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SMEs - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in SMEs, and find SMEs experts.
Questions related to SMEs
Sustainable Procurement : Is the practice to be avoided or appreciated by SMEs ?
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All SMEs operate under various constraints and those are impacting their operations at the higher level. If the organization is refusing/constrained not to adopt the strategy in its procurement practices ? what would be the impact ? how do they mitigate them with an alternate strategy to sustain/ maintain their operations in the market ? Would appreciate, if any one come across any articles related to Sustainable Procurement... Thanks
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I wrote one of the first research books on construction supply chains- Construction Supply Chain Economics (Taylor and Frances Research Series). You might find it useful to appreciate how a project based industrial organisation economic model helps you to understand the structure, behaviour and performance context when dealing with innovation and productivity challenges. Too often we throw around such ideas and concepts such as strategic procurement or sustainable procurement with little depth of knowledge about what makes up our supply chains and why they (and the firms) behave the way they do- power, control and influence etc. Since the book was published I have conducted 
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I'm investigating for my Master's thesis and the focus is on the amplitude of capabilities that are needed to successfully combine two cultural dimensions at the same time, one of a national and the other of an organizational type. The goal is to understand how leaders of Swiss SMEs accomplish the internationalization process and which personal competencies are needed to succeed.
It is to be expected that the outcome of this research project will be of importance for improving theoretical insight into the managerial activities of SMEs. The main aim focuses on acquiring basic knowledge of what tools and competencies are required to direct the process of internationalization. A further objective of the thesis will be to provide insights that bring new perspectives on how to handle the transaction from a domestic to a foreign market in terms of cultural differences between them.
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There are a number of article relating entrepreneurship to culture. Some of them are;
National culture and entrepreneurship: A review of behavioral research
JC Hayton, G George, S Zahra - Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 2002 - ink.library.smu.edu.sg
An inquiry into culture and entrepreneurship: case studies of business creation among immigrants in Montreal
LP Dana - Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 1993 - Taylor & Francis
Culture and entrepreneurship in less-developed countries: Ethnic trading networks as economic organizations
JT Landa - The Culture of Entrepreneurship, ICS Press, SF, 1991
The culture of entrepreneurship
B Berger - 1991
Culture and Entrepreneurship
H Nakhaie, AE Zadeh - ipedr.com
and many more
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Sustainability of the SMEs is a kind of challenging endeavor for many professional and it is looked in different ways by various researchers. Some are approaching through growth pattern (orientation) of business. I am interested to know the right approach to measure the sustainability of SMEs.
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The fundamentals:
Cash Flow (implicitly growth), keeping debt manageable and then the SME's Return on Capital Employed (or equivalent) being greater than its Weighted Average Cost of Capital.
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Both the European Foundation for Quality Management and the International Standards Organisation have quality standard frameworks for enhancing the business practices of outward-looking export-oriented SMEs. Are they competing frameworks? Am interested in uncovering the pros and cons of these two frameworks? 
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Business practices are not different for different types of enterprises. There are common practices which apply across the sectors and that is why such models were developed. There may be a few specific business parameters for certain industry. There are several models including the 2 quoted in your questions. Since these models are lengthy and complex, best thing is to yourself compare the two and make list of differences.The outcomes and goals of the two are same. I have developed an excellence model which is process based and easy to implement by any industry.
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I am researching SMEs in the Medtech area and am interested in the key drivers of their Business Models.
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There are various definitions of SMEs in terms of their number of employees and their turnover. From your point of view, how you define SMEs?
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Dear Mohammad, When trying to define SMEs one should not ignore qualitative criteria. Using qualitative criteria is more complex and difficult, but allows you to capture the essence of small business (consider the difference between a small shipyard and a small shop, both in terms of employment and turnover). Defining SMEs by turnover or employment is relatively easy and that is why most researchers use this kind of measures. In the UE countries microfirms are usually defined as those employing up to 10 employees, then small businesses can be defined as those employing 10-49 and medium ones with the employment within the range of 50-249. Bigger firms would be then defined as large enterprises.
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I would like to study about the relation between green management in term of green innovation and it relation toward internationalization of SMEs.
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review this paper:
Also review some paper related to green supply management, because there is supply chains located in many countries at same time.
My best regards
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I want to study that how trademark as a vital intellectual property can be sustained through IP governance and enforcement as only then the trademark could go towards becoming a brand. 
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Dear Imran Bashir Dar,
There is an excellent publication on this general topic by Carsten Fink and Keith Maskus, "Intellectual Property and Development: Lessons from Recent Economic Research" (2005). It's a free download from the World Bank website--follow the link below.
Hope this helps!
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Collaboration between SMEs, Large Companies, etc.
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I know of one collaborative endeavour (consortium of sorts) amongst SMEs that failed to bear fruit and was eventually dismantled. On attempting to speak with various CEOs of these SMEs who had tried to come together, they cited the following primary reasons:
- more similarity than complementarity among partners
- very little agreement on contractual obligations
- almost no consensus on reward sharing and penalty clauses
- leadership paralysis
These reasons seem critical and not handling them will inhibit inter-firm collaboration in other contexts too.
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Large scale companies use RFID and barcode systems in material management.....but is it feasible and economical for SME companies 
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What are the limitations to involve customers in decision making process from SMEs perspective?
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No, you mustn't involve customers in decision making process.
Yes, you have to listen their wishes, their expectations and their needs.
But you are the one who make final decision abaout products and services after analizing customers need and expectations and of course competitors' offers and complete market...
This is very complex issue so we can discuss it ...
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Does anyone have data (location, size) of European SMEs?
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Hi Loukas
There are several European surveys that might be useful to you. The European Household Panel Survey would be one from which you can identify self-employed people and their incomes, characteristics etc. Buereau van Dyke (FAME) data would cover SMEs with balance sheet information, size and location etc. The World Bank does Enterprise Surveys in developing European countries. And Eurostat has basic business demographics at the regional level across Europe. Hope this helps? Cheers. Marc
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For a country generally what is the source of such data. If not suggest any survey done by researchers or international agencies like World Bank or ADB etc
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In the EU there are regional statistics for ICT at subnational level, NUTS 2, this allows some spatial econometrics. see e.g. Infrastructure and Growth in a Spatial Framework: Evidence from the EU regions
CF Del Bo, M Florio
European Planning Studies 20 (8), 1393-1414
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Please help me in making questionnaire for observing the indirect and direct benefits of FDI  on local SME sector like local supply chains and contractors. Any source of survey already undertaken, a questionnaire  will be very useful.
