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Rural Livelihoods - Science topic

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In the context of urban and rural development, how would you describe a smart city? What is the vision? What are the defining characteristics? What makes a city smart?
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A smart city is well organized with local and regional experts, with local society, has a balance between density, green spaces and air circulation and have a god relation with politicians and staff and all have knowledge and expertise on time level.
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Thank you all participate in the response
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Livelihood and source of income are different economic categories.
Livelihood - material and spiritual values, consumer goods and services, things, items necessary for the existence of people, creating conditions for existence.
Source of income - economic benefit in cash or in kind, bringing a person for his activities.
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I am a Master's Student who specialized in development economics (especially rural development), now I am eager to publish my thesis in an academic journal. The topic is about determinants of vulnerability and roles of livelihood assets, so at this time, I would like to ask what kind of journal (paper) is more suitable? if possible, I would like to publish a high rank in terms of impact factors. thank you in advance.
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Since, TOFs are important natural resources that contribute significantly tothe national biomass and carbon stocks and also to the livelihood of people in many regions of the world.
Dear researchers,
Please recommend some of the best species with the facts and stats...
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I am looking for some theories which can be used to explain timber extraction, enviromental degradation, deforestation and livelihoods.
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Following.
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If so, what studies have been done of this nature? I am researching local food systems and how the contribute to the livelihoods of producers in the UK and West Africa; two contrasting contexts of food production and distribution.
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After five years, how do you see the question?
When we draw in the calculus of dynamical systems, the difference between Africa and Europe is the complexity of the former. Africa is strongly non-ergodic:
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Sometimes it isn't easy to find a good place to get a membership so as to exchange our knowledge, or sometimes some online trusted organizations inquire too much money just to get an annual membership, so I would love to get a membership in a Horticulture organisation. Thanks for your kind cooperation!
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YOU CAN TRY ISHS
International Society for Horticultural Science.
https://www.ishs.org/Y1990 when I was a grad. student in Oregon State University. Y
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I want to analysed the diversified livelihood of the rural people in the mountainous areas. can i used the capitals approach for this study. 
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there are different livelihood appraoches (UNDP, Oxfam, DFID), which differ slightly from each other. They are all suitable to design a research project. Best is to define indicators to measure the different livelihood capitals.....
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how sustainable rural livelihood can be applied on aquaculture
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Greetings
Global aquaculture production has grown rapidly and is now among the fastest growing
food production sectors in many countries, and contributs to food security, poverty alleviation and socioeconomic development.
Of all the global food production systems, aquaculture is widely perceived as an important weapon in the global fight against poverty and hunger. Aquaculture production, especially pond aquaculture may be a dependable source of obtaining increased fish production in order to supply and feed the ever increasing population of the world
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One of the challenges to reduce size of extensive paddocks (>500 ha) in Paraguay is the high costs of fencing and the need to cut hard wood from forest islets to construct conventional fencing, which leads to deforestation of native woodlands. Cattle ranchers need fencing to protect wetlands (as required by law), or to assure a better use of native grasslands, in rotational schemes. One option in literature is to establish live fences, however this is not easy when the cattle is actively grazing and paddocks cannot be abandoned for 3-5 years. This points to the need of a non-edible tree species that can grow despite current active grazing. What we're looking for is to test different species in a particular productive setting. Any help, articles, or experiences of particular species would be greatly appreciated. We are mostly focused in Tropical and Subtropical areas. 
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 Hi
I am from Sri Lanka, farmers of my country use several species as live tree fences and I am sending some research works regarding that. I think that will also be useful for your need  
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In my professional work I am thinking to design a market based livelihood alternative program for forest dependent communities in rural areas of Nepal where we have to ensure equitable benefit sharing as a major expected outcome. I would like to know any evidence based research that mentions in what conditions and context market could be responsible and accountable for  pro-poor and gender responsive outcomes?
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  I am sending some research papers herewith that may be useful for ur needs 
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Do you know any ethnographies of conditional cash transfers? I am especially interested in those that go beyond assessing impact on the basis of interviews and lay out how CCTs interrelate with other aspects of local lives. Studies of rural communities are especially welcome.
And for those interested in CCTs and rural communities in Latin America: please see a call for papers (attached).
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Interesting discussion do economists make markets. Provide few links if available.
