Science topics: GeoscienceGeologyRocks
Rocks - Science topic
Explore the latest questions and answers in Rocks, and find Rocks experts.
Questions related to Rocks
plz tell me about the development of q system in rock classification.
The application of numerical models in the simulation of rock/soil cutting process and at the same time the wear on the cutting tool.
Hi dear colleagues, I am a highway consultant and I have no knowledge to understand the results in the attached file, so please, I want to interpret the results of the chemical analysis of rock asphalt which I used in my research paper. with my regards
As per available circle geometry formulations, its not possible to find radius, subtended angle,sagitta from a rock,big dig etc whose arc and its chord can be observed/available without any clue of its sagitta geometry profile distortion etc. How to find the Radius,Sagitta, Subtended Angle, values only by availablity of Arc length and Chord length?
Dear Geosciences Community,
I am interested in starting a discussion on a topic that has been on my mind lately. I have come across many papers where the coordinates of the samples are not provided. This has made me wonder: Should the coordinates of the samples be mandatory to publish a paper in our field?
From my perspective, the inclusion of sample coordinates is essential for ensuring the credibility of our research and allowing other scientists to re-evaluate the results obtained. This is especially true for new discoveries, where having access to the sample locations can help confirm the validity of the findings.
However, I have been unable to understand why some papers do not provide sample coordinates. Is it because they are considered confidential information or are there other reasons for this omission?
I would appreciate hearing your thoughts and opinions on this matter. Do you believe that sample coordinates should be mandatory for publication in the geosciences? If not, what are your reasons for this? And if so, how can we encourage more researchers to include this information in their papers?
I look forward to a productive discussion on this topic.
I want to classify rock minerals
I would like to know that does re-heating modify the composition of a olivine-hosted melt inclusion in basaltic rocks? For example, unheated olivine-hosted MIs show the SiO2 value ~69 wt%. However, heated MIs show the same composition as basaltic rocks(SiO2=50 wt%)
The heated MIs and unheated MIs are not the same olivine-hosted grains, but the same one basaltic rocks sample.
What are the technologies for binding CO2 to rock in order to decarbonise the burning of fossil fuels, reduce the greenhouse effect on the planet's atmosphere, slow down the progressive process of global warming and reduce the scale of a future global climate catastrophe?
CO2 is a key greenhouse gas that is produced in various types of combustion processes of carbon-based organic compounds. In order to reduce the scale of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and counteract the progressive process of global warming, it is necessary, among other things, to replace dirty energy based on the combustion of fossil fuels with clean, renewable and emission-free energy. In the process of greening the economy and decarbonising economic processes, it is important to reduce emissions to the atmosphere as quickly as possible, particularly of the highly greenhouse gas methane. Methane is produced in various processes, mainly by civilisation and, to a lesser extent, by natural processes in nature. An important pro-climatic solution would be not to emit CO2 into the atmosphere, but to bind it to a particular rock form or to inject it deep into the earth's crust in rock layers that will absorb and bind it chemically.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of scientists and researchers:
What are the technologies to bind CO2 into rock formations in order to eliminate the emissivity of fossil fuel combustion processes, reduce the scale of the greenhouse effect of the planet's atmosphere, slow down the progressive process of global warming and reduce the scale of future global climate catastrophe?
What is your opinion on this subject?
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
I am an Adjunct Instructor with Red Rocks Community College in Lakewood, Colorado. I have recently begun teaching an adult education course in the Colorado Department of Correction. The course, one of four, is designed to teach Inmates and Staff the methods of teaching adult education, leading to receiving the Adult Basic Education Authorization and to teach inmates in the system the skills necessary to pass the General Educational Development exam. Regarding the GED, the major problem which needs to be overcome is the lack of sufficient reading skills. I need access to any research which lends itself to solving this problem.
Thank you in advance for any help you can provide.
Glacial lake boundary susceptibility to failure is a geotechnical aspect.
What are the approaches taken for geotechnical modelling of moraine dams/rock dams/ice dams and surrounding rock/moraine failure that can profoundly contribute towards initiation of GLOF!
Approaches to model possible debris flow associated with GLOF!
Surrounding rock/moraine/ice structure that could fail and fall into the reservoir of a glacial lake can also initiate GLOF, or sometime without failure of lake boundary, splashing out waves as a result of the failed mass into the lake can create havoc downstream.
