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SLA - Science topic

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Hello everyone,
there seems to be a lack of resources, even though SLA additive manufacturing is widely used. Would anyone be so kind as to point me towards a source determining the Poisson's ratio of standard photopolymers in cured state? I'd be especially interested in Formlabs Clear resin and Formlabs Tough 2000. Their documentation does not provide a number, unfortunately, and literature results for other resins are surprisingly scarce as well.
Thank you all in advance.
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Good day! As for the information, that I found, Poisson's ratio of Formlabs Clear resin is 0.35. Please find the following links as useful:
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Dear all!
Please suggest the International or Indian Journals where full length research paper titled Scope of Error Analysis in English written texts of ESL Students- A Case Study (Keywords- ELT/SLA/Error Analysis/ Writing Skills/Young ESL Learners) can be published?
Thanks in advance.
Regards
Soumita Sarkar
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Dear Madam
Thanks for your suggestion. I shall try in other journals.
Regards
Soumita Sarkar
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Hello, I want to know how can SLA, DLP or other vat photopolymerization methods achieve multi-material printing capability? Can they print multiple materials in different regions at the same time?
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Industrial 3d printers capable of producing multi-materials components by vat photopolymerization have emerged in recent years. In general, they use multiple vats, each with a different material.
The following link from a supplier has some very helpful video and images to understand the process.
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Based on gender identity, learners might show different characteristics that might influence the SLA.
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Dear Ullah, what a fascinating research question with regard to how particular learner variables might affect L2 learning outcomes (although this specific variable cannot be changed by instruction itself)! I would be surprised if no one has looked into this question more systematically yet. I have frequently observed that gender differences are reported in the results sections of L2 learner studies "as a side observation", even if the research topic itself was not gender differences. I also happen to know that FLA is consistently higher among female students. Overall, I would expect L2 learning outcomes in students to be mediated by differences in other variables (FLA, motivation, grit, etc.) that show different non-overlapping distributions between genders.
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I am working on a research project on emotions in SLA, using the control-value theory as a research framework. When i am measuring emotions like anxiety and enjoyment, am i limited to the scales developed specifically for that theory? Or i can use domain-specific scales? like the FLCAS? I would appreciate your input on this!
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In my mind, a quite straightforward answer would be this: The choice of your scale(s), whether they have originally been developed in Psychology, SLA or any other field of Educational Sciences, depends on the theory you are examining. If your theory is about emotions in general, you should use scales that measure emotions in general (e.g., from Psychology). If your theory is about emotions that are specific to L2 learning (e.g., FLA), you ought to use an FLA scale (e.g., from SLA). Where these scales come from originally is secondary. Their choice really depends on what are examining, or, in other words, your research question(s).
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I am doing Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing using ceramic slurry. I found some slurries could be UV cured, some slurries could not react to UV light. I found that refractive index could impact the curability of the slurry. Is there any equipment that test the refractive index of the slurry?
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Here you can find also a good proposition:
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Hello dear fellow researchers. I am conducting a quantitative study (exploring causality between the dependent and independent variables) in which I have provided a theoretical framework informed by SLA research. Should a hypothsis (based on theory to account for any causality claims) be stated or would it be better to dispense with the theoretical framework at all if no hypothesis is stated? Advise please.
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Due to the integration of new and legacy technologies in 5G and applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) which are bring more benefits of innovation and supplier diversity in an open market, are expected to experience new challenges to deploy Open RAN; clearly, the low maturity of the technology and also new features like more Open interfaces, multi-vendor integration, multiple slices with different SLA and virtualization and softwarization presents security and trust issues that need to be address, Which secrity aspect do you think is more important?
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What do people think is the most significant part of this research project ? Is it mainly about figuring out a way to print hollow structures with SLA and designed the printing process of a lung ?
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Perhaps it is a foundation for further research in the future? but it feels too simple now...
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I am planning to measure teacher stress in my research. One valid and reliable instrument I believe I have found is Teacher Stress Inventory by Michael J. Fimian (1984).
