuous)

I am developing a

**3 level model**(care aides, unit and facility), unfortunately i found a warning message**. In this scenario, R2 and ICC was very poor.**^{(iteration was terminated but convergence has not been achieved. the mixed procedure continues despite this warning. subsequent results produced are based on the last iteration. validity of the model fit is uncertain)}Now, I moved to

**2 level model**(care aides, Unit). here the same problem, I can not put my important covariates in this model. If i exclude some of my important covariates, there are no warning message.**Same models works in STATA but SPSS showed warning message.**

**Q1**> Is that the limitations for SPSS?

**Q2**> Is there any options that If I can change, the problem will be resolved?

If iI use EFA on SPSS to explore the factors and later I intend to check the reliability and validity of these explored factors using SmartPLS rather than CFA on AMOS, will it be valid approach?

Hello,

I want to perform a single mediation (model 4, hayes) with Process in SPSS.

Before I can do that, I have to check the assumption for linearity. I created a matrix scatter-plot, but because my independent variable is binary it doesn't look right. I have 1 dependent variable, which is metric.

Does anyone know, how I can check for the linearity assumption, if my independent variable is binary and single level (Intervention group vs. control group)?

I am using SPSS to perform binary logistic regression. One of the parameters generated is the prediction probability. Is there a simple mathematical formula that could be used to calculate it manually? e.g. based on the B values generated for each variable in model?

Since I found out that there is a correlation between Timeliness and Semantic Accuracy (I'm studying linked data quality dimensions assessment, trying to evaluate a dimension quality -in this case Timeliness- from another dimension (Semantic Accuracy)), I presumed that regression analysis is the next step in this matter.

-the Semantic accuracy formula I used is:

**msemTriple = |G ∧ S| / |G|***measures the extent to which the triples in the repository G (the original LOD dataset) and in the gold standard S have the same values.*

**msemTriple**-the Timeliness formula I used is:

**Timeliness((de)) = 1-max{1-Currency/Volatility,0}**where :

*(the*

**Currency((de)) = (1-(lastmodificationTime(de )-lastmodificationTime(pe ))/(currentTime-startTime))*Ratio***measures the extent to which the triples in the the LOD dataset (in my case wikidata) and in the gold standard (wikipedia) have the same values.)*

**Ratio**and

**Volatility((de)) = (ExpiryTime(de )-InputTime(de ))/(ExpiryTime(pe )-InputTime(pe ) )**(

*is the entity document of the datum in the linked data dataset and***de***is the correspondent entity document in the gold standard).***pe**NB: I worked on Covid-19 statistics per country as a dataset sample, precisely Number of cases, recoveries and deaths

this is my spss file: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DqMqVv4JHPbo3-pAXmavuC91pMlImFlu/view?usp=drive_link

this is the output of my spss file: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JxVf542Kq9KfxeWIqmm1deLfJv67HOUh/view?usp=drive_link

I choose Model 1 to test 3 iv,1 dv and 1 moderator. I want to know the benefits/advantages of using Model 1. Can anyone help?

Aloha Everyone,

My university recently bought SPSS 29 Faculty Premium Package, the vendor is thinkEDU, the said AMOS is part of it, that is one of the reason we bought, but there is no AMOS inside it, i could not locate? How to confirm if it has or not, if it has where can I find and use AMOS? Please advice.

Thank you

Rojan Baniya

These are few questions for your reference,

How much did you learn about managing your money from your parents?

· None

· Hardly at all

· Little

· Some

A lot

How often were you influenced by or did you discuss about finances with your parents?

· Never

· Once a year

· Every few months

· Twice a month

Weekly

What is your current investment amount in stocks/shares? (Portfolio value)

· 1 - 90,000

· 90,000–170,000

· 170,000–260,000

· 260,000–340,000

· More than 340,000

The above questions are allocated weights from 1 to 5.

I have four multivariate linear regression models which differ in the level of data aggregation. Now, I would like to compare them based on the AIC and BIC. For this, I need the log-likelihood as a measure of the model fit. Can I get that value for each model through SPSS, and if yes, how?

Thanks for your help and best regards,

Isabel

We are recoding our data and transforming the data values into the values we won't according to the questionaries we have used and its scores.