Available or intended research approaches towards consideration of these geotechnical aspects and modelling of the strength/stress conditions of lake vicinity in view of glacial lake hazard is aim of this discussion.
I'm looking for a recommendation for an alternative to the Roche assay for analysis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in blood, since they apparently have production issues with expected delay of at least a year.
The Roche assay is based on extraction through perchloric acid and subsequent neutralisation by potassium bicarbonate, and using this kit, 10 148 334 001, for detection by spectrophotometry (detection range of the kit is 0.02–0.15 umol).
I have freeze-stored samples already prepared according to the described method, awaiting analysis, but I also have blood units which I haven’t sampled yet. Ideally, I’d like to find a substitute to the kit, but changing method is also an option for my future samples.
I’d appreciate any recommendations very much!
Kind regards, Linda
Rock masses are very complex. Is that a good reason to use something that is so simplistic (GSI) with a numerical range of only 5 to 90? And then combine this with non-empirical equations needing software to use due to extreme algebraic complexity. Applied to tackle the shear strength of rock masses in continuum models, the fact that shear strength is not actually cohesive plus frictional strength (linear or non-linear) but process-dependent (c THEN sigma n tan phi) makes these colourful analyses suspect.
Garnet is a common mineral that appears in metamorphic rocks. It is also considered an accessory in igneous rocks and a detrital mineral in sedimentary rocks.
What are the key characteristics and approaches to differentiate between detrital, igneous, and metamorphic garnets in metasediments and igneous rocks?
I am not a geologist, but I want to know how to differentiate between ground rock and meteorite, what are the measurements used to distinguish between them? I need help from expert people...thank you
I have nepheline syenite gneisses, consisting of grossular-andradite (grandite) series garnets. Other minerals of these rocks are nepheline (seldom altered), plagioclase, k-feldspar, calcite, amphibole (Ca-rich), titanate, sodalite, and cancrinite. Pyroxene is however absent and the amount of biotite is quite low. In the field, highly weathered carbonate veins are also noticed. Do these garnets indicate any carbonate activity (metasomatism) in the alteration of the original minerals of protolith nepheline syenite or any metamorphic effect? Answers and suggestions are welcome.
Does anyone know about a study where the concentrations of one or more redox-sensitive elements including uranium, molybdenum, and vanadium are reported for the silicates/carbonates rocks in the Himalayan regions?
To date, there is an extensive and quite evidence-based literature on the negative impact of rock music (primarily hard rock) on the natural biorhythms of the human heart, brain and other organs. it's easy to get a list of hundreds of papers on the subject by googling keywords like rock-music and heart arrhythmia or similar.
An analysis of these publications shows that the harm of hard rock to people's health, in any case, is no less than the harm of smoking. So isn't it time to extend to heavy rock the same bans that apply to smoking in public places?
I am looking for recorded earthquake rotational time history (ground motion) data; both torsional and rocking. Is there any database to procure these data ?
Soil and rock anchors have pull-out specifications that depend on many variables, such as the type of anchor mechanism, looseness of soils, depth of compaction, etc. However there must be some ground and rock compaction record. Do you know the maximum pull they have achieved with ground anchoring or rock anchoring?
The granitic gneisses are plotted in continental arc fields on the tectonic diagrams of Pearce et al. (1984). The geochemistry data show granodiorite to granite protoliths, and the rocks are collected within a small mapped area.
Can anyone suggest papers that explain the negative lead anomaly of rocks evolved within a supra-subduction zone, or any tectonic setting?
Thank you in advance
I need papers on bond strength vs degree of metamorphism, bond strength of sedimentary rocks (mostly sandstones), and what they depend on.
In our study on some granitic rocks we observed some samples containing high perthitic orthoclase in thin sections but they have very low concentrations of K2O in their whole rock analyses but instead contain considerable amounts of Na2O. It is not interpretable for us that why modal content of feldspars are not compatible with the results of chemical analyses. We repeated the chemical analyses many times with many methods and many accurate instruments but the results is similar. Would you please guide us?
Is it possible to locate the objects buried under the rock by using RFID technique
In pyroclastic rock, I cannot confirm that two points (Spectrum 12 and 13) analyzed by the energy spectrum of SEM are amorphous silica or volcanic glass. Are there other technical ways that can confirm that?
How to identify amorphous silicon dioxide in volcanic rock?
The rock in the picture is dark green in color and shows a psilotic texture. The surface of the bedrock was oxidized. It shows no magnetism with a bar magnet.
