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Rural Development - Science topic

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In our recent review article, we have conducted a thematic synthesis of China’s rural industrialization through the Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) and generated context-specific lessons that can inform Ethiopia’s rural industrialization. The paper focuses on developing an alternative framework responding to “what” can be drawn and “how” it can be adapted to make the Ethiopian rural economy function properly.
The review work identified the three major driving forces behind China’s growth miracle through in-depth analysis and synthesis. These were policy drivers, entrepreneurial drivers, and sociocultural drivers. The finding showed that the driving forces were successfully held together with formal and informal institutions to form a rural industrialization framework (RIF). The constructed RIF provides a holistic perspective on the rural industrialization process and can be used in promoting the planning and implementation process of rural industrialization in Ethiopia. We also believe that such a holistic approach can be helpful to other developing countries as well.
More details can be found hereunder:
Any opinion or suggestion on the framework, i.e., the RIF, we developed?
Can the Rural Industrialization Framework (RIF) we developed for Ethiopia could also be helpful for other developing countries in promoting the planning and implementation process of rural industrialization?
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I do agree that these three drivers can be applicable to other developing countries to some extent because the main important thing is that Politics which is ruling those developing countries have tremendous impact of functioning the Rural Industrialization Framework successfully.
Mostly the developing are generally looking for the development in terms of mobilization of different resources. So the Rural Industrialization is stakeholders friendly at the gross root level profession to sustain the livelihoods of many rural people.
Financial sources is the major constraints in most of the developing countries but the Government Policy matters to decide to promote the Rural Industrialization in the rural areas because huge mass if the unemployed rural youth in these developing countries.
There must be a Green Invitation to involve the graduates who are really innovative could be encouraged their skills, knowledge and experience etc.
Above all, the conducive environment to mobilize the human, financial and material resources to support this RIF.
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A quest for real-world examples (Best Practices) from developing countries.
Some research findings show that there is a significant relationship observed between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial culture. Given the private sector’s involvement is essential in economic development and also that the capacity to recruit new graduates in the formal sector is very much limited, it’s highly vital that existing and new entrepreneurial cultures are adequately exploited. And, it is also necessary to link this cultural dimension with formal entrepreneurial education.
Is there any program/project successfully implemented so that those two issues are properly linked and resulted in achieving the desired goal (As Best Practice)? (Good if country and program/project examples are mentioned.)
Many thanks!
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I appreciate you Mr Melkamu Tadesse Wazza that you have raised the mind blowing question in RG.Entrepreneurship Education is a streamlined program designed by the respective Government to tap up the potential entrepreneurial skills, knowledge and techniques to promote the budding entrepreneurs in the particular location.
The term Entrepreneurial culture means that practices are being followed over the years or decades among the young entrepreneurs in the given geographical location.
Of course, the Entrepreneurial culture is not exploited in some societies due to some factors which hinders the development of those entrepreneurs.
There will be a wide gap between these two groups of entrepreneurs. Some societies may not encourage the entrepreneurial culture because of the lack of awareness, knowledge and skills among the young entrepreneurs.
It is very challenging issue among the budding entrepreneurs those who are reluctant to apply the new skills, knowledge and technical ideas etc to the society.
It is important to note that the psychological factors like Achievement Motivation, Perception, Attitude and Awareness creation etc could help to change the mind of these entrepreneurs in the given society.
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In his attempt to modify the limitation of the Perroux growth model, R.P. Mishra developed a hybrid theory (model) combining the concept of Christaller’s CPT, Friedman's concept of Core-Periphery, and Hagerstrand’s Spatial Diffusion Model. My concern is which country (region or locality) in the world successfully implemented this theory (or a variant of it) to operationalize the needs of the people of the predominantly rural countries such as Ethiopia or India (rural people)? How was it made functional? Had there been related policy instruments? Had there been programs or projects? Any pertinent document to support such operationalization?
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Dear all,
I am actually in Mozambique working on a rural development project. My department is actually involved as partner to do assessment and design activities, but we would love to insert some hot research topic in the thing.
I am interested in:
- Understand possible research topics and open hydrological/water management/water harvesting problems (mainly in Zambezia province)
- Ask if you know possible data available online
Thanks to whoever will contribute!
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I have done some several project in this fields. i think also you have finish this project
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The dogma of agricultural primacy says: agriculture first, cities later. Jane Jacobs in his famous book The Economy of Cities (1969) is a strong proponent of city-primacy: Cities First—Rural Development Later. Could it be always true that rural (agricultural) development follows innovations in the cities and hence a policy of city-primacy than agricultural-primacy to pursue? Is it always true that agricultural productivity lags behind urban productivity? And, could it be that there is no way to increase rural (agricultural) productivity first and city productivity later in the currently developing countries? Is it true that rural development always waits for innovations in fertilizer, seed, pesticides, etc from the urban sector, not from the rural (agricultural) sector itself? Given multitudes of development theories and models, what could be the third-best alternative way for economic transformation in the currently developing countries?
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Binary choices of the either-or variety never shed much light. Around the world, 80% of the rural population live near cities. Urban and rural areas enjoy different but complementary assets. Potential linkages cut across, say, agricultural productivity, demography, environment, labor, and public services. Better integration of rural-urban linkages by way of rural-urban partnerships is essential for better socio-economic and environmental performance.
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what can be done to promote technology innovation for rural development in the area of alternative and renewable energy so that the quality of life and income status can be improved?
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thanks for this importing question
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Could be used as a theoretical tool for understanding the alternative economic networks?
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I agree with Jutta, the term embeddedness is overused. Particularly, when it ends up meaning that individual people have a high number of connections. For Polanyi embeddedness implied social modes of coordination based on principles and patterns structurally different from market exchanges.
I think Granovetters' embeddedness can be measured at the level of the ego network (number of ties each one has). The Embeddedness by Polanyi is instead impis instead implyinglies different structural configurations and must be measured at the level of the entire network.
I enclose my paper that uses SNA to measure Polanyi's embeddedness in Vietnam.
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I am a Master's Student who specialized in development economics (especially rural development), now I am eager to publish my thesis in an academic journal. The topic is about determinants of vulnerability and roles of livelihood assets, so at this time, I would like to ask what kind of journal (paper) is more suitable? if possible, I would like to publish a high rank in terms of impact factors. thank you in advance.
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I'm looking for any smart villages aplications in your country. I'm interested in examples that involve the enviroment, agricultural, society and technology. I would be grateful for any input.
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Hello Professor Slawomir,
Kindly find this from Kenya
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We are currently facing numerous challenges to industrial transformation in most of the countries South of the Sahara. For example, most of our natural resources be it coffee, cotton , gold, oil, diamond etc are exported raw only to be value added in the developed world and re exported to us. In reality we are getting a small proportion of the profits. Moreover, most of our citizenry remains unemployed or at best underemployed.
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Hope usefull
Encourage farmers to adopt sustainable water and nutrient management in arid agroecosystems: problems, solutions and future studies
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One of urbanization factor is low level of rural development. Rural digitalization is one of government policy to gain level of rural development so the development gap between rural urban can be minimize. Next impact is lowering level of urbanization.
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Can digitalization control the level of urbanization is an interesting and debatable issue. People in rural areas are complaining that they are not getting the infrastructure for digital networking and the speed of connectivity is slower. Digitalization is not panacea for everything.
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I want to know the journal names which are good in the field of Agricultural Extension, Rural Development and Social Science with good impact factors or NAAS rating
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Journal of Human Sciences and Extension.
Journal of International Agricultural & Extension Education.
American Journal of Evaluation.
Journal of Agricultural Education Online.
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development.
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I have been thinking of linking technology innovation(specifically blockchain) with policy and rural development. However, I'm careful not to exceed 2 variables.
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For blockchain technology policy on rural development it is indeed needed as a means of accelerating rural economic growth, but this requires human resources in rural areas. So I suggest that the x variable is rural policy and development. In order to know the impact on the implementation of blockchain technology in rural areas.@
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Hi all, I'm looking for any studies using Co-Design, Participatory Design, or Design Thinking specifically in developing countries. Of specific interest are technology-based projects and the uptake of technology in developing countries especially rural regions.
If you have come across any, or were involved in any, please let me know Many thanks in advance P.J.
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Dear PJ White,
Participatory design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable.
Benefits of Participatory Design in Web Development
The most attractive benefit of the participatory design is bringing a fresh, unique set of eyes into the design process. Developers and engineers work daily to create web designs and interface models, but do not share the same perspectives of end-users
Co-design, design with users, not for them. Participatory design you design for users and get their input.
A human-centered, systems-minded, and strategy-aligned design approach for social sector leaders. ... Strategic planning is logical and ensures that an organization's activities actually lead to its intended outcome, rather than busy work. Human centered design is action-oriented, deeply human, and experimental
The design thinking process is broken up into five specific design thinking stages: empathy, definition, ideation, prototyping, and testing.
best wishes for your project
sandeep
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Greetings.
I am enlightened to know the shift of the workforce to rural areas and their participation in self-reliance on a rural-based economy. the prerequisites to backup rural development need transportation, power, market, and other relevant logistics to support the growth. what is the annual pace of growth?
My best regards,
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Dear Dr Shahida Anusha Siddiqui , this is an interesting question and I would like to learn from the outcome of this discussion. Warm regards Yoganandan G
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I want to estimate the impact of internal migration on rural economy in Bangladesh. What will be the dependent variable (s) in this context? is it only be the flow of remittance into the rural area from internal migration?
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Hi, I want to find the impact of internal migration and agricultural productivity on rural development of Pakistan. What will be the best dependent variable? Can I take urbanization as one of the dependent variables? and what independent variables can I pick?
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I want study a case which I have learned from my course Agricultural Extension and Rural development. I have learned a few things about case study. Now I want to go for it. now I need a format of data collection, analysis & presentation and finally to build up a paper.
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The Case Study is a Qualitative research study where the non-sampled respondents could be a source of information from the particular community, society and an organisation.
It can be a case story to collect the Qualitative information from the Focus Group Discussion or Key Informants Interview along with the Checklists.
Mostly the case studies for triangulating with Quantitative data in order to ascertain the reliability of the research.
The case study can be collected from aged experienced people's like retired teachers, ex-servicemen, elderly people's, church priests, freedom fighters and farmers in the villages etc.
Case study will reflect the historical retrospective events, legacy of the Individuals who contributed the lifelong benefits to the community.
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Please -- I am seeking examples to illustrate the misunderstandings and related failings (simple and otherwise) that undermine projects and interventions on the topics of conservation, natural resources and development (with a focus on the tropics). The idea is to gather and explain examples to students. We often say that we learn from our mistakes ... but arguably we can all learn from each other people's mistakes too ... if we share them
Despite hearing many quirky stories it is hard to find examples in publications on conservation, natural resources, development etc. Surely there are plenty of examples in peoples experiences though!
There are important examples from wider topics in the wealthier world. For example, how paying blood donors as an incentive to increase donations, can decrease blood donations (as donors prefer to give), and how fining parents for collecting their children late from school has in some case actually increased the number of children collected late (as parents felt less guilty when they paid for it).
An example from my own work would be my earlier efforts to frame a project in Papua (Indonesian New Guinea) around the poorest people and then discovering that people in Papua find it offensive to be called "poor" (this concept cannot be used to motivate projects there).
Anything is potentially useful. I am especially keen to identify publications or cases that can be otherwise sourced and cited--though personal communications are welcome too. Anything fun, quirky or educational is especially desirable.
THANKS!
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Hi Dr. Sheil, maybe this paper could be relevant: https://www.pnas.org/content/117/39/24188
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Dear viewers, I’m observing in Ag Extension, sociology and rural development have less or even no postdoc opportunities as compare to other discipline. Any expert in this field can you please answer your valuable reply, what are the reasons behind this?
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The social sciences have come late to this party. Post-docs seem to have been prevalent in the human biological sciences for a very long time. I myself only recently started creating and taking on post-docs for social science-related research in the past decade. I'm now a convert and can't recommend this mechanism (and the amazing young people wishing to pursue such a route) more highly!
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Dear colleagues,
I read your very interesting article about AquiFrame. I am working in rural development. Generally, we're dealing with many policies that in parallel affect rural people's life and earnings. And their combined benefits are generally exclusive, not reaching large numbers of diverse vulnerable people. Our challenge is to ensure the impacts of these policies and their respective rural development investments and programmes become more inclusive. Would an 'Equiframe' approach be feasible? Any suggestions?
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Dear Sir, EquiFrame is based on Health Related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for strengthen health care system for human rights , Children rights and rights of the persons with disabilities in the modern society on the globe. Therefore it is mandatory to establish in rural areas through rural development policies with the help of central governments especially for marginalized communities for their betterment and welfare of these groups in poor and developing countries globally. United Nation (UN) is currently focusing on it by their rural development policies for betterment of whole of mankind on the planet. I suggest that EquiFrame will succeed through ( PURA) concept i.e. Providing Urban Amenities Towards Rural Areas, will play very important role for Rural Development in poor and developing countries in the modern era.
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I am actually looking for project ideas combining rural development and biogas. I don't have the facility as of now to conduct practicals so looking for project topics for which I can do desktop research.
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Sorry, I do not have information on this subject, I wish you success
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Dear all,
Do you know food, human geography or rural development journals that accept short papers (below 4,000 words)? Thank you, Best!
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Dear viewers, I’m observing in Ag Extension, sociology and rural development have less or even no postdoc opportunities as compare to other discipline. Any expert in this field can you please answer your valuable reply, what are the reasons behind this?
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Well, I always happy to discuss research communities like you(every one) To the point of your question, In my opinion, Agricultural Extension systems have been following some notable countries.For example,India,USA,Africa, Australia and some notable countries in Europe. Apart from is , Agricultural Extension has broader view subject, because we never suppose to limit our study area. Obviously, You can study environmental sociology,
Agribusiness ,Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Agriculture. In every part of agriculture without extension is not fulfill. So, in my opinion, we should maximize our skills and expertise with those related subjects. We couldn't shrunk our limit. I believe, I may try to answer your question..
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Rural development, Urban Development, Rural-urvan partnership, Sustainable development, Federal Nepal.
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Actually there is no problem in Federal Setup in Nepal but the coordination between the central, provincial and local government is not practiced as intended during the federal formation. The rural-urban partnership is being one of the crucial topics for the implementation of federalism in Nepal.
Regards
Ishwor Thapa
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Farmers in India are now facing new challenges in the context of globalization. Withdrawal of state support are creating space for playing ground of private companies. Linking farmers to market now requires special attention. Traditional cooperatives in Indian agriculture have so far failed to be a self-sustaining farmers institutions. Therefore, in order to give farmers' collectivization a competitive edge, Govt. of India constituted a high powered committee in 2009 (?) under the chairmanship of Prof. Y.K. Alagh to recommend a suitable institution of farmers' collectivization which can withstand and/or can come into terms with the private players in the field of farming business. Alagh committee suggested the formation of Farmers Producers Organization as an entity to be accommodated under the Company's Act. Now, the question is, it needs to seen how the farmers are benefitting from this new institution all over India. It also calls for analysis, as to which particular ground traditional cooperatives fail? And finally, it calls for looking into the impacts of FPO on rural development issues particularly man-days / livelihood creation through flourishing rural non-farm activities, public/private sector investment and govt. policies.
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Sir
You can get a glimpse of the answer what are you looking for from these papers
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What future for industrial districts? We will discuss it at ERSA2020 in Bozen next August. Would you like to participate with a presentation? Submit an abstract! Here all information about the conference https://ersa.eventsair.com/60…/call-for-abstracts-and-papers #districts #industry4.0 #economicdevelopment #clusters #industry #industrialdevelopment #localdevelopment #papers #specialsession #urbanrurallinkages #sustainabledevelopment #paper #research #economics
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Emmanuel V Murray Dear Emmanuel, please read the call for presentation here https://ersa.org/2019/12/16/ersa2020-call-for-abstracts-is-open/
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Dear all,
I am Valentina Cattivelli, a senior researcher at Eurac Research (Bolzano, IT) and I am a guest editor at Sustainability (IF 2.5).
With this, I would like to invite you to submit a paper within a special issue "Social farming for Social innovation and viability in rural areas". This special issue will contribute to the current debate on the green care movement, presenting some innovative solutions and business models to apply social farming as an innovative diversification strategy. The Issue will focus on the impact that social farming activities directly or indirectly have on the social-ecological transformation when fostering environmental knowledge building as well as well-being in and with nature. At the same time, it will evidence how social farming strengthens social capital in rural areas through the dissemination of culture and traditions in agriculture, the provision of social services, and the integration of people at risk of isolation. Additionally, the Issue will present applicable governance and legal framework strategies from their countries that provide legal certainty, regulate the quality of services, and ensure financial viability. Finally, it will investigate how social farming contributes to shifting agricultural activities from purely primary production towards service delivery. This extension of multifunctional farming enables new income opportunities to avoid farm abandonment and to counteract the typical phenomenon of de-growth, which rural areas are dealing with: demographic and agro-structural changes, brain drain, unemployment, vacant houses, or lacking services of general interest. If interested, please get in touch with me.
There is the opportunity to have a reduced fee (under certain conditions).
Thank you
Best regards
#socialfarming #socialagriculture #social #sustainability #research #socialinnovation #urbangardens #innovation #callforpaper #papers #italy #europe #agriculture #regionalstudies
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Dear Valentina Cattivelli , A pleasure to greet you, I commented that three weeks ago I sent you an email, with a potential summary for the special edition that you address in the sustainability magazine.
The address to which the contribution is sent is: valentina.cattivelli@eurac.edu, I consider that it is wrong since I have not received any response, whether we obtained a reduced rate or not.
The email I sent you is mheredia@uea.edu.ec
I look forward to your comments.
Regards,
Marco
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I'm trying to design a research for social innovation. Although, I'm not sure if I can find social innovation examples there or better say find robust examples in all of villages in the area. what's your suggestions for my research question(s)?
I was told I can apply a cluster analysis and investigate the villages conditions according to fostering factors of social innovation. Is it a good idea?
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It will be good idea to conduct SWOT analysis of the villages. Then clusters can be formed by taking the villages of similar strength to work on some innovations as necessity is the mother of innovation.
May be the following link will help:
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I'm trying to design a research for social innovation. Although, I'm not sure if I can find social innovation examples there or better say find robust examples in all of villages in the area. what's your suggestions for my research question(s)?
I was told I can apply a cluster analysis and investigate the villages conditions according to fostering factors of social innovation. Is it a good idea?
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You can follow the DFID framework to address the issue and work on it. If you can not understand anything please let me know.
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With increasing interest in sustainable farming approaches (organic, agroecology, permaculture, diversified farming systems, etc. etc.) the question arises how these approaches influence farmers quality of work and workload. And with governments promoting both sustainable farming as well as the empowerment of rural economies, I wonder if there are case studies showing such synergies.
Are you aware of any case studies (anywhere globally) that investigate how the adoption of sustainable farming practices influenced labor demand, workload, labor quality, or rural employment?
If you know any critical case studies or have conducted one yourself, I would be glad to learn about it in order to complement my literature review (part of my PhD ).
Thank you very much.
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Please take a look at this useful PDF attachment.
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Is there any one who can teach RS and GIS application in agriculture and rural development and visit India as foreign faculty for a week?
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please kindly send the application to my email: sipayungantoniomarro@gmail.com. Than you
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Power converters for rural electrification comes on all shapes and sizes. However, in the OwnPower project we seek to develop converters which are multi-functional and multi-tier.
If you could wish for a power converter that could take care of all of your field problems, which functions would you like this converter to have?
(DC/DC, DC/AC, step-up, step-down, isolation, high-power, etc...)
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all types of shape are possible
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In my view rural development is still an issue for many policy makers in developing and developed countries. Taking this in account I would like to know what are the hottest topics or approaches in rural development regarding to sub-saharan african countries? Is agriculture still a backbone? References are welcome!
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I agree with Nelson that Food and even more important livelihood security are crucial aspects. What plays an outstanding role are off-farm livelihoods, meaning livelihoods that are not directly related to farming, animal husbandry and fisheries. Such livelihoods can contribute to an upliftment of rural areas, improve quality of rural lives and slow down migration to urban areas.
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Dear researchers ,
I am looking for studies linking biocultural heritage and rural development. What are the main factors to take in mind to approach this topic? References are welcome!
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I think that understanding for the community first and government support to
pushing for development
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Hi all,
I am currently working on my masters degree in tropical ecology, but I'm having some difficulties wrapping my head around a few statistical terms and tests.
So I am looking to see if there is a correlation between the ratio/percentage of parasite infected blood cells and site class (Rural or developed, categorical data).
I have run a two sample t-test to look for a significant difference in the mean between the two site classes. I've got a p value of 0.243 for my test. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference in infected blood cells between the two sites. My p-value suggest to discard the null hypothesis and assume there is a significant difference between the two sites.
Now, would that do to be able to make a statement that there is a correlation between parasite load and site class? Or is there another test I can run?
Secondly. I am running a few tests of categorical data vs categorical data. Would Chi-squared test be the way to go?
-Cheers Guys :)
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A t-test for percentage data is ok if the sample size is decent (n>20, say) and/or the values are not very close to 0.0 or 1.0. If this is not the case, you may consider ato trasform the data before you test it. The logit-transformation would be appropriate for percentages.
The p-value is a "surprise index" of your observed data whe assuming the null hypothesis. The closer this value to zero, the more "surprising" or unexpected is data like yours - under the assumption of the null hypothesis. If it is "quite surprising", you would reject the null. Usually, "quite surprising" imeans p < 0.05. If your data is less surprising, one would not take this as a reason to reject the null. Your p-value is 0.24, what is not at all surprising. By all conventional standards this is not enough to reject the null hypothesis. The "conclusion" is that your data is not conclusive regarding the null hypothesis. There is not enough information in your data to interpret the sign of the estimated mean difference.
To your second question: yes.
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I am looking for a magazine kind of publication where I can write articles on rural India. These articles are actually an opinion or thought that has arrived from field experience.
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I am working on a project where we have to calculate the rural development index to assess the level of development in that area.
Kindly guide me the expected parameters to be used for this and also suggest the relative studies.
thanks.
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Directly coming to the RDI.
Individual level...
Family annual income
Wealth Creation
Happiness
Group level...
New infrastructure created
Road
Electricity
Regulated market
Health facilities
Community asset
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Different conceptual frameworks [e.g. Multi-Level Perspective, Strategic Niche Management, Transition Management, Innovation Systems, Techno–economic paradigm, Socio–metabolic transitions] have been used to analyse and understand sustainability transitions but mainly in other sectors and systems (e.g. energy, mobility). However, it seems that the use of sustainability transitions frameworks in the agro-food arena is rather limited and results are scattered. This question aims to fill in this gap by gathering experiences regarding the use of integrative transition frameworks in different socio-economic and bio-physical contexts.
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Yes I agree, transitions and shifts in other stages of the food chain (cf. processing, distribution, consumption) need to be considered together. A transition in India has also been observed. India is second largest producer of food grains, fruits and vegetable crops. Record food grains of 285 million ton produced during 2017-18 and per capita availability of foods have increased from 169.8 kg/year (2015) to 176.8 kg/year (2018) but consumption of foodgrains have decreased to 147kg/year because of increased awareness for nutritious food and paying capacity people are demanding different kinds of foods fruits, vegetables, milk, chicken, meat, fish etc. It is also an example of transistion and shifts.
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The organization of cooperatives has been one of the main actions to offer the conditions of insertion of small farmers to the market. Should public policies support this initiative?
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Co-operativism is not very well-known business model stemming from the social economy. I had the opportunity to work for a decade in the Mondragon Co-operative Corporation in the Basque Country, as the largest industrial co-operative experience ever, and I did recap some drawbacks, opportunities and challenges onwards, in this chapter published in the International Handbook on Social Innovation by Eldward Elgar:
Calzada, I. (2013), Knowledge Building & Organizational Behaviour: Mondragon Case, In Moulaert, F., MacCallum, D., Mehmood, A. and Hamdouch, A. International Handbook on Social Innovation.  Social innovation: Collective action, Social learning and Transdisciplinary research. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar (UK) Publishing. 219-229. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30748.69766.
In my opinion and in response to the question, I do strongly believe co-operativism could provide some interesting pathways. Nevertheless, there is already room for implementing and scaling up what it could work.
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These funds are very important for improving the competitiveness of foresting and farming, to protect the environment and the countryside, to diversify the rural economy, to improve the quality of life, and finally to support rural development. Have the effects achieved the goal? The answer of this question will help me for my new article.
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Dear Olaniyan, the website is full with reliable data needed for my manuscript. I appreciated your suggestion.
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want to find out about a sustainable desirable futures of second home tourism with Norway as a case study
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International organisations such as The World Bank argues oil palm brings development by providing numerous jobs for the rural poor, even under the form of large-scale plantations. Jobs are certainly important but as reported in several articles, these jobs are often of poor quality (both in terms of pay and job security). More importantly, and as we found in recent research carried out in Mexico and Guatemala, these jobs reproduce old forms of inequality at the work-place: women work for men, indigenous men work for mestizo men and Guatemalan migrants work for Mexican peasants, but rarely the other way around. This is in line with previous research carried out in Indonesia by, for instance, Tanya Li and Rebecca Elmhirst et al. Can we really say oil palm brings development while social inequalities remain untouched?
Some references:
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It is clearly a function of how the program is implemented and equity factors built-into the Project Design.
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We know that the City Regions Food Systems approach makes an important contribution to the economy and sociology in integrating small, medium and large cities into the debate on food security and territorial development. However, there remains an important issue to be discussed which is 1) "how to integrate different instances of rural and urban governance into a single process that guarantees the autonomy of planning and action of both spaces?" 2) "how to ensure that rural producers, even with their pluriactivity, do not become mere instruments of demand and organization of urban actors?"
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Sir, this sounds like a philosophical question as much as an administrative sort of question. If consumers don't desire a food product, only desperation (from starvation, for instance) can drive demand for that product.
There are methods for stimulating increased demand on desirable products via marketing methodologies, such as the 1980-90s USDA & dairy farmer association funded ad campaigns encouraging people to eat more cheese (so the fat skimmed while making lowfat milk could become more marketable). That was a very successful set of ads because they had a great jingle and appealed to the senses, overwhelming healthier habits.
On the supply end, farmers want to provide for their families and they are willing to work hard to earn their way towards a few luxuries. After assessing what consumers need and want, the habits of farmers to repeat prior performance might need to be overcome. Demonstrate to the farmer that he can replace his tractor in 3 years with "x" crop or in 9 years with "y" crop based upon market factors minus cultivation expenses.
In general terms, those are your two primary answers without affecting autonomy, stimulate demand or alter production, to better match the demand. I hope that was helpful.
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I am working on a project which tends to unravel how investment has caused land-resource conflict and how the same investment has been subsequently arranged in a manner to deal with the conflict and to promote community coherence. I need a theory to validate my findings and possibly, make contributions to it. Suggestions are warmly welcome.
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Any companies like fsc or similar to rainforest alliance
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Dear Georgios
In Greece I do not know, but in case it can be useful for you, the Global FSC Certificate Database contains the most up-to-date information on FSC certificates, both Forest Management and Chain of Custody. The database can be used to verify that a company is FSC certified and search for FSC certified companies or products.
Regards.
PM
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I am beginning a small research project to identify challenges to rural development in a small island in Addu Atoll, Maldives and would like to find out of research on rural community revival projects.
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Without generalizing unduly, the challenges that small island nations face include remoteness, sparse but growing populations, limited resources, susceptibility to natural disasters, excessive dependence on international trade, vulnerability to external shocks, and fragile environments. Their growth and development is constrained by the high costs of communication, energy, and transportation as well as irregular international transport volumes. Because of their size, infrastructure and public administration are disproportionately expensive and these nations have very little opportunity, if any, to create economies of scale. Rural development may not be the right concept to wield: excepting plantations, some forestry, and perhaps small livestock, agriculture is of the subsistence variety and one should not forget fisheries and (as the case may be) aquaculture; and so, a livelihoods approach may be more appropriate.
PS: FAO's work in small island developing states is publicized at http://www.fao.org/sids/en/.
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I would like to make a research on “the impact and challenges of Rural Electrification in the rural poor of developing countries including the challenges of being unable to pay connection fees....etc”. Can anyone provide me guidance and literature in this area?
thanks in advance for your support.
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Dear Ephrem,
I know that there is a movie that describes some impact and changes in a rural region in Morocco due to its electrification. It is named :
Le Thé ou l’Électricité (93 mn)
Unfortunately, it is not in English, but in french. I hope this will help you somehow.
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Sometimes it isn't easy to find a good place to get a membership so as to exchange our knowledge, or sometimes some online trusted organizations inquire too much money just to get an annual membership, so I would love to get a membership in a Horticulture organisation. Thanks for your kind cooperation!
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YOU CAN TRY ISHS
International Society for Horticultural Science.
https://www.ishs.org/Y1990 when I was a grad. student in Oregon State University. Y
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The main objective of the European rural development policy, through the EAFRD and other Structural Funds, is to achieve sustainable rural development in its most disadvantaged rural areas. However, analyzing the distribution of funds (), the largest amounts are destined for the environment, so is it acting in a balanced and sustainable way?
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Dear Zvi Galor, your response fully characterizes the reason for the decline in rural development. I will recommend your articles for study.
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Many of rural agriculture gardens are managed by the elderly. If the elderly struggle to fetch water or the distance to water is too far, how does this impact the type of crop, size of garden or production practices ?
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Although I recognize the vital importance of water for a successful cultivation of crops in a context like the one described by Timothy fetching water from an off-farm/garden location may be ineffective. Therefore, I think permaculture design can assist for example with the establishment of a Key line in the fields which aims at collecting and storing storm water precipitation. In addition to this, techniques like: mulching, companion cropping, agroforestry, managing the soil to increase over time its content of organic matter are just a few ideas to enhance water retention on site. Obviously, selecting crops that are not so demanding to irrigation can help too.
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If we developed a rural area to become a city, what kind of social impacts should be addressed, both positive or negative impacts?
In those areas many people live and their livelihoods depend on local resources. Meanwhile the infrastructures still lack facilitation.
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Population Change, Healthy lifestyle or Quality of life, Social cohesion and sense of belonging, Housing conditions, Access to employment and education, Civic participation and empowerment
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I am starting research on the costs and benefits of small to micro-grid scale renewables electrification in off-gird rural regions of developing countries, in particular Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa.
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hi
Kanase-Patil, A. B., Saini, R. P., & Sharma, M. P. (2010). Integrated renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of remote area. Renewable Energy, 35(6), 1342-1349.
Urmee, T., Harries, D., & Schlapfer, A. (2009). Issues related to rural electrification using renewable energy in developing countries of Asia and Pacific. Renewable Energy, 34(2), 354-357.
Ahlborg, H., & Hammar, L. (2014). Drivers and barriers to rural electrification in Tanzania and Mozambique–Grid-extension, off-grid, and renewable energy technologies. Renewable Energy, 61, 117-124.
Byrne, J., Shen, B., & Wallace, W. (1998). The economics of sustainable energy for rural development: a study of renewable energy in rural China. Energy policy, 26(1), 45-54.
Nguyen, K. Q. (2007). Alternatives to grid extension for rural electrification: Decentralized renewable energy technologies in Vietnam. Energy Policy, 35(4), 2579-2589.
Beck, F., & Martinot, E. (2004). Renewable energy policies and barriers. Encyclopedia of energy, 5(7), 365-383.
Mahapatra, S., & Dasappa, S. (2012). Rural electrification: optimising the choice between decentralised renewable energy sources and grid extension. Energy for Sustainable Development, 16(2), 146-154.
Winkler, H. (2005). Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity. Energy Policy, 33(1), 27-38.
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Solar Home System (SHS) is the economical and most feasible for poor villagers in rural areas. However, the villagers can use very limited power from SHS.
PV Hybrid Mini/Micro Grid can supply more power (kW) than SHS and it can supply for the whole day. But, there may be challenges for management, maintenance and financial issues.
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For villages, the SHS may be the best solution of the lack of electricity distribution subsystem(s). The nature of the housing, activity, land topological constraints are the main reasons of the mentioned recommendation. For better utilisation of the solar energy, the thermal loads can be partially or totally supplied from simple solar thermal systems, while the essential electic loads are to be supplied from the solar-PV. Energy saving, and energy efficiency awareness programs may be also adopted for maximisation of the usefulness of the enegy utilisation.
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Please give your viewpoint 
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In Gujarat Technological University we have established a Graduate school of Smart Cities Development and we have been offering several courses on E platform of our University.
The documents officially published on Smart cities do not exhibit any aspect of Urban forestry.
How do you want to incorporate urban forestry in smart cities project is therefore a question. Green buildings- high performance buildings have been incorporated to ensure optimal use of natural resources. Suggestions to give place to urban forestry in smart cities should be considered by the Competent Authorities in India.
Ideally how much area for forestry and which species should be grown to reduce carbon foot print in urban area can be suggested.
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Many review papers on hybrid renewable energy systems point out DC-bus and AC-bus solutions as equally good options for an off-grid system but I would like to know whether the rural electrification scenario would favour one or the other. Requirements in rural regions include low cost, simplicity (fewer components decrease the risk of malfunction), relatively small system size (typically under 1 MW), ease of operation and maintenance, etc. Other aspects to consider are whether grid connection will arrive in the future, and the type of appliances commonly in use in developing areas.
Thank you in advance for your insights.
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With AC systems the cost of varying the voltage/current ratio for a given power is simpler, you just need a transformer. DC systems need a DC to AC converter, a transformer and a rectifier. AC systems can be switched more easily as an AC switch is less difficult to make than a DC switch for the same peak voltage (it is self quenching and has a much less chance of striking a sustained arc). So for different linked systems in the rural area I would think AC would be cheaper. But it isn't necessarily the most cost effective as a DC system will operate at full rated voltage and current all the time while an AC system needs to be able to stand 1.414 times the stated 'RMS' voltage, so its insulation will need to be thicker and its switchgear rated at the higher voltage.
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I was hoping to get climate data (avg temp, highs, lows, precip, etc.) for a remote region in Peru. It is near Ayacucho, and I was wondering if it is possible to download data from there, or if there is a different approach I should use.
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In the case of Mexico, the climate data can be found in the database of the national water commissioner and in the national observatory
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  1. Ideas for designing an application for rural people
  2. Any interesting experience in this field
  3. Any well known phones' applications to be used as examples
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Dear Yousef,
You've intended for a good issue. There is plenty of options that you may consider. For your reference, I've given two relevant papers. 
Additionally, let me share a real example.
I've witnessed a rapid transformation in rural people's life using mobile transfer system in Bangladesh. One of the major of this kind is bKash which is formed by leading bank named Brac Bank. There are many people in the rural area who migrates from village to city for better life, yet they had no swift and convenient way to transfer their earning to their families back in village. Where this technological adaptation worked as life changing. Now a days, poor people who has a phone can register their sim number under bKash and open a account and that they can use to transfer money and make savings, eventually that leads to effective way of financial inclusion. 
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what is right Questionnaire formation for Rural Development in India ?
Dear Guides, please help me on above question and best ways to follow to collect the information
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Colleague attempts to find information in official statistics.
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Looking for value chain studies on rice in different Indian states, any publications which deal with methodological issues are welcome. Also if data of area, production and yield along with marketed quantities if available, are welcome. Thank you in advance.
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Thank you for sharing this publication.
Regards
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Value addition to raw materials such as primary forest production within national boundaries before export can create greater local employment and stimulate local economies. How can this be tackled in forest-endowed countries in Africa?
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This is seemingly a simple question but answering the question requires a thorough understanding of the political economy of most African countries. Why businesses and entrepreneurship do not flourish in most African countries? A crude answer to the question is economic and political gangsters are blocking the way for entrepreneurs who could have added value to forest products and generated income and employment opportunities.
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actualy, im doing a small research about how can urban agriculture like greenhouses  promotes urban development and tourism 
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Thank you so much Mr Suresh K Malhotra  . 
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Urban greening is significative for the city economic and social development. We want to construct a method to evaluate the direct economic benefits of city greening, such as the GDP index.
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You say that it is significant, and it might be so. However, this should be your hypothesis and not your conclusion. The impact of greening can be measured as the increase in the total value of land associated with the elements of greening you identify. This is found by the use of hedonic analysis. Whether the value increase is worth it depends on the relative cost of the greening.
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hello,
we are working to find already known naturally occuring plants, funghi, microbiota and the like, showing gabapentinoid activity or aiding the effect or helping with the reduction and so forth in order to support the tapering of pregabaline and similar substances and helping to rebuild normal functionality after the cessation.
it doesn't need to be exclusively focussed on gapapentinoid modes of action as there is probably a plethora of possibilities to start inducing a slow and protected adaptation of receptor density and Gaba supply and to heal the other affected metabolic and functional cycles in order to meet the demands placed by sobriety on the brain's constitution. 
i'm thinking for example of the modes of action of ketamine and ibogaine and other nmda antagonists.
also, which minerals and vitamins need to be primarily replenished (like b1, b5, b6, b7 b11, b12,...) and which nutrients or active substances (like taurine or magnesium,..) do aid the restoration process? 
we also look forward to all lifestyle recommendations like living free of stress, regular exercise, ... 
we welcome any input, ideas, hints, papers and research and hope together we can help a many good people who stumbled into a miserable situation!
thank you all in advance,
patrick schimpl
chairman of project: kindergarten, non-profit organisation, 'because if the world's a garden for children it's paradise'
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There are many herbs used as calcium channel blockers. But whether they contain gabapentins etc is to be researched.....
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I want to know about case studies that help illustrate the contribution of agroecology to create and to strengthen social capital in rural communities.
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Thank you so much for your information :-)
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I am trying to find some key literature to advance my knowledge about the philosophical understanding for the development of communities, water resources, and agriculture in indigenous and/or marginalised communities. In other words, I am trying to explore the nexus among traditional water management, agriculture, and development in communities.
Please suggest some key readings. Thanks
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Dear Saddam,
These communities have traditionally developed shallow groundwater resources in the form of dug wells, wells, and horizontal tunnels (known as suranga), which are used for household and irrigation water requirements. Thanks 
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-In terms of socio-economy.
-In relation to conserving biodiversity
-In respect to maintaining soil health status
The climatic condition is Sub tropical with rainfall of about 2500mm per annum. Main crops being rice and maize. Location NE India. Fallow period 5 to 20 years
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Establishment of fruit and Non-Timber Forest Produce trees, which are drought tolerant as main plantation crop and inter-cropping with food crops have been successfully promoted by BAIF in India benefiting over 0.2 million tribal families  to ensure food security. You may visit BAIF website for more details.
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broadly speaking, factors that affect participation of people in community organisations could be social, political, economical or organisational. what would be the appropriate model to determine these factors including the methodologies. 
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You can use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) if you assume that there are latent (not observed) factors which determine observable (measured) variables. A CFA is a particular case of Structural Equation Modeling. The idea is to make hypotheses about different latent factors affecting several (imperfect) measures of people's participation, to estimate a model fitting covariances of observed data, and to test it against alternative hypotheses. The formulation of a hypothesis (number of factors and their relationship with the observed variables) should be guided by theory or by a conceptual framework.
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Our H2020 project focuses on marginalised rural areas? Within the team of 26 partner organizations we manage to agree on what marginalised areas are. However, validation from others working in the field would help. And is there a difference, in your opinion, between marginal & marginalised (these are not only, or rather not definitely, remote. Right?) Thanks.
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Marginalized rural area is used for those rural areas which are exhausted of the socio-economic and natural resources. For example, by the overuse of water, the quantity or quality of water has become unfit for use, employment is not available as possible employment opportunities have been exhausted, the farm size has dwindled and people are on the brink of poverty.          
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Traditional ecological knowledge is the wisdom learned from the Nature, the learning from the past.  TEK is the knowledge about the nature (environment), knowledge about the values and use of the nature and ecosystem and the knowledge for (protection and perpetuation) of the Nature.It is closely related to local nature, biodiversity  - flora, fauna and  ecosystems. By nature it's local, diverse, collective, diachronic and holistic.
It focuses on the value of the belief-knowledge-practice  complex (the Kosmos – Corpus - Praxis complex ) of indigenous peoples in relation to nature and its biodiversity:
•The Kosmos: Nature is the productive source and centre of the universe, the core of culture , and origin of cultural identity.
•The Corpus: repository of ecological knowledge (local, collective, diachronic & holistic)
•The Praxis:
     - Man –Nature symbiosis (living together based on give and take principle);
     - Subsistence is based more on ecological exchanges with nature than on economic   exchange with market.
     - Principle of diversity of resources and practices: 1. subsistence based on optimum utilization of land, 2. recycling of materials, energy & wastes, 3. multi-use & product diversification, 4. integration of different practices
With this backdrop I am inviting you all to present a profile of traditional ecological knowledge ( as a whole or a specific one community). More importantly please discuss how diverse TEK can be used in sustainable use of biophysical resources, bioprospecting taking cues from ethnomedicine and tackling other environmental problems.
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I wrote about this in the 1990s in relation to arboreal-based subsistence practices in island Southeast Asia and the Pacific - i.e., Wallacea to Greater Near Oceania as termed by Roger Green. It was a large part of my anthropology dissertation - 1999; University of Hawaii; summed up in a World Archaeology 2000 paper - primarily the archaeological part. I “do” a version of historical ecology: using archaeological, environmental, historic and ethnographic data to look at long-term human-environment trends (i.e., very diachronic ecologies with humans as the central point of analysis). In the case with Maluku to the Solomons and arboreal-based economies, it’s 40-50 thousand years. As far as the knowledge goes, hundreds and probably thousands of years of successful and unsuccessful practices (all of which can essentially be viewed as experiments and their results) are condensed into various knowledge and belief packages for more effective and efficient cultural transmission and enforcement of “TEK”. “Sasi" and “Matakau” (generally resulting in supernatural threats or curses for breaking resource extraction taboos ranging from individual holdings to community holdings), for example, are effective means of preventing over-extraction of resources in Maluku (pant, animal, etc.). A penchant for multi-cropping rather than mono-cropping keeps biodiversity high and overall subsistence resiliency strong (although it was disrupted by western and modern plantation systems which has taken a social, economic, and environmental toll); the same with food choices and eating habits. They do and have produced, extracted and managed at “industrial” scales (at least large scales; not only subsistence) of export production of various resources (damar, clove, nutmeg, sago, hard woods, aromatic woods, construction woods, etc.)... Can read about it if further interested.
The main point here: a considerable amount of long-term, multi-generational, multi-community “scientific” ecological experimentation is found in traditional ecological knowledge, although it’s often coded in daily habits, rituals, heuristics, taboos, beliefs, and so forth. The fact that it’s been tested for generations makes it all the more valuable. The knowledge and practices face evolutionary process. Some fall out over time. New ones emerge. And some are enduring for very good reasons. It’s often a matter of translating the “TEK” as you call it into modern scientific-speak to realize the science has always been there.
Hope this helps. Interesting project/ideas. And, my apologies for the rather rapid off the cuff and poorly edited answer. More coming. Thanks again.
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 Running ICT projects in Agriculture and Rural Development
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The United States Department of Agriculture has this program available
Contact Shawn Keller at USDA, 160 St Peters Centre Blvd, St Peters MO 63376
Telephone (636) 922-2833   She is their Soil Conservationist and has this program
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particularly in the rural areas
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References
Ison, R., & Russell, D. (2007). Agricultural extension and rural development: breaking out of knowledge transfer traditions. Cambridge University Press.
and
Rivera, W. M., Qamar, M. K., & Mwandemere, H. K. (2016). Enhancing coordination among akis/rd actors: an analytical and comparative review of country studies on agricultural knowledge and information systems for rural development (akis/rd).
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Land consolidation is being considered as an important approach to address the problem of land fragmentation in the densely populated areas of Eastern Africa.  
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Thanks both for sharing your experiences. Yes, I agree with the points that the emerging issues and the possible benefits/flaws are different at production and marketing levels; and also depending on the land tenure system. It is interesting to learn that 'prevention' of further subdivision of land is getting attention in the customary land tenure.
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Our forest bestows hundreds of non timber forest products. But very few are recognized and utilized. Whether govt should come forward to encourage forest farming  or not ??
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I am beginning a literature review with a masters student who will study this question in the context of Eastern Amazonia. We are interested in this question in reference to smallholders and their establishments -- as opposed to youth engaged in daily work for wages, however, these references are also interesting to provide more context. References from outside the region are also interesting.
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Dr. Saravanan Raj in Passighat, Arunachal Pradesh, India has conducted a research project on Rural Youth and Agriculture and I think project is still going on. He has ID in research gate..
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The pyrolysis of urban forest and green waste to produce biochar is based on system used in Stockholm, and the utilisation of biochar is key to how the project can be further intergrated into urban ecosystem allowing urban horticulture to beocme a component of improved urban ecosystem that is also community orientated where a cafe/food outlet derives 80% of produce form local growers...the biochar is used to reduce/prevent PAH, VOC & heavy metals entering food chain so the role of green walls, roofs and conversion of brownfield & deralic land to alotments becomes viable.
Is this sort of project feesable and has any one worked on the development of not for profit community horticultural projects of this nature.
Thank-you
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I do not know about locking up of organic pollutants using biochar, but the literature on the analogous process for heavy metals is contestable because many studies fail to discriminate between the effect of sorption and increased pH caused by biochar amendments.  Thisis important as one effect is likelt to have a much longer life than the other.  
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Dear All,
I am conducting a study on sustainable land management in demined areas in post war setting. I need to propose a framework/model to introduce sustainable land management in the war torn area so that people will practice eco-friendly agriculture. In order to reach this objective, I need to learn how to develop a framework and how to write/present it. At the moment, I have collected the relevant data and have the idea but struggling to put it in an analytical form. Therefore, would be very grateful for you all if you could kindly share a few studies (any area) which have proposed a framework at the end. Sample frameworks would be very helpful! 
Note: To be precise, I am not looking at theoretical or typical conceptual framework that we normally used to write in thesis. 
Many thanks and all the best to your research work.
Harshi 
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I am doing an assessment about climate smart agriculture in South Western Ugandan farmers. I am wondering what would be the key indicators that I should look for in this case. The purpose for this study is to improve food securit