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We are carrying out an investigation into the triggers for the internationalization of SMEs, in particular, of the born-again global firms. Bell, McNaughton and Young (2001) identified some critical episodes that served as triggers for firms carrying several years in the local market initiate a rapid and intensive internationalization. Their study was exploratory, based on case study methodology. After this first study, these researchers and other have been made new studies also based on case study methodology.
We pretend to extend this research applying quantitative methods versus exploratory methods used by those researchers.
Do you know of any research that uses quantitative methods?
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Dear Oscar,
While researching for a chapter contribution I had come across a PhD thesis by
Stephan Gerschewski titled 'BORN GLOBAL FIRMS:
AN INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF THE DETERMINANTS AND
MEASUREMENT OF INTERNATIONAL PERFORMANCE , 2011. that has used a mixed approach,which is inclusive of Quantitative method also. I am giving enclosing herewith the said study in a pdf format. Hope it will prove to be useful.Good Luck.
Regards,
Suja R. Nair
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There are many LDCs suffering to promote their SMEs, boost up industrialization through promotion of existing industries. I would like to contribute in the field of industrialization through "SME Cluster Development". It could be in the form of employment or an honorary position. I am interested to the LDC countries to initiate SME Cluster Development activities for industrialization and entrepreneurship development.  
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You can find useful contacts among the references of the enclosed article. Good luck,
MV
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It is more challenging for SMEs to become sustainable.
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Challenges SMEs are facing to become sustainable are: 
1. Inadequate policy support.
2. Adverse tariff regime.
3. Extreme competition from the imported products.
4. Noncompetitive cost of production.
5. Inferior product's quality.
6. Limited productivity.
7. Inadequate access to finance.  
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I found several software for performance evaluation and improvement like SPSS, AMOS,ANOWA, SEM, T Test for single and Multivariate Etc. I want to choose my local region industries like in Madhya pradesh, India and will take various parameters for performance improvement then what should I do? please help me.
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It is good to know various software tools that can perform different / overlapped quantitative data analyses.  However, don't let the tools dictate how we conduct a research.  In quantitative research context, a research should be driven by the research problem, then research objective(s) or research question(s), conceptual framework / research model, hypotheses then research method.  E.g. if a research model consists of few Independent variables (IVs) that are individually & directly influencing SME's performance improvement, then SPSS multiple regressions can be used.  If your research objective is to comparing the performance improvement etc across different groups of SMEs, then SPSS ANOVA etc can be adopted.  If your research model is getting more complex e.g. consists of many IVs interconnected with arrowed-lines in different layers and point to one or more than one dependent variable (DV) then SEM like SPSS AMOS, SmartPLS etc can be used.  In summary, research problem dictate research model then dictate research method and lastly the statistical software tools that we should adopt.  Wishing you all the best.
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Lack of skills? Finance? Networks? Culture and language? How can these barriers be avoided. 
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You may SEE:
OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 45
THE ROLE OF TRADE BARRIERS IN SME INTERNATIONALISATION
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Influence of the Alibaba strategy in Internationalization of Chinese SMEs
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Hi Sana,
Let me give some references on this topic:
HBR (Harvard Business Review), 2003, Spotlight: China Tomorrow, Vol. 81(10), p.69
Zeng M. and Williamson, P. J. (2003), The Hidden Dragons, Harvard Business Review, vol. 81(10), p.97-99
Govindarajan,V. and Gupta, A. (2000), Analysis of the emerging global arena, European Management Journal, Vol. 18 (3), 9. 274-284
Hope it helps!
Bruno
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I would like to get an idea about developing a TQM model for manufacturing SMEs in the context  of developing countries.
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Hello Ibrahim, you may want to read the article titled "TQM Best Practices: Experiences of Malaysian SMEs" by Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab and Tannock, James D. T., that was published in Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, June 2005, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp. 491-503. 
Abstract: 
The progress of TQM in SMEs, particularly in developing countries, is a significant research issue at present. This paper presents some of the most important findings of three case studies, undertaken at SME companies in Malaysia. The companies comprise medium-scale automotive parts and plastics manufacturers, and a smaller food manufacturing company. Each company case provides insights into the issues facing SMEs, who are trying to develop more advanced quality management approaches. The case studies involved structured interviews with top management at each company, based on the award criteria of the Malaysian Quality Management Excellence Award (QMEA). The case study analysis illustrates that the companies studied have adopted distinct approaches to the implementation of TQM, which could be shared by other SMEs. Some of the key issues that have been addressed by the case study companies can be summarized as: effective top management commitment, an effective steering committee engaged in policy and planning management, real employee involvement, employee rewards and skills development. The issues of benefits perceived, barriers and quality progress of the companies are also presented in the paper.
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I have critically review paper on different tools and techniques for performance improvement. Each study having and shown its own importance. But still I couldn't search effective tools for productivity improvement in maintenance for Indian SMEs.
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It appears you are looking for "productivity improvement in maintenance for Indian SMEs". Firstly, in India we have MSME. As referred by you paper states about non implementation of six sigma in SMEs in UK. If you go to Micro Industry, the situation is worse.
Are you looking for productivity improvement in maintenance only or all other operations of Indian (M) SMEs?
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More than ever, in times of crisis (but not only) is required to find solutions to "move things"! In these circumstances innovation is an example given by those who studying business.
I would be glad to find out more examples. Thank you in advance!
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In addition to the above answers I am just adding a few points:-
Innovation often serves as a signal (signalling theory, legitimacy indicator)to larger corporates/venture capitalists. Since smaller firms have a paucity of resources and/or access to capital (since they have less options of showing credit worthiness, as in the case of start-up's. An alternative proposition may be to show 'promise' in the form of innovation (ideas) : as in the case of facebook, apple etcetera). A positive signal might help smaller businesses gain access to capital, access to other firms networks, or support from larger entities.
Innovation may also help get alliance/joint venture opportunities : Sometimes in the case of such JV's when the smaller firm cannot pump equity capital; the larger firm might just buy a proportionate part of the smaller firm. (When some smaller businesses don't want to get acquired or sell their business)
Innovation might help create an initial value for the firm and then, a larger firm may be interested to acquire it (at a premium). This benefits the innovator who uses (his) smaller firm as a conduit or channel to sell his idea/innovation. So the 'business' benefits by an ignition of an idea by the innovator and later gets incubated by the larger firm (if it is capable of absorbing the tacit and explicit technology) {or, it can buy the innovators idea and instate someone competent/original innovator to run the business}
Effectual thinking (choosing path and then the goal emerges)/accidental discovery or innovation (acknowledgement of something useful during ex-post analysis of that unintended event is also a type of innovation. Penicillin was discovered by accident; So if such an accident occurs at a small SME/firm and it is competent to recognize that some 'generated' resource has a potential worth it might help change course.