I am not certain whether it is marble or grey limestone.
Hello researchers, I would like to know the microphysical explanation of the strain rate effect of rock materials. Almost all the articles I have seen about strain rate effects are descriptions or applications of the phenomenon, but I have not yet seen articles on the microphysical explanation of the existence of strain rate effects. Can you recommend some to me? Also I wonder what is the minimum microscopic scale of rock fracture? Thanks a lot ^-^
I'm a hydrogeologist, I'm modeling fracture flow. Some fracturing in hard rocks (e.g. granite) occurs due to seismic/tectonic activity. I'll be really thankful if somebody gives me an information/articles concerning fracture development/fracture connectivity based on seismic waves/ amplitude of tectonic movements, etc. in hard rocks.
I major in geoscience and I find such unique patterns in either rocks or the muddy sediment or even the CaCO3 paste. I feel puzzle about that why the different fracture modes produced the same fracture morphology. In my opinion, fracture in rocks may be a brittle fracture, while the fracture in desiccation paste may be more ductile. I believe this topic have been well studied in material science. Could you plz give me some advice?
I am working on a petrographic analysis, and I have a thin-section database, referred to partially metamorphic rocks such as meta-basalt, meta-andesite, meta-gabbro and so on.
In the thin-section results, I have got the percentage of several main minerals such as Quartz, Epidote, Feldspar, Chlorite and some other minerals which are significantly varying among samples from one to another. For example, Quartz is fluctuating between 0 and 59 percent in various samples.
In my research, I need to categorize the mineral percentages in three ranges: Low range, Middle range and High range. For example, when we say that there is a high quantity of Quartz in a metamorphosed rock, what exact percent we are dealing with?
I would appreciate if you could share your ideas about this question.
I would like to find out if any research was done on the effects of microwaves on hard rock while rock blasting or cutting
Is it possible to generate porosity in rocks if it is continuously interact with acids or bases?
if not How can we generate porosity in rock
In a recent lecture during the construction of a temple in our region, it was shown that one of the rock got cracked during the excavation done for the foundation work and the rock is being repaired by stone stitching (crack stitching) technique and wanted to know more about the same.
For example, in an "Opx-Cpx-Spl" symplectite in a peridotite, what's the spacing between two contacted mineral phases of Opx and Cpx, between the crystal lattices?
I'm doing research on inorganic and organic geochemistry of clastic outcrop samples, what are the correct sample preparation steps? Is LOI a Must? Grinding the fresh samples and running them on XRF M4 tornado and Rock Eval a valid technique?
In the study of rock fractures, many values are used to characterize the state of rock fracture, such as fracture density, fracture volume, fractal dimension, etc. These measurements can be used to microscopically express the degree of rock fragmentation and be applied to DFN research.
However, how do establish an effective relationship between microfracture and macro rock mass? For example, can a jointed rock slope express fracture development through slope displacement detected by slope lidar (rock mass volume change is equivalent to further fracture development)? Or is there another way? Looking forward to your good methods.
Which rock (rock mass) classifications in geomechanics are best suited for assessing the stability of a natural underground cavity roof using caves as an example? What factors should be primarily considered when assessing the stability of a roof?
Rock in chemical solution will appear chemical damage, this damage is a kind of water-rock interaction, so we can expect rock mechanical properties cracking, what else can we pay attention to?
The general notion is that the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) rocks are in the footwall of the Main Central Thrust (MCT), and the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) thrusted over LHS along the MCT. So the key is to find the MCT that separates the LHS from the GHS. In general, the GHS rocks are structurally at a higher position. However, as the Himalaya is the fold-thrust mountain belt, folding and rotation of thrust are not unique. So this further complicated the identification of GHS and LHS rocks.
LHS is mainly composed of greenschist grade metamorphic rocks, whereas high-grade rocks are found in GHS. So we can consider both the structural position and the grade of metamorphism to distinguish the GHS and LHS. This is well established in different sectors of the Himalaya where the major thrust zones are well demarcated. However, In the NW Himalaya, the conflict persists on whether to put the Jutogh formation (Metasediments with high-grade intrusive rocks) in LHS or GHS or the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence (THS). I think this conflict is because of the lack of geochronological evidence for MCT and STD. I am also aware of the isotopic markers that differentiate these three litho-units. However, I am not confident due to my lack of knowledge in geochemistry. Please educate me!
