Science topic

SAP - Science topic

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Ring spot virus (PRSV) is the most destructive disease of papaya in India. PRSV is spread (transmitted) among papaya plants by mechanical activities like pruning, as it is transmitted through the sap. Numerous aphid species like Myzus persicae, Aphis craccivora, and Aphis gossypii spread this infestation. Seed transmission has not been detected. Definitely insecticide spray will be helpful to reduce the aphid population as well as for the control of PRSV. Is it possible to control or reduce PRSV through boron application along with insecticide spray?
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There are some reports indicating
Boron known to inhibit the movement of virus particle in pladmodesmota.
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Kitul treacle is sweet, brown color, sticky syrup made from sap extracted from the inflorescence of the kitul palm, Caryota urens. This treacle has a high brix value about 68-70 and low GI value about 27.
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Since this product includes a high concentration of sugar, bacterial growth may be lower. But, fungi and mold growth?
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Hello Dear Researchers,
Should designers of earthquake-resistant buildings compare the period obtained by numerical analysis software (SAP, ETABS...), with the empirical period, and what is the relationship between these two periods, if any?
Thank you for explaining this to us.
Best regards.
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Why is SAP popular in erp systems above all does the use of it really gives a business competitive advantage?
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Resistance in various forms and the degree of Customization are definitely important factors to consider.
There are a growing number of published studies about ERP systems in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This may be the most enlightening one so far:
Ondrej Zach , Bjørn Erik Munkvold & Dag Håkon Olsen (2014) ERP system implementation in SMEs: exploring the influences of the SME context, Enterprise Information Systems, 8:2, 309-335.
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Upon addition of water Superabsorbent Polymer (SAP) absorbs water. The absorption level varies with water/alkaline solution. I want to measure the size of the SAP that absorbed water/alkaline solution.
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Can be examined by means of optical microscopy.
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I am currently working on a single story model where beams and columns are made of RCC and truss is made of timber. Timber section is designed using section designer in SAP 20000. After analysis base shear, joint displacements etc. values are vary large which is unexpectable.
Does anyone have knowledge regarding this please shear with me it will be very helpful for me.
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Dear Saurav JYOTI Dutta
did you compare these results with other FE software ?
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I have similar colony numbers for my self-ligation (EcoRV + Cla1) and my re-ligation (EcoRv+BamH1+Cla1 with two inserts).
My No-ligation plate has no colonies at all.
I wonder whats wrong with my cloning.
I did Digestion at 37 degree
I did ligation at 16 degree overnight with ratio vector 1: inert 3:inert 3.
I did vector de-phosphorylation with SAP for 30 mins.
I did transformation using DH5α competent cells
First time I did digestion for 2 hours + SAP enzyme 0.5 in 50ul and I repeated the same protocol with digestion overnight + SAP enzyme 1ul.
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Because there is no self-ligation problem, there must be other limitations. You could increase the amount of insert and improve ligation conditions. Do you have a ligation control (plasmid digested with single enzyme and then ligated)? This will assure you that everything else is fine except the insert concentration.
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Dear all,
I am new to Openseespy and I am just trying to do a check for my openseespy code by comparing the structural period to the "same" SAP2000 model. I kept getting different periods between the two models and I don't seem to know why. See attached for the openseespy file (I am remotely using SAP2000 so I do not have the file in this computor).
The structure is a simple 2-storey 2-bay moment resisting steel frame with pinned base. I did not model end length offset in both models just to keep things simple. Same nodal masses were applied to both models. Rigid diaphragm was assigned to both models. Members in Openseespy have the same geometry properties as those in SAP2000. No other loads were applied.
See attached for the openseespy file (I am remotely using SAP2000 so I do not have the file in this computor).
Openseespy:
T1 = 1.113s
T2 = 0.209s
T3 = 0.00869s
SAP:
T1 = 1.22s
T2 = 0.237s
T3 = 0.00935s
Any suggestions would be appreciated.
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Can you provide us the stiffness of the structure on both software?
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  • For modified concrete
  • surface Hardness property
  • Water Absorption capacity of SAP GEL
  • Rebound Hammer /CTM machine & correction factor
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Hi,
Just a general comment on thickness effects and internal curing. Unlike external curing, where there will always be layering effect with the external surface of the concrete (exposed to the curing) likely being "better" cured than the interior of the concrete, with internal curing, there should not be a thickness effect per se as the curing reservoirs are distributed uniformly (if randomly) throughout the concrete volume (and therefore thickness). This of course assumes that moisture loss is still prevented at exterior (exposed) concrete surfaces via appropriate external curing measures. If not, these surfaces will dry out first and the interior of the concrete will be "better" cured than the surface layers, just as with normal concrete (no internal curing) that is not properly (externally) cured.