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High-tech innovations are generally less useful to resource poor farmer in developing countries where poverty and vulnerability is more severe. Integration (hybridization of technologies) of new knowledge and existing knowledge is more useful in such areas. How can we speed-up integration of new learning for the betterment of rural livelihood? I am very interested to know your experiences.
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A prerequisite to learning entails following:
1. Thoroughly understanding our group of learners-which means their needs, their characteristics, the uniqueness of their situation including their geographical location, culture, traditions and lifestyle.
2. Recognizing each group of learners as a 'Distinct group'.
3. Inspite of whatever situation they may be in, they are autonomous, independent and self-directed individuals.
4. The approach to learning ought to be problem centered, goal and relevance oriented.
5. Our rural learners have a wealth of knowledge or 'ethno-knowledge' or 'indigenous knowledge' which while doing any program on rural livelihoods has to be raveled out, recognized and respected.
6. Our learners may be resistant to change, resist innovation but their participation right from the stage of planning of learning till its last stage of evaluation can break their resistance and make them active participants in the process of change.
7. The whole process has to be participatory in nature.
8. Use of traditional medias, folk medias can go a long way in achieving the desired goals.
9. Finally use of success stories, case studies, visits, meetings where innovative livelihood programs have been successful, boosts the morale of our rural clients helping in integration of new learning.
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In many rural areas of "developing countries" small scale agriculturalists (farmers/fishers/herders/...) see the necessity for (financial) investments, they have the capacities (social & human capital like social networks or (traditional) local knowledge) but often not the access to the financial sector to maintain or adapt their practices & lifestyle to changes. I am interested in ways how this gap has been bridged successfully in terms of improving the life of the people (as they desired) while keeping/improving the "natural capital" as well, so increasing the resilience in several dimensions.
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Thank you very much already for the answers! maybe we can keep filling this thread if we find something new. I came across this "database of financial and technical support for inclusive businesses" and thought  it might also be useful to some of you:) http://www.inclusivebusinesshub.org/page/data-of-financial-and-technical-support-for-inclusive-businesses
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I am currently working on the impacts of flooding on food security in an agricultural community. I want to know the methods (if possible equations) that have been used to measure food insecurity as well as vulnerability in other agrarian communities at household level. Thank you.
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The availability and access to food to the family in terms of
a) quantity of food or adequacy
b) quality-nutritional aspect and
c) availability at different time periods
together determine the food security aspect. 
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 To Know the Contribution of wetlands in terms of GDP, I am interested to know the impact of wetlands on livelihood of peoples.                                                 
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To evaluate social and economic benefits of a wetland in Laos, I conducted semi-structured interviews with villagers living around the wetland. We asked them where they fished, how often, kg fish caught per day/week, fish species and price at market, fish use in terms of consumption, processing, drying, giving away etc. We also determined the relative value of fishing compared to other enterprises for income, labour and consumption. We will survey again after a fishway has been operating for a few years to bring fish back to the wetland from the Mekong River.
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I am interested in learning about empirical work that analyzes what happens to rural livelihoods in developing countries when private firms invest in the creation and expansion of tree-plantations. 
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Dear Krister, pleased to provide a bit more information relevant to your questions:
The 'Service Centre for Modern Science and Technology for Forestry', Lin'an, Zhejiang, PR China (www.hzbamboo.net), runs a successful cooperative for Lin'an farmers, which is well recognised in China. I visited there in 2012 and know the director. I understand (will need to confirm)  that households in coop have increased incomes to about 100 000 RMB p.a. by means of bamboo products (e.g. bamboo shoots) and carbon credits from bamboo plantations. This is all via the‘China Green Carbon Trade Fund (CGCTF)’ under control of Forest Bureau.
One of our book co-authors, from Renmin University Beijing, states that farmers in Lin'an gained an annual per capita income of US$2321 in 2007, while the average rural farmer's income was less than US$700 per capita during same period. Bamboo forest management is an important income source for farmers, and the Zhejiang bamboo industry achieved an output value of up to US$4.2 billion in 2009.
However, my contact also points out that most carbon finance projects are characterised by high operating risk. She argues that without support of a company with adequate financial strength and wide market experience, farmers have great difficulty in bearing such high risks, and it is even more difficult for famers in low-income communities. She argues that the government should be more actively involved in forestry carbon sequestration projects and employ its financial strength to bear part of project operational risks.