An innovation can be a static (discovery; innovation in product) goal  or a (continual or continuous) process (Lindbloom (1959) stated that a continuous nibbling is better than a big bite// commitment to innovation might help find new opportunities or improve current business.
These were just some points that came up.. 
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Experiences from across the Mena region indicate that a number of SMEs, estimated at about 20%-25% of the total, prefer sharia-compliant products . Thus, better risk management protocols would strengthen lenders’ confidence to create more sharia-compliant financing options. Risk management frameworks that protect lender's’ rights and address their concerns for transparent information could not only strengthen the evolution of Islamic finance with respect to SMEs, but allow traditional banks to develop more confidence in lending to SMEs, as well.
Your opinion matters and will be gratefully appreciated.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
8
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are now widely recog
-
nized as engines of economic growth and key contributors to
sustainable gross domestic product (GDP) of all countries, in
-
cluding those in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
region. These businesses predominantly operate in the manu
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facturing and service sectors and create employment opportu
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nities for both skilled and unskilled persons. However, market
conditions and regulatory environments are not always sup
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portive of the growth of SMEs and access to formal finance is
one of the main obstacles they face.
IFC’s Financial Institutions Group (FIG) in MENA provides
investment and advisory services to the region’s banks and other
financial institutions to build their capacity in SME banking so
that they can profitably and sustainably reach out to the SME
sector. This is achieved through providing equity finance, lines
of credit, risk sharing facilities, trade finance, disseminating best
practices, improving processes and products, and streamlining
delivery channels. Ultimately, IFC’s goal is to increase the
number of banks and financial institutions that offer financial
and banking services to SMEs in a profitable and sustainable
manner. IFC is recognized globally as an SME finance market
leader owing to its global expertise and knowledge.
There is a huge demand for Islamic products by SMEs in the
MENA region and, according to this study, approximately 35
percent of such businesses remain excluded from the formal
banking sector because of a lack of Shariah-compliant products.
In order to reach out to SMEs demanding Islamic products,
and as part of IFC’s initiative to enhance its SME investment
and advisory services offerings to Islamic financial institutions,
we needed to better understand the market from both the
01.
Preface
demand and supply sides in order to identify any gaps or niches
where IFC could assist and add value. With this objective, IFC
commissioned a study in nine countries of the MENA region,
which includes Pakistan, to better understand the demand and
supply for Islamic banking products (both asset & liability
products and other banking services) in the SME sector. The
countries chosen for this study are: (1) Iraq, (2) Pakistan, (3)
Yemen, (4) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, (5) Egypt, (6) Lebanon,
(7) Morocco, (8) Tunisia, and (9) Jordan.
The scope of the study was to: (i) identify the countries in the
MENA region facing gaps in financing and banking needs
of SMEs in the Islamic products space; (ii) conduct a supply
side benchmarking to review current capacity of financial
institutions to offer Islamic products to this sector; (iii) conduct
a demand side benchmarking to identify key SME customer
needs for Islamic products and see how well they are currently
being served; and (iv) review the current enabling environment
and readiness levels of banks in terms of the regulatory
framework and Shariah compliance.
The study reiterates several of the now well researched and
documented reasons for the lack of access to finance for SMEs.
However, more importantly, the study reveals that, there is a
potential gap of $8.63 billion to $13.20 billion for Islamic SME
financing, with a corresponding deposit potential of $9.71
billion to $15.05 billion across these countries. This is due to
the fact that several un-served and underserved SMEs do not
borrow from conventional banks, owing to religious reasons.
This potential is a “new to bank” funding opportunity, which
is still untapped, as banks and other financial institutions
lack adequate strategic focus on this segment to offer Shariah-
compliant produc
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SME's have an opportunity to engage with several promising services from cloud providers and so cost-effectively improve their business performance. These include DNS services, Directory Services, data backup, CRM, email,  accounting etc.  What is the actual research evidence ? 
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Hi Alexander,
I just scanned the site and it is quite comprehensive.
I will have my people take a look and report feedback
Silburn
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Not only issues related to bribery, but also corruption-related matters such as unethical practices, non-compliance, etc.
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Petr. You may be interested in our study on private-to-private corruption. 
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Dear Scholars, I am conducting a Best-Worst Scaling Delphi survey on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) issues in the Decline* stage of ERP life cycle. I would like more professionals with ERP and IS experience to participate. If you are interested, please leave your email address. I will send you more detail about this survey. Thank you very much.
------------------------------------
the Decline stage of ERP life cycle
A recent survey (Survey analysis: Adoption of cloud ERP, 2013 Through 2023) conducted by Gartner group in 2013 reveals that 47% of the organizations planned to move to cloud-based systems within the next five years. There are many cases examples involving replacing the old ERP system with the new type of ERP system in the official websites of worldwide ERP vendors. There are case studies on the experiences of companies (most SMEs) from old ERP to cloud ERP as well. Nevertheless, little research focuses on the period in which decision-makings about a major upgrade or replacement actually occur and what happens before and after the decisions. The above period fits the definition of the Decline stage (or Retirement/Declining). In this stage, despite the organizational performance or system performance may not be literally declining, new better choices have been carried on which makes this stage to be the end stage of the first ERP life cycle.
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Information about Good journals and Research Papers
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Try Google Scholar and then search specifically for what you want. There are numerous free research articles on there:
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SMEs means Small and Mediam Enterprise.
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I am carrying out a study on the contribution collection and compliance rates in a compulsory contribution social security organization in Africa. Has anyone carried out a similar study elsewhere? I would need some assistance in the findings so that I can triangulate with mine. Thanks
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1. Europian Commission (2013). SME Performance Review, Annual Report of SME in EU, Bruxelles, http://www.ec.europa.eu/.../sme/.../performance-review/index_e
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I would like to know your opinion in this area;
Could you suggest any articles  related to this topic?
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Dear Katarzyna,
Although there are several perspectives of defining "sustainability", the essence is related to the organic development of the company in a dynamic equilibrium with its external business environment and natural environment. Sustainability implies vision and competitive advantage, which means strategic thinking and leadership.
