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Rural Sociology - Science topic

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Could be used as a theoretical tool for understanding the alternative economic networks?
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I agree with Jutta, the term embeddedness is overused. Particularly, when it ends up meaning that individual people have a high number of connections. For Polanyi embeddedness implied social modes of coordination based on principles and patterns structurally different from market exchanges.
I think Granovetters' embeddedness can be measured at the level of the ego network (number of ties each one has). The Embeddedness by Polanyi is instead impis instead implyinglies different structural configurations and must be measured at the level of the entire network.
I enclose my paper that uses SNA to measure Polanyi's embeddedness in Vietnam.
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 Socio-economic status scale for rural areas
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Great work ,
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Do you know any ethnographies of conditional cash transfers? I am especially interested in those that go beyond assessing impact on the basis of interviews and lay out how CCTs interrelate with other aspects of local lives. Studies of rural communities are especially welcome.
And for those interested in CCTs and rural communities in Latin America: please see a call for papers (attached).
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Interesting discussion do economists make markets. Provide few links if available.
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Interesting question, but well documented in development theory and practice. Gender is powerful when it relates to participation,  management and society. Gender sensitivity (female) is one of the factors that contributes to divides in the world. Acceptance of any intervention through female members in a rural household means a lot and this has been well recognized in MDGs, and WSIS frameworks.  
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My question:
– Do you know of any research concerning possible uses of drones for regional development?
I am looking for research conerning transport, health, culture, recreation, service.
In relation to regional development, political issues, case studies, explorative research...
Thanks in advance!
Best regards,
Carlos Viktorsson
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Dear Harshvardhan and Nirmala.
Thank you so very much for your suggested resources with links and useful recomendations! Will come much in handy.
Thank you!
Kindest regards,
Carlos
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I need to find a scale to measure self-reported urban vs. rural classification of my respondents - being a psychological variable, rather than a spatial or a locational one. In other words, whether they perceive themselves being a part of urban or rural community. 
This is simplified as my research will adopt basic urban/rural classification based on population: Rural areas = small towns with less than 50K inhabitants and urban areas = anything above.
If you have any specific academic pieces in mind, I would hugely appreciate them, because I`m struggling to find adequate measure.
Thank you in advance!
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I am particularly interested in the rate of change of persons with SU in rural and urban areas when compared.
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Thank you Stephen! These articles are extremely helpful.
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Myself and my colleague, Dr Rob Smith are currently engaged in work on Illegal forms of farm diversification.
We seek stories and examples from colleagues who may have encountered such activities in their work. We have just published a paper on this theme (attached).
Any ideas for collaboration?
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Can some one clarify the concepts and constructs of Illegal forms of farm diversification?
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Many factors contribute to behavioural intention towards using mobile banking service in rural areas . The variables are mostly based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model  . But are there other any models/ theories related to innovation or motivation or social cognitive aspects to support research in this area? 
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I am preparing a course in Territorial Rural Development for the University of Pretoria. I have never been in South Africa, so for me this is a huge challenge. So I would like to get in touch with academics and public officers working in rural territorial (sub-national) contexts. I would appreciate any suggestions and would like to get in touch personally when visiting the country in February-April 2016. Thanks.
Luis Llambí, PhD in Rural Sociology, profesor and researcher, retired from the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research, Department of Social Anthropology, Chair of the Research Group on Rural Territorial Development 
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Inequality is a social construction. It has to do with gender, age, education and local of residence.
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My research is focused on the public space in the intravilan of the countryside. Its topic is the phenomenon of rurality, the rural character as a value associated with the form of environment of rural settlements.
The objective is to find, evaluate and describe the basic attributes and relations in space which co-create rurality, and to do it in such a way so that these findings could eventually be used in practice - e. g. in the intravilan's public space design in order to strengthen the rural features of the environment.
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I have published a paper on the conservation of New Gourna Village in Egypt, which has been designed by the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy, as well as another paper on the sustainable conservation of a traditional living community in the USA which is Taos Pueblo. I think both properties can be considered examples of rural settlements that might be relevant to your work. Through these two papers I discussed an approach to analyze the heritage values that these properties might enjoy and how to evaluate their authenticity. I hope that these two papers might be relevant to your work.