Age data of the rocks are also used to distinguish the litho-units. However, selective dating of rocks might give an erroneous interpretation.
Are there any other criteria that help to distinguish the different litho-tectonic units, LHS, GHC, and THS? Suggestion of published work will be greatly appreciated!
I am not sure what is the general composition of impact melt rocks on Moon? To what extent it is dependent on pre-impact lithology?
Hope for some answers and also kindly suggest some research related to this.
Thanks in advance!
I'm working on an update to our previous global geochemical database. At the moment, it contains a little over one million geochemical analyses. It contains some basic geochronology data, crystallization dates for igneous rocks and depositional dates for sedimentary rocks. The database differs from GEOROC and EarthChem, in that it includes some interpretive metadata and estimates of geophysical properties derived from the bulk chemistry. I'd like to expand these capabilities going forward.
What would you like to see added or improved?
Here's a link to the previous version:
Many literatures recognized that the tectonically driven dynamic topography and rock uplift led to rapid erosion and thus promoted exhumation as a result. Dose it relate to gravity collapse?
I have been searching for standards or regulations on ""in-situ direct shear tests in soils (such as sands or clays)"" in the English publications database and I haven't had much luck yet. There is a standard for the In-situ direct shear test in rocks, but I can't find any for soils.
Do you happen to know any standard for this testing condition written in English or any other language such as Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Spanish, etc?
Any help is highly appreciated.
If Eclogites are the highest grade metamorphic rock, and most part of the mantle covers Eclogite facies P-T condition, then why we can't call those "mantle-peridotite" rocks as Eclogites?
Visco-elasticity can lead to strain-rate dependent apparent modulus change. Is this fully explaining the observations that the modulus is a function of strain-rate in rock dynamics? Are there other physical mechnisms that might lead to this?
Or a somehow related question, does strain-rate dependent modulus lead to strain-rate dependent elastic energy? I understand that this is not the case if viscoelasticity is the only mechnism for such dependency.
Low-δ18O silicic magmas (δ18O < 5.3±0.6 ‰) is very rare on the planet, as they require significant incorporation of rocks that were hydrothermally altered by meteoric water at high water/rock ratios in the shallow, permeable, and relatively cold upper crust (< 400 °C). However, what is the origin of the high-δ18O silicic magmas (δ18O ＞10 ‰)？
Is the study of magnetism by remote sensing useful for the detection of subsurface basaltic rocks ?
The attached samples was collected in Cameroon in the basalt quarry stone. The sample shows the same
Is this true for the HREE-enriched indicates garnet-bearing samples and LREE-enriched indicates garnet-free samples??
A reviewer requested to use SI units for the values of C-RP and procalcitonin that I had reported: C-RP mg/dL and PCT ng/mL, as suggested by the manufacturer (Roche). I have no knowledge of the applicability of SI to these laboratory parameters.
Nuclear waste is one of the major problems posing a threat to the world. Researchers are trying to find a method for permanently disposing of this waste. The Geological Disposal of HLW is gaining importance. Will it be suitable to use granite rock for this purpose?
This rock probably belongs to Late Neoprotrozoic
A thin section is a thin slice of rock only 30 microns thick that is mounted to a glass slide. The rock is glued using epoxy or Canadian balsam and preserved/protected by adding a glass coverslip.
1) Does the cover glass of thin section influence on the optical properties of minerals or on the image in general?
2) Do you use thin section with or without the coverslip?
Many models such as Mohr-Coulomb, Hoek-Brown model, etc. are available in the software.
It is shown that a comparison of the convection heat transfer coefficient of a thin water bearing fracture, αw, with the conduction heat transfer coefficient of the surrounding rock, αr, leads to a drastic αw >> αr difference, called α¬discrepance.It does follow that it is the rock, and not the water, which governs the heat transfer.
I am simulating rock cutting process in Abaqus. The simulation starts with a brick shaped rock (flat top surface) and one of the responses I am interested in is the removed volume of rock at the end of the cutting process. I should note that there is a damage model defined and the elements get deleted accordingly.
Using output variable STATUS does not work unfortunately, since some elements simply fly away without being deleted (when I checked the STATUS value for those flying elements, I can see they are set to 1). In other words, some rock particles simply get removed without being deleted.