You may wish to consult book (Chapters 3, 4 especially), but I should be pleased to discuss further. It is very important topic for rural development and can supplement and diversify rural incomes, if all the barriers can be overcome.
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I'm studying motivation as an element in the venture of rural women. As divided by some authors we have three dimensions of motivation "Intrinsic, Goal, and Extrinsic". 
Extrinsic is the situation (displacement by Shapero) that people have to start the business like unemployment, job dissatisfaction, etc.
Goal is what people want to archieve by starting the business. and finally intrinsic motivation help nacent entrepreneur to keep on until they start and it helps business manager to not give up.
Where should I use the GEM approach? "NECESSITY vs OPPORTUNITY - are they goal or displacement?
Thanks.
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At individual level, in GEM database you can find questions related to motivation and values. Check for details: http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/2594
You can see in 2k1 and in 2k2 two questions that I think it could be interesting to you. Also, maybe i.6 and i.7 could be useful. Check the file and good luck!
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It is observed that rural businesses are less innovative than those of urban. Apart from variation in location, how can we distinguish variation of rural and urban entrepreneurship?
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I believe that entrepreneurship is quite heterogeneous and this is also the case for rural and urban areas. Thus, it is difficult to make categorical statements about  which of these rather broad types of territories are more conducive to innovation. We find in major urban areas significant sub-areas or neighborhoods where nothing much in term,s of innovation takes place, and the same is true in rural areas.
One of the most complicating factors is the fact that there are so-called rural areas within the urban spheres of influence so that entrepreneurs in some rural areas can take advantage of what the nearby urban agglomeration has to offer. Similarly, we find that there are many urban areas/cities where little in the way of economic development takes place, and while the local cultures may not lead to much innovative behavior, it may also be that other factors make it more difficult for entrepreneurs to engage in innovative behavior.
Finally, some of the most innovative environments are not associated with economic growth but rather economic development. And at the level of financing innovative entrepreneurial ventures, some rural territories can be as innovative as many of the urban territories.
We should perhaps stop talking about differences between rural and urban when it is obvious there is so much heterogeneity in each category.
Chris Bryant
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I am working on the issue of livelihood diversification of farm households in rural Assam. A preliminary field visit shows that farm households, in most of the cases, are engaged in other non-farm activities besides farming. While measuring incomes earned via daily wage employment is straightforward, how should I measure incomes earned via self employed activities like petty trading, rickshaw pulling etc.
Please advice if there is an appropriate method.
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I would look for how surveys in your area have asked this question.  My experience is in a very different context (Zambia) but may be helpful.  If you go to http://fsg.afre.msu.edu/zambia/survey.htm and download the questionnaire for the 2012 RALS survey - page 34 shows how the enumerators asked each household what informal business activities they were involved in. The next page asks them about how that activity varies over the seasons and ends up by asking how much is earned on a busy month and on a slow month.  With that information you should be able to estimate annual income from each activity and it is not too tiresome for the respondent (as it might be if you asked them to try to remember how much they earned for each activity, each month for the past year). 
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There's data showing that in the USA, the happiness gradient increases as people live further out - in the rural areas (Okulicz-Kozaryn & Berry, 2011). Having said this, the happiness of Americans is also known to plateau at a certain wealth level, and it seems that there's some sort of correlation between urban wealth and happiness - to a point, which then reverses, seeing people off into the periphery again (Montgomery 2013). This may explain why the US situation is contradicted in much of Europe and Asia. But what drives this? Is there a way we can locate this magical threshold? And what does it have to do with the city, with suburbia and rural and remote areas? Is it the quality of the environments and what they offer inhabitants? 
It's also interesting that the charter of New Urbanism appears to tackle this issue by making cities better for inhabitants. Does this raise the threshold? (CNU., 2001)
There are also neural correlates that are being discovered that fascinate me - especially in Europe, where this phenomena is being taken seriously. Really interesting correlates, that have implications for mental health (Pedersen, Mortensen & Preben, 2001;Haddad, Schafer, et al., 2014). Oft times this data is only taken from an isolated city or rural area, and therefore may be tainted by uncontrolled variables, like the quality of social housing or by the dominance of a single industry.