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Roles played by individuals vary based on gender and other factors. 
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The systems thinking approach is can be used to measure the activity profile of rural dwellers. Systems thinking is a way to conceptualize and act towards the integration of social, environmental and economic dimensions of sustainability. This supports communities to address the challenges of improving both human and ecosystem well-being. 
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In their website on palm oil, Solidaridad provides the following estimate: smallholders are responsible for 40% of total palm oil production. I would like to know how accurate might be that figure. I am interested in estimates at local, regional and global level. 
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Hi Antonio,
Many thanks for your message. I will look at the aforementioned scholarship as soon as I get the chance.
Kind regards,
David
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 What are the basic techniques used to convenience the marginal people to adopt a cost involving technology which will enhance their agriculture production and livelihoods ?. I need information on the marketing or outreach strategies for the implementation of mobile or tablet based technology in rural areas,
Case studies on different Mobile and Tab based technologies for agriculture and rural development, its implementation techniques can also be shared.
Thank you
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Dearest Kiran,
                                   there is something i call the triangle of benefits. First State how this technology will improve these marginal farmers productivity and income by using the technology: for example having access to this technology will increase your exposure to buyers on time and there by increase demand for your already unharvested produce. So if you are able to ascertain income level as a result of lack of markets and low competition, then you can say this technology can increase your income by 120% since wastage or spoilage of farm produce will be a history, and you can get more contract production having access to whole range of buyers and good extension. Also with the technology, farmers will get access to training facilities, link to institutions/NGOs who are ready to work with farmers and this can say, increase productivity by 80%. So at the end, the use of the technology will increase farmers income by more than 300% and improve their quality of life which which can not be quantify monetarily, this should be enough to justify investment in such technology. 
the other benefit is how will such technology benefit your community? e.g farmers can access programs which is specifically designed for them and their children for further education (scholarships for training programs, short course and schools) which in the end will enlighten the community.
The Other is How will it benefit the Nation and the world at large? Others will copy their examples because they will be a living proof which in the end will boost the GDP of the Nation and people may travel from other world to come and study their examples bringing foreign investment to their borders. etc
Banson
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I'm looking for data on people moving in and out of Miyagi prefecture,and Ishinomaki City in particular, before and after the Tohoku disaster of March 2011. I want to find out who is migrating into Miyagi and Ishinomaki, and why. Where to find raw numbers would be good, plus any published research on the issue would be very helpful, thanks.
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Hello Peter
In addition to the databases suggested I would recommend revising:
"Predicting Future Migration Destinations from Natural Disasters: the Great East Japan Earthquake" (Hauer, Holloway & Oda). At: http://paa2015.princeton.edu/uploads/150102
Best wishes
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There are many different arrangements for delivery of agricultural extension services currently in place in different countries (i.e., public, private, contract, pluralistic extension system ). At first, please share how you evaluate the effectiveness of the system in the 21st century, generally speaking. I am curious to know also how do you see the trend towards the governance of the system. Is it towards private type delivery and funding systems? How do you see the future of the system in your country?
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Dear Mr. Hashemi
Salam
I suggest you have a look to me and Dr. Shahpasand's  country report in the recent Philippines workshop.
Regards
Peyman Falsafi
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In our study, we are developing a combined heat and power system with microgrid interfacing. It will be interesting to learn from researchers in Africa, India, China, Brazil, Mexico, etc. how off-grid microgrid technology are commercialised to the benefit of the community it serves. 
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Our contemporary utility matrix has for the most part evolved in designed isolation.  The problem here is that\ this creates silos of activity which miss the benefit of collaborative economic efficiencies in capital cost and operating cost.  Utility convergence is a trend and a necessity to achieve sustainable communities.  I would argue that waste to energy resource utilization is a critical component of this missed resource opportunity.  I am working on integrated distributed sustainable technology clusters at this time.  The evolving distributed satellite infrastructure concept will provide better resiliency, higher efficiency, dramatic reductions in ecological impact and a higher quality of life then contemporary centralized fragmented utility approaches.   The models do unfortunately require urban density demographics to achieve economic sustainability.
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I am looking at the opposite side of the norm of an aging rural population in particularly oil towns (Ft. MacMurray was one) where young people move to rural areas for work. I am wondering if there is a difference in how they are used to accessing health care in their "home" community (usually urban) and if this creates any access barriers when they move to a smaller centre.
