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Have you ever encountered, during your studies, this kind of bronze crucible/melting-pot?
We found it during excavations in the northern part of Poland, on the site connected with Roman Iron Age period. We're supposing it's a crucible, because in its corner we found some kind of melted metal alloy (we're examinating it now), probably it could be lead, tin or silver. We're searching for analogies to this melting-pot in Poland but we haven't been able to find anything similar so far.
So if you have ever encountered a similar crucible, please let me know. We will be grateful for any help in this case!
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Jeśli jest Pan zainteresowany dam znać, gdy ukaże się ten tekst poświęcony znaleziskom z Kujaw.
Pozdrawiam, Bartosz Kontny
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I am looking for comparisons for slate styli. At present I only know of two such objects, one from a reliable context from Bath, found in the fill of a beam slot dated to AD 80-90. Its 35 mm-long shaft with a diameter of 4.4–5.4 mm has seven unequal facets and tapers slightly before the used tip.
The other one comes from a Roman villa site in Swindon, but unfortunately it was unstratified, and the site also has a small medieval element.
Does anyone know of such objects? They could be used to write on slate tablets, but are they really writing implements?
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Many thanks for your hint, Jens. I shall have a look. The most useful I have found so far is V. Schaltenbrand Obrecht, 2012 STILUS. Kulturhistorische, typologisch-chronologische und technologische Untersuchungen an römischen Schreibgriffeln von Augusta Raurica und weiteren Fundorten, Forschungen in Augst 45. Römermuseum Augst, Augst (http://www.augustaraurica.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/2_Arch%C3%A4ologie/7_Literatur%20und%20Verlag/02_Forschungen_in_Augst/FiA45_1.pdf).
However, she was quite discouraging regarding my quest of finding slate styli in the Roman period. According to her, we can't expect them much before the 14th century.
Incidentally, both my mother as well as Michel Feugère were still taught their basic writing skills on slate tablets, writng with slate styli. I still used the tablets, but we were already using chalk to write with.
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What do people think of the idea? Other suggestions are also welcome.
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Good Afternoon Fabio
That's great News I will keep you in the loop with developments
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Hi,
I'm interested in literature about nailed horse shoes (not hipposandals) from well documented Roman contexts.
The existence of nailed horseshoes has been denied recently by
Simone Martini, Mittelalterliche und neuzeitliche Hufeisen im Rheinischen Landesmuseum Trier. Funde und Ausgrabungen im Bezirk Trier 42, 2010, 70-90.
According to
Insa Lingens, Die Entwicklung der Hufpflege und des Hufbeschlags von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Hufbeschlags bei der Hufrehe (PhD thesis, Berlin 2008).
there is no clear evidence for nailed horseshoes from Roman times.
Currently I'm working on artefacts excavated the 60ies near Obermendig (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) in a late Roman granary (horreum) presumably fortified as a burgus. 99% of these finds date to the 4th and 5th centuries AD, but there are some few late medieval objects from the site. There are two horseshoes among the finds. May they be Roman? Any advice would be welcome.
Best regards,
Stefan Wenzel
PS: Please find drawings of the horseshoes attached.
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Dear Joachim,
if the nailed horseshoe from the fort of Walldürn was found in a Roman pit od a ditch, it would help in this discussion. I agree with your academic teachers that most nailed horseshoes from Roman sites are probably "later intrusions". But there seem to be some rare exceptions: nailed horseshoes found on Roman sites in undoubtly Roman contexts (see discussion above).
Best regards,
Stefan
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Hello,
do you know where fingerrings like this one found in the destruction layer (ca.  260/270 AD) of a Roman villa ("Im Winkel") near Mendig (Rhineland-Palatinate) were produced? The ring has an inner diameter of 15 mm and has a height of 7,5 - 6 mm. I know only of two specimens published by Friedrich Henkel,  Die römischen Fingerringe der Rheinlande und der benachbarten Gebiete (Berlin : G. Riemer, 1913), No. 1728 (found in a Roman grave at Hastenrath) and No. 1729 (found on the Martberg). If you know of further references, I would be grateful.
Best regards,
Stefan Wenzel
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They seem to follow a Latène tradition and remind also rings made of jet as they are frequent in Britannia.