The first couples of recodes went fine, and we can see the values in the Data view after we ran the syntax. But then all of a sudden after we ran a recode of the next variable in our syntax, the value did not show in the Data view, and instead of the value, the columns just have a dot; .

We don't have any missing values, and the original data, we are recoding, has values. So what are we doing wrong, can any body help us?

We have been checking the syntax over and over again, to see if we are doing something diffrent form the first couples of recodes, where nothing is wrong.. but we can't find any differences.

Hi folks,

i want to survey employee in three waves and need to connect the three timepoints to the individual. Furthermore I need to survey one leader of every employee at each timepoint for causal inferences.

Do you have any suggestions for software which is easy to use for this purpose?

Thank you

Hi all, please assist me on what statistical analysis I should use. I have 3 DVs (severity of violence, justification of violence and severity of punishment) and 1 IV (gender of perpetrator). I have trouble running my data on SPSS as I cannot select the DVs on it.

Is it possible to perform EFA by SPSS Amos?

Does anyone know how to run Mediation analysis in SPSS version 25 software????

My research is a case-control study, the exposure being: dietary pattern; outcome: gastric cancer; mediator: energy (kcal).

I am currently conducting research into the dark triad and attitudes to cheating and was looking for some guidance in regards to the analysis. I want to analyse the Dark Triad traits as separate conducts as well as having an overall impact of the Dark Triad on attitudes to cheating, how would I go around actually making this possible on SPSS?

Thank you

Hi! I weighted 1 case and then performed Compare Mean with other groups of variables in spss, but the N (number of cases) is increased, which is greater than the unweighted compare mean's N and the numbers are over the total cases we have, why this happened, and how can I figure it out? thank you.

In plant breeding, what are uses discrimination function.

Dear community,

I spend the last days reading many questions and responses as well as several journal articles and research papers on the topic of time series analysis and the individual steps. Unfortunately, the more I read the more confused I became...now I hope that you can help me out.

I am writing my master thesis about FDI determinants in Ethiopia. I have selected FDI per GDP as dependent variable and several independent variables (exchange rate change, inflation rate, labor force participation rate, telephone subscriptions per 100 citizens, a governance index (ranking from 0 to 100), and exports + imports as ratio of GDP). I am also thinking about adding a dummy variable to reflect the effects of the Growth and Transformation Plan in 2010.

The next step is to analyse the data empirically in order to investigate the impact of the explanatory variables on the FDI inflow. Due to data availability I only cover a period of 20 years (1996-2016). I read several papers on this topic but somehow everyone performed/applied different steps/tests/models. Also the order of the test performed varies in the papers.

I am really confused by now with regards to the differences between OLS, ECM, ARDL, and VAR and what is the most appropriate method in my case.

In addition, authors performed (some didn't) different tests for unit root/stationary, for co-integration, for multicollinearity, for autocorrelation, for heteroskedasticity. Also in a different order.

Besides, I am confused about the lag selection process and the meaning/difference of AR(1) and I(1).

Moreover, many authors transformed the variables first with log. I cannot do that as I have to negative observations (inflation rate).

Earlier I also read something about trend and difference stationary and depending on this different unit root test.

Like I said, I am just so confused by now that I don't even know who and where to start.

I am working mainly with SPSS but will perform the unit root tests in Eviews as SPSS do not have this function.

I really hope that you can help me by providing a little guideline on what I need to do and in which order. Thank you so much!

After running the McDonald Omega in SPSS 28, I regularly get this statement "Omega cannot be estimated due to negative or zero item covariances. This may be due to items needing to be reverse scored, or to violations of model assumption." Because of the violation assumption, we went from Alpha to Omega. Kindly help!!

There are 2 groups: one has an average of 305.15 and standard deviation of 241.83 while the second group has an average of 198.1 and a standard deviation of 98.1. Given the large standard deviation of the first group, its mean should not be significantly different from the second group. But when I conducted the independent sample t-test, it was which doesn't make sense. Is there any another test I can conduct to analyze the date (quantitative)?

The data is about solid waste generation on a monthly basis (averages). And I am comparing March and April data with that of other months. Also, the sample sizes are not equal i.e. less days in Feb as compared December for example.

Can I do regression analysis for such kind of variables?