I was wondering if this measure/instrument is in the public domain and can be used just by citing the author and publication or should it be purchased?
Moreover, where can I have access to this questionnaire?
Best,
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It can be downloaded here: https://bit.ly/2TOJCs0
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I'm following the instructions here to create a 3D printable bioink but after i freeze dry my samples, they only partially dissolve in water. I tried heating with a stir bar too and it would still not completely dissolve. In the paper, they describe their Sil-MA composite as a powder after freeze drying but my sample is more similar to a strong Styrofoam. I cannot grind it up with a mortar and pestle and cutting it is very difficult. I've had relative success dissolving it in formic acid but but i think the acidic environment hinders crosslinking so I'd perfer to use water as the solvent instead. Any ideas?
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Dear Kyle Printon, I think freeze drying has introduced denaturation of silk. My Regards
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Hi, I am working with PEGDA (polyethylene glycol diacrylate) for SLA 3D printing. Parts made from 100% PEGDA are transparent after production, while adding increasing amounts of propylene glycol to the pegda solution makes the final part appearing milky-white. Why does that happen? What causes this phenomenon? Please note that the liquid mixture of PEGDA/propylene glycol is also transparent before 3D printing.
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Dear Carlo: I beleive you have a phase separation problem. The refractive indexes of PEG and PEGDA are 1.4339 and 1.463, respectively. After the 3D printing process, small segregates of PEG are formed. These have to be larger than 300 nm, in order to cause light dispersion, that is milky appeareance.
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In general, there are several automated eddy detection algorithms. However, each identification method poses a multinuclear eddy identification problem, e.g., multiple SLA extremes. This problem can occur when multiple eddies are physically close together. We tried to solve this problem with the following paper "A new mononuclear eddy identification method with simple splitting strategies" and the paper "Technical Note: Watershed strategy for oceanic mesoscale eddy splitting" in Ocean Science, which can be downloaded from http://www.ocean-sci-discuss.net/11/1719/2014/osd-11-1719-2014.html. We hope these strategies be helpful for the investigations in ocean dynamics.
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I want to start my research work on nano reinforced polymer composites, for that i am choosing desktop SLA additive manufacturing process for preparing the component. My doubt is that, is it possible to cross link the photo polymer which is reinforced with nano particles. If it is possible, then how extent will it give better performance? If not possible, then what is the alternative method to reinforce photo polymer to get better performance? Please respond, your suggestions will helps me a lot to go in right direction.
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The only item I would add to this, is that with photocurable resin 3D printing (both SLA and DLP), commercial and custom mixtures will contain photoblockers, and stabilizers along with your photo-crosslinker. Depending on your nano-material additive, light scattering (in the case of particles), or unintentionally photoblocking may degrade the fidelity of the final printed structure (depending on the feature sizes you wish to achieve). It might also be a good idea to look into any crosslinking inhibition that materials could introduce that might create an incomplete final structure.
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I am researching guar - a drought-tolerant legume, which revealed a strong correlation of 0.6 between plant N-content and SLA. I am looking for a possible explanation for this relationship? Thank you!
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Thank you, Morteza.
Please can you provide me information about the paper? Any link? If not the title of the paper? I appreciate it if you could guide me to any more papers.
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I would like to explore all performance metrics to evaluate an auto-scaling system.
The desired auto-scaling system scales out/in a web application, which is hosted in the cloud environment.
I know some metrics such as (1) Cost, (2) Response time, (3) Delay time, (4) Resource utilization, (5) Total Provisioned VMs, (6) Oscillation mitigation (or scaling overload), (7) Time to Adaptation, (8) VM minute, (9) Contradictory scaling decisions, (10) Contradictory scaling actions, (11)The rate of SLA Violation, (12) Stability, . . .
anymore? If yes, you can be a part of our team.
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We collected all metrics
in this article:
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There are many studies on optimizing resource management for cloud computing. Such optimizations are as resource allocation, provisioning, consolidation, scheduling, migration, etc.