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Hi Mary, 
No doubt your work sounds interesting. May I point out something simple regarding it suggest a few materials for you, i.e. if you do not have them already. My feeling is that, your work fits into the general urban-rural migration opus. Thus I suggest a few recent materials in the area to help you ground your work in the extant studies.
*Stockdale, A., & Catney, G. (2014). A life course perspective on urban–rural migration: the importance of the local context. Population, Space and Place, 20(1), 83-98.
Rérat, P. (2014). Highly qualified rural youth: why do young graduates return to their home region?. Children's Geographies, 12(1), 70-86.
Ango, A. K., Ibrahim, S. A., & AA, Y. (2014). Impact of youth rural-urban migration on household economy and crop production: A case study of Sokoto metropolitan areas, Sokoto State, North-Western Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 6(4).
Gray, D., Chau, S., Huerta, T., & Frankish, J. (2011). Urban-Rural Migration and Health and Quality of Life in Homeless People. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 20(1-2), 75-93.
All the best.
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Virtually all publications claiming that rural clinical schools CAUSE medical students to choose a rural career are written by and also usually refereed by employees of rural clinical schools. This conflict of interest is rarely if ever acknowledged. There is a lot of literature questioning the evidence for the claim of causality, yet papers continue to be published that rely purely on association, lacking the methodological rigour necessary for causal inference.
What needs to be proven is that the RCS causes an increase in rural career uptake.  It seems far more likely that students who CHOOSE a long attachment with an RCS rather than join the Hurley Burley of self promotion in the major teaching hospitals, have already decided on a rural career. They use the RCS to test, reinforce and educate this choice. I have not found a paper that has shown that there is a significant additional causal effect of the RCS on rural career choice.
Can anyone point me to the papers...
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Thank you for these suggestions, Ines.
My argument is that while graduates of rural medical schools are more likely to choose a rural career, this intention predates their attendance at the medical school. In fact, they choose extended rural medical experience in order to prepare themselves for the rural career that they have already chosen. I agree with Samantha that Rural Clinical Schools do play an important role in increasing the health care capability of the community in which they are based, but I can find no evidence that attending a rural medical school independently increases rural career choice. All four papers that you suggest are consistent with this.
Rabinowitz is a classical case for my argument. He reports on retrospective cohort studies. Incorrectly, he suggests that the rural medical school programs show causal inference of increased rural career choice. He admits that "the two most powerful factors in predicting rural practice are growing up in a rural area and entering medical school with plans to become a family physician (both of which are known about students at the time of medical school admission)" In fact, he admits that all of the programs he studied have a selection process based on these. He rightly calls for a selection of such students into medical schools as a solution to the rural workforce shortage.
Laven reviews rural background and not the effectiveness of RCS over and above that.
Brooks did not find a strong independent influence of rural medical schools. He did find that "Pre-medical school factors such as rural upbringing and specialty preference were most strongly correlated with recruitment of physicians to rural areas. Training factors such as commitment to rural curricula and rotations, particularly during residency, were most strongly correlated with retention in rural areas."
Pathman found that "Extended medical school rural rotations predicted only greater preparedness for rural practice" and did not independently increase retention. In fact, he found that only preparedness for small town living contributed to retention. He did not look at rural recruitment.
So, while I agree that rural clinical schools play an important part in preparing students for a rural career, the observed increased rural career uptake may not be related to that experience. This emphasises the critical importance of selecting the right students for these programs, and have developed the SOMERS Index as a tool to aid this process.
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What insights can be drawn from the rural non-farm economy literature?
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In the U.S., more farmers now work of the farm. Also, since rural areas are typically endowed with large amount of primary resources, promoting growth in the value-added industry (especially agricultural value-added industry) could introduce more and diverse sources of income for farm and rural households. The ethanol and tourism industries are two key examples.
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I am interested in the impact that rituals have on the cohesion of fishery-dependent communities and their sustainable development. I am looking into communities that have religious backgrounds related to the sea (Japan) and communities that have "lost" their spiritual connection to the sea (Greece). How important do you think those rituals are? Which rituals should be taken into consideration? Is it possible that the fact that EU policies demand the destruction of fishing boats (handcrafted pieces of art) has affected the relationship of Greek fishermen with the sea?