I have been performed the multinomial logistic regression model in SPSS. The goodness of fit shows that the model fits the data. Based on my literature study, there are several methods can be performed to validate the model, but SPSS 23's window of performing Logistic Regression doesn't show the options. Kindly help me to inform that what particular method I can use to validate the model in SPSS.

I'm writing my master's thesis on the investigating of delay factors on building construction projects. My independent variables (8) is the delay factors (materials-related, manpower-related, equipment-related, project management-related, consultant-related, owner-related, governmental-related and external-related). The dependent variables is delay in construction for frequency in occurence and degree of severity. which statistical test will be appropriate to apply in SPSS?

Null Hypothesis (H0): There isn’t a significant statistical differences in frequency and severity between causes of delays caused by delay group.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is significant statistical differences in frequency and severity between causes of delays caused by delay group.

Is One-Way ANOVA is applicable for degree of severity and frequency of occurence?

I am using SEM for my studies. My questionnaire involve several adapted questionnaire and one newly established questionnaire. I am sure to run EFA after Pilot study. Do I still run CFA using SPSS or is it already within the SMART PLS I will utilise later?

I run a multinomial logistic regression. In the SPSS output, under the table "Parameter Estimates", there is a message "

**Floating point overflow occurred while computing**this**statistic**.**Its value**is**therefore set**to**system missing**." How should I deal with this problem? Thank you.I would like to know if the mean score on financial knowledge of graduate students is greater than the mean score of subgraduate students. I already did an independent sample T-test in SPSS, but I'm not sure if I should proceed with the analysis of the results because the sample of subgraduate students appears not be normally distributed.

The p-value of both normality tests (Kolmogorov and Shapiro) for subgraduate students are less than the level of significance of 0.05. So, there is not a normal distribution for subgraduate students.

I have to mention that the sample size for subgraduate students is 127 and the sample size for graduate students is 29. For graduate students the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk p-value is .200 and .180, respectively (greater than the 0.05 level of significance), so for graduate students (althoug she sample size is less than subgraduate students) the assumption of normality is met.

What do you recommend? Should I select another test?

Thanks in advance.

can a DMRT( Duncan's Multiple Range Test) result in 11 columns for which i get compact lettering till 'k' (starting from 'a')?

Software used :

**SPSS v25.0****After i did the post-Hoc with Duncan, i got an output for a specific dependent factor with 18 treatments (3 transcripts of each) as 11 columns.**

**To put this DMRT result as compact letter display in my table, i'm getting letters 'a' to 'k' for the respective columns.**

**Is this possible/correct?**

significance values for few columns exceeds 0.05. and few are below 0.05.

I conducted an Exploratory Factor Analysis using Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, resulting in the identification of 8 factors. Now, I aim to examine potential associations between these extracted factor scores (treated as continuous variables) and other variables in my research. However, I am uncertain about the most appropriate statistical approach to compute these factor scores.

Should I compute the average sum of each factor, employ regression, or utilize the Bartlett method, Anderson-Rubin, any others….?

Any insights or alternative approaches are highly appreciated.

Thank you!

I am working on new research to identify the reliability of the different sets of questionnaires corresponding to different learning styles. I collected and cleaned the data and loaded it into the SPSS software. I have data for around 600 learners from different backgrounds of learning. For questionnaire set 1, I have only 38 variables that measure the questions' uncertainty and use values 0 for uncertain, 1 for false, and 2 for true. I am not getting the results I want. The total factors should be 5 but I am getting around 14 whose eigen values are 1 or greater than 1 in the software. What am I doing wrong here? Please help.

I am using SPSS 23 version on Windows 10. Recently it mentioned a pop-up window at launching: Serialization scheme was not recognized inet: Local computer 0.

How can I fix this problem?

I currently running SPSS and PLS to test my study hypothesis. the case that there are two variables that are associated it (theoretically) and they are independent variable. Thus, i need to combine that two independent variables to become one independent variable. Furthermore, that one independent variable would like to test the relationship with one dependent variable.

Please enlighten me

Hello everyone :)

For my study, I would like to conduct a factor analysis followed by a reliability test for one of my concepts "Attitude towards unemployed" measured according to 5 items with a Likert scale as answers. I've conducted my factor analysis in SPSS and 2 factors were extracted: 3 items loaded well on factor 1, while the other 2 loaded well with factor 2.