However, What metrics are being used by researchers to evaluate their solutions, especially for resource provisioning issue? We have collected many of them and would be grateful if you would add yours.
  • CPU Utilization
  • Response Time
  • Delay Time
  • Throughput
  • Cost
  • SLA Violation
  • Provisioned VM
  • Allocated VM
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Thank you all for your feedback. We published a paper covering the while performance metrics in cloud, fog and edge computing.
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I'm working on optimizing a 3D printing formula for a SLA printer resin. While using the different published methods like digital caliber, digital microscopes, etc, I figured out that the accuray is not suffecient at all. I even wonder whether a lot of those published results represnts the real layer thickness layers as some of them make excessive washing after the UV esposure or wait till the print is dry (till the next day)! Also is there a way to quantifiy the percentage of the fully cured part of the cured print from the partially cured part ?
Thanks in advance
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hello sir
the accuracy we can't see or expect with all kinds of learners bcoz there are two types of learners.
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I want to know which is best SLA 3D printing photo polymer resin for preparing nano reinforced polymer composite and is it possible to prepare our own photo polymer resin or not. Please give your valuable suggestions. Thank you.
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Sorry for the typo, it's Irgacure 819.
I have just tried it with PEG 250, so don't know if it actually works with other polymers as well. As for the thermally stable UV resins, you might have a look at this paper
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I have references for SLA and material jetting processes but nothing for SLS or jet-fusion. Any assistance would be appreciated.
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Thank you Brandon for those references.
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I want to make 50um hole on a SLA 3D printed part. I did 200um hole using 0.2mm drill bit, but now I need to make 50um hole. My question is what is the easy way to do this, any help or suggestion will be appreciated.
Thanks in advance.
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I mange to drill a 95um hole on a SLA 3D printed part and also on PCB. Thickness of SLA part was 300um and thickness of PCB was 400um. I bought drill bit from Chinese vendor. I used small CNC machine for drilling WITH RPM equal to 3000. Below is the link for drill bit.
Now I WILL try 65um drill bit, I will post the updates.
I am attaching some pictures.
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I want to make a micro-fluid chip using PDMS. I print the casing for this purpose using SLA material. I want to cure the chip faster. I have a microwave oven (700 Watt). My question is that can I use microwave for curing PDMS? And what will be the effect on SLA part?
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Well, I tried microwave oven, and it spoils my mold and also PDMS.
I used 700 Watt microwave oven, I put PDMS for 30 second first and I checked it. For first 30 second it was not so hot and it was stable.
I put it back and turned the microwave oven on for another 30 seconds. When I checked the PDMS it was super hot and also my SLA mold was soften and the shape of mold was changed.
First picture is initial picture before microwave oven and second one is after microwave oven.
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Dear RG community,
I would like to sample (cut-off) maize leaves in the field and transport them to the lab for SLA (specific leaf area) measurements. After a brief literature review, I could not find an exact explanation on how the sampling is done without harming the leaves. As the leaves can be quite large (~60-70 cm), how would I best store 50-100 leaves in bags? Already cutting them in sections in the field might be an option and then store them in sealed bags. I am wondering if anyone ever only took a section of the leaf for SLA measurements and tested whether this causes a major error. For corn at least. Just using width and length and multiply it by a correction factor is not sufficient to get a good leaf area estimate I guess.
What would be the most practical way to do this without using huge bags and ice containers?
René
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Dear Rene,
Could the harvesting of whole plant (shoot) disrupt your experiment? If not, you can harvest whole maize plants and tie them in a sheaf. The leaves remain on the plant for a relatively long time with minimal drying. You can cut the leaves in the laboratory just before the area measurement and than dry for dry mass. Of course, the transport from the field to the laboratory must be fast ...
I have experience that maize leaves curl slightly longitudinally at the time of drying. Their length does not change a lot. The area of maize leaves is relatively large, so the expected area reduction will be likely negligible.