While leadership is concerned with the strategic vision, management is concerned with the operational decision making. Both of them have the role integrating all necessary resources and capabilities to produce goods and services able to bring a sustainable competitive advantage. Leaders and managers are "organizational integrators" which means field of forces able to create synergy. Leaders influence their subordinates mostly by using emotional and spiritual knowledge and intelligences, while managers use mostly rational knowledge and intelligences.
I attached a flyer with my recently published book about organizational knowledge dynamics which contains a good part of the answer to your question.
Wishing you good luck and a Happy New Year!
Constantin
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Please help me to develope the model for develope SME
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You can be interested into the attached article.
Regards,
MV
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Every time I have conversation with SMEs management, I find ignorance as far as accounting is concerned. Most of them take it as compulsion for taxation purpose and not as tool for decision making. And this is one of the area where least investment is made by the enterprises.
My friends have started a company to address this concern by providing sustainable solutions to SMEs accounting process.
If you have any views on this, please feel free to pour it on comment box below or email them at info@springstwelve.com. You can visit their website
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If you want to read a paper on this issue, you may want to read the following article:
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What is the definition of SMEs by the world bank?
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The SMEs definition is based on the country. World bank have not published or defined specific definition on the SME. Basically SMEs definition is based on the numbers of workers of the organisations or the annual sales of the organisations. 
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What is the formula for mustar index?
Is it applicable to the measurement of business growth of SMEs?
Thank you.
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i'm not sure, but the answer may be in "win-win-win papakonstantinidis model
l
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In SMEs, concept of sustainability reporting is quite novel in India. so what sources such as annual report, websites, etc can be used to analyze sustainability reporting in it. 
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Based on the operationalized definition, as, A sustainability report is an organizational report that gives information about economic, environmental, social and governance performance.
Three basic resources should be considered.
internal environment, internal task environment, and external environment, for detail you can read my proposed theoretical framework. Find  the link below.
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title:Inaccessibility to finance for capitalization: Impact to the growth of SMEs
Would you consider it as qualitive research? Or a quantitative research?
How to measure the growth of business particularly the SMEs? I badly need help. Thank yoi
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Hi Coleen,
I agree with all measures suggested by the above namely, number of employees, stock turnover, asset base, market share as well as profit.  However, since you are dealing with SMEs whose definitions vary from nations to nations, it will be vital to consider the setting of your study.  Also if you decide on the profit, stock turnovers and profit as measures of SMEs perforance, since many of SMEs entrepreneurs will not be willing to state the actual amount of these issues in monetary terms.  Thus you may not achieve the gist of the study. 
Good luck in your research.
Sincerely,
Dr Ngoze Moses L.
Corporate Entrepreneurship and Management Science Expert and Research
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It is about the impact of inaccessibility to finance to the growth of SMEs
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Either, or both. I would probably run with both. I would carry out some in-depth interviews with a very small number of relevant respondents, then, with those having furthered my understanding of the issues, I would construct a questionnaire-based survey for a larger number of respondents, perhaps recruited through a local chamber of commerce.
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Especially,  the method of finances with grants. 
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I am working on this theme.Could anyone help providing relevant material
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copy this address and paste it in your explorer search bar. you will get paper on Social Entrepreneurship: theoretical antecedents and empirical analysis of entrepreneurial processes and outcomes. also search it in emerald-insight, springier, Elsevier, Frances and Taylor database. you will get hundred and thousands papers on that.
regards
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Securitization (CMO, CDO, CLO, ABS) is used by banks and insurances. Is it used also by other (non-financial) big companies and SMEs?
E.g., which SMEs (other than banks and insurances) securitize their debts? When makes it sense for an SME to securiterize its debts?
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I would like to get references on the different way of differential reporting in the world
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Dear All,
Kindly request some one to share articles related to business resilence as dependent variables in the context of SMEs?
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SWOT analysis is one of the most important tool for analysis, but the question is about the advantages and feasibility of  this tool for SMEs.
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Thanks Al Hiary and Wong
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Currently, i am working on the impact of  Corporate Governance on performance of SMEs., For this purpose, i need survey Questionnaires which subjectively measure corporate governance.
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Dear Hussain , as I imagine you'll need to measure companies in countries with underdeveloped capital market I suggest the index established by article: http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/rbfin/article/viewFile/1143/279. It was the basis of some of my articles here in Brazil where I sought to create an index for both small businesses and large enterprises.
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I am doing my dissertation in  a quantitative correlation research on sustainability and small to medium enterprises SMEs. Independent variables are leaders sustainability strategy, sustainability knowledge and the dependent variable is sustainability performance measurements. 
Do you scholars have any relevant articles reference this topic?
Kind Regards
Ruben
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Ruben:
Looks like you had received a lot of references on the subject.
I found a related paper  on the web site. May be this could add more details to what you have found or perhaps clarify what is considered good sustainability and what has not?
Thanks
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Dear all
I'm going to choose my phd thesis title, my main keywords are 1) Big data analytics, 2) Manufacturing, 3) SME's
So far I don't want to be too specific, but I should propose something to foster the manufacturing (optimisation, predective maintenance, ..or even less specific) and economy of Saxony region (a state in Germany).
I'm now simply asking for quick suggestions from you just to write a clear and semi-generic working title.
Thanks in advance for your support
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Big Data Analytics: An Intelligent Framework to Predict Maintenance in Manufacturing Industry, insight from SMEs.
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It has been observed that investment of capital in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) leads to improvement in technology which further increases output. However, at the same time, manual processes are replaced by mechanical processes, and therefore increase in capital results in reduction of manpower, increasing labour productivity. 
Is there an example of a manufacturing technology, suitable for SMEs , where capital investment has led to increase in output without displacing labour?
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Some additional points to the good ones already provided.
There are no universals nor absolutes and you need to be clear as to the context and stage when making an assessment. With that in mind; a list of industries for you to ponder and investigate:
Airlines
Hotels
Telecoms
(certain assembly industries - especially high end: heavy vehicles; machine tools)
Consulting
Health care
Private equity
Digital Consulting/Branding/Advisory
Power generation
Oil&Gas
Security
Teaching/Academia
(certain government functions)
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I am studying earnings management and audit quality in SMEs, analyzing financial statements of a sample of 386 firms for three years. Do you think is more appropriate a panel analysis or to run three regression models (one for each year)?
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I have seen both done Marco. For instance, Chaney, Jeter and Shivakumar in an audit fee study in the Accounting Review in 2004 run regressions for about 5 years separately and there are many examples of fixed effects being used. My understanding is that panel estiamtors work best with longer time series. Also, allowing slope coefficients to vary by year might be more informative than additional intercepts.