Since I want to measure the reliability of my scale, should I do it for each factor and their items or should I do it with all of the 5 items? Indeed, I don't really understand why I ended up with 2 factors since my items are measuring the same concept... And I was intended to establish Cronbach’s α for the 5-item scale.

Also, the 2 items that loaded well with my factor 2 were reversely coded before the analysis.

Thank you in advance for your answers and have a nice day :)

Manon.

I am using 1 Iv and 4 DVs, each of the variable has five questions with five Likert scale. What method of test should I use to analyze my data?

We need a new program for statistical analysis that provides results different from what is provided by the usual programs in the analysis

I’ve got a data set and I want to calculate R2 for linear regression equation from another study.

For example, I have derived an equation from my data (with R2) and I want to test how other equations perform on my data (and thus calculate R2 for them). Then, I want to compare R2 from my data set with R2 from derivation studies.

Do you have any software for this? Any common statistical software could cope with this task (e.g. SPSS or SAS)? Maybe you have any tutorials on YouTube for this?

Hello!

I'm currently working on the LDQ detection for my thesis. I have read so many things about missing values and how to deal with them that unfortunately I am now even more confused than ever before.

I am working with SPSS 26 and I have several categorical as well as continuous variables which are important for my research question.

Initially I followed the procedure Analyze menu > Missing Value Analysis

The range of my n is between 145 and 158 (so not a really huge sample size). In the univariate statistics I get percent missing around 7.6% to 8.2%.

I ran Little's MCAR test which became non-significant with Chi²(15) = 1.390 and p = 1.000

I made a mistake in the construction of my questionnaire because participants were not able to skip questions - looking at the data set most of my missing values is simply because after a certain amount of time people simple dropped out and every question that would have followed was considered "missing". The "initial" sample size without the drop outs was around 350 participants.

I ready that missing data analysis would be important especially to look what type of missing it is, that you're dealing with in your data set.

To me (or my really limited understanding of those things compared to experts) it makes complete sense that I have higher amounts than the recommended 5% of missings where some sort of imputation or replacement of the missing values should be considered because mine are mostly due to drop outs. Also the p = 1.000 at the Little's test is highly irritating for me.

I have read a ton of articles the past few days but even though they all give really good explanations for missing data and multiple imputation and which method is best - I found no answer what I should do in my specific case where the missing data is because people stopped at one point to answer the questionnaire and closed it (I already stated in my limitations that preventing them from skipping questions should be handled in a different way in the future).

Can someone please help me out and give me a recommendation?

I found an article from D. A. Bennett (1999) that is called "How can I deal with missing data in my study?" and gives a cut off of 10% of missing values but gives no information if it is considered for each variable or the overall data set and I found no way to calculate the missing values for the complete data set instead of "just" columns or rows.

I hope I somehow was able to explain my issue with that missing values due to drop out and my confusion how to handle them and especially how to argue in my thesis WHY I handled them the way I did.

I really hope that some expert finds time to give me a recommendation - I'm happy to answer any further questions. I'm simply overwhelmed atm with the amount of information I read and suddenly nothing makes sense anymore.

Thanks everyone in advance!

What is endogeneity and how can we run it in SPSS/AMOS? what is the step-by-step procedure, particularly survey data/cross-sectional research?

The variable physical environment effect, is only a subset of the independent variable ( environmental factors) in my research, there are social and cultural environment effects as well. They are measured in my questionnaire with five questions and the responses are; ( never, rarely, often and always). The dependent variable, student performance, was also measured in the same format as the environmental factors(i.e with five questions and Never, rarely...being the responses). I have coded them into SPSS with the measure; Ordinal. I want to answer the research question; 1. How physical environment affect student performance? 2. How social environment affect student performance? 3. To what extent does cultural environment influence student performance? I've computed the composite score(mean) for the questions, can I use these scores in the ordinal regression analysis? Or is there any other way to compute the questions into a single variable, for both the independent and dependent variables?

Hi, I'm doing CFA using SPSS Amos and I have two variables with single items each. After reviewing previous discussions, I've fix the loadings and error variance to 1,1. If I put error variance to 0, the variances will be zero. However, the variance is not that important to me as I would like to find the factor loadings between the single item and variable but I'm not sure how to do it.