I don't know if I helped. Anyway, I was very interested in your question...
Best regards,
BS
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What is your favourite remote teaching/learning App? Why?
Thanks in advance for your participation!
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I do prefer google classroom and google meet as well.
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I am working on graphene nanocomposite resin for SLA 3d printing. Many researchers used Probe sonication for dispersion. What is the drawback of using bath sonication as high energy in probe sonication can cause defects to graphene.
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The power (W/L) of the sonicator is an important phenomenon while mixing graphene nanocomposite with resin.
The bath sonicator has less power compare to probe. The high power sonication may create a defect in the nanocomposite.
Kindly optimize the applied power, sonication time, loading amount of nanocomposite with resin, and temperature while sonication all is critical parameters.
The defects in graphene can be controlled by optimizing the above-mentioned conditions.
High power sonication can damage the graphene nanocomposite structure. On the other hand, low power sonication leads to poor dispersion
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I like the SLA but it appears to require two subordinates' input. Where can I find a valid self-assessment instrument?
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Here is someone else using a self-assessment instrument that might be helpful to you - https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/servantslead
And here's a useful chapter on the topic - http://www.irma-international.org/viewtitle/20257/
Bill
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Are there any relevant features that make some prepositional combinations relatively easier to learn than others?
Thank you in advance for your participation!
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A growing number of studies, including Mkhelif’s which is to come, have recently provided evidence indicative of an important role of frequency in the acquisition of EFL vocabulary items.
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Hi,
I have produced a mold for microfluidic device, using 3D printer (SLA) with epoxy material. I'd like to build the microfluidic device using PDMS. Based on my reading, the mold need to be treated with plasma for surface activation as it has been reported that PDMS will not cure in epoxy-based mold. My questions are :
1. Does the plasma cleaner for surface activation (e.g Harrck, PDC-32G) has similar concept/function with plasma cleaner for electron microscope (Ibss Group, 10x Asher)?
2. Is there any way to do plasma treatment for surface activation, manually?
Thanks
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Activation is achieved by increasing the surface energy of the material making it more hydrophilic. This increases the surface wettability and renders the surface adhesive. Activation by plasma treatment is extremely fast, economical, effective and safe to the environment
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Does anyone work on SLA in Cloud Computing or SOA?
Paper works would be appreciated!
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I'm also interested in this.
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I have encountered several ways to detect ocean eddies: Okubo-Weiss, Vector Geometry, winding angle, from SST fronts, etc. However I don't know which one to use. Does a method differ in detecting eddies with latitude or region? I also find that validation of some methods require experts looking at the SLA and geostrophic velocity maps but it has also high uncertainties.
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Regardless of the method, an important thing is to consider the methods uncertainty in your results. Indicators such as Success of Detection Rate (SDR, identifying those eddies that exist), and Excess of Detection Rate (EDR, identifying as an eddy something that is not) should be part of your results. Some methods publish those (or others) indicators in their description, others don't. For an example, see Fig. 2 of Chaigneau et al (2008), where their method has a similar SDR as using Okubo-Weiss method (~90%), but much lower (but still ~20%) EDR.
My suggestion is to use a method of your choice and then do a manual identification of 10-20 sample images, to validate the code in your results by visually identifying the eddies. The more colleagues that can help your with this, the better.
REF: Chaigneau, A., Gizolme, A., & Grados, C. (2008). Mesoscale eddies off Peru in altimeter records: Identification algorithms and eddy spatio-temporal patterns. Progress in Oceanography, 79(2-4), 106-119.
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I need the following traits: SLA, LDMC, leaf C, and leaf N. Strong preference for traits from China. Species average is fine-- individual measurements would be even better.
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great thank you! Ari Jokimäki
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Our lab has been using the Formlabs Form 2 SLA printer.
Previously, we printed structures with clear resin, but now with the grey pro resin, there exists some abnormal area as attachments show. I printed this structures a few times and the same issues happen.