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Some papers from the perspective of Regional Studies
EASTERLIN R. A., ANGELESCU L. and ZWEIG J. S. (2011) The Impact of Modern Economic Growth on Urban–Rural Differences in Subjective Well-Being, World Development 39, 2187-98.
MORRISON P. S. (2011) Local Expressions of Subjective Well-being: The New Zealand Experience, Regional Studies 45, 1039.
KNIGHT J. and GUNATILAKA R. (2010) Great Expectations? The Subjective Well-being of Rural–Urban Migrants in China, World Development 38, 113-24.
SORENSEN, JENS (2014) Rural–Urban Differences in Life Satisfaction:
Evidence from the European Union, Regional Studies, 48:9
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It is generally perceived that due to lack of direct access to the sea, landlocked countries are primarily marginalized from major trade related networks and hardly benefit from trade opportunities due to their extreme reliance on their transit neighbors who may either have a weak or well-developed infrastructure (which have either detrimental or beneficial implications for trade and growth). Besides this usual perception most trade experts hold, what other advantages and possibly disadvantages are there for landlockedness?
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Also in Asia, land-locked seems not universally negative for GDP/person; Nepal scores much higher than its neighbours, Mongolia is another case. Both are also relatively small and mountainous in their immediate environment. Maybe these two don't need sea or navigable rivers for trade with huge markets next door. And small may be beautiful in Asia as well, even among seaboard states: Singapore, Brunei, Timor-Leste, Hong Kong, all seaboard states.
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We are working on an integrated synthesis TrnSys model for a parabolic dish based thermal electric power generation system in a micro combined cooling heating and power (micro CCHP) configuration, with active demand response and interactive energy management and control.
Some smartmeter data have been used to compile certain electricity and energy load profiles and energy load contours for residential houses http://www.smartmeters.vic.gov.au/about-smart-meters/reports-and-consultations/advanced-metering-infrastructure-customer-impacts-study-volume-2/appendix-e-confidence-intervals-around-electricity-usage-profiles
Looking for more real-time dataset (ie .xls or .xlxs or .csv or .ods or .zip time series data or profile sequence data) to evaluate computer simulation models for a solar thermodynamic trigeneration system (combined cycle data or daily household load or user demand pattern data). Require such powerplant or household usage datasets for use in training artificial intelligent scheduling and multi objective control aspects in isolated or rural microgrid and smartgrid.
Would appreciate if anyone could inform of available data for community, residential, shack neighborhood or rural village settlements in Africa, South America (e.g. Brazil, Argentina, etc), China, India. Alternatively any other load cycles for any other area will also be helpful (including smart household data).
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One can draw up a typical electrical demand profile for a rural household and use this in a simulation type model. By shifting the loads in the mornings and evenings for one simulation, a number can be added, while noise can be added to the profile graphs to make it more natural.
A more realistic way is to use datalogged data of energy consumption patterns from a metering website or an onsite metering and weathers station solution. There are a number of rural schools and rural clinics that operate off-grid and these installations are typically fitted with a wireless remote monitoring and metering solution that saves the solar power generation and wind patterns for the site, see link below
With the Energylens platform, one can build demand profiles such as those illustrated on this link below
trust this helps
FC
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In particular I am interested in policies change towards supporting pasture improvement and integrated crop and livestock production.
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Let me share a few observations from Mongolia. I have seen remarkable little impact of post-communist land tenure (from public to private) on pastoralism. However, the privatisation of livestock has lead to increased livestock numbers and sales (in the good years). As export markets have become relevant, pastoralism is spatially concentrated in accessible areas and peripheral pastures are abandoned (your earlier intensification/extensification question). The Soviet dry land cultivation of cereals has been completely abandoned. The former fields are a desert now. Irrigated horticulture, by Korean immigrants, has taken off around Ulaanbaatar.  
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Hello dear mates
I´m using the capital (assets) of livelihoods (social, financial, human, etc) to understand how rural people start business and manage them. So I would like to see if any author had something with that
Regards
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An article on the livelihoods approach is at http://www.adb.org/publications/sustainable-livelihoods-approach. The key document on a project that used the approach to define and design multiple interventions, including the establishment of a community livelihood fund, is at http://www.adb.org/projects/documents/tonle-sap-sustainable-livelihoods-project-rrp. (Look for Appendix 4 therein.)