Or the factor loading for single item is the value between e25 --> single item?

If so, the value between e26 --> Pay_R is more than 1. How should I interpret this?

I'm not familiar with SPSS Amos and would appreciate all guidance on this. Thank you.

I am running 6 separate binomial logistic regression models with all dependent variables having two categories, either 'no' which is coded as 0 and 'yes' coded as 1.

4/6 models are running fine, however, 2 of them have this error message.

I am not sure what is going wrong as each dependent variable have the same 2 values on the cases being processed, either 0 or 1.

Any suggestions what to do?

there are many statistics software that researchers usually use in their works.

**In your opinion, which one is better? which one do you offer to start?****Your opinions and experience can help others in particular younger researchers in selection.**

Sincerely

When I try to upload data from an Excel file to SPSS as usual, it says that the file contains no data and that the command has been stopped. I have searched the internet for an answer to why this occurs, but I haven't found a solution. Has anyone come across this before and can advise?

I tried to do the survival analyse in SPSS. After getting the survival table, i do not know how to draw and computing the median survival time from Kaplan-Meier using SPSS Statistics ? and How do I get 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival with survival analysis in SPSS? please help me. thanks you

Hello everyone! I am currently doing moderation/mediation analyses with Hayes Process.

As you can see the model 3 is significant with R2=.48

The independent variables have no sig. direct effect on the dependent variable, but significant interaction effects. The curious thing is: toptMEAN does not correlate with any of the variables, but still fits into the regression model. Should I take this as confirmation that toptMEAN has an effect on the dependent variable even though it does not correlate? Or am I missing something in the interpretation of these results?

(Maybe you could also suggest a different model for me to run. model 3 is currently the one with the highest r2 i found)

Hey there, I‘m using SPSS for the statistical synthesis of my Meta-Analysis and I can only choose log(OR), log(RR) etc as an Effect sizes. Therefore my forest plot is also on a logarithmic scale… I want my forest plot with the measure size RR or OR, not log(RR) and log(OR). Does anybody have experience with this topic and does know how I can change this?

I'm a self-taught SPSS user but need your help at this juncture.

I have 7 elevation (m) data each for 7 hamlets and I want to know which of the elevation value is statistically significant by running a statistical test on SPSS to obtain a p-value.

what is the difference between a covariate and a confounder?

Hi everybody,

I have a questionnaire with 4 point Likert scale questions on participant experience. I want to score the results into low/moderate/high experience categories. How do I do this on SPSS?

I have assigned the following values on SPSS.

1-never

2-sometimes

3-frequently

4-always

Appreciate any help. Thank you

I was preparing a seminar and accidentally stumbled upon an odd situation. When there is a negative relationship between the predictor (Extraversion) and the dependent variable (Depression measured by BDI-II), the calculated predicted value showed a negative perfect correlation (-1) with the predictor in SPSS. This is a non-sense. So, I checked the same issue using jamovi. The result was the same. In both programs, when I draw the scatterplot between the IV and DV, it clearly showed a strong negative trend. But, when I draw the scatterplot in regression menu in SPSS using the predicted value on X and the DV on Y, the scatterplot showed a strong positive trend.

I guessed it might be deliberate and tested the same with variables that are positively related to the DV. The predicted values and the predictor in this case showed a perfect positive correlation (+1), which makes sense.

Does anyone notice this issue? Or is there any reason why the same issue happened in two programs?

I'm carrying out a longitudinal study,

For data analysis we have to collect data several times for each variable and for the same patient

I use SPSS to draw up statistical analysis and I found a difficult how I can enter data for each patient?

any suggestion to resolve this problem please ?

I have 414 data set for developing a motivation scale. I used EFA and CFA. So I split the data to two groups. 207 for EFA and 207 left for CFA. AFter I finished the analyze with SPSS for EFA and SPSS AMOS for CFA, I knew that some of questions are not valid in EFA while it is valid in CFA and vice-versa. what should I do with this? this is for my thesis project. should I just report it like that? and when I report it, some questions that are not valid in EFA and CFA at the same time. Which one should I call as valid? Thank you in advance.

In my model the indirect effect is significant and the direct effect is not significant. However, the estimate of the direct effect is much higher than the one of the indirect path. Should I also focus on the interpretation of the estimate and if yes, what does it mean?