I can think of a few points:
  • Grey pro has lower resolution (0.05 mm) than the clear one (0.01 mm)
  • Design file problem. (error reported at first, but I used Netfabb to fix it up.)
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Question follow-up: Not only my structure will experience these, one of my coworkers actually see these abnormalities as well; Design issues are eliminated then.
I refer to the solution offered by Formlabs, and then use scraper trying to find solidified resin on the surface of the tank. Some thing emerges at last; however, it turned out some parallel raised horizontal strips are part of the swelling tank rather than solidified stuff.
I am trying to figure it out from the helpers of formlabs. It seems it is swelling caused by uneven heat or air bubble.
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The relationship between SLA and Optimality theory (specifically inputs generation and constraints ranking).
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I think that you could make use of this theory in crafting student learning activities, The learning TASK is the input, and the actual learning consists of crafting the best output.
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Hello,
I want to bond PDMS on 3d-printed structure (from SLA 3d printer, Form 2). In fact, I don't know exact composition of resin of 3d printer, but I guess its main component is acrylate (maybe PEGDA).
How can I bond them? I've googled, and found that PDMS and PEGDA can be bonded with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate. If correct, with which process should I bond them with this chemical?
Thank you.
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Such 3D printed materials from SLA printers are more in the range of PMMA than PEDGA.
After cleaning, drying and curing the SLA part, have you tried plasma treating the surface?
If that doesn't work, discuss with the provider of the PDMS which primers he would recommend.
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I am interested in CA analysis of SLA interaction, both in classrooms and outside. It seems very hard to find the source recording for a lot of published work in this field.
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Hepburn & Bolden have some on the companion site of their recent book, Transcribing for Social Research: https://study.sagepub.com/hepburnandbolden
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Hello,
My research group is currently working on lower budget means of measuring specific leaf area and relative water content in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. We are working with the Easy Leaf Area application by Heaslon for the SLA, and I was wondering if anyone had any experience using this app with respect to its accuracy and any problems that may have been encountered. Thank you.
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Please have a look at enclosed PDFs...
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I have made SLA based Information Security Metrics for Cloud Computing and desired to simulate on any simulator..
Would you please suggest me appropriate simulator and the way to simulate it 
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See list of papers related to cloudsim
Also a lot of cloud sim material is given on following link
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We are seeding human tissue with pig cells and I am looking for a good antibody to detect the pig cells, with absolutely no cross-reactivity with human cells.
Does anyone have experience of any reliable antibodies for IHC on paraffin embedded tissue e.g pig mitochondria, SLA?
Thanks.
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Thank you both for your replies. Unfortunately the GFP transfection isn't an option at the moment, but may be in the future.
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People learn language in forma classroom settings, and in natural setting interactions with the target speech community members. Most of the research focus formale SLA , my question is about informal SLA and role of emotions and cognition.
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Hi,
I studied beginner learners that learned language functionally in the classroom and then went to study abroad and they definitely were very confident in using the language abroad because they already had a classroom knowledge of the possible situations they could find abroad. Emotions have a key role in cognition. According to Vygotsky (1999), as we develop higher mental functions we also develop higher emotions which are not mere instinctive reflexes but emotions that resort from social interaction. Language learners whether in a natural environment or in a classroom environment have to pass to the struggle of learning in order to feel satisfied and more confident in using the language.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1999). The Teaching about Emotions. In L.S. Vygotsky (Ed.) Collected Works (Vol. 6, pp.69-235). New York: Plenum.
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its related to learning a second language 
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Hello Jurana Aziz,
 For decades,the bulk of research addressing  intrinsic motivation (IM) has revealed that it is a powerful engine for learner development. The psychological evidence related to IM supports the advantages it offers to SLA learners.For one thing, learners with intrinsic motivation enjoy a high level of grit- a persistent perseverance for attaining learning goals. Another thing is that by conscious engagement, such individuals make a better use of learning strategies and their cognitive abilities since they exploit their creative abilities more effectively.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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I have my own resins, how can I confirm that they are compatible for SLA and Multijet 3D printers?
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You can if your resin is crosslinkable at the same wave length as the laser UV source. Just add appropriate photo-initiator into your resin. Good luck. 
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i have a question about : Which metrics are used to determine the best elasticity mechanism (Horizontal scale, vertical scale or migration ) to be used to respond to the SLA ? in case if we want to establish a priority between the different mechanism
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@Jeff: Please find the attachment enclosed. 
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I was trying to find the way, whether we can make shape memory polymers by using 3-D printing techniques or not? I found four types like SLA, DLP, Multi jet/ Poly jet and CLIP to make liquid/ resin type polymers. Now can any one please suggest me, how can I get the best one or what should be the parameters to select best technique?
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Among these SLA (SLS) will give you the best solution.
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Service level agreements agrred between erp vendor(for ex SAP, Oracle, Infor) and Retail chain customer
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This is a sample.
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I am looking for a medical grade plastic materials (transparent) which can be 3D printed for prototyping purposes? 
- If it's in beads/filament form it can be printed by FDM 
- If it's in resin form, it got to be photocurable for printing by SLA
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Dear Mr. Choudhury,
What kind of materials you are used for 3D printing for medical applications depends from 2 things:
  • It depends in what medical purpose you using 3D printer
  • It depends on the type of 3D printer
You mentioned that you would use the following techniques for 3D printing: Fused deposition modeling (FDM) and Stereolithography  (SLA).
I hope that the following links will be helpful in your project research.
For more details, I suggest you to contact following persons  which are experts in field of Medical 3D printing materials:
1.       Maciej Jarzebski (PhD in materials science Eng, PhD in biophysics)
2.       Professor Richard van Noort (BSc, DPhil, DSc )
 3.       David Van Auker, Genesis Prosthetic Arts founder
Best regards,
Dragan Vuksanović
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AR's application, usability, limitations in SLA (second language acquisition).
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Check out J.P. Duquette's research on using Second Life
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I am doing research  on the factors influencing SLA and need to classify the so-called 'external factors'. Has anybody come across a similar classification? Can you recommend any articles / books on the topic? Thanks.
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Dear Mariana,
Elli's book cited above by Olga Ulloa will give you a very good start. You can also take a look at Catherine Doughty and Michael Long's "The handbook of second language acquisition" 2003, Blackwell. Also, feel free to PM me in either language.
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I am working on Resource allocation problem in IaaS cloud. The SLA parameters such as VM start up time, there are no models available to calculate in simulation. Any ideas or suggestion?? thanks in advance !!!! 
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VM startup time depends on the instance type (spot, on-demand), operation system, size of the OS image, cloud provider, etc. There are studies of the startup of VMs in clouds.
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The SLA modified model for resilience dwell on the sub properties of Scale, robustness,scale, flexibility,self organization as a determinant for Adaptive capacity (resilience). I want to take them as my IVs for the regression and my DV is adaptive capacity. thank you 
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The first thing you must address is the way in which you measure resilience. Many methods and scales are unidimensional and do not have adequate factor structure for such analyses. The Scale of Protective Factors has the factor structure you need. The full text is on my profile. This also depends upon the age group you plan to use. Child measures are Mir involved and may provide you with adequate data for modeling. As far as a single scale that does this for children, there really isn't one. 
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The role of SLA's in educational clouds built and maintained by university
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Hi Gabriel
The answer is: it depends.
Most universities have an Information Technology department responsible for provisioning all IT systems for the university. A cloud system is no different to a computer lab, or computing facilities provided for staff, or a high performance cluster (HPC) setup. In each case, the IT department will provide details of the standards of service (and any inter-departmental charging rates) to all users. For a cloud system, the provision of an SLA would provide a very prudent approach to indicate quality of service standards, especially where inter-departmental charges will take place.
Of course, some may take a less formal approach to service provisioning, and in this case, an SLA is less likely to be provided, often with a proviso that there are no guarantees on offer with the service. But there still needs to be some policies or procedures in place to ensure systems are not abused. This approach will often prevail in a Computing Science department where such systems are used for testing by CS students, and these systems are generally not available to mainstream users. However, for delivery of service to most other users, the provision of an SLA can be used as a good means of explaining the level of service that is on offer, and can be used to measure performance against these goals.
Regards
Bob
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There are a lot of simulation tools for simulate cloud computing environment, here I need simulation tools for simulate SLA monitoring approch for cloud computing system?
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Cloud Sim, Aazure, AWS.
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We understand that a cloud computing platform should be a online system any time. And, the cloud platform has the completeness good enough to keep SLA for a client.
With a optmized Cost/performance Quality Assurance Metric method, it is ncessary to develop an assessment framwork to guarantee  the completeness of Intelligent Deisgn System, such as a cloud computing platform.
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This is a very intersting question. I will be very pleasd to read more about it.
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A lot of theories and studies seem to deal with how input is processed for meaning and form, but I am interested in looking at how the learner then takes this processed input and constructs some sort of representation of the L2 for later use. Does anyone know which, or any, SLA theories that specifically deal with this process?
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The keyword in your query appears to be 'specifically' and addressing this I would have to say Constructivism. However, the notion of noticing as proposed by Schmidt (2010) and the Interactional Hypothesis by Long (1981) are key to eventually internalizing the L2 input being acquired and successfully putting the acquired knowledge to use.
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I'm currently designing and developing a SLA 3D printer. As the mechanism are cured the resin layer by layer, I would like to know what are the effect of the feed rate to the product in term of strength and appearance. 
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The feed-rate is very important for both - if they is too high the appearance is not good and there is too much material. If the rate is too low you also do not have any good results - too less material, no strength of the product.
concerning the feed - rate one can say if the product looks good the strength is also good.
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I have measured several functional traits mainly leaf traits (SLA, LDMC, LT …), root length and weight above-ground standing biomass, Branching architecture. I know Paula et al(2009) review article which introduced possible traits related to fire considering resprouting and regeneration traits. Could leaf traits and allocations also be considered as representative traits for interpretation of fire effects?
It would be my pleasure to have your advice
Warm regards
veria
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I would measure the tissue flammability. See more at Cornelissen J, Lavorel, Garnier, Díaz, Buchmann, Gurvich, Reich, ter Steege, Morgan, van der Heijden M, et al. 2003. A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 335.
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Translation is usually treated separately from SLA, while it has a significant role in developing learners' competence. 
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Actually, translation is more of a negative thing for beginning students.  They try to translate literally from their native tongue and it often does not come out right in their second language. My example is Chinese students who are learning English end up speaking "Chinglish" which is English with Chines grammar and idioms.  
Machine translation between Chinese and English is usually unintelligible.  :-)
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Since digital services are distributing to different applications widely, there would be a need to define SLAs for such services based on application requirements. but SLAs are just defined for limited numbers of services such as Cloud platforms services or mobile networks. Therefore, is there any method to define them precisely for any digital service? 
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yes - sure. in general SLA describe requirements, features, and processes for a given service. These general points are equal for IT or industrial services. Details can be adapted to the different fields of application. Always remember the 3x3 matrix - it's the core of each SLA.
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I'm currently doing research concerning vocabulary instruction using CALL applications. I would like to investigate whether there might be any differences in the effectiveness of various vocabulary learning strategies when using CALL applications and paper and pencil methods to learn vocabulary.
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Here are some major references where you (hopefully) find what you are looking for.
Carter, Ronald, 2012
Vocabulary: applied linguistic perspectives. Routledge
Vocabulary in a Second Language: Selection, acquisition, and testing
Edited by Paul Bogaards and Batia Laufer (2004), John Benjamins: Amsterdam_/_Philadelphia
Nation, Paul (2001)
Learning Vocabulary in another Language. CUP.
Ronald Carter and David Nunan (2001). The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. CUP. (Chapter 6).
Good Luck,
najib
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An ecological perspective involves exploring language teaching and learning within the totality of the lives of the various participants involved, and not as one sub-part of their lives which can be examined in isolation. This means that to understand what actually takes place in our classrooms, we have to look at these classrooms as entities in their own right and explore the meaning they have for those who are present within them in their own terms, and not with reference to a situation—external and supposedly universal set of assumptions.
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Dear Parviz,
I'm grateful to you for posing this question.  It needs a lot of discussion -and  it is not easy to answer it shortly.In my opinion teaching SLA/Foreign language should be done translingually-transculturally. I'll add more to this a little later on as i have to finish now.Good-night.
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What are the efficient algorithms needed for the comparison and how do we implement?
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The question is overly general, but I will try giving you some pointers
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In Australia, sometimes it may feel like language and culture studies research is unimportant, and that only the "hard sciences" get all the attention (and the funding). This could result in researchers feeling undervalued, and beginning to lose their confidence, so that their research output actually decreases, instigating a vicious circle. I am just wondering whether this is just my impression or whether other people think this might be happening.
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Knowledge of any sort cannot be transferred effectively between different people with different cultural, social, and intellectual backgrounds without language. How many times are scientists misunderstood by adherents of religion and vice versa? How often are kids in school utterly bored with learning because they don't understand it? How often do politicians and statesmen across the world fight and argue without understanding where they actually agree and what the fundamental problem is? None of these issues would be a problem if people understood the act of communication, primarily through the written word and human speech, better. Language is the glue that holds ALL academic pursuits together, and linguistics is the study of that. The suffix -logy that appears on almost all academic disciplines comes from the Greek word λογία meaning "sayings, utterances." From a religious standpoint, the Bible says that God spoke the world into existence. From a biological / information-technological standpoint, binary code and quaternary DNA code, which can be translated into human language and archived in data storage, fundamentally determine how advanced machines and life forms function. The study of linguistics should be mandatory pursuit for all scholars if they hope to convey their ideas to a wider audience.
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In both cases it is possible and simple to describe the sounds by describing the segments out of which they consist. On the other hand there is a great diversity of national notations of these sounds, e. g. what is transcribed in German phonetic dictionaries as a cluster of vowels [ae] or [aɛ] occurs in phonetic dictionaries or grammar books of other languages as a cluster of vowel and consonant: [aj] - without naming it a diphthong. This is confusing for students and teachers. Additionally the difficulties to define and teach the concepts 'diphthong' and 'affricate' take a lot of time and work and cause a lot of misunderstandings.
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There is a certain amount of discussion about this here and there (see for example Kehrein 2005, Phonological representation and phonetic phasing:
affricates and laryngeals). While it is true that a cluster analysis might reduce the overall size of the phonemic inventory, it creates added difficulties for phonotactics, as Richard points out above. The example of Engish [ʧ] is a good one - if this is a cluster, how do we explain the fact that [ʧ ʤ] are the only permitted initial clusters of stop plus fricative? English actually simplifies borrowings of this nature, e.g. psychology with [s] not [ps], which suggests that the grammar disallows such clusters initially. Furthermore, some languages actually distinguish between the cluster [ʧ] and the sequence [t.ʃ] (see Gussmann 2007 for Polish in this regard).
That said, there are phonetic affricates, such as [tr] in many varieties of English, that we treat as clusters phonologically. It is true that the classes of affricates and diphthongs are a little fuzzy to say the least. For the practical teaching of German pronunciation, I don' think that treating German affricates and diphthongs as clusters is liable to cause too many problems. In other languages it might however. From the phonological point of view more generally though I think eliminating these categories maybe creates more problems than solutions.
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The main issue today is end to end SLA management in different vertical. As software tends toward the SOA approach, more complexity arises in quantifying the QoS, KPI and SLS specification. Is there any research paper on discussing various issues related to these topics?
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Look for papers by myself and friends in Saxe-Coburg and for ARGUGRID project