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Roman Statutes
Literary Sources
Epigraphical Data
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Querido Marc, los conventus hispanos ya existían bajo Tiberio (inscripción de L. Cornelius Bocchus hallada en el foro colonial de Emerita Augusta), lo que hace muy probable que sean de época augustea. Siendo así, "de salida" y dejando a un lado la posterior promoción de las ciudades, en Hispania tenemos múltiples posibilidades:
Gades fue capital conventual siendo municipio (19 a.C.)
Asturica Augusta o Bracara Augusta lo fueron sin estatuto privilegiado
Colonias, conocemos muchas
El estatuto jurídico de las ciudades no parece haber tenido peso alguno a la hora de ser elegidas para que funcioasen como capitales conventuales. Después de todo, una capital es el lugar de residencia del gobernador, no tiene connotación política alguna como en la actualidad. Yo lo veo así.
Un abrazo
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I'm looking for a dictionary especially for terms of provincial Roman archaeology in English, French and German. Some dictionaries available online like
or
are helpful. But for terms like Aschenkiste or Streifenhaus I find no entries. I would be gratful for any suggestions.
Best regards,
Stefan Wenzel
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One can use the database http://artefacts.mom.fr as a very useful dictionary for small finds, if one goes to the button "codes": http://artefacts.mom.fr/fr/codes.php
In the moment, there entries for 519 kinds of artefacts. One can click the codes and finds an archaeological documentation for the object, and by clicking on the flag one can choose between French, English, Spanish, Italian and German.
Best regards,
Stefan
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The provenience of this "artifact" is completely unknown. However it's owner (an aspiring anthropology student) has asked for my assistance in helping him identify it.
I have no particular expertise in numismatics (certainly none in the ancient coinage of the Orient or the Levant from where the symbology may originate) and defer this question to experts who are doubtlessly here, who may view this question.
My guesses, so far, are that the main elements on the obverse (the "gamboling" young bullock, the 7 circles which MAY possibly be interpreted as "eyes," and the upthrust phallus-shaped tail of the bullock) may all be symbols alluding to the Canaanite god Baal (as in the one referred to in the Bible as a "golden calf"). If this was a genuine ancient bronze "hammered" coin, it is amazingly [almost unbelievably so] "centered" [so it appears most likely cast]. It has had a suspension-loop attached (soldered on) at a later date (perhaps by a modern jeweler), which may also account for the tooling marks seen on a small portion of the edge (that at first glance appear possibly to be the machined "reeding" of modern coins, but since it is not continuous, may also be simply the marks made by the jaws of a vice that gripped the item securely whilst the loop was attached)?
In any case, the verso is not as well-preserved, but appears to have some type of inscription [or perhaps eight ideograms arranged around the central yin-yang like element] that I do not recognize. Do you recognize this as script or ideograms that project specific meanings?
In your opinion, is this pendant a genuine ancient amulet, or is it a modern production?
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The prancing style of the animal portrayed on the 'coin' is similar to a 2nd century BC Celtic tetradrachym many of which have been found in the Danube valley. That particular example however is almost certainly cast rather than stamped which suggests it is a fake or at least a souvenir replica.
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Ja Ja, das ewige Problem des Antiquitätenhandels.
Toujours la même chose. Hélas, on toujours se trouve avec le problème du négoce des antiguités. I remonte au temps crées pasés longtemps, mais volià, ils continuent d' être présents.
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Hi,
I'm looking for information about the maximum hight, up to which cereals could be stored in roman horrea, or in medieval or early modern granaries. Lars Blöck mentioned a value of 0,9 m (Blöck 2013, 86). Alain Ferdière (2015, 39) cites a value of 0,3 m. Has anyone alternative figures? I'm especially interested in dehusked spelt.
Best regards,
Stefan Wenzel
Lars Blöck, Die Erweiterung der Getreidespeicherkapazitäten der Axialhofvilla Heitersheim in ihrer 4. Bauperiode – Binnenkolonisation oder Konzentrationsprozesse im ländlichen Raum im ausgehenden 2. Jahrhundert n. Chr.? Ein Modell zur Berechnung von Getreideanbauflächen anhand der Speicherkapazität römischer horrea. Alemannisches Jahrbuch 59/60, 2011/2012 (2013) 81–111.
Alain Ferdière, Essai de typologie des greniers ruraux de Gaule du Nord, Revue archéologique du Centre de la France [En ligne], Tome 54, 2015.
