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In our recent review article, we have conducted a thematic synthesis of China’s rural industrialization through the Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) and generated context-specific lessons that can inform Ethiopia’s rural industrialization. The paper focuses on developing an alternative framework responding to “what” can be drawn and “how” it can be adapted to make the Ethiopian rural economy function properly.
The review work identified the three major driving forces behind China’s growth miracle through in-depth analysis and synthesis. These were policy drivers, entrepreneurial drivers, and sociocultural drivers. The finding showed that the driving forces were successfully held together with formal and informal institutions to form a rural industrialization framework (RIF). The constructed RIF provides a holistic perspective on the rural industrialization process and can be used in promoting the planning and implementation process of rural industrialization in Ethiopia. We also believe that such a holistic approach can be helpful to other developing countries as well.
More details can be found hereunder:
Any opinion or suggestion on the framework, i.e., the RIF, we developed?
Can the Rural Industrialization Framework (RIF) we developed for Ethiopia could also be helpful for other developing countries in promoting the planning and implementation process of rural industrialization?
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I do agree that these three drivers can be applicable to other developing countries to some extent because the main important thing is that Politics which is ruling those developing countries have tremendous impact of functioning the Rural Industrialization Framework successfully.
Mostly the developing are generally looking for the development in terms of mobilization of different resources. So the Rural Industrialization is stakeholders friendly at the gross root level profession to sustain the livelihoods of many rural people.
Financial sources is the major constraints in most of the developing countries but the Government Policy matters to decide to promote the Rural Industrialization in the rural areas because huge mass if the unemployed rural youth in these developing countries.
There must be a Green Invitation to involve the graduates who are really innovative could be encouraged their skills, knowledge and experience etc.
Above all, the conducive environment to mobilize the human, financial and material resources to support this RIF.
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In his attempt to modify the limitation of the Perroux growth model, R.P. Mishra developed a hybrid theory (model) combining the concept of Christaller’s CPT, Friedman's concept of Core-Periphery, and Hagerstrand’s Spatial Diffusion Model. My concern is which country (region or locality) in the world successfully implemented this theory (or a variant of it) to operationalize the needs of the people of the predominantly rural countries such as Ethiopia or India (rural people)? How was it made functional? Had there been related policy instruments? Had there been programs or projects? Any pertinent document to support such operationalization?
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The dogma of agricultural primacy says: agriculture first, cities later. Jane Jacobs in his famous book The Economy of Cities (1969) is a strong proponent of city-primacy: Cities First—Rural Development Later. Could it be always true that rural (agricultural) development follows innovations in the cities and hence a policy of city-primacy than agricultural-primacy to pursue? Is it always true that agricultural productivity lags behind urban productivity? And, could it be that there is no way to increase rural (agricultural) productivity first and city productivity later in the currently developing countries? Is it true that rural development always waits for innovations in fertilizer, seed, pesticides, etc from the urban sector, not from the rural (agricultural) sector itself? Given multitudes of development theories and models, what could be the third-best alternative way for economic transformation in the currently developing countries?
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Binary choices of the either-or variety never shed much light. Around the world, 80% of the rural population live near cities. Urban and rural areas enjoy different but complementary assets. Potential linkages cut across, say, agricultural productivity, demography, environment, labor, and public services. Better integration of rural-urban linkages by way of rural-urban partnerships is essential for better socio-economic and environmental performance.
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I have state level agriculture gdp for India, however, I wish to compute district level agriculture gdp for India. Could you please suggest some way out?
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Could you find the district-level Agri-GDP data? It will be a great help f you can share any updates on this.
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I'm looking for any smart villages aplications in your country. I'm interested in examples that involve the enviroment, agricultural, society and technology. I would be grateful for any input.
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Hello Professor Slawomir,
Kindly find this from Kenya
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I want to estimate the impact of internal migration on rural economy in Bangladesh. What will be the dependent variable (s) in this context? is it only be the flow of remittance into the rural area from internal migration?
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Hi, I want to find the impact of internal migration and agricultural productivity on rural development of Pakistan. What will be the best dependent variable? Can I take urbanization as one of the dependent variables? and what independent variables can I pick?
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The model FarmDESIGN has been developped by the Farming Systems Ecology Group in Wageningen University and Research (WUR) to analyse farm performances, to model optimisation scenarios and identify trade-offs and synergies at farm-system level (Groot, Oomen, and Rossing 2012) . It is an integral bio-economic model, that is the model considers all farm components and their interactions within the farm, with the objective of providing an assesment of farm performance through various bio-economic indicators.
I beleive my skills could be a valuable asset for your project. Please contact me for further information.
I look forward to hearing from you,
Best regards,
Antoine Brosseau
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Certainly, I am interested in read your material. It will be useful indeed for new research ideas.
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Dear all,
Do you know food, human geography or rural development journals that accept short papers (below 4,000 words)? Thank you, Best!
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What future for industrial districts? We will discuss it at ERSA2020 in Bozen next August. Would you like to participate with a presentation? Submit an abstract! Here all information about the conference https://ersa.eventsair.com/60…/call-for-abstracts-and-papers #districts #industry4.0 #economicdevelopment #clusters #industry #industrialdevelopment #localdevelopment #papers #specialsession #urbanrurallinkages #sustainabledevelopment #paper #research #economics
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Peter F. Colwell Dear professor, your are right. A definition of industrial district is essential. This session would be a sort of starting point for the discussion. For this reason, it focuses on two pillars, the first is precisely methodological and wants to investigate the methods for the definition of districts. The second is structural because it wants to investigate the resilience of post-economic crisis districts. Thanks for your suggestions, they are very useful.
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What future for industrial districts? We will discuss it at ERSA2020 in Bozen next August. Would you like to participate with a presentation? Submit an abstract! Here all information about the conference https://ersa.eventsair.com/60…/call-for-abstracts-and-papers #districts #industry4.0 #economicdevelopment #clusters #industry #industrialdevelopment #localdevelopment #papers #specialsession #urbanrurallinkages #sustainabledevelopment #paper #research #economics
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Emmanuel V Murray Dear Emmanuel, please read the call for presentation here https://ersa.org/2019/12/16/ersa2020-call-for-abstracts-is-open/
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Dear all,
I am Valentina Cattivelli, a senior researcher at Eurac Research (Bolzano, IT) and I am a guest editor at Sustainability (IF 2.5).
With this, I would like to invite you to submit a paper within a special issue "Social farming for Social innovation and viability in rural areas". This special issue will contribute to the current debate on the green care movement, presenting some innovative solutions and business models to apply social farming as an innovative diversification strategy. The Issue will focus on the impact that social farming activities directly or indirectly have on the social-ecological transformation when fostering environmental knowledge building as well as well-being in and with nature. At the same time, it will evidence how social farming strengthens social capital in rural areas through the dissemination of culture and traditions in agriculture, the provision of social services, and the integration of people at risk of isolation. Additionally, the Issue will present applicable governance and legal framework strategies from their countries that provide legal certainty, regulate the quality of services, and ensure financial viability. Finally, it will investigate how social farming contributes to shifting agricultural activities from purely primary production towards service delivery. This extension of multifunctional farming enables new income opportunities to avoid farm abandonment and to counteract the typical phenomenon of de-growth, which rural areas are dealing with: demographic and agro-structural changes, brain drain, unemployment, vacant houses, or lacking services of general interest. If interested, please get in touch with me.
There is the opportunity to have a reduced fee (under certain conditions).
Thank you
Best regards
#socialfarming #socialagriculture #social #sustainability #research #socialinnovation #urbangardens #innovation #callforpaper #papers #italy #europe #agriculture #regionalstudies
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Dear Valentina Cattivelli , A pleasure to greet you, I commented that three weeks ago I sent you an email, with a potential summary for the special edition that you address in the sustainability magazine.
The address to which the contribution is sent is: valentina.cattivelli@eurac.edu, I consider that it is wrong since I have not received any response, whether we obtained a reduced rate or not.
The email I sent you is mheredia@uea.edu.ec
I look forward to your comments.
Regards,
Marco
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I am doing research in financial literacy among rural household. What should I consider: money management, end needs, achieve long term goals, or i have to consider banking knowledge ATM/credit Card usage?
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There are core Standards on financial literacy from the CEE. Here you find a description which subdomains are important.
You find more papers on my Profile.
Roland
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In my view rural development is still an issue for many policy makers in developing and developed countries. Taking this in account I would like to know what are the hottest topics or approaches in rural development regarding to sub-saharan african countries? Is agriculture still a backbone? References are welcome!
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I agree with Nelson that Food and even more important livelihood security are crucial aspects. What plays an outstanding role are off-farm livelihoods, meaning livelihoods that are not directly related to farming, animal husbandry and fisheries. Such livelihoods can contribute to an upliftment of rural areas, improve quality of rural lives and slow down migration to urban areas.
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For rural economic growth and creating more job opportunity, it becomes imperative to start agri-business in rural areas of India.
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There are many activities such as processing of agricultural products, completing the value chains of products and … that you can reach them through the study of scientific resources and field evaluation.
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Kelly Mix has shown that young children in urban US acquire elements of base-10 thinking as early as 3 years old. But would young children in African villages, where subsistence farming forms the basis of the economy, experience this effect? My own research suggests 'no' - but Mix's research suggests that there may be ways to prime such skills, especially through smartphones. 
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I would like to make a research on “the impact and challenges of Rural Electrification in the rural poor of developing countries including the challenges of being unable to pay connection fees....etc”. Can anyone provide me guidance and literature in this area?
thanks in advance for your support.
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Dear Ephrem,
I know that there is a movie that describes some impact and changes in a rural region in Morocco due to its electrification. It is named :
Le Thé ou l’Électricité (93 mn)
Unfortunately, it is not in English, but in french. I hope this will help you somehow.
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Sometimes it isn't easy to find a good place to get a membership so as to exchange our knowledge, or sometimes some online trusted organizations inquire too much money just to get an annual membership, so I would love to get a membership in a Horticulture organisation. Thanks for your kind cooperation!
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YOU CAN TRY ISHS
International Society for Horticultural Science.
https://www.ishs.org/Y1990 when I was a grad. student in Oregon State University. Y
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The purpose of this research is to understand entrepreneurial intention of university students in India. Specially from rural and remote parts of Himalayan belt. 
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I would rather that your circumstance (availability of potential respondents data and their nature, resources at your disposal and what you wish to establish among others) guides the sample u adopt. For example; if it is the entrepreneurial intention of students random sampling would be better because their list is easily obtainable from the school authority, but if it is that of rural women where the whole locality u are conducting the study in have the features needed by the research and no list of the locals available
then convenient sampling is okay.
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Value addition to raw materials such as primary forest production within national boundaries before export can create greater local employment and stimulate local economies. How can this be tackled in forest-endowed countries in Africa?
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This is seemingly a simple question but answering the question requires a thorough understanding of the political economy of most African countries. Why businesses and entrepreneurship do not flourish in most African countries? A crude answer to the question is economic and political gangsters are blocking the way for entrepreneurs who could have added value to forest products and generated income and employment opportunities.
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I am beginning a literature review with a masters student who will study this question in the context of Eastern Amazonia. We are interested in this question in reference to smallholders and their establishments -- as opposed to youth engaged in daily work for wages, however, these references are also interesting to provide more context. References from outside the region are also interesting.
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Dr. Saravanan Raj in Passighat, Arunachal Pradesh, India has conducted a research project on Rural Youth and Agriculture and I think project is still going on. He has ID in research gate..
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I am interested in anthropological or sociological approaches (not models).
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Thank you Gonzalo! I will take a look.
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Looking for a tool for data collection, a quantitative study measures how to manage finances to grow their business. What possible marketing strategy they can adopt, in order to expand their businesses.
How can the marketing strategies empower them to grow their individual market share and increase revenue, how this empowerment will help them grow their individual market share and by extension increase their revenue basket
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as dependent variable 
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In my professional work I am thinking to design a market based livelihood alternative program for forest dependent communities in rural areas of Nepal where we have to ensure equitable benefit sharing as a major expected outcome. I would like to know any evidence based research that mentions in what conditions and context market could be responsible and accountable for  pro-poor and gender responsive outcomes?
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  I am sending some research papers herewith that may be useful for ur needs 
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For example, how does Utility Theory could contribute  to analyze the measurement of the risks of these changes? And how does this measurement could contribute to farmers' decision making?
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In order to maximise utility, the farmer adopts different approaches to adapt to climate change and it's effects on his farm production. 
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There can be different benefits for community from brownfield redevelopment in urban areas like:
  • removing health and environmental concerns or perceptions
  • promoting smart growth (reusing of property instead of vacant land)
  • promoting economic growth (increasing tax base and creating jobs)
  • removing blighted property
  • building ties among residents, businesses, and all parties involved
  • building community awareness and empowering communities to address a problem that directly affects them
But i want to know the perspective about Rural Brownfield.
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Rural Brownfield can be understand with the help of different perspective like, locality, residence, living standers, moods of earing, cultivation strategies, adoptation modernized tehnologies. which can be changed with the passage of time
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For example how does the rural economy affect urban economies?
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One of the concept that between rural and urban economy
there are villages which are now called Peri-urban areas
economy of rural,peri-urban,urban together reflects as a GDP
periurban areas are facing entirely different set of problems.
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The Mediterranean basin has long been a site of temperate fruit and nut production. Currently, new agricultural cultures like pistachio (Pistacia vera), a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East, and Opuntia ficus-indica, a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant in Southern Europe, became plants with interest for large-scale production. So, In order to identify the most suitable areas to introduce those crops I would like to select the new species that are more viable economically.
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I recommend you sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). It's energy crop from Africa with high biomass and dry matter yield.Because sweet sorghum requires less water and has a higher fermentable sugar content than sugarcane, which contains more crystallizable sugars, it is better suited for ethanol production than sugarcane or other sources, and sweet sorghum ethanol is cleaner than sugarcane ethanol, when mixed with gasoline.
Regards
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Good evening!
To begin with, I am using a rural houselhold level survey and I intend to construct a wealth index using the data on the several assets households have such as: livestock, tractors, milking machine, etc.
For this purpose I have decided to use Principal Components Analysis in STATA. So far, I have done all the procedure and  predicted the four components whose variance explain the most part of the data (eigenvalues over 1) but, as it is expected, several observations of those components are negative and thus I cannot use them as a wealth index. In that sense, what can I do to "re-scale" those values in order to obtain a positive wealth index per household (since a negative wealth index does not make much sense)?
Thanks in advance!
Édgar Hernando Sánchez Cuevas
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I'm still not convinced that adding the negative items is the correct thing to do. The substantive question is whether those items reflect poverty rather than wealth (i.e., they are "reverse scored"). If so, then treating them as negatives them does make sense.
Also, z-scores give the variables equal weight, which is good, but they may not be only transformation that is necessary. In particular, if some of the variables are highly skewed, they may benefit from different transformations to reach normality before being standardized.
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i am currently conducting research on technology based rural entrepreneurship development. I am bit confused about the THEORY to choose.
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Dear Kamal,
Excuse me, I do not work on these issues. Anyway, I consider that you can adpt an evolutionist neoschumpeterean framework
best regards
Gabriel
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Next year will be held in portugal a orienteering event with approximately 2000 participants. In order to measure the impact over the local economy of a rural county we need to chose a methodology that give us consistent results.
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Hi Luis,
I think most of the time the approach for quantifying the impacts is based on analyzing direct expenditures that are made by visitors and tourists and indirect benefits that are accumulated from returns on investments in infrastructure like roads and so on.
I remember that I have seen this article some time ago and hope it will help:
Best regards,
 Stan
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We are analysing the economic impact of local farmer's market in the Basque Country (Spain), adapting SEED methodology developed by Loyola University of New Orleans. Our region has updated the input-output data, but we would need to calculate the regional multiplier to estimate the impact of the markets over the regional economy.
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Thank you to both for your contributions. We already have I-O tables corresponding to 2012 year.  What we would like to calculate is the impact over different activities of the expenditure done in farmers' markets in an aggregated way. Creating subregions would force us to calculate specific coeficients for the subregions, which we do not consider necessary. In summary, we would like to know the impact over regional GDP of marginal euros expended by consumers in local farmers' markets. 
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Which mathematical tools/approaches would be useful, or have been found to be useful, in modelling a 'manual agricultural' market economy amongst a closed group of ten to fifty households totalling up to 500 individuals in which a range of tools, crops and infrastructural facilities might be produced, maintained and exchanged across any desired number of periods and in which arbitrary individual propensities for each behaviour type of each individual can be expressed as temporal vectors, as can externalities such as climate, soil fertility, erosion and arrivals of itinerant sellers of externally produced trade goods?
My background suggests to me that Tensor Calculus is the point at which one should start looking for the means with which to achieve this.  I suspect that the application of such tools to modelling the 'fluid' economic behaviour of social groups is not at an advanced stage of development. Has anybody any information or suggestions?  Are 'game avatars' likely to be a fruitful source of useful algorithms?  Thank you for any assistance or guidance...
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We have developed different applications which will enhance  agriculture production and improve livelihoods of rural population. I need few marketing strategies to take these products into market and make them available for the grassroot . 
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Congrat Kiran Rs. I will suggest that you organize a workshop involving stakeholders in each district or region to explain the innovation and how it will benefit them especially, farmers. Then you can show or teach them how it work and tell them you have a special discount for participants and you may sell some at the workshop but they will also communicate it to those who couldn't attend and this is the platform for first awareness creation, then you can advertise it on the local radio if possible to create repetition and as a reminder.
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Someone mentioned to me that Uruguay has land use legislation that takes into account the capability of soils to render certain services. Apparently, this legislation places restrictions on what can be done with prime agricultural land, for example. At the core of this legislation is a very innovative, older piece of legislation that links property taxes to the potential of soils, not to their use.
I am wondering if similar land use legislations exist in other countries. I have heard that Denmark has something along the same lines. Are these the only two countries that have done something in this area?
It would be nice to document such legislations in detail, to encourage other countries to follow suit... So if you have documents that relate to soil-protective legislations in other countries, feel free to send them to me . Thanks!!!
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Hi Philippe,
In France like in most countries national law requires to protect land use for environmental reasons but do not take into account agricultural values.  At the next level, making land use plans is a competence of local governments.
Poland has restrictions related to the agricultural value of soils, aiming to avoid the consumption of high quality soils for urbanization.  A good specialist is Anna Bielska, university of technology Warsaw: a.bielska@gik.pw.edu.pl
Kind regards
Anna Geppert
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I'm studying motivation as an element in the venture of rural women. As divided by some authors we have three dimensions of motivation "Intrinsic, Goal, and Extrinsic". 
Extrinsic is the situation (displacement by Shapero) that people have to start the business like unemployment, job dissatisfaction, etc.
Goal is what people want to archieve by starting the business. and finally intrinsic motivation help nacent entrepreneur to keep on until they start and it helps business manager to not give up.
Where should I use the GEM approach? "NECESSITY vs OPPORTUNITY - are they goal or displacement?
Thanks.
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At individual level, in GEM database you can find questions related to motivation and values. Check for details: http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/2594
You can see in 2k1 and in 2k2 two questions that I think it could be interesting to you. Also, maybe i.6 and i.7 could be useful. Check the file and good luck!
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 What are the basic techniques used to convenience the marginal people to adopt a cost involving technology which will enhance their agriculture production and livelihoods ?. I need information on the marketing or outreach strategies for the implementation of mobile or tablet based technology in rural areas,
Case studies on different Mobile and Tab based technologies for agriculture and rural development, its implementation techniques can also be shared.
Thank you
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Dearest Kiran,
                                   there is something i call the triangle of benefits. First State how this technology will improve these marginal farmers productivity and income by using the technology: for example having access to this technology will increase your exposure to buyers on time and there by increase demand for your already unharvested produce. So if you are able to ascertain income level as a result of lack of markets and low competition, then you can say this technology can increase your income by 120% since wastage or spoilage of farm produce will be a history, and you can get more contract production having access to whole range of buyers and good extension. Also with the technology, farmers will get access to training facilities, link to institutions/NGOs who are ready to work with farmers and this can say, increase productivity by 80%. So at the end, the use of the technology will increase farmers income by more than 300% and improve their quality of life which which can not be quantify monetarily, this should be enough to justify investment in such technology. 
the other benefit is how will such technology benefit your community? e.g farmers can access programs which is specifically designed for them and their children for further education (scholarships for training programs, short course and schools) which in the end will enlighten the community.
The Other is How will it benefit the Nation and the world at large? Others will copy their examples because they will be a living proof which in the end will boost the GDP of the Nation and people may travel from other world to come and study their examples bringing foreign investment to their borders. etc
Banson
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It is observed that rural businesses are less innovative than those of urban. Apart from variation in location, how can we distinguish variation of rural and urban entrepreneurship?
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I believe that entrepreneurship is quite heterogeneous and this is also the case for rural and urban areas. Thus, it is difficult to make categorical statements about  which of these rather broad types of territories are more conducive to innovation. We find in major urban areas significant sub-areas or neighborhoods where nothing much in term,s of innovation takes place, and the same is true in rural areas.
One of the most complicating factors is the fact that there are so-called rural areas within the urban spheres of influence so that entrepreneurs in some rural areas can take advantage of what the nearby urban agglomeration has to offer. Similarly, we find that there are many urban areas/cities where little in the way of economic development takes place, and while the local cultures may not lead to much innovative behavior, it may also be that other factors make it more difficult for entrepreneurs to engage in innovative behavior.
Finally, some of the most innovative environments are not associated with economic growth but rather economic development. And at the level of financing innovative entrepreneurial ventures, some rural territories can be as innovative as many of the urban territories.
We should perhaps stop talking about differences between rural and urban when it is obvious there is so much heterogeneity in each category.
Chris Bryant
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There used to be only those areas (villages/hamlets) where grid extension is not viable for techno-economic reasons, in the Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) mode of RGGVY scheme (now DDUGJY) of Rural Electrification in India.   However the Government of India has included, in 2013, villages that get less than 6 hrs of electricity in Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG). How to identify those villages? Any public forums available to access such data? 
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You can use RTI  to get  the  data from the  respective SEBs - Might take 2-3 months .
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I'd like to understand and evaluate the experience and use of decentralized rural electrification initiatives in Indian villages especially solar PV based microgrids in rural India. I've chosen the study area and i'm in the process of planning my field study. I'm not sure about how do i get the permission from the concerned authorities and proceed for the study. Any suggestions? Any advises? Thanks in anticipation
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Also i'd like to know what are the typical sizes of Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) Solar PV power plants that are implemented in different parts of India. From the literature i found that Sagar Island of Sunderbans have the highest capacity so far, of about 130 kw. Any higher capacity SPV DDG plants in India?  
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I am working on the issue of livelihood diversification of farm households in rural Assam. A preliminary field visit shows that farm households, in most of the cases, are engaged in other non-farm activities besides farming. While measuring incomes earned via daily wage employment is straightforward, how should I measure incomes earned via self employed activities like petty trading, rickshaw pulling etc.
Please advice if there is an appropriate method.
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I would look for how surveys in your area have asked this question.  My experience is in a very different context (Zambia) but may be helpful.  If you go to http://fsg.afre.msu.edu/zambia/survey.htm and download the questionnaire for the 2012 RALS survey - page 34 shows how the enumerators asked each household what informal business activities they were involved in. The next page asks them about how that activity varies over the seasons and ends up by asking how much is earned on a busy month and on a slow month.  With that information you should be able to estimate annual income from each activity and it is not too tiresome for the respondent (as it might be if you asked them to try to remember how much they earned for each activity, each month for the past year). 
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In our study, we are developing a combined heat and power system with microgrid interfacing. It will be interesting to learn from researchers in Africa, India, China, Brazil, Mexico, etc. how off-grid microgrid technology are commercialised to the benefit of the community it serves. 
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Our contemporary utility matrix has for the most part evolved in designed isolation.  The problem here is that\ this creates silos of activity which miss the benefit of collaborative economic efficiencies in capital cost and operating cost.  Utility convergence is a trend and a necessity to achieve sustainable communities.  I would argue that waste to energy resource utilization is a critical component of this missed resource opportunity.  I am working on integrated distributed sustainable technology clusters at this time.  The evolving distributed satellite infrastructure concept will provide better resiliency, higher efficiency, dramatic reductions in ecological impact and a higher quality of life then contemporary centralized fragmented utility approaches.   The models do unfortunately require urban density demographics to achieve economic sustainability.
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I've been doing a study in rural areas of a developing country where it's hard to meet relevant people/farmers at their home (due to seasonality, ages etc.). Is there any scientific sampling method that allows gathering individual observations (by inviting them) into one place for interviewing but still ensures randomness? The problem is that I don't have the full list of residents.
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Nam Ha -
For future consideration, you might try "area frame" designs for survey sampling. The USDA uses that a lot, so there is information available if you search the Internet. I think it sounds like it might be useful for you. You have to divide your geographic area by regions for sampling.
As for purposive sampling, I got a great deal done with that when there are regressor data available, and when you can stratify well, but other than that, purposive sampling can give you biased results without a good way to evaluate accuracy.
You might be interested in reading what was said in the a attached link to a question on "representative" sampling.
Best wishes. - Jim
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I'm doing my MS on the evaluation of tourism-oriented villages based on the economy of space. I appreciate your comments.
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You can get the impact of tourism industry development on dimensions of the space economy by the followings.
1. Long time analysis of land use / land cover including built-up structures for commercials and other business
2. Obtaining the answers from the community through interviews using structured questioners (socio-economic variables), depends upon your aims and objectives of the research project. 
3. Land scape environmental transition (including transport networks, parks, electricity, buildings for commercial, settlements, professional industries-education, recreations, legal, medical, etc.,)
4. Floating population movements, money flow, business and trade
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Importance of social business
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Dear Dr. Krainara
What do you mean by the  social businness? 
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Importance of social capital
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I would say that there is no Rural Development at all if there is no social capital. From research in India I realized that in rural settings, social capital is EVERYTHING. People with high social capital are listened to in the village, they have the power to push things forward, convince people to try something new. Of course, they can also have a negative influence but I am talking about more progressive people.
I studied farmer producer companies in India and it was always people with (amongst others) high social capital that started and kept those farmer enterprises running.
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Urban-rural relations
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Currently urban-rural disparities occurred in many aspects particularly on economic, social and infrastructural aspects. Job creations and sustainable livelihood development in rural areas can prevent people from emigration from rural areas.Still why this problem is existent in developing countries?
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Rural industrialization.
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There are numerous factors that contribute towards the success of rural industry. But the main ones are: increase in the incomes of rural consumers, unsaturated rural markets and rapid growth and development of rural economies.
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Nowadays the rural entrepreneurs are increasing at a faster rate due to a paradigm shift from production led development to market led development. So, the measurement of entrepreneurship development and management index is the only way to get the attitude of the rural entrepreneurs towards development.
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The rural entrepreneurship development and management depends upon the agglomerated functioning of profit maximisation, risk taking ability and inovativeness of the entrepreneurs. Other two contributors namely the decision making ability and the attitude towards entrepreneurship development and management play pivotal role in case of promoting and sustaining rural entrepreneur. So, EDMI=f (NP, RTA, I, At, DMA).
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I am asking for any recent studies exploring the agricultural terms of trade (prices of agricultural commodities compared with the price of farm inputs) particularly for small farms in the developing countries.
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you could look at the work of b.arbara harriss and theo palaskas, journal of development studies. also theo palaskas "european journal of agricultural economics" and work of Alfred maizels, theo palaskas et. all in the article "Prebish - singer Hypothesis revisited" in the book Development Economics and Policy, D. Sapsford and J. Chen (eds Macmillan Press ltd, 1998)
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As extension has become privatized it increasingly has involved a cost to farmers. This means that information that a farmer once gained free of charge is now obtained by paying for it. My thoughts are that farmers will be increasingly likely to become information withholders, and that this will have an impact on the adoption of innovations. This will be especially important when the effective provision of information about the innovation is a necessary precursor to adoption.
I’m also thinking that information withholding will be more likely in individualistic societies such as Australia and the US and less likely in collectivist countries such as Indonesia.
I’m also wondering if information withholding is associated with more intensive agriculture and whether information sharing is more likely in extensive agriculture.
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Dear Geoff, I agree with Bettina that agricultural innovation systems literature is usefull. Also work by Paul Engel on Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems may be relevant for you. Some other references that you may want to explore are:
Llewellyn, R.S., 2007. Information quality and effectiveness for more rapid adoption decisions by farmers. Field Crops Research 104, 148-156.
Veisi, H., 2012. Exploring the determinants of adoption behaviour of clean technologies in agriculture: A case of integrated pest management. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 20, 67-82.
Spielman, D.J., Davis, K., Negash, M., Ayele, G., 2011. Rural innovation systems and networks: Findings from a study of ethiopian smallholders. Agriculture and Human Values 28, 195-212.
Horna, J.D., Smale, M., von Oppen, M., 2007. Farmer willingness to pay for seed-related information: Rice varieties in nigeria and benin. Environment and Development Economics 12, 799-825.
Good luck!
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Looking for studies that link economic development with the accessability of remote communities. In particular, I'm interested in very small island communities, but similar concepts might apply to other remote areas.
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Thank you very much, I'll have a look at this! Just turning in after a day of interviews on a small Scottish island!
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Related to devloping countries
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I would suggest using economies of scale as a factor in explaining consolidation. It is certainly a factor in the developed world. And it has been used as a theoretical cost to fragmentation in the developing world see: Guang H. Wan & Enjiang Cheng .2001, Applied Economics, 33:2, 183-194.
But I think the forces causing fragmentation are less about economics (there could be advantages to fragmentation if there are diseconomies of scale or very cheap labor). I think the answer is more along the lines of egalitarian transfers of estates. Farmers pass a small part of their land base to each child to be fair to the children. I know it was especially problematic in Greece and there was some work on the impacts.
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Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia face challenges of reducing poverty and ensuring livelihood and economic security to its population. What factors contribute to reduce the level of poverty.
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As we all agree, agricultural development can positively impact poverty levels. To ensure agri growth, the following are needed - 1) In the short/medium term - assured provision of inputs such as quality seed, fertilizer and pesticides; irrigation development and market infrastructure (roads, market yards) 2) In the long-run: improving rural education levels to enable population to shift out of agriculture and increase in agricultural R&D - both these measures will improve agricultural productivity thereby improving farmers' income levels.
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I have the sustainable livelihood framework by DFID 1999, but it seem too old?
Could anyone recommend a current approach?
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In my opinion rural livelihood change can be best understood by using Anthropological method. Use of quantitative method ,in my opinio,provides only broad trends rather than a comprehensive assessment in totality.For example Scarlett Epstein!s publication -South India :Yesterday,Today and Tomarrow has shown all aspects of rural changes over a period of time. I wish to look forword similiar efforts in the days to come.