I tried using a displacement criteria, essentially checking displacement of nodes and if they are above a threshold, I consider them as "removed". However, I was wondering if there would be a more elegant and robust way to do this. Is there for example another output variable in Abaqus, which would tell me element IDs for those elements which lost connectivity to the rest of the model.
Thank you very much in advance for your comments and replies.
I am looking to find out the optimum point of some factor in regard to the geochemical study of ophiolitic rocks, especially pillow basalts, to detect whether it is an E-, N-MORB, or IOB basalt, including:
- The optimum number of samples for a reliable test
- The distance between sampling locations and samples in each location
Generally, I am looking for a standard method for studying the origin of an ophiolite, even if the isotop geochemistry is required. It would be appreciated if expertise can help me with this question.
We have received the following two green colored, hard and compacted samples.The photos of rock and XRD Data (qualitative and semi-quantitative) is mentioned below. We are unable to give them a proper rock name.
It will be highly appreciated, if someone can suggest a possible name.
What failure criteria can be more efficient for the analysis of cracked rock mass under linear elastic conditions?
Hello Dear professors and colleagues
I have a felsic volcanic rock rich in mafic xenoliths and now thinking of the best way from sample preparation to yield best results ...any suggestion?
2- I want to prepare XRF fused beads for the felsic rock .. Should i care for removing the xenolith away before the grinding ?
3- Could i study the xenolith itself as if it was a free geological unit ?
For a biological experiment I am trying to calculate at which angle I should set my rocking plate to create a specific flow in my microfluidic chip (gravity driven flow)
I used The Bernoulli equation with frictional head loss (Darcy Weisbach). From the Bernoulli equation I would like to calculate the height difference between my two reservoirs. From this height difference I can calculate the angle.
My Reynolds number is super low namely 3.62*10^-2. Therefore, I wonder whether I am using the right equations. Maybe Bernoulli is not the one?
My calculation bring me to an angle of 0.02 degrees which is practically impossible of course.
P1 + 0,5ρ v1^2 + ρgh1 = P2 + 0,5ρ v2^2 + ρgh2 + fh ρg
With two assumptions:
- P1=P2=Patm because the tank is open, cancells out
- v1=0 as the reservoir is big compared to the channel
This gives me: v2=squareroot(2g(h1-fh))
I want to know h1 so: h1=(0,5v2^2 + fh)/g
Is this the correct equation or should I use another?
The concentrations of these elements in rocks in the area of the mid-oceanic ridges are particularly interesting.
In social drinking scenarios, my preference has always been "on the rocks", but the ex/in-plosion mentioned in the title is quite new to me. I feel it's due to unusual crystallization or air trapped or whatever, as I pour water on remnants of broken ice in the tray. Can anybody give me a scientific explanation of it?
Does anyone know if it is possible to use Roche High Pure RNA Isolation Kit to isolate RNA from cells frozen in RLT (Qiagen RLT buffer + beta-merkaptoethanol)? As far as I am concerned, it seems that both RLT and Roche Lyse buffer are guanidine based. Therefore, I assume that it should work. Have anyone tried it before? Thank you!
My name is Hanan Samadi from the University of Tehran with a M.Sc. degree in Engineering Geology (Tunnel construction and machine learning).
The general development of Artificial Intelligence is certainly facilitated by openly available datasets for the whole community to use and learn from. However, due to the lack of open datasets in the field of hard rock tunnelling, I am currently looking forward to accessing open datasets related to this field of study.
I would be very thankful, if it would be possible for you to provide me with a data set concerning rock parameters (UCS, BTS, BI, a, RQD) and penetration rate of TBM machine in one specific tunnelling project (mechanized excavation with hard rock TBM).
Thank you in advance for your time and consideration.
At present, complete geometrical characterzation of a naturally fractured rock mass is always difficult owing to its 3D nature and limited access to all information. Thus, a DFN model is often applied to approximate a real faulted or jointed system. A following numerical simulation can be conducted to estimate the mechanical and hydraulic properties of a fractured rock mass. Undoubtedly, the reliability of the established DFN model is a vital prerequisite for the accuracy of the subsequent analysis of the model. So what are the current methods to verify the consistency between DFN and field measured data? Especially for the 3D information.
1)How to plot the variation diagrams for this granulite rocks ,Suggest me some paper or any specific notes?
2)Can you recommend any software for plotting the variation diagrams or excel is enough?
I am writing a Paper about (numerical design of rock test specimen under mechanical loading) using Flac3D 5.0 Program.
i am facing now a lit