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in case of food grains, the godowns of FCI stacked cereals upto 10-12 layers of 50 Kg gunny bags. Actually the grains are non crusable commodities, so it can be stored upto this height. This height is recommanded for grains dried at safe mositure content. This is just a knowledge which i got on visiting the godowns, so i didnt have referance for it.
Regards
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Hi,
I'm looking for detailed descriptions of the horrea of Pompeii. I hope to find evidence for the partitioning of this buildings, information which goods were stored, how they were stored, and which quantities were stored. I would be also grateful for references about horrea outside Pompeii which provide information about their use.
Best regards,
Stefan Wenzel
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I wouldn't normally recommend this, but have you looked on Wikipedia, there is a magnificent photograph of a very well preserved granary at Ostia that might be worth following up, I was surprised that W had an entry under horreum.  I wouldn't trust the text but it does have follow up references including:
 Joseph Patrich, "Warehouses and Granaries in Caesarea Maritima", in Caesarea Maritima: A Retrospective After Two Millennia, p. 149. BRILL, 1996. ISBN 90-04-10378-3
which could be promising.
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Books and articles on types of Roman coins dated to the late Republican period and the Principate.
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The primary typology used for the identification of coin types from the Roman Republic is:
Michael H. Crawford, Roman Republican coinage (Cambridge University Press, 1974 and 2001). See the website based on it: 
Crawford was one of my lecturers in my undergraduate days.
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I am particularly interested in different types of fire strikers and their archaeoligical evidence. On the other hand I wonder from where ancient romans and greeks got their flint items to light the fire. Was their an import from the baltic regions or from the british coast?
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Hi Frank
Maybe this will be useful:
M. Piotrowski, G. Dąbrowski 2007; Krzesiwa i krzesaki - przyczynek do badań nad krzesaniem ognia w starożytności oraz średniowieczu (na marginesie badań archeologicznych na stan. 22 w Łukawicy, pow. lubaczowski), "Archeologia Polski Środkowowschodniej", 9: 231-242.
Best Regards
Maciej Wawrzczak
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Can me anyone tell the function of this late Roman iron object and give me references? It is now 14,2 cm long. Originally it had very probably the form of a parable, 8 mm thick in the middle, with two holes (12 mm x 3 mm) near the middle, and to wings which thin out. Please see a drawing below.
It was excavated in the 60ies in the burgus of Obermendig ,Im Winkel, a late Roman granary (horreum) / which was also inhabited and served as a fortification as it is indicated by its topographical position, construction, militaria and indications of a defensive wall. This building is located on a small hill close to the Mayen-Kottenheim millstone quarries. It was used from the first half of the 4th century to the first third of the 5th century.
Normally I should find a similar example in:
Nina Crummy, The Roman small finds from excavations in Colchester 1971-9. With contributions from D. G. Buckley / P. Crummy / E. Fowler / P. Galloway / St. Greep / M. Hassall / M. Henig / H. Major / G. Webster / J. P. Wild and illustrations by R. H. Moyes / T. W. Cook. Colchester Arch. Report 2 (Colchester 21995, 11983).
Bärtbel Hanemann, Die Eisenhortfunde der Pfalz aus dem 4. Jahrhundert nach Christus. Forschungen zur Pfälzischen Archäologie 5 (Speyer 2014).
Ernst Künzl, Die Alamannenbeute aus dem Rhein bei Neupotz. Monographien RGZM 34, 1 (Mainz 1993).
But with this object I had no luck and any advice would be welcome.
Best regards,
Stefan Wenzel
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Dear Stefan,
I have been guessing a bit, too, and I am inclined to consent with Sepp's opinion that it was some kind of an awl.
Sincerely, Kai
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I need bibliographical information as well as archaeological finds.
Thank you!
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Cuvigny, Helene, ed. La Route de Myos Hormos, vol. 2. Fouilles de l'IFAO 48/2. IFAO (2003).  See esp. pp. 374 et seq. "Les femmes et la prostitution."
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At two sites in Roman Britain, I have noticed bowls and a dish in 'samian ware' [terra sigillata] pierced, post cocturam, with occasional holes: the holes are too large to be the standard, small rivet-holes which were commonly used to repair pots with metal-work here.