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Many industry professionals and experts believe that cloud computing technology can improve their online business processes and is one of the cost saving tools for companies now a days. What type cloud computing applications can assist B2C online SMEs for decision support for enhancing consumers online experiences? For example to provide on product information, communication, transaction and distribution process through the application of cloud computing in the B2C eCommerce SME environments?
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SMEs are unorganized sector and even the man power is not multi skilled as of large manufacturing units, which may lead to additional cost but at the same time in long run the cloud integration in such companies will be fruitful in providing enhanced customer experience. The following link will provide different ways in which it will be helpful also various integration which are possible.
I hope this will help.
Thanks.
Do you think family businesses contribute to regional development in terms of economic and social development?
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How does regional innovation and regional employment benefit from family businesses?
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In some countries, family business may constitute more than 70% of the economic power. This percentage is reflexed on regional innovation and regional employment .
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I am starting new research on Agile Project Management in SMEs. I am especially interested in the role of the customer in the process of adoption of Agile techniques.
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We have collected several innovation audits. We are looking to combine the best of several into one new audit. Here are the audits we found already: http://tiny.cc/RGinnovaudit
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I am doing my research to know how effect of performance to sustainability and competitiveness of SMEs
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I hope we are also talking about the environmental sustainability besides financial one. In this regard, Indicators could be:
a) The resources used from mother earth
b)Utilization of these resources over a period of time,
c) Amount of recycled/reused materials used
d) The relationship of SMEs vis-a-vis that of LSE in a mutually sustainable way.
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The size of a company has been proven to influence its workplace culture and overall working environment. Which setting would be more conducive for effective workplace learning?
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I would actually try to incorporate both in my study as the comany size probably influences the environment. Including both groups could show interesting diffferences related to company size.
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Many researchers have a view that current innovation management frameworks and models are mainly developed for larger companies and they can't be applied in SMEs. Is this statement valid?
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Hi Lakvir,
you rasied a quite interesting question! Of course, innovation processes are very likely to differ with respect to firm size, internal organization structures within organizations and many other factors. For instance, it is plausible to assume that decision processes in SME's are much faster and flexible compared to larger companies. On the other hand, there are several SME-specific issues. For instance, the lack of finanial and other recources is likely to hamper innovation processes and delay the launch of new and innovative products.
Best regards,
MK
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I am condufcting a study to evaluate the effect of Globalization on SME's in Emerging Economies.
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Thanks for asking the question i too need the same information for my PhD...
Mohammad shaheer Alam
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I am working on Tiered-capital as alternative funding strategy to SMEs. Tiered-capital being a phase/stage approach to the global capital market system. Because of the size, and turnover and existence, most of SMEs would not meet the capital market listing requirements, and at the same time cannot meet Bank's credit requirement checklist. In this regard, I want to research if the tiered-capital market with government support could elevate the funding status of SMEs.
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By giving fund and charging interests or fees will not help the entrepreneurial activity in a country. It will add additional burden...you may want to read my article on "Kootu".
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Sustainability is a philosophy whose time has come and there is no way the mankind can dodge the issue anymore. Since small/medium-size enterprises provide a majority of manufacturing activity, and also have limited resources to be applied towards this end, they need to very carefully look at various options to maximize their resources. Under this circumstances, many a times sustainability is not considered important and not given due recognition. What in your opinion the leaders of these organizations should do to remedy this situation?
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Dear Nageswara, I have seen many valuable responses to your thread. There is a part of a paper - chapter "How is situational leadership beneficial to the SME in their sustainability?"
I have downloaded a paper for contributors of this thread, and I find this paper very significant!
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Small to medium enterprises (SMEs) can benefit from being more flexible organizations, and hence, they do not require from the employment of bureaucratic managerial practices and procedures. This constitutes an advantage in comparison with larger firms. Therefore, SMEs may respond faster con changes and seek innovativeness. One of the most valuable steps on the pursue of innovation deals with unlearning old habits, routines and knowledge, in order to being able to learn new ones. I would be very grateful if you could contribute with any experience of yours while approaching unlearning mechanisms in your company.
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Dear Antonio, The "unlearning" concept for any organization including SMEs requires a distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge since approaches related to these two types of knowledge are completely different. Basically according to your definition for SME enterprises, their flexibility and also according to Jaharkanti's statement achievement driven basis, would facilitate the process of adaptation for new knowledge in which unlearning of old knowledge is in itself. It is seemingly simple to update explicit knowledge since the definition of this type of knowledge implies the knowledge existent in files or documents rather human minds. The unlearning procedure would be developed based on removing existing knowledge and adding the new one. But when it comes to tacit knowledge the procedure could be very difficult or even impossible. It is one of the disadvantages of tacit approach and will include human training or even replacement. It is based on the organization policy how to manage the unlearning procedure which in some cases should include employee replacement as to absorb new individuals with new knowledge. In both cases, the procedure is considered with high costs, residual effects and taking a long time.
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European Investment Bank is heavily supporting regional and local banks to finance their SME clients. With creative ideas such as guarantees or co-financing (see link as example) the EIB tries to salves a chicken-egg-problem that many governments face when it comes to development plans for SMEs in their countries. This moves is not only clever but also could be a starting point for many other countries in different regions to understand how they can develop their SMEs and thus create sustainable economic development and growth. The question is: what other measures or organizations do you know which are effectively developing or implementing ideas for the largest problems SME seem to have all around the world: affordable and easy financing!
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I want to figure out how traditionally manufacturing firms shifts towards services proposals as part of the new service economy paradigm and what is the role of innovation in this change. This is evident in larger firms like for example Volvo trucks and Rolls-Royce cars, in the automotive sector but how does this process takes place when it comes to smaller businesses ?
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There is an excellent example of SME start-up firmly based in audio product sector moving towards servitization model (check out establishment of company and product development strategy in 2005 Industrial Marketing Management article "Specifying and synchronising partner activities in the dispersed product development process" (IMM, 2005, 34, pp 85-95, Perks H). In 2008 company then started experimenting with servitization model and set up new partnership with transport consultancy company as route to expand presence and new product/service offerings in this field. Utilises network/partnerships to access service capabilities. See various websites on the company.
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The list of indicators can be found in the literature.
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There are a lot of indicadors and they can be or not applied to any kind of industry. It depends of your research problem and scope definition as people above already mentioned.
when we talk about sustainable manufacturing indicators, I believe one relevant issue before defining which kind of indicators to study is concerning the manufacturing level - machine level, operation level, industry level, product life-cycle level.