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I'm working on Agrobiodiversity fairs in the Colombian Amazon, like a strategy to empower local communities and strengthen their traditional knowledge. 
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There are many experiences in Mexico, most of those that I am aware of are in relation to maize, but I am sure they must also include probably many other genetic resources related to the milpa. You should try contacting Flavio Aragón (INIFAP), and Amado Ramírez (Itanoni), these are some of the people who have had experienes with these fairs and could guide you. There is also an exprience from the federal government trying to finance such fairs (again, mostly tied to maize) in CONANP (the program is called PROMAC), you could contact Juan José Arreola and also Elleli Huerta from CONABIO.  My personal opinion is that fairs are key in providing means as for correctly valuinging genetic resources in local and regional contexts, incentivating seed exchange among communities, among other things. It results as a tool in strenghthening "the process" by which agrobiodiversity evolves.
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I am doing a literature review for a research proposal, and intend to assess temporal changes and expansion of farmlands in a forest landscape with shifting cultivation as predominant rural livelihood strategy.
Thank you in anticipation for your suggestions.
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I have a group that performs spectral analysis of satellite imagery that could provide enhanced resolution false color mapping and identify a myriad of botanical and geographical data however they do not provide this capability as a free service.   It is amazing what can be observed, identified and tracked utilizing the geospacial network.  I find it puzzling that it is not utilized more broadly in ecosystem analysis, community infrastructure planning and tracking earth changes.  I believe that this is what my colleagues are attempting to do with their business model.          
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"Scientific Forest Management for Sustainability of Forest Resources".
In Nepal, many forests are strictly protected or conserved. People are not able to achieve the optimal benefit from the forests. Despite using the valuable timber available in the forests, it is left to decay in the forests.
I am seeking answers which could help to generate substantial economic benefit from such "protected or conserved" forests.
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Your question is extremely general, so I'll start with a general answer. Yes, it is possible to manage protected forests and to use the timber in them. It depends on the reason, why they are protected. E.g. in Switzerland we have a lot of protection forests (against natural hazards). These are managed in a way that they provide the best protection, so focus is on structure, contuinuous forest cover, minimal stem density, sustainable regeneration etc. But the wood which comes out of the forest through these management operations is used and sold.
If the protection reason is to protect the forest itself (so that it is not plundered), then a sustainable management regime could be applied (as is done in many parts of Europe and elswhere). In Switzerland, e.g. it is not allowed to chop more wood than the forest is able to grow. So one calculates growth and yield of a forest plot for, lets say, 10yrs and that is the amount of wood you are allowed to take out every decade (you only use the "overhead", so to say). This wood usually is a result of management practices that at the same time treat the stand, initiate regeneration etc. In Switzerland it is not allowed to do clearcuts, so forest management is pretty small scale, but thanks to that very sustainable in terms of continuous forest cover etc. So it really depends on the protection goal - if you can keep the goal (or even enhance it) through timber harvesting, than you can use the timber AND have a protected forest.
If this is the direction your question is going, there is a lot of literature on sustainable forest management and the management of protection forests from Switzerland, Germany and France. However, as soon as you let people manage "protected forests", you have to have a good control regime (especially in the beginning), making sure that the management guidelines and harvest plans are strictly followed...
Hope, this helps. Cheers, Caroline
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We are doing a case study in which populations are divided in / comprised of groups, sub-groups and individuals, as well as key informants, our objective is to find the effects whether joining in the groups is significant or insignificant on livelihood development strategies. This is a kind of impact assessment of an intervention (development project) in rural livelihood development. We are wondering whether we can use a combination of sampling techniques to select sample.
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Multiple sampling methods / Techniques in data collection in social science are
  1. Simple random
  2. Cluster
  3. Stage
  4. Purposive
  5. Quota
  6. Volunteer
  7. Accidental
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Agriculture sector has the greatest potential for meliorating rural livelihood especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where more than 70% of the population is believed to derive its sustenance from farm-related activities. Average global land productivity for major cereals (maize, rice and wheat) is declining thereby increasing the productivity gap and this is believed to contribute to poor returns for farm-income-dependent households. As a result, there is substantial literature that emphasizes on engagement of smallholders in high value crops (vegetables, fruits and flowers) as way of increasing the expected returns with little regard of traditional crops. Considering that agriculture has always been a risky business, smallholders’ capacity to manage associated risks is usually very low. Besides production risks (weather), market risks (price, inflation, stringent requirements) facing the producers tend increase with adoption of high value crops. Therefore, should a policy focused entirely on adoption of high value crops guarantee long-term income benefits for its people especially in the wake of climate change impacts on agricultural productivity?
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Then tomorrow everyone is growing cotton and the price of cotton collapses.
Genuine prodcutivity enhancements are needed. Yes, cash crops can provide capital stimulus.
I would be more worried about the following, than the specific crops selected by the farmers:
- do they have access to several varieties of seeds for all crops known to grow well in the area
- do they have access to fertilizers on credit conditions which are feasiable and conducive to capital accumulation
- do famers have access to financial tools which allow them to get through lean years and still give 100% effort the following year
- do farmers have access to technical advice, if only once a year via some information meeting by mobile teams which show up in every village at least once a year
- can farmers keep books !!!!!!!
Make it easy for them to develop expertise with the tools to make the best decisions. Don't tell them what to grow.
However, I do believe that, at the national level, value chain analysis can help provide information to more ambitious, educated and connected farmers in order for them to develop systems which can contribute to diversified marketing and input systems in private markets. Sometimes this will effectively be the same as saying "these three cash crops are best".
Without access to suitable financial tools to manage risk, or some sort of safety net backstop, you'd have to be crazy to go 100% into cash crops. Instead, I would suggest that smallholders should be encouraged to dedicate shares of their plots to production for sale on markets, such as vegetables. Cotton and tobacco, for example, are generally operated at a much larger scale. Foreign exchange is a great reason to develop these, but this is not very relevant to the smallholder.
Compulsory approaches to agricultural management have failed almost every time they have been implemented. Make it easy for farmers to use tools to maximize their profitability, don't tell them what to do.
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What insights can be drawn from the rural non-farm economy literature?
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In the U.S., more farmers now work of the farm. Also, since rural areas are typically endowed with large amount of primary resources, promoting growth in the value-added industry (especially agricultural value-added industry) could introduce more and diverse sources of income for farm and rural households. The ethanol and tourism industries are two key examples.
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In poverty studies, some group are referred to as marginalized people and others as deprived people. I humbly would like to know the boundary between marginalization and deprivation?
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Hi David,
I live in an affluent Northern New Jersey neighborhood with a nice house on 5 (unkempt) acres; my mortgage is paid off and our 3-car garage contains 2 late model Volvos and one classic Mercedes. We are only two people living in a large house with three bathrooms and a sauna. In short, I am not deprived. But, boy, am I marginalized, I am the only Democrat on my block and indeed the county in which I live (Morris County) is so Republican that a few years ago I registered as a Republican just because I was tired of being disenfranchised -- having been excluded from the polls at the primary for 15 years simply because there were never any Democrats on the slate. That, David, is what it means to be marginalized (with the only deprivation experienced being the poverty of Democratic candidates to vote for in Republican territory).
Gwen
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In June 2013, the torrential downpour and subsequent flooding had wreaked havoc and swallowed vast swathes of a Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in India. Over 1800 villages were affected, 2500 families became homeless and at least 4000+ people lost their life during the disaster. The cloudburst, heavy rainfall and subsequent landslides are the natural disasters but this disaster in Uttarakhand is mainly attributed by masses as a man-made disaster due to unplanned development and unregulated tourism. What should be the model of conservation and development in the fragile ecosystems such as the Himalayas?
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Through my work in Portland, Oregon, I have found that adaptive co-management can offer an effective yet flexible model for multiparty stakeholders across a variety of jurisdictions (local, state, central/federal governemnts, CBOs, etc) to collaboratively come up with creative environmental policies and solutions. This process involves bringing in the community throughout the process beginning at problem identification, design, implementation, assessment and all the way through to maintenance even. Of course this is can be a very time-consuming effort, but I still think that a grassroots approach will be more effective than a top-down/ imposed strategy.
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I am looking for some research journals which publish articles dealing with issues of rural poverty and also have good impact factor.
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Food Security is a new journal
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I am interested in if there is a similar life cycle for agritourism with accomodation on-farm and no accomodation on-farm.
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I have never studied life cycles for agritourism in details, but it seems to me that it can be relevant. It depends not only on accommodation, but first of all on the offer of attractions.