Hey there, I‘m currently working on a surivival meta-analysis and I use SPSS for my statistics. The problem is that I have a lot of data regarding mean OS / PFS, but no belonging standard deviations… does anyone have an idea how to solve this problem? I mean I can‘t make a meta-analysis with only the „mean“ data… thank you already very much!

In an earlier version of SPSS I was able to get visual means for each group (see picture below) when creating scatterplots with one categorical and one scaled variable.

Now I have tried for hours to find out in my updated SPSS 26.0 how to do it, but I can't figure it out.

I have tried do use the same syntax as earlier, but that does not create mean-dots, which lead me to think I used some modification. Still can't figure it out?

Any suggestions?

Hi everyone,

For my studies on the IRR I have binary data and three raters. But on one variable they all score a 0 for all subjects. This means that everything is rated as a 0. But SPSS then gives me the warning that every outcome is the same and that the command stopped. What do I do with it and what do I have to report in my studies?

Hopefully you can help me!

This is what I know so please let me know if I miss anything:

1. We do bivariate and collect all the p-values

2. Choose p-values <0.25

3. Run logistic analysis for all the variables whose p-value is <0.25

4. Eliminate the variables one-by-one, starting by the highest number of p-value in the new model

5. But when to stop eliminating them all?

And to look for adjusted Odds Ratio:

1. Collect all variables into one model

2. Run a log reg analysis and look up for the Exp B

3. Compare them with the previous odds ratio from the previous bivariate analysis

p.s: I use complex sample models

PCA analysis on the covariance matrix performed in SPSS gives as output the raw components and the components rescaled by a constant factor for each variable. Does anybody know how this factor is computed? and which one is selected during the analysis?

I am a PhD scholar. When importing the rotated component matrix in Amos 23, I'm having trouble. My factor loads while conducting CFA have different values than the loadings I get in SPSS after performing factor analysis and transferring them to Amos 23 using the pattern matrix plugin.

I have an acceptable model fit, but because of fluctuation in cfa factor loadings, my AVE falls below the.5 cutoff. Is there a way to fix this?

I've recently completed a data analysis for my thesis using SPSS and I'm now considering the best way to visualize my results. While SPSS does offer visualization tools, I'm contemplating whether to use a dedicated visualization app instead. Can I use a different application for data visualization after performing the analysis in SPSS? If so, are there any recommended practices to follow or potential issues to avoid? I'd appreciate any advice on this matter

I am running mediation analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and I have binary independent variables. It is my understanding that Haynes (2017) recommends that you report unstandardized beta coefficients. Can anyone help my explain why we would report these instead of standardized?

I am currently at a Japanese university and working on a project with my co-workers.

We use DropBox to share an SPSS file (.sav) to run some analysis in AMOS. My co-workers (using the Japanese version of Windows 11) can open the file from Dropbox and conduct analysis without any problem. However, in my case (I am using an English version of Windows 11), my AMOS (no matter set in Japanese or English) cannot read the file.

Does anyone here have similar experiences? Is it because of my OS issue?

I am doing a mixed ANOVA with one within-subjects factor and two between-subjects factors. To prevent order effects, the order in which participants received each level of the within-subjects factor has been randomized. Is it possible to include this order randomization in a repeated measures mixed ANOVA in SPSS? And if so, should it be included as a covariate?

Hello everyone, I did a survey with a 4 item 3 point-likert scales ( for example; not true, sometimes and true) and a 5 item 4 point-likert scales ( for example; strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree). I conducted a cronbach's alpha, but it was too low due to a low number of items.

Would there be an alternative to report the reliability analysis that would result in a higher score? Ideally, I would like to create scales from these items.

I also thought of reporting only the correlation coefficient of these scales.

Could you help me?

Hello researchers,

I am facing problem to do a regression analysis with three independent variables, one mediating variable, and one independent variable. How ca I do this in SPSS? Any one please can you help me?

Can I perform Principal component analysis on SPSS and then move to Smartpls to test hypotheses? (Higher and lower order constructs are all reflective).

I have a dataset of results obtained from a technique of XRF. However, I only received the results with the mean and the variation of three replicas. Can I add the dataset with mean + standard deviation in SPSS?