So, when you define this kind of level, it can be more clear and simple to establish such indicators.
Best regards,
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My dissertation topic is on SMEs. From my preliminaries, I realized that the size, and longevity affect the level of finance that is available to SMEs. Eventually, the scarcity of fund strangulate and lead to untimely death of SMEs. I want to propose sub-levels of capital markets with little requirement (Turnover, size, employee no etc), back by the community and government.
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One of the main difficulties for SMEs survival is their ability to raise funds. We observe that more than the amount of funds raised the diversity of resources generate better results cause of the integration of new members in the board. 2 approaches can help you in your research: Heterogeneity of entrepreneurial team and heterogeneity of venture capital selection behaviour. ( Knockaert et al. 2010. R&D Management)
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I am working on a study which test how exogenous changes effects firms by size. The plan is to run econometric models on firm size, sector, revenues, profit, etc against interest rates and foreign exchange rate. If you are aware of other studies in this area, or are interested on our findings, please let me know.
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Wonderful. Thanks!
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What is the condition of small and medium enterprises in India and then comparing their condition with that of small and medium enterprises in developed nations.
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Private Equity (PE) firms often don´t have specific knowledge of the industry when they invest in a firm, but have in many cases a positive impact on the performance of the firm. E.g. in case of medium-sized German firms, a lack of capital is usually not the problem, so what do PE firms make different than (owner)-managers, for example in case of medium-sized firms? What can managers learn from PE companies?
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This framework may help, though it is critical of private equity.
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I'd like to know if there are any papers written on advantages/disadvantages of using cloud in small/medium enterprises. What criteria are/should be considered?
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Here is a clarion call for the submission of informative and inspiring chapters for a new book titled as "Cloud Infrastructures for Big Data Analytics".
The proposed book is to describe the business and technical implications and innovations when there is a seamless and spontaneous synchronization of the two leading computing paradigms (cloud and big data) with the noteworthy advancements and accomplishments in the business analytics domain. Especially how the synergy of these fast-evolving disciplines is to do wonders for the establishment and sustenance of smarter enterprises, a grandiose portion of the smarter planet vision, is to be the major attraction and attention of the book.
Please forward this mail to all your friends
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Usually SMEs do not have human resource departments. Yet, it has been found that employees of SMEs are largely happier working with them. They use some informal practices and personalized behaviour to create satisfaction in their employees. Can you share some such practices on the basis of your experiences?
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Debi
I am not very familiar, but the following references may help you.
Cassell, C., Nadin, S., Gray, M., & Clegg, C. (2002). Exploring human resource management practices in small and medium sized enterprises. Personnel Review, 31(6), 671-692.
Wilkinson, A. (1999). Employment relations in SMEs. Employee relations,21(3), 206-217.
Hotho, S., & Champion, K. (2011). Small businesses in the new creative industries: innovation as a people management challenge. Management Decision, 49(1), 29-54. (https://repository.abertay.ac.uk/jspui/bitstream/10373/631/1/HothoManagementDecisionEarlyCiteJan2011.pdf)
Anderson, M., & Sohal, A. S. (1999). A study of the relationship between quality management practices and performance in small businesses.International Journal of quality & Reliability management, 16(9), 859-877.
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The sustainability of SMEs is a complex issue which is thought to be affected by a multitude of things. The aggregate effect of SMEs as the driving force of modern economies makes them liable to scrutiny since they appear to be responsible for the success and failure ot particular economies. What is yet to be known is under what set of conditions an ecosystem of SMEs is sustainable.
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SMEs generally thrive when they are part of a supply chain with assured market. Also they will be affected by the existing infrastructure and availability of finance. If these are met they serve better the nation in terms of employment and wealth generation for larger community.
It was found in US that “Exporting services SMEs, which represent a very small share of all U.S. services SMEs, are more export-intensive than large services exporters. U.S. services SME multinational companies, which are even less common, are nearly three times more export-intensive than large U.S. multinationals. On the other hand, trade barriers, including both tariffs and nontariff measures, disproportionately affect SMEs relative to large firms, as do many business impediments, such as high transportation costs.”
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I am doing a research on "Barriers and Challenges facing SMEs in Ghana (West Africa) hindering them from foreign market entry."
As am new to the field of research i need advice on how to successfully carry my first research project. All suggestions are welcome
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Thank you for the reply. I am a student conducting this research and i am not in business.  SO i will appreciate some advice on how to go about the research, especially in the research methods and methodology.  
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Question : To what extent the availability and accessibility of resources specific to clusters such as knowledge and skills they help promote innovation performance of SME clusters?
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Deusto University in Spain studies the subject. Authors&colleagues that can help you are: Iñaki Peña, Luis Silveira.
Regards
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Dear all,
The Faculty of Business from Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca invites you to attend the 7th edition of the conference dedicated to the topic of SMEs (SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD, please visit: http://tbs.ubbcluj.ro/conference15/index.html).
The main objective of the present conference is to encourage researches concerning SMEs in a globalized world through networking and collaboration between academics and practitioners.
The conference also aims to serve as a forum between entrepreneurs, managers, academics and researchers who are invited to exchange information, knowledge and experience in the broad filed of SMEs matters.
Conference Language: English.
Best regards,
Monica Maria Coros
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We are looking forward to meeting you in Romania!
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What do you think is the best way to measure SMEs sector sensitivity to business cycle?
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Dear Jacek, Thank you for this suggestion! It is helpful!. Best.
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SMEs require a different approach to CSR than large corporations because they amongst others do not have the same means. Trade associations may play a vital role due to their close connection to SMEs and governments wishing to promote CSR may regard them as a suited partner to achieve this: do you think that within your country this is a way to go?
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Dear Koen,
Your question signals an area where most of the trade union ignored.  Trade unions in developing countries are mainly focusing on findings solutions to problems related to improving working conditions and living conditions of their membership through the existing framework. 
Occasionally, some trade unions put forward proposals to improve small businesses but the underlying themes are related to their prime task mentioned above. However, most of the time those proposals are not scientific or systematic.
To make such contribution to development of the trade where these unions are formed needs a change in trade union culture. 
Upananda
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Guerrilla Marketing is low cost,unconventional marketing strategy by which business owner can achieve their goal at lowest cost. Basically small business owner use Guerrilla Marketing.
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Most SMEs usually do not have the money to send a marketing message to millions of potential customers. Therefore, they must look for cheap but effective ways for locating potential customers. Now that the global economy is on the verge of a doom and that our SMEs need to squeeze their marketing expenses without minimizing their advertising efforts, what could be a better solution then going guerrilla!.See
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I'm interested in research on Opportunities and Challenges developing countries face in adopting IFRS for SMEs. So would appreciate relevant literature in this area.