Hope this helps and thanks to Moncef for the kind words.
It is definitely agreed that the state-of-the-art report than Jason Weiss and I published as an NISTIR report is very outdated at this point. Hopefully, some energetic and dedicated researchers will soon remedy this by publishing their own updated state-of-the-art!!!
Dale Bentz
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I have seen in different papers that shear strength is usually defined using the Mohr-Coulomb theory, {c+sigma*tan(thitha)}. I am concerned about the application of this formula using SAP?
Because I am performing a shear test on a masonry prism and I am trying to match the numerical results to the experimental test.
Many thanks in advance!
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I am doing my project using IS 1893 and working with pushover analysis. I needed to input the IS 1893 response spectrum as the demand spectrum. Can anyone please explain how to do it?
Suppose i define the RS earlier in functions, what should the scale factor be? Please refer to the image attached. What is the value of SF?
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Divya Brahmavrathan, as I can see in the image there is you have defined the function, so for that first of all, you need to define the response spectrum (RS) from the define menu in SAP2000. Now, there is two IS 1893 codes available in the drop-down list. I suggest you just go with IS 1893:2016 and now again run the Pushover analysis and go to ATC-40 and modified the function. where select your predefined RS and then there is SF, which is known as a Scale factor, in other words, the multiplier for your RS. you should multiply only g=9.81 value in it and also assure that what spectra are you defined before is it elastic or inelastic. If you are willing to do the fragility analysis in that case you should go with elastic RS. it means the R-factor should be taken like 1.
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I would like to get familiar with some recent findings on subject of using SAP (super absorbent polymer) in concrete. Could you recommend any papers?
Thank you!
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Hi. Joanna. You can check my home page where I have some papers about SAP using for HPC and UHPC.
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i had already tried with hinges to model non-linearity in sap, but the hysteresis behavior is not acceptable. how can i use link element to model non-linearity with takeda hysteresis?
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this video will be very helpful for you.
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I am modelling a experimental test of steel coupling beam with cyclic loads to obtain (shear-strain and shear-chord rotation) hysteresis curves. I need help to know: How to add a sequence cyclic load start with force cycles following by displacement cycles to get this hysteresis loops ? using these software Sap2000, Etabs , and SeismoStruct .
Finally , if you may suggest a different software can help me add this kind of force and obtain such a similar results, I will appreciate that.
Thanks in advance
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVyu2hCQMvU this video is very useful and shows step by step how to apply a displacement in sap2000
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Dear connections,
how to model a precast concrete dry jointed or emulative jointed building in SAP or similar software for non linear analysis? and how to get the plastic hinge capacity? please advice.
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You can go for pin connection for dry joints or release moment. Whereas, in case of emulative joints, fixed connection would be desirable.
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Hi everyone, I am doing a my MSc. dissertation on Earthquake Resistance Techniques in Buildings, I want to compare results of two techniques on the same building. I have created model of a structure in ETABS and SAP 2000. Now i want to introduce Base Isolation and Damper ( separately ) using any of above-mentioned software. Can someone please tell me how do i start working on that ? Theoretically i know the idea of it but on SAP or ETABS how do i approach the problem ? Please describe it step by step and also for both ( BASE ISOLATION - Rubber Lead ) and ( DAMPERS ).
Many Thanks
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we did a similar research but in abaqus. The following is our paper:
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Hello everybody, I used FastAP (instead of (Shrimp Alkaline phosphatase)) and Exonuclease I for PCR purification prior to Sanger sequencing. Despite is very useful for short fragments (<300 pb) it isn´t working with longer fragments. Has someone any idea? I´ll be very grateful for your responses.
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primer dimers could be the reason
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I want to get the purified SAP. Buying SAP from the market is quite expensive, so I want to extract it in my lab.
What is the easiest extraction method now?
Thanks for your input!
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Hi.,
The serum amyloid P component (SAP) is the identical serum form of amyloid P component (AP), a 25kDa pentameric protein first identified as the pentagonal.. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a glycoprotein in human ... Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology · Basic, Translational, and ... The character of SAP in each extract was studied with double .... The amounts of SAP in extracts were measured by electroimmunoassay following the method of Laurell.
For more info:
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I've seen a lot of methods solving noise reduction problem with wiener filter in single channel case. Since there's only one channel, we get a real value for each T-F unit by calculating the PSD of the signal. While in multi channel case, we get a complex-valued PSD matrix. How do we define the a priori SNR or other variables?
Some researchers use the trace of the matrix which involves the inverse of the noise PSD matrix, but there may be a computional problem since the noise matrix is likely to a large condition number.
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A multi-channel noise reduction technique is presented based on a Speech Distortion-Weighted Multi-channel Wiener Filter (SDW-MWF) approach that incorporates the conditional Speech Presence Probability (SPP). A traditional SDW-MWF uses a fixed parameter to a trade-off between noise reduction and speech distortion without taking speech presence into account. Consequently, the improvement in noise reduction comes at the cost of a higher speech distortion since the speech dominant segments and the noise dominant segments are weighted equally. Incorporating the conditional SPP in SDW-MWF allows to exploit the fact that speech may not be present at all frequencies and at all times, while the noise can indeed be continuously present. In speech dominant segments it is then desirable to have less noise reduction to avoid speech distortion, while in noise dominant segments it is desirable to have as much noise reduction as possible. Experimental results with hearing aid scenarios demonstrate that the proposed SDW-MWF incorporating the conditional SPP improves the signal-to-noise ratio compared to a traditional SDW-MWF.
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Mention the name Robert McNamara. Poles of views arise. Put them aside. Appreciate that McNamara brought science to infrastructure investment. He also triggered a surge in infrastructure investment in countries emerging from imperialism. That was the seventies. The surge outlived his reign at the World Bank into the eighties and before structural adjustment programme (SAP) peaked. Many of the new states were caught in anarchy. Institutions (norms and values) were strained. So, did the surge of infrastructure ignore the institution? Does the flaw explain corruption in infrastructure? Was McNamara an angel at the wrong time (at least in Africa)?
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Overall, structural adjustment programs are doing a lot of harm to Africa. In which way? Asking a state to stop dealing with vital areas such as education, public administration and health is tantamount to sacrificing the well-being of the people. In the section on fiscal consolidation and privatization, we are talking about not worrying about the vital sectors of the socio-economic life of the people, their well-being!
These invested funds, if they had taken into account the well-being of the human factor that should not be sacrificed, would have produced good results in terms of human development. The imperialist context in which the SAPs were applied made that instead of prosperity, it was the impoverishment of the peoples that followed.
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Hi all,
I am using Sap 2000 for Nonlinear time history analysis in my research, and I have a concern regarding the maximum forces that result from the analysis, Is it the max force causing failure of the structure?
is there is any indication for the force reached such as that color coding in push over analysis that show the user if he/she reached the collapse or not yet ( Although the above mentioned analyses are different but there should be a point where the program indicates the collapse)
I appreciate your input.
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Thank you Rafael Salehin.
I agree with you, but if we compare Push over analysis with nonlinear Time history analysis in terms of the max. ductility and the point at which the structure is no longer is available to withstand any load, Pushover curve will drop at that point defining the max. capacity of the structure.
While in nonlinear time history analysis, the program will continue calculating forces and displacements beyond that point, and it will not stop analysis unless it reaches the last second defined in the record.
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Super Absorbent Polymer or (SAP) is a granular substance that can absorb very high volume of water, then the granular substance will turn to a jell, as I know that to return the jell to a liquid again we have to add some salt to it and then it will turn to liquid, but the water will not be pure, it will contain salt molecules as well as SAP molecules. So what can I do to get pure water from this mixture?
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You can use Freeze-drying or lyophilization process.
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In today's session of ERP, we discussed the goals of production planning.
A case study regarding the causes of disruption in SAP and the changing trends in Toyota Motors was also discussed.
The case identified three trends for Toyota Motors:
  • lean manufacturing,
  • Vertical integration (means the extent to which a company produces the components and assemblies used in the products it manufactures).
  • supply base rationalization.
These trends—lean manufacturing, reduced vertical integration, and supply base rationalization—have been implemented by manufacturers in a number of industries over the past 30 years and have resulted in higher efficiencies and reduced cost.
More over, we practiced some exercises of SAP implementation in Financial Statements and Cost Centres.
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In my experience the biggest challenges in SAP are related to poor management.
For instance if several hundred components are quarantined for a quality inspection. A portion of them may be ok and a portion of them may need to be scrapped. However we have to rely on human interaction to correctly identify the ok parts and scrap the bad parts. What we found is the scrap parts remained in quarantine. This ment because the system didn’t know if the parts where ok or not it never re-ordered them. Then we ended up with a situation where manufacturing said that there wasn’t enough parts, could quality release the quarantined parts, the answer was no because they are scrap. Therefore production would have to stop until the supplier could send in more parts.