The holes in question are of diameter c 8 mm and were pierced through the lower wall or base, above the footring of the vessel. Just 'flying kites' here, but... Were these vessels pierced for hanging up by a cord, or some ritual or culinary purpose? One hole shows smoothing or rubbing of the hole: it seems more likely that the hole was smoothed to stop the cord from snagging on a rough edge, than that the cord's rubbing caused the hole to be smoothed. Or was it smoothed for pouring?
So far, the only two sites at which I have noted these large holes are amphitheatres. This may be fortuitous, as such holes may have been described in excavation reports as repair-work. However, amphitheatres had external stalls and booths, portable ovens, etc. So far, the only Roman depictions found of pots hanging up are a few sculptures which show wine-sellers with flagons hanging up, but hung by the handle. I have found references in classical literature which may be relevant, but more would be appreciated.
Without more evidence, it will be impossible to give a firm answer to the question of their function, but any further ideas would be welcome!
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i have two suggestions based on seeing pottery in Pompeii from two gardens - the holes are large because the pot was potentially used to establish a plant - the holes may have been smaller to start with and made larger to allow the root system to eventually grow larger and penetrate soil - and become established.  Eventually the pot is removed.  This is a practice through time when you have a precious but vulnerable young plant - a staged planting out, where the pot forms protection and an attractive container until the plant is mature.  I also don't discount the sieving idea as from the hisotrical sources, textiles, such as silk or linen were used especially to filter liquids, especially wine, (or curds from whey, etc)
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Does anyone know publications, articles of this topic?
I would like to get information about finds, artifacts in Britain who has got close connection, parallel with Sarmatian finds from the Carpathian Basin. Burial customs etc.  
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 For military refs, search the Britannia volumes. You could also try contacting Mike Bishop. For small finds, have you tried checking references in
Life in the limes : studies of the people and objects of the Roman frontiers presented to Lindsay Allason-Jones on the occasion of her birthday and retirement, eds Rob Collins and F Mackintosh, Oxbow Books, 2014.
Better still, join the Roman Finds Group - Lindsay Allason-Jones, Hilary Cool or Birgitte Hofmann, for instance, might help.
Regards, Margaret
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I'm working on pottery ['samian ware' or terra sigillata] from a Roman amphitheatre, amongst which the epigraphist has suggested one incised base as possibly representing an improvised abacus, if not an ersatz gaming board. 
Pliny and Martial refer to ‘counters and a board’ (calculos tabulamque). 
Does anyone know of any abacus, ersatz or otherwise, found at a Roman arena?
At an amphitheatre, an abacus might be used for ticket collecting, adding up scores, etc. Are there references [ancient or modern] to betting at amphitheatres or in the circus? 
Measurements and further details are given on page 2 of the comments below. Any further comments on measurements, etc, will be gratefully received! Its precise function, whether calculating table or gaming board, is uncertain without more convincing evidence.
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Roman culture had spread widely in Europe by the Middle Ages and the Roman numeral system was commonly used for arithmetic. While addition and subtraction are relatively easy with the system, anything more advanced even multiplication or division is difficult; the lack of zero poses a particular problem.
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We’re conducting a project on documenting the wear on a stamp used for countermarking roman coins during the reign of Augustus. The aim is to try and establish an overview of the movements of the Roman Legions XVII, XVIIII and XIX and their commander Quinctilius Varus in 9 AD, before being annihilated in the Battle of the Teutoburger Wald. Does anybody know about the application of high-resolution 3D-Scanning, preferably structured light, on the documentation of coins from any period? For more information (sorry, at the moment in German only) see here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcYZ1HPFYFW6WLzJecicVDQ and here: http://archaeologie.sachsen.de/5155.htm
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Dear Rengert, I did it as byproduct and experiment during 3D documentation of microscopic archaeological wood and charcoal. We use 3D system of Nikon optical microscope, but only with small part of coin surface. It looks nice, but it is too time consuming. We tested also digital microscope: it is optimal and quick way. But again: we tested it as byproduct of depicturing of an archaeobotanical objects.
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Following a multitude of discoveries at a Late Iron Age/ Early Roman site in England of Infant Remains (Burials and Cremations), I am investigating the occurrence of just such a trend at similar sites.
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Rather late to see this, I'm afraid, but hopefully this will still be useful.  There is an article in Gallia 48, 1991, about the site of Gailhan in the Languedoc.  More recently, there is an article by Liston and Rotroff "Babies in the Well" in T. Parkin and J. Evans-Grubbs, eds. Oxford Handbook of Childhood and Education in the Classical World, pp. 62-81 about the Agora in Athens; the site report, edited by Papadopoulos is about to appear.