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Definition for SMEs differ from country to country and most firms in East Africa can almost fit into SMEs, however most firms have elected to apply the full IFRS. A Nigerian study on SMEs titled:
“An Investigation Into The Challenges Of IFRS Adoption And Implementation Amongst Small And Medium Scale Enterprise Owners In Nigeria. A Case Study Of Some Selected Smes In Ikeja, Lagos State” can be found at
A study in Uganda found that SMEs are not inclined towards IFRS for SMEs and are long way in adopting them. A large number of them have never heard of them either. They were adopted in 2009 in Uganda and hindrances include complexity of IFRS, high cost of compliance, insufficient reference material and lack of qualified accountants in the SMEs. The challenges include lack of knowledge which is difficult to address because SMEs think that training and recruitment is costly and will also lead to job mobility. Lack of practical knowledge to convert from current practices to IFRS is part of the gap as SMEs cannot afford well trained consultants. Other challengesinclude costs for subscription and member ship fee to the regulators both for members and for the services and technology. Culture is another challenge where SMEs think that IFRS is too sophisticated for their businesses. For updates, use of technology is challenging because of limited access to broad band internet services. Weak advocacy by the local Institute of Accountants has also meant many SMEs do not what to do.
The simplicity of IFRS from IFRS for SMEs arise from the difference between full IFRS and IFRS for SMEs which is summarized below.
Revaluations of property, plant and
equipment prohibited Revaluation of PPE prohibited
No capitalization of borrowing costs Two categories of financial assets
(amortized cost and fair value
through profit or loss) - no more AFS
and HTM
Deferred tax still has to be
accounted for Simpler options allowed when
compliance with benchmark would
involve “undue cost or effort”, e.g. for
retirement benefit obligations and
biological assets
Consolidation still required No IFRS 7 disclosures
Omitted topics include Earnings per share,Interim financial reporting,Segment reporting
Options excluded
Recognition and measurement simplifications Substantially reduced disclosure requirements
If you google IFRS for SMEs, you will find many studies although some are not in the main stream journals.
Goodluck
Erick Outa
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Key Factors that are internal to firm or external to firm 
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I would agree with the view, that most innovations are purely 'market driven'. If the market 'requieres' innovations - SMEs simply need to to adjust to survive on the market. The market pressures is the most important factor. No state policy would ever be so effective in this case.
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Am preparing a research proposal on the "impact of multiple loans to international MFIs' clients particular in the third world countries, but am missing the literature review of the scenario under study.
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There are some who consider that innovation must entail technology.  Others suggest innovation implies "a first" in some way or another.  In my study of SMEs, I am pondering whether any change they make is an innovation compared to what they were doing yesterday.  Thoughts?
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Dear Robert,
no, innovation is not necessarily "technological". Much of the previous literature, however, has indeed focused on technological innovation (for a summary see Ahuja, Lampert, & Tandon 2008; Moving Beyond Schumpeter: Management Research on the Determinants of Technological Innovation; in: Academy of Management Annals.)
But innovation can also refer to other, "non-technological" areas: For instance, some use the term "organizational innovation" to describe any novel changes related to organizational structures. There can also be innovations with regard to management style. And business model innovation also are not necessarily "technological".
So, it all depends on how you define "innovation." For a definition you can go back to Schumpeter. Or to Damanpour's work. An innovation can be something new to the world (under such a definition, innovations are really rare!), it can be new to the industry -- or new to the firm. One of the broadest, most inclusive defintions is that of Hage (1999:499): "The adoption of an idea or behavior that is new to the organization”. When taking such a broad definition of innovation, the terms "innovation" and "change" become exchangeable (because each time you change something, it is new to the firm). 
For your work on SMEs: What is your exact research question? What phenomenon do you want to study? Depending on the answer to those two questions, it does or does not make sense to consider a broad (or narrow) definition of innovation. 
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I am PhD student working e-Business adoption among the SMEs of developing countries. I am  following positive paradigm, can anyone help me to discuses this research objective.
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Interesting..
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Can you please share the challenges that you face during software measurements implementation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs)? Can you please mention the approaches you adopt to overcome such challenges?
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We find that many SMEs struggle to keep their cash flow smooth. They keep taking working capital loans but use it for long term investment. They find it difficult to promptly collect dues from debtors but are not able to purchase at long credit term.
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Many SMEs are first time entrepreneurs, and do not have sufficient bandwidth in all the functional areas. They are not able to estimate their own short term and long term financial needs accurately given all the uncertainties they face. Financial agencies and banks however require clarity in financial projections, documentation, current and fixed assets to be able to decide quantum of working capital requirements vis-a-vis long term loan requirements of the SME.
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My concern is particularly in the Free state rural areas, where government and the private sector has no option but to source suppliers from neighboring towns due to unavailability or failure of SMMEs in rural areas.
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Tshepo, We have founded the South African SME Observatory at the Centre for Development Support of the University of the Free State. I would suggest contact with the Centre to learn about the research that has been done and how this may impact on your needs. Anita Harmse is a good contact person.
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Brand and sales to be differentiated on studies related to products and services of SMEs. 
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The nature of product would define the need for brand. one way to look at association between sales turnover and brand association would be in terms of the percentage of repeat sales to same set of customers. SMEs at times work on a limited set of customers and they create an equity for themselves in that limited customer base.
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Hello Everyone,
I had recently conducted a survey on Enablers and Barriers of Sustainable Manufacturing in addition to other key parameters too amongst 2 different groups; one being the Researchers working in the field of Sustainable Manufacturing all over the world and the other part being the industry professionals focussing various small, medium and large scale industry professionals in Ludhiana (Punjab, India) also known as "Manchester of East" as it has an established manufacturing base for engineering products (Source: http://progressivepunjab.gov.in/keycities.aspx)
The top 3 Enablers and Barriers highlighted by both the groups are shown as follows:
Enablers:
As per Researchers:
  1. Economic Benefits (associated with Sustainability activities),
  2. Improving Quality (processes, products etc),
  3. Government promotions and regulations;
As per Industry Professionals:
  1. Improving Quality,
  2. Lowering Manufacturing Cost,
  3. Education and Training System;
Barriers:
As per Researchers:
  1. Costs too high (investment related costs, sustainability activities related costs etc),
  2. Lack of awareness of sustainability concepts,
  3. Lack of standardized metrics or performance benchmarks;
As per Industry Professionals:
  1. Lack of awareness of sustainability concepts,
  2. Costs too high
  3. Lack of awareness programs conducted locally;
I shall be grateful to all concerned researchers if they could participate and give their views on the highlighted enablers and barriers as on why there is so much of difference in opinions of both the groups and what can be the cause of these enablers & barriers and what are the pertaining issues which needs to be tackled in them.