The root cause being a lack of process and lack of training. The system is very good but relies on human element. If the information you put in is rubbish, you get rubbish out.
Hope that helps
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Below is my PhD research topic, I would like to know if it is appropriate?
"Environmental Management System and its impact on Carbon Trade."
Since I have a vast background in Public Policy and IT (SAP), what would make a topic appropriate enough to maximize the chances of a doctoral scholarship?
Regards,
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Hi Raja, The best topic for doctoral degree is the one that is not so broad and also not so narrow. You need to see if EMS and its impact on carbon trade is narrow enough so that you dont generalise the concepts (eg. maybe consider carbon trade between specific countries,...), but also be careful not to norrow it down too much so that you are able to investigate it within your PhD studies' duration. Best wishes.
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I need to calculate DCR (demand capacity ratios) for different members in an RCC building for progressive collapse under column removed condition. SAP 2000 software has been used for analysis. Under which load combination should the DCR values be calculated? Will DCR values be same for non-linear static and dynamic analyses?
Are the DCR values same as the PMM ratios that we get from SAP analysis results? Otherwise how to calculate the same?
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Hi Saptadwipa,
I would say create all the relevant load combinations (SAP also creates code based combination automatically) and create an envelop of them. DCR values should be picked from this envelope case.
No, PMM ratio and DCR are different things. PMM is just the interaction and is more to deal with the capacity of your beam-column element. DCR is simply demand/capacity. And yes, the results will be different for non-linear static and dynamic analysis.
Hope this helps,
Cheers,
Shivang
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Im a student at kings trying to write a dissertation on Gamification as it highly interests me. I wanted to understand if this is a good masters dissertation question and will resources be easily accessible for reasearch? I deally i look to target HR's of firms that have gamification like Microsoft, Deliotte, Google, Telus, Cisco, Engine Yards, SAP
Liveops, Freshdesk, Ford Motor company
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This is a good field. I have a suggestion what about adding a part of your dissertation for gamification with the special needs people?
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Dear all,
I would like to know if any of you have experience in dephosphorylation of proteins using Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase. I am currently buying lambda phosphatase, but since I had SAP in the lab I tried it and had nice results. But... What does these results actually mean?? That's the real question here!
SAP is supposed to dephosphorylate nucleic acids, but I am not sure if it also dephosphorylates proteins, and if it does, in which aminoacids (Tyr, Thr, Ser).
I'm working with a Ras-related protein, which could be bound to GDP or GTP, SAP could be dephosphorylating these molecules, but as far as I understand, in a reducing western blot they should be released from the protein, am I right?
Thanks all!
P.D.: the results are from a PhosTag gel.
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Why don't you contact the technical support staff of the SAP supplier? Your observation is very interesting but there could be other explanations -a contaminating protein phosphatase activity in the SAP preparation, for instance. Their CC people may not be assaying for them...
Hope it helps!
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Contents like Stiffness matrix method are conducive to programming. But which programming language is the best to analyse and solve the majority of structural problems in an efficient way ( not software like SAP but programming language)?
Regards.
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I am indeed very sorry, I just saw this question.
There are many scientific programming languages that can be used for structural analysis. I think the best and the simplest one is C++
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Is SAP system useful for fraud detection and prevention?
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SAP as ERP must be the basis for fraud detection and prevention. The master and transaction data in SAP must be evaluated by automated, process-integrated controls. These controls check conspicuous constellations (e.g. existence of an invoice without a corresponding purchase order or existence of an order without a corresponding purchase request). The findings are to be interpreted as anomalies that may or may not indicate a case of fraud. SAP offers its own software for this purpose. In my research, however, I use IDEA, Smart Exporter and CaseWare software to ensure compliance through automated, process-integrated controls.
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I am looking for materials relating to best practices in optimizing a government IT department reponsibile for Supply Chain funtions.
It maintains, enhances a huge SAP sytem; develops RFPs to develop new solutions (e.g., Digital Bank Guarantees); reviews RFP reponses; contracts consultants; purchases technology and supplies for all government offices; etc...
Any suggestions or references are appreciated.
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Nonlinear time history analysis
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Share me the answer please.. Following
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Can anyone please suggest me how to increase the storey drift beyond the permissible limits in SAP software
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Good question.. Please share me the best answer might you trust...
Regards…
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Suppose say i measured crack width and length on a column. I have a computer model of that column in SAP/ETABS. I want to put the crack property in that model.
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The CHBDC commentary recommends the following:
1- for cracked beams, reduce the stiffness by 65%
2- for columns, reduce the stiffness by 30%
What type of cracks are you considering?
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Suppose, that the IMF structural adjustment programs (SAPs) play a role in the external debt/growth nexus, what suitable proxy could one use in the model specification to represent the role of SAP on the debt/growth dynamics?.
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You might consider re-conceptualising your investigation. SAP attempted to downsize the state in Africa. However, that attempt was an excitation on a dynamical space - many interconnected and moving parts. So, before pondering a model, look at the calculus of dynamical spaces. You might find it prudent to do a case study instead.
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i would like to know if the SAP genes expression increased in the stationary phase of the Candida albicans growth curve (normally) as many others genes or its constant through the exponential and stationary phases,
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Dear Samaka
I hope you are well.
I really do not know it, because I never did any experiment and I never read anything in this way. However, Sap genes are differentially expressed considering the growth medium used, temperature, presence of exogenous proteins, and many other conditions.
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Infor Supply Chain Management ,Slingshot Enterprise Business Suite Software, Infor Cloud Suite Business, or SAP - Manufacturing Software, WISE Supply Chain Management Software
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Dear Dametew,
The choice of any software depends on the type of application you are doing. So, without the prior knowledge of the purpose of your work, no software can be best judged.
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Im about to know how a new technology especially IT can br accepted well or not by users, the case will be complex information system such as integrated system in multinational company which has super big data and features. I know TAM model is quite old model that can be used to measure the level of acceptance of users, but currently i need to know other references of acceptance model which focusing on the measurement of complex software (maybe SAP based) towards the acceptance of users. Thanks
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Good point
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We have a year old Super Absorbent Polymer and found that it has hardened into a rock hard clump. It takes over 20 minutes or more to absorb water.
Any idea what has caused this?
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Presumably, it initially absorbed the available atmospheric moisture (and swelled), which afterwards gradually evaporated over time (causing de-swelling), thereby leaving behind a polymer with destroyed porous properties. Hence the hardened rock hard clump.
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I`m currently a SAP Functional consultant, and my primary background (Bachelors) is Applied geophysics; so my technical IT skills is not very solid. Hope this will guide your information.
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Hi Ugo, when I started my PhD study I was told that it was more important to choose the right supervisor than the right topic. I tend to agree with that advice. Essentially, PhD research is a form of research training and a good suprevisor can help you a great deal through the process. Therefore, my suggestion is to talk to academics at your institution and see if some of their work attracts your interest. Meliha
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SAP absorb water from the concrete mixture which can affect the free water needed for workability of the mixture. Which test I can do to measure the water loss in concrete by SAP?
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Dear Gyorgy,
Thanks a lot for the references.
Sina
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Dear friends, I am writing my Master's Thesis on the digitization of the shop floor.
In the organization I am writing my thesis, the following method is followed.
During the pilot production of new engine model, the assembly data like the part name, part number, assembly sequence, material location on the assembly line, process time, tools used, consumables used, etc. are written down manually in a paper during the pilot production and then a person enters these data into the SAP Software. This method leads to a lot of strain and time consumption.
Hence I am planning to bring in an automated process for example a Barcode and Smartphone application for this purpose. The operator has to only scan the Barcodes and then assemble the part. the app records these assembly data from the first step to last part assembly with all the aforementioned assembly data and at the end of the assembly of the last part, the app compiles all the data in the sequential order and sends it to the SAP Software. this can significantly reduce the operator’s strain and time consumption essentially making the system paperless.
To go ahead with my thesis, I need to perform the state of the art research in order to justify my stand and also get a good perspective as to how this process is taken care by other manufacturers like Audi, BMW, Daimler, etc. Unfortunately, I am unable to find these details anywhere in the internet.
I would be really glad if you could help me with a source to collect these data.
Also of any other method that could perform this task easily.
Thanking you in advance.
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Dear Matthieu,
Thank you so much for the detailed reply and it really helped me a lot. kindly excuse me for my delayed gratitude.
Rohit.
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including cost of stability materials, blood money, assurance,...
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thank you Dr.Naveen
its so helpful and practical.
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Any person who is working on sap inoculation for GBNV in tomato.
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No problem sir. 
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I have a problem to define effective moment of inertia modifier for a beam reinforced with FRP.
has any one knows how to calculate this?
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hello dear friend
you can modeled a simple model in abaqus or ansys and other software and use the result show from them and use that results in your work.
compare the results and use the difference of them
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i want to assign the rockong component in a multy story building and i am doing it in a frame(2D),i am a little bit confused about the software becouse they tell me different things about the benefits of each one,i want to take an IDA analysis of my structure,is it possible in abaqus to do that?
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thanks a lot dear Mirko,is working with seismostruct as easy as working with sap?does seismostruct has any spacial ability or option?
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The person who had a good hand in Non linear dynamic time history analysis on SAP can Answer this question.See the attachment.
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Hello,
I hope you have found the answer to you problem, anyways i did the IDA in sap2000 which takes huge computational cost for 3d models. IDA in SAP2000, You can define your own nonlinearities or can apply the predefined ones on the software to your model. Then using different time histories (you can easily get from the PEER scaled according to your model time period) and input the time histories in sap2000. use the scale factor from peer file to scale the earthquake up or down according to your time period. and then perform the Direct integration timehistory analysis because other procedure will not consider hinges except pushover. Finally after geting the displacement you can get the result in excel and find drinft ratios for IDA curve (extracting data from sap2000 is quite hectic part because it does not give story drift directly you have to develop a program or do it manually)  . I hope it would  be helpful.
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I am attempting to ligate a (GGGGS)x4 linker into my construct. For this task, I have generated oligos that when annealed will create BspE1 overhangs that should ligate to my BspE1 cut vector. Since this is a singly cut vector, I SAP treat my vector and phosphorylate my primers with T4 PNK. I take about 1 uL of annealed oligos and ligate it to about 100 ng of my vector using T4 ligase (37 C for 1 hr). I transform 2 uL from the ligated mix into DH5a. 
My control plate (singly cut vector that has been dephosphorylated) shows little background (about 10 colonies). My insert plate has about 100 colonies. Presumably, the ligation was successful. But I picked 10 clones and did a diagnostic digest using BspE1 and not a single one contained the insert.
I am wondering since my linker is repetitive that I am getting hairpin structures that prevent the ligation. But, I am not certain. 
Any advice would be appreciated. This has been stumping me for weeks.
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I have no experience either but expect that dmso is quite inhibitory at high temperature and concentrations above 5% but betaine seems to allow polymerases to work at all concentrations and temperatures  so it seems worth a try. The hydrogen bonding is quite weak in quadruplexes so a ligase that works at high temperature might be sufficient.good luck,
paul
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In SAP  2000 in a analysis time history is the behavior of a link element that simulates the behavior of a force displacement of a hinge assumed when using the direct integration method?
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 Hellow  Ricardo José Simão
please check pdfs 
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I'm planning to investigate cell free circulating nucleic acids in phloem sap in higher plant species under different physiological states and\or stressful conditions. Sure, Arabidopsis thaliana looks like most suitable object for these purposes but I don't know at the moment any methods to get phloem sap from Arabidopsis plants.
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EDTA is a reasonably good method of qualitative profiling of phloem metabolites, but it is also prone to contamination of from burst cells and xylem sap. The EDTA prevents the rapid occlusion of phloem sieve plates that normally occurs upon cutting, but the mechanism is unknown.  Normally the cutting should be done with the tissue already immersed in EDTA solution - that wasn't clear in the Arabidopsis video.  All this could be avoided by using a plant that spontaneously exudes phloem sap upon cutting and for which there is no occlusion to begin with.  The best choice is Lupinus (spp). I recommend Lupinus albus or Lupinus angustifolius (but other Lupinus species work too).  Ricinus works as well, but you must be careful with those infamous toxins.  For these plants you can just make a shallow stem incision (pod tips work very well too) and the phloem flows for several minutes and you can get mL amounts from a few mature plants. The collection is from a live, uncompromised plant, and reflects real-time physiology.
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SAP with GIS,  is there any expert advice? Please share your knowledge
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Following articles could be useful:
Abou-Ghanem, Mostafa, and Khalid A. Arfaj. "SAP/GIS Integration Case Studies & Techniques." Saudi Aramco (2008): 1-12.
Chaudhuri, Somnath. "Application of Web-Based Geographical Information System (GIS) in E-Business." Handbook of Research on Promotional Strategies and Consumer Influence in the Service Sector (2016): 389.
Amouroux, J. M., & Leclerc, J. C. (2015, December). Taking Advantage of Web-GIS Technologies to Globally Manage Petroleum Asset Information. In International Petroleum Technology Conference. International Petroleum Technology Conference.
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Dear all
I am modelling a irregular plan building in sap2000. I want find the hysteresis behaviour in sap2000. I am very new this concept. So can any one tell how fo model it in sap and what r the steps to be fallowed.
Thank you
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I assume that you are using hinges for your building to represent the nonlinear behavior. When you run the non-linear time history analysis with direct integration, please go to "hinge results", you can obtain the hysteresis behavior of each hinge.
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Can we model masonry walls (Finite Element Modelling of brick,mortar and interface) in SAP 2000?
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Hello, Seyed said that the wall will be a link element. What if i model a bridge or dome ? Its very irregular shape. is it possible to use macro model in SAP2000 ? 
What if i use nonlinear links at each connection point ? In this way, I think that i can model bricks/stones as linear elements but mortar as nonlinear element(Since I will not model the mortar explicitly, it will be a simplified micro model). However, which cyclic model or material model can model the behavior of mortar ? Does anyone know ? 
Have someone carried out such analysis in SAP2000?
Any help will be great.
Thanks a lot.
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I have graduate students studying internal curing and would like to test SAP as one of the possible carriers. We have been researching but could not find a supplier.
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Dear Dr. Chidiac:
  i'm a reseacher on internal curing,too. Scince long, I have been puzzled by the sap as water carrier for internal curing. According to Mr Jensen and Hansen' model, the entrained-water calculated by their eqution doesn't equal to the amount that the sap carries. Because when water comes out of sap, the sap particle will  collapse, which causes new space. Wish i can have a discussion with you and your student.
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Hi all,
I can import an .s2k file to an existing model using Sap2000 GUI program using File>Import options.
But I am unable to find function to do this in through SAP OAPI.
I basically want to import a superstructure to substructure programmatically to automate my modelling through Sap Oapi.
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
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I am pondering about the criticallity of the transaction BD87 as a singular transaction. In combination with WE19 you have the possibility to reprocess and resend successfull IDOCs, enabling fraud risk of false invoices. But what about using the BD87 alone. What security risks could arise?
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
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I am working on an AI approach to enterprise applications transformation and need to read case studies of ERP implementation. I know there is the paper "NIBCO's big bang" Brown, Carol V and Vessey, Iris CAIS Vol 5 Issue  Jan 2001.
Any others out there?
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Not sure what you're looking for, but most of the case studies profile failures.  The few that promote success represent a filtered view of the events. I can only speak from personal experience with 5 separate vendors spanning 7 separate ERP implementations that most of the challenges stem from poor planning and/or poor business requirements. The most popular success stories are typically the "vanilla" installs where the C-Level have mandated no customizations (only configurations are allowed). 
What might be useful to study are the measures used within the lifecycles (project, portfolio, system, customer, product, employee) and the that are used to manage the significant flows (cash, material, shared services, data & information) across the organization and value chain(s).
A first step might involve defining a Measures Metamodel and linking that to a Business Architecture Metamodel (which is actually being developed now) and then aligning measures across the organization covering the key lifecycles and flows. This is a bit more involved than the simplistic use of financial metrics like ROI, IRR, etc.
The next step would involve aligning the disciplines between Business Architecture & Information Architecture to perform the necessary mappings and modeling to guide AI efforts. This is where a few organizations are trying to bring a new level of maturity to their information architecture by formalizing their data modeling (introducing ontologies, taxonomies, semantic alignment, etc.). Where possible, ontological mappings are being used to align data, information and integration patterns to enable a more flexible and adaptable AI (integration of data & processes). This also lays the foundation for supporting deep analytics and big data.
I can talk at length on these matters if these are helpful, but this may exceed the budget for your initiative, originally geared around the review of existing ERP case studies. 
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Naive Bayes Classifier seems to be the most common classification technique used in much of the literature abound, does anyone have any suggestions as to other techniques that may be feasible? Any research with empirical results showing these other techniques have been successfully implemented? General thoughts and perceptions of Educational Data Mining for prediction of Students Academic Performance?
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Don't forget to include the attribute generally considered by lecturers to be the most effective predictor in your dataset:
The likelyhood of a student progressing / passing is inversely proportion to the distance (given a free choice) the student chooses to sit from the lecturer in the lecture theatre :)
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Plate or shell elements usually take the bending stiffness into account. Effect of horizontal steel is incorporated using layering technique. Is there any standard package plate/Shell element that includes the stiffness contribution from transverse stirrups? Or can anyone suggest how that effect can be accommodated in plate/shell elements?
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That is really a challenge!! I think it does not exist a plate/shell element with the effect of transverse stirrup (I know many researches are working to find a way to include stirrups in fiber-beam based elements). I suppose it could be included only at the material level (concrete law) by using a classical confinment rule such the one proposed by Mander. Or, on the other side, to create a solid/brick model with embedded reinforcement.
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I'm checking the seismic capacity of a concrete frame structure by providing crossed braces with pinned release so for this purpose is it necessary to define the material properties and assign it to braces or does it just carry axial load so there is no need for defining and assigning the properties?   
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Of course you need their properties, unless you are doing a rigid diaphragm bracing, then no need, but if you were to do so, you would not be drawing any braces.
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What is the depth of sapwood in Populus tremuloides, needed to calculate a sap flux density from a sap volume?
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I think you have to measure it, not sure if an estimative would be possible.
To determine, drill a small hole and put some dye on (safranine 0,1% or acid fucsin works great). Keep the hole filled with dye for at least some hours (24h). After that, core a sample with an increment borer and measure the stained region depth.
ICT (http://au.ictinternational.com/) recomends to get a core and dye with methyl-orange. This would stain sapwood. I haven´t tested this method.
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I´m interested in testing correlation between wood anatomical traits and a differences in ionic concentration. What´s the most reliable method? What special equipments will I need? Any non-destructive method?
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First you must extract the sap from the stems and I don´t know of any non-destructive method. The best way to extract sap is vaccum extraction- Scholander et al. (1966) used "an automobile tire pump with reversed piston valve" to extract xylem sap in the field, which is handy if no electricity is available. Otherwise, you can cut the stems (ideally, about 50 cm long), pack them in plastic bags, place them in cooler and extract its sap using  a vacuum pump. You can store the extracted sap until you analyze its ionic concentration by means of HPLC (the best) or other analytical methods. See attached publications.
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There are many commercial FEM software for micro analysis. Is micro analysis of infilled RC frame possible in SAP 2000? Mainly, analysis of the frame infill interface interaction and different failure mode of one story one bay panel. Up to what  level does SAP 2000 works in case of infilled RC frame? Is there any research on infilled frame in micro  level using SAP 2000? Please help me.
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You can refer to the research paper: Goutam Mondal and Sudhir K. Jain (2008) Lateral Stiffness of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frames with Central Opening. Earthquake Spectra: August 2008, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 701-723.
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I want to model the moving mass (not vehicle) in sap 2000, Can anyone help me?
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Hello Houman,
A moving load can be modeled in SAP2000 as follows:
1. Define a load case for each load location and name each load case according to the loading sequence.
2. For each load case apply a point load in the corresponding location.
3. Define a single time-history function, which will represent the loading sequence.
4. Define a time-history analysis case.
5. Add each load case to the Loads Applied section and specify the impulse function, scale factor, and arrival time.
Additional information can be found here: https://wiki.csiamerica.com/display/tp/Human-induced+vibrations
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I was searching about Business process management system. I found many companies use SAP as ERP. Is it a part of BPM?
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SAP solutions contain a BPM system that covers the entire enterprise system, automated, semi-automated and non-automated tasks.
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I'm trying to perform SAP for a particular SNP using usual Taq pol (not hifid) and primers designed using WASP (http://bioinfo.biotec.or.th/WASP); as suggested by the authors (Bui and Liu). But I'm facing problems regarding the amplification of the PCR product when Fm (Forward mutant) or Fw (Forward wild type) and Rc (Reverse common). That is it doesn't amplify. I'm using FcRc PCR product as template.
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I had been using a similar technique for SNPs called tetra-primer ARMS for distinguishing two SNP alleles in a single PCR reaction (using four primers), due to the allele-specific size of the PCR products. Like SAP, to prevent unspecific ligation, there was a mismatch in the SNP-specific primers upstream of the SNP nucleotide, and for this reason the ratio of SNP-specific to common primers was something like 10:1. So, I am wondering whether an increase in the allele-specific primers (forward in your case) can solve the problem. Otherwise, reducing the annealing temperature or changing the MgCl2 concentration may do the trick. 
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I am doing nonlinear time history analysis in SAP using default hinges. Whenever I am using low peak ground acceleration, the program runs. When I use higher PGA and the collapse of members start then the analysis does not run.
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Try to use LS-DYNA or ABAQUS Explicit Solver.
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Obviously there is option of inserting wall in between frames where even the properties can be modified. But can this option give the perfect result? Since masonry wall is the combination of brick and mortar is there any option in Sap 2000 taking them in count?
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Sir , On E-tabs, By defining this material properties Mass per unit Volume , weight per unit volume , Modules of elasticity , Poisson's ratio may be worked. Material is orthotropic due to temperature variation of inner and outer walls.