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What are the main urban changes in late antiquity on the Balkans, and the reasons for that process?
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All I know of them are they fought the British but research is possible in every subject I live 7 minutes from my campus if you get tunsatisfactory answers I can zoom over there and take a peek.
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This Latin inscription comes from the base of a statue erected in Antioch in Pisidia by the citizens of Alexandria in Egypt.  I don't expect that the statue will have survived, but would be interested to know if it had.
And I don't if the statue base with the inscription is still in situ, or is now in a museum.  I have a full copy of the text but it would  be helpful to see an image of the actual inscription.
CIL 03, 06809 = D 02696; EDCS-28400836[1]
Province: Galatia Place: Yalvac / Antiochia Pisidiae
[1]http://db.edcs.eu/epigr/epi_en.php (Then search by entering Galatia as the Province, and Domiti Ahenobar in Search Text 1 if you are interested.  A direct link to the inscription cannot be given due to the structure of the site.)
Thanks
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Almost all cellae have an apse, and a semicircular inside, but from the outside it doesn't seem rounded.
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Thank you again, Angel. The buildings of Pompei forum are perfect, and some of them aren´t temples. Best regards
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I am looking for images of Sol or Helios that are not in the LIMC or my catalogue, and that can be associated with a firm date of production (e.g. dedicatory inscription) or deposition (dated stratigraphy). In other words, depictions for which a terminus ad or ante quem can be established on purely independent grounds, without recourse to iconography or style. For my catalogue see: http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/faculties/arts/2009/s.e.hijmans/vol1/
click on "hoofdstuk 4"; the chapter itself is in English.
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The attached statue (Roman) from Antiocheia of Pisidia (Turkey today) of Helios resembles the statue of Liberty. It is well known, you can get an exact date from the description of the archeological site.
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I'm currently doing my PhD research on sites in Greece and in Petra with ceramic roof tiles as my main material. Tracking down published examples of Roman period tiles in the eastern provinces is extremely difficult, since they are so sporadically published. Can you please let me know if you know of any published examples? Late Hellenistic or Late Roman/Early Byzantine examples will also be of interest. Thank you!
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Dear Stefan,
many thanks for your answer. Some of the publications I was familiar with (although not with the instrumentum resource), but other are valuable additions. I would also welcome any more information about publications concerning the Near East, if any are known to colleagues here at ResearchGate.
Best wishes,
Pirjo
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I am working with mural paintings from Roman epoch in Germany. I want to know more about the history, how Romans arrive in Germany, how they move in Germany, etc., but I don't know German, so it is being a little hard to find these information. I can read in English, Portuguese, Italian or Spanish.
Thanks!
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Hello Rafaela, perhaps the following (albeit Dutch) case-study can be interesting to take a look at as well: N. Roymans, Ethnic Identity and Imperial Power : The Batavians in the Early Roman Empire (Amsterdam 2004).
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As one of my methods for the masters I would like to know other people's opinions on the use of ICP within archaeology, especially plasters, mortars, and stucco's.
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ICP-OES is convenient method due to low detection limits, and large linear working area which enables determination of major, minor and trace elements in the same sample. However, you could have problems with traces of Pb, As, Hg which could be solved with some analytical tools.
But the most important fact is that ICP-OES is a DESTRUCTIVE method, so you will have to dissolve your samples and destroy them completely.
In contrast,SEM-EDX is not a destructive method, but its quantitative results are obtained only for the surface of the sample.
There are many things to think about, mostly when developing and validating your method. Best luck
Iva
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I'm especially looking for proof of Opium trade, use, abuse and origins.
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A well structured general treatmant of drug use all over the world and starting from the ancient Near East is the Spanish sociologist Antonio Escohotado's classic: Historia General de las Drogas (several editions since the nineteens). It is usefull in respect to the wide range of approaches taken and aspects treated, but to get the propper impression on its parts dealing with antiquity, one has to be aware of the fact that Escohotado is a sociologist and not an archaeologist or philologist of the so called classical languages Greek or Latin. Having this in mind, to me it seems even more impressing the enormous mass of material the author has worked through, proved by the large bibliography. As far as I can judge, the works used are well selected, but surely you may find more recent research elsewhere. Still I think the Historia General may be an adequate starting point for any research on your topic.