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What we are really seeing is a modern reinactment of the "fencing of the commons" as small rural fishing communities are driven out by "big business" and falling quotas - in the same way that rural agricultural communities were changed by loss of small scale communal crop production - with a loss of harvest festivals and the like. As a possible example, I suspect that the World Bank instigated changes in Sri Lanka that saw the loss of local rice production has devastated the communities that once grew rice locally. Not sure if that has been documented.
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Conducting preliminary research on North-South (NGO) partnership with a focus on environmental conflict, (desertification, GMO, land deprivation)
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You might look into the interactions between NGOs and public agencies that are well documented in the recent FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) relicencing of hydroelectric power plants in California since 2005. These efforts provide great opportunities for NGO's to work together amongst themselves and with govenmental agencies at local, state and federal levels. Here are 4 examples: http://www.foothillswaternetwork.org/relicensing/index.php
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I want to know the difference between local and indigenous knowledge.
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Local knowledge is everywhere, it is why even in research institutions we need mentors to help us be successful researchers. Local knowledge comes out of our daily practices and is specific to a place and time and is not generalizable over space and time. Every commercial farmer in the U.S. uses local knowledge but not indigenous knowledge. I think that Jack Kloppenberg gives a good definition of local knowledge based on Latour's typology in his 1991 Rural Sociology article "Social theory: Re/de-constructing agricultural science.
Indigenous knowledge is a subset of local knowledge which is also based on practices and is specific to a place but it is the result of the sustained interaction of indigenous people with an environment over generations. The references above are as good a place as any to start.
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As extension has become privatized it increasingly has involved a cost to farmers. This means that information that a farmer once gained free of charge is now obtained by paying for it. My thoughts are that farmers will be increasingly likely to become information withholders, and that this will have an impact on the adoption of innovations. This will be especially important when the effective provision of information about the innovation is a necessary precursor to adoption.
I’m also thinking that information withholding will be more likely in individualistic societies such as Australia and the US and less likely in collectivist countries such as Indonesia.
I’m also wondering if information withholding is associated with more intensive agriculture and whether information sharing is more likely in extensive agriculture.
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Dear Geoff, I agree with Bettina that agricultural innovation systems literature is usefull. Also work by Paul Engel on Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems may be relevant for you. Some other references that you may want to explore are:
Llewellyn, R.S., 2007. Information quality and effectiveness for more rapid adoption decisions by farmers. Field Crops Research 104, 148-156.
Veisi, H., 2012. Exploring the determinants of adoption behaviour of clean technologies in agriculture: A case of integrated pest management. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 20, 67-82.
Spielman, D.J., Davis, K., Negash, M., Ayele, G., 2011. Rural innovation systems and networks: Findings from a study of ethiopian smallholders. Agriculture and Human Values 28, 195-212.
Horna, J.D., Smale, M., von Oppen, M., 2007. Farmer willingness to pay for seed-related information: Rice varieties in nigeria and benin. Environment and Development Economics 12, 799-825.
Good luck!
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Looking for studies that link economic development with the accessability of remote communities. In particular, I'm interested in very small island communities, but similar concepts might apply to other remote areas.
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Thank you very much, I'll have a look at this! Just turning in after a day of interviews on a small Scottish island!
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Preferably in the field of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology
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Yes David Pannell is correct. Agricultural Economics, Food Policy, AJARE (Aus Jou of ag and Res Eco), Journal of Agricultural economics, Journal of Applied Economics and Perspectives in Policy (AEPP formerly Review of Agricultural Economics) are some of the journals one can try. World Development, Journal of Development Economics and Journal of Development Studies also frequently publish articles related to ag and do not charge submission fee. JDE may charge a submission fee but can be waived for a good paper by developing country researchers.
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Semi-subsistance = the production of food on own land for own comsumption
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I would rather go for the interpretation of Immanuel Wallerstein who sees subsistence-related activities as a necessary compliment of capitalist development - in history, that is the 19th century, as in today's third-world-countries. So, if the "semi-subsistence" is more that a hobby (as "urban gardening" and so on), it could be linked closely to capitalist production and its flaws.