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Enablers:
1. Business resilience reducing dependability by scarce resources or higher energy costs (that's the strong enabler for stakeholders)
2. Economic benefits that's: lowering manufacturing costs and pollution taxation as well as waste management
3. Government incentives and protection of sustainable companies and practices over the short and medium term (i.e. discouraging unfair competition with countries and companies not investing in sustainable manufacturing)
Barriers:
1. The investments in sustainable manufacturing are more seen as a cost instead an opportunity (i.e. lack of understanding about sustainable business models)
2. Virtuous companies implementing sustainable manufacturing are less competitive on the short-meidum term (because of the huge investments) and not protected against unsustainable business practices
3. Government have a short-term (next elections) perspective and are not committed to invest and support sustainability
see "Industrial sustainability: challenges, perspectives, actions", S.Evans et al.  International Journal of Business Innovation and Research 7 (2), 143-163 for a research agenda and recommendations for Governments, Researchers, Companies, Education, ...
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Each cultural dimension of the Hofstede's culture require to assign a constant value [C(pd) for Power Distance Index, C(ic) for Individualism Index and etc). The manual says the constant values are chosen by the user to shift her/his PDI scores to values between 0 and 100. But how to determine what to assign and how to assign are not explained. Can anyone suggest me a procedure..
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Constant is not a matter to compare the data between two countries. First shift your scores between 0 and 100. Second select a country or region as reference. Third compare the score of reference country to the Hofstede's scores, which you find in his book or on website. Fourth calculate the difference of your score and Hostede's one. Finally add this score as constant.
Suppose you find found that the Malaysian PDI score is 64 and another country is -9. You first should add +9 to all PDI scores, so that your scores will be between 0 and 73. Then check Malaysia's PDI score from Hostede's references, which is 100. Now distract 73 from 100 (100 - 73=27), the result (here 27) will be PDI's constant. Now you can compare the magnitude and direction (+ or -) of results.
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 My main argument in my thesis is that innovation do take place in SMEs in developing economy especially sub Sahara Africa. But the question is how do they innovate? 
Can I be guided to literature to establish that the nature of innovation in developing country is different from portrayal in the West/mainstream innovation literature?
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Regulation, markets, and poverty
Book. English. Published Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA, USA : E. Elgar 2007
E-government: from vision to implementation: a practical guide with case studies
By Bhatnagar, Subhash C
Book. English. Published New Delhi ; London : SAGE 2004
Social innovations, institutional change, and economic performance: making sense of structural adjustment processes in industrial sectors, regions and societies
Book. English. Published Cheltenham : Edward Elgar 2007
Users as innovators in developing countries: The global sources of innovation and diffusion in mobile banking services. 
Authors:
van der Boor, Paul1,2 paulvanderboor@alumni.cmu.edu
Veloso, Francisco1,2 fveloso@ucp.pt
Source:
Research Policy. Nov2014, Vol. 43 Issue 9, p1594-1607. 14p
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There's a lot of blog posts in this area and a few reasonable textbooks aimed at undergraduates. I'm interesting in getting a feel for what SMEs in different countries should be doing to develop an online marketing strategy for the first time. Does this vary by country and/or culture? What are the trends that will shape digital marketing strategy in the medium term?
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Thanks, Robin. I'll read with interest.
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Generally, SMEs in a country are distributed unevenly. Apart from variation in carrying capacity, explanation for this uneven distribution is rare in literature. North's (1955) is location theory is not applicable now with the mobility of factors of production.
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Two thoughts on this:  (1) you mention 'entrepreneurial' SMEs which implies you are looking at new firms / those targeting a new market opportunity / those with high growth potential. It might be worth refining you definition so that you can look at issues impacting the location of that particular type of SME rather than all SMEs. (2) Your question would seem to have links to issues of clustering, and associated literature on accessing resources / complementary assets and knowledge spillovers. I found Karlsson, C. (2008). Handbook of Research on Cluster Theory, Edward Elgar Publishing. when I was starting to look at this issue.  
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In conferring with our International Trade Center director, the most common challenges are language differences, travel costs to establish business relationships, redesign of product/packaging for foreign markets, and potential import tariffs in the destination country.  Many times the barrier to export is the perception that the market is large enough within the homeland and there is no need or interest to explore export markets.
What is the role of formal education in enterprise and entrepreneurship development on the demonstrated entrepreneurial behaviors of the students?
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Do universities curricula’s, as the primary providers of enterprise and entrepreneurship development education, influence the emergence of future entrepreneurs among their graduates? Is entrepreneurship education a crucial factor influencing the SMEs survival rate in the context of a developing economy?
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To demonstrate entrepreneurial behaviors in the students, Create the Big picture with the experiences in promotion of socially responsible businesses with the supportive role of private sector including SME. Finally develop a suitable action plan that can be initiated for the promotion of businesses.
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The model of e-Governance at India creates MSME jobs, want to study the pattern and do certain researches. Kindly help me locating relevant papers. 
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I am presently designing an online platform that will act as a Virtual Professional service (Legal & Regulatory Support and Accounting for now) Platform for Small and Medium Scale Enterprises. It will also serve as a Custodial platform for SME records (Financial and Non-Financial) in order to provide Professional Service Providers with Real Time Performance Reporting for the SME's (presently focused on Nigerian SME's). My aim is to bridge the presently wide divide between SME's and Key Professional Service Providers whilst creating a unique Big Data repository of SME financial & Non Financial Performance. Are there any similar project being undertaken in other jurisdictions?
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The phenomenon of ‘internetization’ (Urry, 2003) of hotel direct distribution channels is getting more and more progressive in the recent years. However, I wonder if the process might be negatively affected by indirect bookings (OTAs)? What is the future of hotel online direct distribution? What are the pros and cons of development of hotel online direct distribution? What are the differences between independent SMEs and big branded enterprises? Thank you in advance for your opinions and literature recommendations.
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Most of the travelers book online nowadays and I think it is very important that hotels are taking part in Travel 2.0
I guess the direct booking is highly influenced by the e-services that each hotels is able to provide. Some literature that might be useful to you: