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Rural Areas - Science topic

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The question is pretty self explanatory, but I am looking especially for female labor force participation, where the focus has been on rural areas? especially in Asian and African countries.
I have been tasked with creating a policy brief for my development economics course, so would really appreciate any such information on existing policy briefs or ones implemented in the past too.
TIA
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Nigeria urban population has grown from 20% of the total in 1920 to 65% in 2020 and is projected to continue growing to 75% by 2050. While the rural population is expected to decline in 2050, the urban population is expected to increase from the current 155 million in 2020 to 180 million by 2050.[4] This upward trend of urbanization is expected to continue in both more developed regions and less developed regions.
Are people happier living in the rural area or in a Urban area? The urban/rural gap is present regardless of country income level (based on World Bank classifications). Individuals living in cities are more likely to report access to financial resources, the ability to afford food, and having people they can rely on. people living in rural areas are less likely to report that they have a bank account than those in Urban areas. This is most pronounced in low-income states. Lack of access to bank accounts can substantially affect peoples' lives.
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Yes, we can certainly say that ignorance and illiteracy are part of the problem. Education and access to information are essential factors in promoting economic development, and these are both areas that Nigeria is struggling in. Poor infrastructure, inadequate access to healthcare, and government corruption are also major contributors to the lack of progress in Nigeria. These issues all contribute to a feeling of unhappiness among the population, and to a lack of hope for a brighter future. Investing in education and infrastructure, as well as tackling corruption and improving access to healthcare, can all help to improve the level of happiness among Nigerians.
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To calculate the UHI, is it better to delimit only the urban area (work with that built up area) or should I work with a larger section that includes the urban area and also the rural areas? I ask because when doing the calculation it gives me different results according to the cut I make and it causes me confusion.
Urban area up to 6 degrees difference
Urban and rural area up to 3 degrees throughout the image
Thanks!
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I thank you all very much, I still don't have a clear answer but you have given me very valuable ideas.
I am quantifying the intensity of the heat islands, but this value changes a bit according to the cropping of the image (Landsat) with formula 2 (UHI)> https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S2405844022014736#bib5
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Can I please have questionnaire for my study. It is a quantitative study
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Developing questionnaire in this field depends on your operational definition of bullying, the target population and culture of the investigation environment
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In his attempt to modify the limitation of the Perroux growth model, R.P. Mishra developed a hybrid theory (model) combining the concept of Christaller’s CPT, Friedman's concept of Core-Periphery, and Hagerstrand’s Spatial Diffusion Model. My concern is which country (region or locality) in the world successfully implemented this theory (or a variant of it) to operationalize the needs of the people of the predominantly rural countries such as Ethiopia or India (rural people)? How was it made functional? Had there been related policy instruments? Had there been programs or projects? Any pertinent document to support such operationalization?
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Public services have transformed by digitalization for easy access to the mass people, particularly in the rural area.
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Today the digital transformation provides new avenues for the economic empowerment of women and can contribute to greater gender equality. The Internet, digital platforms, mobile phones and digital financial services offer “leapfrog” opportunities for all and can help bridge the divide by giving women the possibility to earn additional income, increase their employment opportunities, and access knowledge and general information. We need to seize this opportunity to foster greater gender equality in the labour market, boost economic growth and build a more inclusive, digital world. The road ahead is uphill: today worldwide some 327 million fewer women than men have a smartphone and can access the mobile Internet. Women are under-represented in ICT jobs, top management and academic careers and, as shown in this report, men are four times more likely than women to be ICT specialists. At 15 years of age, on average, only 0.5% of girls wish to become ICT professionals, compared to 5% of boys. Women-owned start-ups receive 23% less funding and are 30% less likely to have a positive exit compared to male-owned businesses. Co-ordinated policy action can help narrow the digital gender gap. This requires raising awareness and tackling gender stereotypes; enabling enhanced, safer and more affordable access to digital tools; and stronger cooperation across stakeholders to remove barriers to girls and women’s full participation in the digital world. Digital technologies provide new opportunities to make progress, but technological fixes cannot address the underlying structural problems that drive the digital gender divide. Concrete policy actions are needed to foster women’s and girls’ full participation and inclusion in the digital economy, while at the same time addressing stereotypes and social norms that lead to discrimination against women. The digital gender divide needs to be resolved. There is no reason for women to trail behind in the digital transformation. The cost of inaction is high and in the face of sluggish growth, ageing societies and increasing educational attainment of young women, the economic case for digital gender equality is clear. Bridging the gender divide, also in the digital world, can provide new sources of global economic growth, support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and help achieve the G20 goal of strong, sustainable and inclusive growth. (OECD, 2018)
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I'm looking for any smart villages aplications in your country. I'm interested in examples that involve the enviroment, agricultural, society and technology. I would be grateful for any input.
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Hello Professor Slawomir,
Kindly find this from Kenya
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I am looking for examples of interesting SMART solutions in rural areas - for instance, vending machines, direct sales, self-service shops, etc. Please send me examples - along with short descriptions and pictures - of any interesting SMART solutions you may have come across.
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I have seen milk-o-mats and egg-o-mats in villages in Istria, Croatia, as specialized vending mashines
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What should be the multidimensional nature of EV charging station in urban and rural areas?
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For immediate infrastructure creation, all Fuel filling stations should also have EV charging stations.
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Indian scientists have developed a candidate vaccine against the coronavirus disease that remains active after long-term storage at room temperature, raising hopes for novel vaccines that would not need low-temperature cold chain demanded by most vaccines.Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, and collaborators in Faridabad and Thiruvananthapuram have designed a protein-based vaccine candidate formulation that they say looks promising and remains active at 37°C for over four weeks.Cold storage temperature for routine immunisation vaccines is typically 2 to 8°C and can be much lower for some vaccines.Their vaccine candidate uses a small fragment of the so-called spike surface protein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, to stimulate the immune system into making neutralising antibodies against the virus. In studies in guinea pigs, the vaccine generated antibody levels comparable to those observed from several other vaccine candidates currently under clinical trials worldwide.Almost all vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 under development need refrigeration or are in a frozen state before they are administered. Public health experts view the need for a low-temperature supply chain as a major challenge for vaccine delivery, particularly in the rural areas of low and middle-income countries.“The protein fragment we’ve used in our candidate vaccine elicits antibodies and it is stable at room temperature,” Raghavan Varadarajan, a senior scientist at the IISc molecular biophysics unit who led the research, told The Telegraph.The stability at 37°C for at least four weeks would be a major advantage in efforts to distribute a vaccine in rural areas that lack low-temperature storage facilities. Varadarajan and his colleagues published their findings in the Journal of Biological Chemistry on Thursday.The scientists have sought funding from the Indian government for downstream development — more exhaustive pre-clinical studies in animals and toxicity studies that are critical prerequisites ahead of human clinical trials.For the animal studies, the IISc group partnered with a Bangalore-based start-up Mynvax. The other collaborators are based at the Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research in Thiruvananthapuram and the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad.The researchers say the timeline for further development would hinge on funding. Accelerated pre-clinical and toxicity studies can typically take two to three months. The speed of efforts to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has been unprecedented. The very first vaccine candidate emerged only about two months after scientists had published the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence.Three other vaccine candidates are already under clinical
trials in India — an inactivated vaccine from the Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech,a DNA
vaccine from Ahmedabad-based Zydus Cadila and an adenovirus-based vaccine developed by
Oxford researchers.
On this background matrix, the present proposal aims to develop COVID vaccine at room
temperature considering three primary seasons of the state premonsoon (average temperature
380C), monsoon (average temperature 350C) and postmonsoon (average temperature 280C).
The ambient atmosphere also varies in terms of composition as recorded by scientists of
Techno India University, West Bengal.
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Dear Abhijit,
There are protein preparations which are stable at room or fridge temperature. E.g. antibodies frequently are shipped lyophilized or dried, sometimes using additives. Thus, together with the vaccine, one could supply a vial of a sterile suitable solvent (saline, water, physiological buffer ...) that is added to dissolve the vaccine on site, just before injection.
While this principle in my experience usually works well for purified antibodies (that's how we are shipping them), it still has to be validated for each individual protein. Vaccines do not consist of pure antigens only, they also have adjuvants and other substances, so there is no guarantee that this process will work for protein based vaccines, but in my opinion, it's definitely worth exploring.
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Gender Gap in rural area.
One stop service center is one of the initiative for public service delivery decentralization.
need to know how they are related in this case.
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Gender Gap in education , it is related with education services provided by UDC.
Gender Gap in training , employment opportunity, working environment, wages delivered by UDC.
Are these appropriate to meet up the objective of the study?
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Grab seems like it's an important player in the digital scene in Southeast Asia. But what impact does it have in rural space? I'm looking for papers or personal insights.
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I can only share with you my traveling experiences in 2019 and the first weeks of 2020 (I have returned to Macao on January 19 at the start of the pandemic crisis). In Indonesia, I had access to Grab in Jakarta and Yogyakarta, but not in small towns and rural areas. The same happened in Vietnam: I accessed Grab transportation services in Danang, but they were not available in Haiphong and other smaller towns. These are large countries with huge populations, so I presume that GRAB will concentrate services, mainly transportation and food delivery, in the large metropolitan areas. As you know, in Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos, transportation in rural areas and small towns uses motorbikes and bicycles, while food is easily offered by countless peddlers and simple booths. I don't foresee any online services able in the next coming years to change these long-term sociabilities and economic patterns.
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Would you please let me know how many tourists visits rural areas both in developing countries and developed countries? I could not find any literature on it.
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u can receive data from village local administration for clear understating.
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Hi all, I'm looking for any studies using Co-Design, Participatory Design, or Design Thinking specifically in developing countries. Of specific interest are technology-based projects and the uptake of technology in developing countries especially rural regions.
If you have come across any, or were involved in any, please let me know Many thanks in advance P.J.
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Dear PJ White,
Participatory design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable.
Benefits of Participatory Design in Web Development
The most attractive benefit of the participatory design is bringing a fresh, unique set of eyes into the design process. Developers and engineers work daily to create web designs and interface models, but do not share the same perspectives of end-users
Co-design, design with users, not for them. Participatory design you design for users and get their input.
A human-centered, systems-minded, and strategy-aligned design approach for social sector leaders. ... Strategic planning is logical and ensures that an organization's activities actually lead to its intended outcome, rather than busy work. Human centered design is action-oriented, deeply human, and experimental
The design thinking process is broken up into five specific design thinking stages: empathy, definition, ideation, prototyping, and testing.
best wishes for your project
sandeep
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Although online education is a good alternative to the face-to-face education system in critical situations such as the current situation, but due to the sudden occurrence and rapid spread of the disease, many countries have not been able to adapt their education. As various studies have shown, although there have been examples of plans for distance learning and online learning in many countries during the epidemic, most have been limited in scope and size. Is not a global crisis. As with the Covid-19 epidemic, countries with limited technology faced limitations in their schools to fully implement online education and failed to do so (Sintema et al., 2020). An important part of the schools that suffered serious damage in this way was related to rural schools and multi-grade classrooms. The students of these schools lacked the least experience of online education in the past and suddenly faced a phenomenon that was frightening for many of them. The fact is that in times of crisis, education will not be normal and technology alone cannot fill the gap created in learning. Especially in places such as rural areas where students face many restrictions on access to the same technologies (David et al., 2020). Teaching is moving online on an unprecedented scale. The important thing is that these events will not be just a short-term issue. Rather, it can have long-term consequences for affected groups and, most importantly, rural students who lack the facilities to access online education and are likely to increase inequalities (Burgess et al., 2020).
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Education has become in advanced stages, as education in kindergarten is part of the stages of educational development in the future, and in the future because they have not been properly established education. Children, in order to learn, need an educational environment that has certain specific characteristics. Children learn more through play and seeing Teachers are in front of them and imitate them. In addition to the presence of some studies that indicated the risks and negative effects of technology on the child.
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Most of the surveys on the KAP towards COVID-19 were conducted online yet people in rural areas hardly have smartphones to participate in these studies unlike their counterparts in urban areas. This meant that most of the data collected were from urban and literate dwellers. Don't you think that this leaves a knowledge gap on the KAP towards COVID-19 among people living in rural areas and illiterates thus a factor attributing to the steady spread of COVID-19 in Africa?
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Yes, I do. Agreed with your point that you have raised. Internet coverage or smartphone or other communication tools definitely make differences between rural areas and urban region, when an online research is being conducted. In this regard, my opinion to reduce the problem is appointing researchers' representatives directly to that rural areas. Thank you.
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I want to do work in this topic if anyone have any articles/books related to this topic cross-caste and caste boundaries marriage in rural areas In Pakistan.
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Thanks dear
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Family planning is an issue of couple and women should take the fertility decision to get their desired outcomes according to ICPD, 1994. Unluckily, it's not maintained in rural areas of Indian subcontinent where majority of people live. Men don't want to use contraceptive but in fertility decision they get the priority. Women are in silence to avoid familial disharmony in male dominant culture.
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@Dr. Muhammed...one of the problem may be the lack of reversible contraceptive and also preference of non invasive techniques which unfortunately is not at all practiced. I am sure with the amount of research developing in this area there is much awaited..
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Looking for a specifications for unpaved road
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Thank you Emmanuel
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My application requires people that i will visit to discuss my project. my project is about maternal and child health outcomes reduction through preconception care. please if interested on my project, please list your contacts and your organization to find you once i reach USA and our sponsors will contact you before. i want 10 people one should be from rural areas. Thank you for your support. i am waiting you soon
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Best Wishes and Good Luck!
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Do you think that offering a complementary tourist offer (for example: cultural activities, routes through the natural environment, ...) is the solution to increase overnight stays in rural areas?
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Yes. This is an excellent suggestion.
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Historically, the American federalism has centralized. However, the public agenda has zigzagged from centralization to decentralization creating political changes. But, what about rural America?
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Rural areas of the US have what yo might call "light government" rather than the full extent of government. Most are governed by county governments that do not have the resources - and in most cases don't want them - to offer the full panoply of services that you find in urban areas. sometimes these areas are suburbs; more likely they are farming areas, national or state forests or land, etc. The concept of federalism that governs the relationships between the federal government and the states does not apply within states. Within states, the state government is supreme (google Dillon's rule - see Wikipedia article), and if the state wants to house its prisoners in county jails, it can do so (California about 10 years ago). If a state wishes to apply regulations to the counties, it can do so (see the sustained groundwater management act in California about 5 years ago). And many of the people in rural areas want to have light government as well. it's a system that reflects the preferences of the people in the rural areas. For many, perhaps most, it works well, but there are always those who want to have more government services in areas where they are not provided. The trick is to find a place with the right level of government that you can afford to live in. I hope this helps the questioner.
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As we know most of institutions are trying to promote e-classes or e- learning through different tools and softwares. I know it is not so difficult task for private institutions and field like management, IT, Computer etc. But in agriculture stream, most of students r from rural areas where proper network of 2G is not available. They face connectivity issue. So, what is your opinion and possible suggestions? What could be alternatives?
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Agriculture is something that needs to be taught and learnt hands-on!
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All are busy with morbidity and mortality focusing only testing and treatment of COVID-19.
Community awareness is still neglected in South Asian countries like India, Bangladesh etc. and the problem is more deeply rooted in rural areas. Although rural people were in panic in the initial stage but they are becoming more reluctant day by day to maintain the health guidelines.
Crisis in ensuring healthy practices is actually chronic problem across the world.
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In the Indonesian context, the demand to earn a living and the low level of public understanding of the dangers of Covid-19 are one of the reasons why people still ignore the policy of Covid-19 countermeasures.
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In that the CORONA situation the every wear the lack of health workers and health team members and instruments supply so its better way to instruct basic things to our students ( With all sefty precautions)those live in the Rural areas and Urban areas also and they helping the society as good advertiser, as a social and help to minimize the Anxiety related to CORONA virus infection.
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All healthcare workers and students are crucial in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 transmission including community health care workers and those who have recovered from the disease
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Ground Water Pollution Nitrate Anthropogenic activity
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It should be assured that the discharge ( nitrate containing) could not meet to the aquifer being tapped for drinking and irrigation purpose. According to BIS 2012 The acceptable limit for nitrate in drinking water is 45mg/l. Excess of nitrate in drinking water may lead to Methemoglobinemia (MetHb).
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Prosopis juliflora is the predominant invasive species of countries like India and other countries. I have a great interest to know about this species but unfortunately, I didn't get the right clear knowledge about it. The most important aspect of my point of view is whether this good or harmful? because there are two views about this species. In some areas, this plant mainly helps and supports the livelihood of poor communities, especially in rural areas but others believe this is harmful to the environment and most importantly this plant is the main reason for the drought. I request all scientific community, particularly those who are experts or interested persons in this above field, please give your valuable comments and opinions about it.
If any institution or professor is interest to conduct research about this topic I will be interested to part of your research.
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The pods especially used as cattle feed have been reported as toxic to goat, cow etc. The toxicity and its effect on cattle tend to vary across geographical areas.
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Migration of People from urban to rural area is responsible for spread of COVID 19 in Rural Area?
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Yes, return of migrants from urban areas causes spread of COVID-19 in rural India.
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In Bangladesh, affected cases in the urban region are higher than in rural areas. Are there any research findings of the COVID 19 affected rate in the village and urban regions? What should be the research-based explanation
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In Serbia, most Covid-19 cases are in cities, cases in rural areas are very rare. Official statistics now says most cases (more than 80%) are in the capital of Serbia, Belgrade, which the largest city (about 2 million people). The rest of the cases are in a few other cities (Novi Pazar, Uzice, Vranje...), while in villages it is difficult to find them at all. The answer why it is so is not difficult: more people, higher density of population, more movement, gatherings with lot of people, etc.
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Women of South Asian countries are mostly domestically bound since their childhood. Early marriage and adolescent pregnancy are endemic in rural areas. Even they believe that if they are empowered then domestic violence will be increased. Who will break their chain?
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Jim Drummond set it perfectly. As a woman feels her empowerment, that is, acknowledges and practices her capability of self-determination, she faces big obstacles. One of them is supposing this empowerment itself is giving rise to more violence.
It is not that autonomy which causes violence: it is the judgement of the offender. When he senses the risk of not managing the micro patriarchal scope -- the household --, he will try to convince the injured person that she is wrong. Now the macro patriarchal system -- such as formal institutional norms -- plays a key role. The State could be a defender of her individual rights, or could ratify violent conceptions and behaviors.
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social network model is used mainly to study language maintenance and shift. thus i understand there must be a bilingual society or cases like immigrants and so on. in my case is it okay to study this model in a monolingual society to find the influence of social ties on a sociolinguistic practice between two ares identified in the question. thanks a lot
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Good answer Daniel Z. Kadar
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People especially in rural areas do not take this pandemic seriously and they are not ready to change their lifestyles.
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Every community or rural area has their best way of passing information to their people. I think you should get to the area in question and find out how their rural leaders communicates to them. That will help.
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i have collected data from rural area of uttar pradesh(4 districts) for personal computer purchase intention. what kind of sampling it will be?
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Hi Ajit
I agree with David Eugene Booth. Before you start collecting data, you need to ask many questions. The first question to ask is 'What is the objective of my study?' Since you have not given any details in your question, I have given below an illustration.
Suppose your research objective/question is 'Estimating the proportion of rural households/individuals with the intention of buying PCs' in the State of Uttar Pradesh'.
The next question would be 'How to select the districts?' Since, we want to understand (or make inference) about the entire State of UP, we have to select Districts that would be 'representative' of the State. For instance, if you selected 4 districts in 'western' UP (which may be relatively richer in terms of per capita income) you may get results which may not be representative of the entire State.
The next question could be "Should we select 'rural households' or 'rural individuals' from the selected districts? If you want to study 'rural households', you may like to study purchase intention in various 'income classes'. Then you would divide the 'frame' or population of rural households into 'Upper', 'Medium' and 'Lower' income classes and select 'random' samples from each of these categories. If you want to study gender differences in demand for PCs, then you would have to 'randomly' select samples of males and females from rural areas in the selected districts.
Hope this illustration helps. The book shared by David gives the details.
Good Luck.
Arun
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How is the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the rural farming communities in different regions/countries. You could share your experiences, suggestions, ideas, opinions etc. which may be useful for understanding the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on marginal, small and medium farming communities.
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I do not know about other countries, but in India, we are now going through the world's largest lockdown. Agriculture was always gambling here, lack of advanced and early detection technology, poor communication with the farmers always lead a huge loss to the farmers in any disaster. This time when the whole country is under the lockdown farmers is not getting proper agri-inputs and advice. So I think it will hamper the production, later coming to the storage farmers are not going for storage nowadays. We don't have that much capacity so farmers mostly do the distress sell. So this pandemic will make this situation worse.
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Dear all,
Do you know food, human geography or rural development journals that accept short papers (below 4,000 words)? Thank you, Best!
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What future for industrial districts? We will discuss it at ERSA2020 in Bozen next August. Would you like to participate with a presentation? Submit an abstract! Here all information about the conference https://ersa.eventsair.com/60…/call-for-abstracts-and-papers #districts #industry4.0 #economicdevelopment #clusters #industry #industrialdevelopment #localdevelopment #papers #specialsession #urbanrurallinkages #sustainabledevelopment #paper #research #economics
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Peter F. Colwell Dear professor, your are right. A definition of industrial district is essential. This session would be a sort of starting point for the discussion. For this reason, it focuses on two pillars, the first is precisely methodological and wants to investigate the methods for the definition of districts. The second is structural because it wants to investigate the resilience of post-economic crisis districts. Thanks for your suggestions, they are very useful.
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What future for industrial districts? We will discuss it at ERSA2020 in Bozen next August. Would you like to participate with a presentation? Submit an abstract! Here all information about the conference https://ersa.eventsair.com/60…/call-for-abstracts-and-papers #districts #industry4.0 #economicdevelopment #clusters #industry #industrialdevelopment #localdevelopment #papers #specialsession #urbanrurallinkages #sustainabledevelopment #paper #research #economics
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Emmanuel V Murray Dear Emmanuel, please read the call for presentation here https://ersa.org/2019/12/16/ersa2020-call-for-abstracts-is-open/
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Dear all,
I am Valentina Cattivelli, a senior researcher at Eurac Research (Bolzano, IT) and I am a guest editor at Sustainability (IF 2.5).
With this, I would like to invite you to submit a paper within a special issue "Social farming for Social innovation and viability in rural areas". This special issue will contribute to the current debate on the green care movement, presenting some innovative solutions and business models to apply social farming as an innovative diversification strategy. The Issue will focus on the impact that social farming activities directly or indirectly have on the social-ecological transformation when fostering environmental knowledge building as well as well-being in and with nature. At the same time, it will evidence how social farming strengthens social capital in rural areas through the dissemination of culture and traditions in agriculture, the provision of social services, and the integration of people at risk of isolation. Additionally, the Issue will present applicable governance and legal framework strategies from their countries that provide legal certainty, regulate the quality of services, and ensure financial viability. Finally, it will investigate how social farming contributes to shifting agricultural activities from purely primary production towards service delivery. This extension of multifunctional farming enables new income opportunities to avoid farm abandonment and to counteract the typical phenomenon of de-growth, which rural areas are dealing with: demographic and agro-structural changes, brain drain, unemployment, vacant houses, or lacking services of general interest. If interested, please get in touch with me.
There is the opportunity to have a reduced fee (under certain conditions).
Thank you
Best regards
#socialfarming #socialagriculture #social #sustainability #research #socialinnovation #urbangardens #innovation #callforpaper #papers #italy #europe #agriculture #regionalstudies
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Dear Valentina Cattivelli , A pleasure to greet you, I commented that three weeks ago I sent you an email, with a potential summary for the special edition that you address in the sustainability magazine.
The address to which the contribution is sent is: valentina.cattivelli@eurac.edu, I consider that it is wrong since I have not received any response, whether we obtained a reduced rate or not.
The email I sent you is mheredia@uea.edu.ec
I look forward to your comments.
Regards,
Marco
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It is essential to improve the technology used for water supply, which allows efficient use of this resource and, at the same time, is environmentally friendly. So, what alternatives are being implemented in the world to improve these conditions, what could be the alternatives that exist or can be implemented?
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The current distribution system requires energy for lifting water to a higher elevation and then use gravity flow if the gradient is smooth. Solar energy may be an option for pumping.
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We are starting a project studying public and local perception of a large predator in rural areas, with some human-wildlife conflict involved.
We want to know if this perception has changed over years of science extension and talks with locals, comparing perceptions of people living in areas where we have already been studying this species with other areas where we have not been yet, to see whether our work has been useful in the end.
Although I understand that any research on this issue is very unique by itself (in terms of study species, current conservation status or country, to name a few), I would appreciate any advice on literature, statistical analyses and survey examples or models, to start shaping it.
Thank you very much in advance!
Diego
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Here an Spanish example: changes in human-wildlife conflict and in perception of wildlife in general (chiefly of some predators, as wolves)
through time (200 years), in the rural areas of Northern Spain. The frame are the great snowfalls, and human-wildlife interactions during them.
"Los efectos de las grandes nevadas históricas sobre la fauna en Asturias, a través de la prensa" You can find easily it in researchgate.
Regards!
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People in deep rural areas are very isolated and clueless about the approaching Fourth Industrial revolution, What can we as academic leaders do to ensure that they are accommodated in terms of educating and preparing them for the coming technological era.
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This is a very important question. From an educational and discursive perspective, we must empower vulnerable students with knowledge and skills which expose them to innovative science and practices in domains beyond Africa's borders. From within South Africa we must also highlight to our students how they are connected to the youth and people in every single African country. Afrophobia must be confronted in textbooks and in the classroom Nonhlanhla Cynthia Mhlongo
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Dear all, I am Valentina Cattivelli and I am a guest editor at Sustainability (IF 2.5). With this, I would like to invite you to submit a paper within a special issue "Social farming for Social innovation and viability in rural areas". This special issue will contribute to the current debate on the green care movement, presenting some innovative solutions and business models to apply social farming as an innovative diversification strategy. The Issue will focus on the impact that social farming activities directly or indirectly have on the social-ecological transformation when fostering environmental knowledge building as well as well-being in and with nature. At the same time, it will evidence how social farming strengthens social capital in rural areas through the dissemination of culture and traditions in agriculture, the provision of social services, and the integration of people at risk of isolation. Additionally, the Issue will present applicable governance and legal framework strategies from their countries that provide legal certainty, regulate the quality of services, and ensure financial viability. Finally, it will investigate how social farming contributes to shifting agricultural activities from purely primary production towards service delivery. This extension of multifunctional farming enables new income opportunities to avoid farm abandonment and to counteract the typical phenomenon of de-growth, which rural areas are dealing with: demographic and agro-structural changes, brain drain, unemployment, vacant houses, or lacking services of general interest. If interested, please get in touch with me. There is the opportunity to have a reduced fee (under certain conditions). For additional information, please refer to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability/special_issues/Social_Farming_Social_Innovation Thank you Best regards #socialfarming #socialagriculture #social #sustainability #research #socialinnovation #urbangardens #innovation #callforpaper #papers #italy #europe #agriculture
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Yes, sure
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Hello.
I am a student from south Italy, coming from a small village. I am currently trying to write my master thesis in Smart Cities.
I want to focus specifically on smart tourism and how to enhance a local/rural area by proposing a prototype of a website/m-app.
According to you what would be the ideal definition of a research question/s?
And which is the most suitable methodology to follow? do you think service science management and engineering design methodology is a good one?
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Hi, Enrico Di Flora . I have a Conference Presentation that can helps you to think about a lot of Smart Tourism issues. Consider the figure used in the discussion, which is a conceptual model of the main points and relations on Smart Sustainable Tourism.
Thanks and, please, let me know what you have thinking about this topic.
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I am planning to work on the factors that influence the stagnation of SMEs in rural areas. Can you suggest any theoretical and conceptual framework that I can use. Thank you.
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The Factors that Influence the Stagnation of SMEs in Rural Area
Introduction
1. the meaning of SMEs.
2.Reference review
3. Measurement of SMEs.
4. Is there stagnation in SMEs in rural area.
5. Classifying factors effect SMEs work
Conclusions and recommendations
References
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What is the new future role for Unmanned combat aerial vehicle? Obviously, like cars - freight. In particular, inaccessible areas, small loads in rural areas. This trend will rule for decades to come.
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USVs rule in future days, create heavy space traffic which will become very big problem in highly populated developing countries.
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I need to design a 11Kv distribution line for a rural area. which software will be good for this purpose 
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Dear Sirs,
How to select a Diameter of Conductor(ACSR) For 11KV Line? (Which Parameters include to select Dia of Conductor) and also suggest me IS Codes to check.
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Any suggestions? I'm trying to get some help by OPS or UNICEF
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¡Por favor infórmeme exactamente sobre sus intereses!
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Being in a rural area of India as a College Teacher, I find a lot of difficulties in making the students to open their mouth to talk in English. Most of the time the students sit sticking their mouth, never opening their moth even to say a proverb or noun in English. Training them for a long time, I find everything in vein by the end of the day. Either they never receive or they forget. I teach them a little bit of very basic grammar rules, especially sentence agreement. Then I tell them some common expressions for day to day life. I general, India has English as a second language. Rural students, whom I care more, show me no development. But, I fail miserably. What is wrong with me or my teaching? Could someone give me a methodology which may be followed to derive a success in the lives of students?
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Dear Madam,
in my opinion, you may attempt to make English Fun, you teach while you play a game or sing as song as your ice breaking, in terms of how to stimulate the student to speak, you could also try to make a nice and interesting topic to be discussed and give them some vocabularies related to the topic given, so they could interest to give an opinion, etc. However, you have to try to teach in more fun way to make them feel free to express their idea or opinion in class.
Best regards.
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In every urban habitat we can see that there have an interaction between the core urban body and the surrounding area (rural area).So, i want to know, what are the suitable techniques to measure the rural-urban interaction because every urban centers are dependent with each other within the intra or inter urban locality.
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In Addition to @ Russell Gray, Economic and demographic factors appear as particularly strong drivers of urban-rural land change. Along with these we should account for
1. Livelihood
2. Networks
3. Food Trade (Ecosystem Goods & services) etc.
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Do you have experience using GPS trackers in rural Ethiopia? If so:
Any reliability issues in rural areas (any challenged experienced)?
How accurate are the data points (if sites are near to one another, such as a cluster of households)?
Any specific models of GPS tracking tools (handheld devices) that you recommend (that have worked)?
Thank you.
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Hilmar Schmundt Are you asking in general, or specifically to Ethiopia?
If you are interested in some innovative uses from Ethiopia Jan Nyssen has done some really interesting work. He may know of more tourist oriented work. Certainly for all the hiking routes in Ethiopia this would be a very useful tool.
Also in the north of Ethiopia, there are projects like this: https://www.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid=2c60060c153a4090b3460ae1f1949914
Appears there is one (small initiative) in Addis Ababa: https://www.gpsmycity.com/tours/north-of-addis-ababa-walking-tour-5228.html
To be honest, not my area of work, others may chime in and add.
Logan.
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In my view rural development is still an issue for many policy makers in developing and developed countries. Taking this in account I would like to know what are the hottest topics or approaches in rural development regarding to sub-saharan african countries? Is agriculture still a backbone? References are welcome!
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I agree with Nelson that Food and even more important livelihood security are crucial aspects. What plays an outstanding role are off-farm livelihoods, meaning livelihoods that are not directly related to farming, animal husbandry and fisheries. Such livelihoods can contribute to an upliftment of rural areas, improve quality of rural lives and slow down migration to urban areas.
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I have been in the stage o higgledy-piggledy since, over this topic.......attitudinal behaviour towards modern institutions in rural areas.
Please, help me out.
Thanks
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I'm amused!
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We are planning to conduct a survey in rural India on
  1. quality of life
  2. attitude changes due to our intervention
Is the Likert Scale questions an appropriate survey tool in rural India? Are villagers comfortable with such questions? Are they used to the fine differentiation which Likert scale demands? What are the optimal number of choices to such questions?
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I think the issue is not so much rural versus urban but level of education, because Likert-scored items can be difficult for low-literacy respondents to understand.
If you do use Likert-scored items, I would recommend 5 scoring options -- 7 is often too many to make "precise" judgments, and even-numbered scoring can frustrate respondents who want a "middle" option.
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Demographic differences show that Depression is more prevalent in urban areas than in rural areas. What are the possible explanations to this?
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Depression in the city due to unfavorable ecology. There is no grass under your feet, we breathe dust and harmful gases, there is little oxygen, the noise from the machines and lawn mowers, there is no biodiversity of plants, and so on - this is an environmental aspect. Because of the constant mowing of grass and straight lines of ordinary buildings, we see lifeless empty spaces with straight lines that put pressure on the psyche. A person is more comfortable and healthy for a situation when he is surrounded by various plants and natural lawns with unmowed grass.
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Now im working on research "effect of household welfare on migration desicion: The case of Kyrgyzstan", where i schould measure household income in rural agricultural place. Taking into account that in such place income could be also in natural form, i want to know what should i include into calculation of income within rural/agricultural land.
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Dear ,
There are non-market evaluation techniques you can apply. You can refer Roger Perman Yue Ma James McGilvray Michael Common (2003). Natural Resource and Environmental Economics. In case it helps you please find attached herewith.
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Can experts explain to me that in indoor air pollution monitoring in rural areas , previously i have taken readings from uv-spectrophotometer for preparing calibration curve. but in this stage it get me again and again errors and my work can not proceed. what should i do to overcome this, as well as what is the standard reading and concentration of calibration curve for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and ozone.
What can I do to fix this?
please, i need answers urgently.
thank you all.
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Hi Prachi,
It is not clear from your posted question if you are having a technical problem calibrating your monitoring instrument(s), calibration system, or with general quality assurance of your acquired data. In general (i) the dynamic range you calibrate ambient air quality instruments is based on either the expected range of measured concentrations or as dictated by regulatory monitoring requirements, (ii) most commercially available instruments provide a linear response over a large dynamic range and are calibrated using a "zero" and single "span" point that is typically 80% of the instruments full dynamic range, and (iii) multi-point "calibration" curves are typically generated as part of your quality assurance plan to simply demonstrate linear response of the instrument. This is a link to U.S. EPA Ambient Monitoring Technology resource page containing a wide variety of information on monitoring technology and quality assurance procedures (https://www.epa.gov/amtic).
Best regards,
Matt
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I am currently orientating first year students at University with computer skills. We have a number of students coming from rural areas and even urban areas who have never learned to use computers. Our concern is to ensure students are computer literate and will be able to do their assignments and participate in activities requiring computer skills.
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1) First, teach them Computer Fundamentals.
2) Briefly highlight some of the benefits of Computer System using things around them for examples.
3) Teach the practical through hands-on.
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Why females are neglected during health care service delivery?
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Thanks Sir
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Concept of Green Building in Energy Management system for enviornment friendly system. What are the varios factors should be considered while designing a green building in rural areas for small scale industries? How to improve and implement this concept
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0- (So-called) Green isn't necessarily sustainable. The following briefly supports the conception of sustainability:
1- As sustainable development deals with the three main spheres of environment, society, and economy; we should take into account all those factors to define a sustainable building. In other words a sustainable building is a building which responds to all the sustainable development goals (SDGs) or, at least, has no contrast with any of them.
2- Strategies and detailed objectives defer from place to place, time to time or case to case. There is no fixed set of materials, design concepts or ideal forms which could serve in all projects.
3- Life-Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) frameworks, could help the process of decision making by providing overall perspective about the performance of each alternative. However, LCSA is not a design tool or design method.
4- Analyzing and learning from (relatively successful or even unsuccessful) similar projects can be a key to start designing alternatives which could have positive potential to be successful.
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What I am really trying to ask is: can some of the challenges we see in rural areas be framed as negative externalities that may be the result of resources, specifically innovation investment, mostly directed to urban areas? Here’s my thought process. One argument for directing resources to urban areas is that agglomeration economies can use them more efficiently. By looking at urban centers in isolation, or even as part of a broader regional economy with a typical lens, this may make sense. But, rural areas in decline that are also part of the same broader regional economy may act as a drag on the urban center. One example could be the factors leading to the opioid issues in rural areas--so some resources in the region have to be directed at this. A more extreme example may be that residents in rural areas appear to favor policies that gut investment in science (one source of future innovations) and reduce immigration (one source of innovation creators/developers), and this in turn will negatively impact urban innovation centers. In addition to any thoughts to help frame/reframe this line of thinking, I am also collecting/reading literature to help me think more about this—any suggestions here are very helpful and welcomed.
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I am not quite sure where the effects I am thinking about fit, but I do not think they could be classified as a pecuniary externality. Once observable reaction is the brain drain described by Yuri (also thanks for the article link--it fits into this framework). But, what I am trying to describe is more similar to "neglect" or "taking something for granted" and the consequences over time (but these are not the right terms). The following example is weak and misses key elements, but here it goes:
1. Assume US rural policy is primarily focused on agriculture production, and innovation investments directed to (or at least impacting) rural firms/farms are mainly for improving production practices (e.g., lowering costs). However, these are only marginal changes over time--never disruptive innovations.
2. Next assume urban/metro areas receive a much broader range of innovation investment (both in type and magnitude) and over time produce all types of new innovations. First, they have the abilities through agglomeration economies to use resources more efficiently than rural areas. Second, they are attractive and draw talent, some from rural areas.
Over time, rural areas may struggle, in part, due to policy limitations, i.e., most of the federal dollars targeting some aspect of agriculture instead of other industries. As more talent is drained and opportunities are reduced, this may act like a self feeding process. Again, over time, a gap develops in the culture (between rural and urban), for example, as the education levels in the two areas diverge (this is an over simplification). It is the effects from this diverging culture (e.g., perceptions, beliefs, practices) and reduced access to resources (e.g., broadly entrepreneurial opportunities) that leads to some sort of resentment or different belief and a potential reversal (i.e., via rural areas voting for different leaders than urban areas) in investment policy. But, the change is not to redirect resources to rural areas, instead, it is to cut more broadly the kinds of investments leading to innovation and related resources (e.g., research, education, etc.) which has mostly "gone" to urban areas. Thus, by urban areas getting all (or nearly all) of innovation resources overtime, eventually there is a penalty. In a way, it is like thinking about the redistribution of wealth, but some people may be able to self-select (to some degree and by moving to urban areas) into this. It is this long-term effect I am trying to label as the negative externality?
A potential solution may be to adjust policy such that (1) a little more innovation investment goes to rural areas, and (2) it is not all focused on agriculture. One issue is that since rural areas are less efficient than urban areas in terms of innovation creation (due to agglomeration) and it may take a higher per capita investment rate in rural areas to produce a comparable outcome had the investment gone to an urban area.
I recognize there is a lot to unpack and sort out here, and I likely have some ideas that do not fit neatly (or work at all). However, I hope this better describes the effect I want to label.
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The issue of agriculture is an important topic in particular in developing countries, this is because it will be influential in improving the quality of human resources and is also a means to maintain social and political stability as a prerequisite implement development. The crisis of the failed harvest always haunts in agricultural areas in several rural areas of agricultural producers. So much is causing a growing rise in the price of agriculture in urban areas, it is swept up in the agricultural areas that are lacking in supplying his crop.
Papers:
] M. Prabhavathi and A. Kiranmai, “Smart Security for agriculture using IoT,” Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Sci. Spec. Issue-4, vol. 6495, no. 4, pp. 2456–1908, 2017.
F. TongKe, “Smart Agriculture Based on Cloud Computing and IOT,” J. Converg. Inf. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 210–216, 2013.
A. Kaloxylos et al., “The Use of Future Internet Technologies in the Agriculture and Food Sectors: Integrating the Supply Chain,” Procedia Technol., vol. 8, no. Haicta, pp. 51–60, 2013.
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Hi all,
I'm thinking of using cognitive maps in my research on community-based social enterprises in rural areas. My research focuses on the way in which activities undertaken by community-based social enterprises are influenced by the (rural) context in which the organisations operate (and vice-versa).
I'm planning on conducting interviews with the different leading social entrepreneurial actors within different community-based social enterprises. I'm currently thinking about using cognitive maps during those interviews, to help get a better understanding of the way in which the social entrepreneurial actors perceive their environment. By this, I mean asking participants to draw the organisation and its environment on a piece of paper, as to make their conception explicit.
I'm looking for tips on how to use cognitive maps / drawings during an interview. Therefore, I wonder if you can help me with the following questions:
- Do you know any research that is illustrative of the usage of cognitive maps / drawings during interviews?
- Do you have experience using cognitive maps / drawings in qualitative research? If yes, what are tips and tricks that you can share?
Thanks for your help!
Kind regards, Mara
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I have used cognitive maps in qualitative interviews and one thing I suggest thinking about is whether you want to supply the participants with the terms you want them to map, or whether you want them each to used their own approach to the mapping. This is important for the analysis, because if they all use their own unique set of concepts, it will be more difficult to compare the maps. Of course, you can overcome this to some extent by the way to phrase the question and your description of the kind of map that you want them to draw, but the more explicit you become, the closer you get to pre-specifying the terms for the maps.
Some other recommendations would be: use large pieces of paper so they can include as many items as possible; use gridded paper to make it easier to put the items in relationship to each other; and have extra sheets of paper available in case they want to start over.
Overall, my strategy was to have them make the map and then describe it to me in as much detail as possible. In essence, the map serves as stimulus material for the story or stories they tell about it.
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Transit Oriented Development areas are located within radious of one 1/4 to 1/2 mile (400-800 m) What do you think what is the optimal distance from housing development to railway station? What is the difference between urban and rural areas?
Best Regards,
Wojciech Jurkowski
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Research conducted over the years in California has found that walking distance depends on whether it takes place at the origin (residential) end of a trip or at the destination (employment or other) end. Cervero found, for example, that walking distance from rail station to office followed a steeply dropping curve; offices adjacent to rail stations saw 20-30% of employees arriving by rail; at 100m, that figure was about 15%; at 250m it was down to 5%, and at 400m it was down to 2.5%, an order of magnitude difference with adjacent properties (it is worth noting that no mode choice component of any Regional Travel Model in the US with which I am familiar bothers to take these differences into account; the San Diego model, for example, assigns a single average walking score to any employment site located within a Transportation Analysis Zone whose centroid is within a specified straight-line distance from the station, leading to gross distortions in ridership projections).
The question, here, though, is about residential access. Other research in California, I recall, showed a straight, gently sloping line, with maximum ridership generated adjacent to the station and ridership declining until a distance of about 800m. Additional research has shown that people report a willingness to drive up to 2 miles to access a park-and-ride facility; beyond that, willingness to drive drops off significantly.
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Hi,
I am conducting a clinical trial in rural area of developing country with low education level and no reading/writing skills. We will be providing them some instructions to follow during the trial period. The instructions are available in written form and used in multiple research projects, however we want to convert the written instructions into a video and distribute the video amongst our participants.
Are there any specific rules/principles that need to be followed in doing so?
Kr
S
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This is depends on the local culture and symbols that are meaningful for them. Cross cultural communication can be a delicate matter
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Which tests they would recommend me to perform a statistical analysis with nominal qualitative variables which I previously classified from a semi-structured questionnaire applied to a sample that is divided into different populations, sex, age, etc.
I have only been able to perform a descriptive statistic such as frequency tables and bar and pie charts. My objective is to perform inferential statistics with the data obtained from qualitative answers, that I previously classified to know what relationship they have, for example, to know the relationship that the place of origin has with the current work activity, access to social programs in rural areas in relation with the activities of exploitation of forest resources, etc.
I hope you can help me or provide me with an example of a similar study.
Thanks.
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Gerardo,
it seems that you have mostly nominal data, with possibly some count data as well. I would look into the tools available under the "categorical data" umbrella. In other words, I would find a textbook on categorical data analysis.
The tools are numerous, and include some of those mentioned by Hayatullah and Facundo, namely contingency tables (with chi-square tests) and correspondence analysis.
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We are developing a clinical trial aiming at assessing a mobile app for diabetic patients in Rwanda (for more information on the D²Rwanda study: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03376607). To enable access to the app, we would like to provide all patients with a smartphone and a SIM card with a monthly mobile data bundle for the 12 months of the study's run. The SIM card would allow exclusive access to our app (through VPN / static IP) so that the patients wouldn’t spend the pack on voice calls, text messages or browsing the Internet (the supplied phones are dual-SIM, and therefore patients can continue using their own SIM cards as well).
We are currently facing a major challenge regarding obtaining the SIM cards: we would like to refrain from registering the SIM cards to each patient individually so that we avoid the selection bias (we hypothesise that some patients would not participate in the study if they are asked to provide their IDs for the SIM card registration —not to mention that some patients in rural areas may not even have IDs). For that, we would like to register the approximately 150 SIM cards under one of the institutions which co-develop the project. However, in Rwanda, there is a strict legislation, which requires individual registration of each card.
We have also looked for companies providing SIM cards with international roaming –but so far the bundles we have found are prohibitively expensive. Does anyone have any experience with such issues? We would be grateful for any insights, ideas or experience!
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Unfortunately SIM cards for WiFi routers require the same kind of registration.
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I intend to do a research to capture midwives activities to figure out the real problems faced by village midwives in the rural areas. I plan to do focus group disscussions and depth interviews at the first, followed by an observation, which is following village midwives activities for a week".
Maybe one of you know what are the appropriate method and strategy for this study?
whether it is a quantitative or qualitative or mixed methods?
what are the strategies that should I write in the research proposal?
whether FGD, depth interview and observation strategies are right strategies written in the research proposal?
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I agree Indrayan that a constructivist, interpretivist, or phenomenological design would work. Given the sensitive and confidential nature of work that midwives do - I think individual interviews would work better than focus groups. I am a mixed methods researcher. So you could also design a survey using something like Survey Monkey, Lime Survey or Qualtrix as tool for participants to fill out - or look for a survey that has already been constructed in relation to midwives.
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I am looking for ideas and suggestions on how to picture (by photography, drawing, painting or what else comes to mind …) the rural-urban-nexus as it aims at a holistic, integrated and sustainable development of regions by strengthening the urban-rural relations.
The development of cities, peri-urban and rural areas is functionally closely intertwined. The new funding measure “Stadt-Land-Plus (Urban-Rural-Plus)” of the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) facilitates research to implement an efficient resource-saving land management on a regional level while safeguarding the interests of cities, peri-urban and rural areas.
However, meeting this target is challenged by a lack of knowledge about the interaction of urban-rural relations and the sustainability of regions, in particular with regard to material flows and establishing a regional circular economy as well as with regard to institutions and processes to improve balancing the interests between urban, peri-urban and rural areas and actors.
Any recommendation on how to put such a complex topic into a photo or illustration would be highly appreciated.
The BMBF funding measure “Stadt-Land-Plus” is part of the “Flagship Initiative ‘City of the Future’” under the third BMBF framework programme “Research for Sustainable Development – FONA³“. https://www.fona.de/en/stadt-land-plus-21638.html
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Dear all,
Thank you for the thoughts and inspirational ideas. Our challenge is to illustrate everything on a single picture that is both technically and emotionally speaking for itself, i.e. the rural-urban specificity is pictured in a correct and clear way, which is easily understood - and the photo addresses a personal level of communication by demonstrating a behaviour or state that is a day-to-day situation and that could be "you and me" - in other words, it is a topic that everybody should be concerned about. - Our approach for the moment is to think of situations (e.g. cycling for leissure or with fresh fruits from a farmers' market; waiting for a bus; harvesting; walking; ...), in which a pair or small group of persons interacts and where the background is indicating the rural-urban links in addition to the persons (who's clothing and accessoires can aslo indicate a rural or urban background - according to stereotypes [that are questionned]). For the background, we intend to use drone imaging to get a suitable deep perspective into the countryside/urban skyline. I will keep you updated and will be posting the outcome. If you had further thoughts or suggestions, please add them.
Thank you!
Best
Stephan
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I'm working on a financial inclusion project that wants to use a survey to engage with clients of digital financial systems (DFS) in rural areas and am looking for a tool recommendation - possibly SMS based, or Voice interactive response system, or mobile phone app (but less desirable).
Would love to hear of peoples experiences and suggestions.
Thanks
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I think Dr. Achmad Rizal has explained and spoke well and values.
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Indonesia has already 4 SOE manufacturing pharmaceuticals. We also have around 1,000 health centres throughout the country based on the number of the population. There is also a health insurance since 2014 to cover all population at the end of this decade.
The geography of the country necessitates people in rural area to travel as far a 10km or more to seek consultation for their health. Theoretically smaller private units located in rural areas with up-to-date information system would smoothen distribution of medicines needed for these cases. Unfortunately, such undertaking cost money with funds already limited at government budget.
I would highly appreciate your comments on this problem.
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Thanks Mauro,
I am not sure I get your point. Do you meant strategic management as mentioned by Eisenhardt in 1989, or the one mentioned by Teece together with Pisano and Shuen in 1997 or even transient advantage by McGrath in 2013?
Richard.
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Does anyone know or have someone developed any type of survey addressing social values (attitudes, beliefs, etc.) in relation to the interaction of human communities with wildlife (fauna)?
I would like to know details about their development and statistical data related to their results, and I am especially interested if the survey has been developed at regional or local level (in the area of a municipality, or group of municipalities belonging to some type of protected area, for example).
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I am going to provide an answer which is rather indirect. There is a resident community, upstream the Port-Reitz Creek in Mombasa, Kenya. The resident population was, initially made up of local people. They understood the importance of mangroves as a habitat for fish, crabs, lobsters etc. Consequently, they conserved the mangrove habitat as it was bringing benefits in terms of income from fishing activities. They were not keeping any data in terms of fish catch income, but, all they knew was that life was good. Then came another community, initially, not resident to the area.
The new community saw the mangrove forest as a source of charcoal and building poles. They started harvesting these from the mangrove forest. The consequence was a decline in fish catch and income for the indigenous local population. This resulted in disharmony between the two communities occasioned by the resource use conflict. While I have some knowledge about this issue, I did not venture to find out if data was generated, However, my colleagues in Research Gate, particularly those involved in marine science studies, may have better insight on the subject. Does my answer tickle the mind of such one colleague to provide a more comprehensive answer to the questioner, I wonder?
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I would like to make a research on “the impact and challenges of Rural Electrification in the rural poor of developing countries including the challenges of being unable to pay connection fees....etc”. Can anyone provide me guidance and literature in this area?
thanks in advance for your support.
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Dear Ephrem,
I know that there is a movie that describes some impact and changes in a rural region in Morocco due to its electrification. It is named :
Le Thé ou l’Électricité (93 mn)
Unfortunately, it is not in English, but in french. I hope this will help you somehow.
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 Socio-economic status scale for rural areas
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Great work ,
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I am trying to determine the extent of transmission of Lassa fever through sexual contact. Any ideas how I can do this? I can analyze semen samples from areas that just witnessed Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria for virus presence but obtaining these samples is near impossible. Analyzing semen samples submittted to tertiary health facilities for infertility investigation is a possibility, but wont be quite representative as Lassa is commoner in rural areas.
Also, I am at not sure how to measure transmission following sex and/or pregnancy, or adverse birth outcomes follow 'congenital Lassa' if it exists.
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I think obtaining seminal fluid from Lassa fever patients will be quite difficult. However you can group patients into those in the incubation period (pre-pathogenic phase) Acutely ill persons (pathogenic Phase) and those convalescing (early post pathogenic phase) and those who have survived the illness (Post-pathogenic phase) This will enable us to know the stage at which Lassa fever is transmitted if it is actually sexually transmitted disease. That Lassa fever is transmitted through body fluids implies that it is very likely to be found in the semen except the blood testis barrier is capable of preventing Lassa fever virus from escaping into the seminiferous tubules. Even at that most of the seminal fluid is derived from seminal vesicles (60%), prostate gland (30%) and bulbo-urethral glands(5%) leaving 5% for the sperm cells..
This study will be easier to carry out in a center where there are several Lassa fever patients. Semen can easily be obtained when patients are seen in the clinic (because it becomes a requirement for evaluation), when they are being admitted ( if they are not acutely ill) when they are convalescing, and when they are being discharged. The patients must sign informed consent form. It will be almost impossible to obtain semen when they acutely ill.
However if the virus is found in the semen from the groups mentioned above it can safely be deduced that the the semen is present in the acute phase of the disease.
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Sto cercando la bibliografia per la tesi magistrale.
Sono interessata ad analizzare lo spopolamento in una area rurale (Ozieri,SS) per capire quanto la disoccupazione incide, per poter pensare alle politiche di sviluppo da attuare per contrastare il fenomeno.
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Grazie mille