Science topics: LinguisticsRhetoric
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Rhetoric - Science topic

Rhetoric is the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
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How do you research and bring work together?
You may use the technique of consilience without knowing it.
Read this definition and then let me know how you use consilience in your work.
Highlights:
In science and history, consilience (also convergence of evidence or concordance of evidence) is the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can "converge" on strong conclusions. That is, when multiple sources of evidence are in agreement, the conclusion can be very strong even when none of the individual sources of evidence is significantly so on its own. Most established scientific knowledge is supported by a convergence of evidence: if not, the evidence is comparatively weak, and there will not likely be a strong scientific consensus.
The principle is based on the unity of knowledge; measuring the same result by several different methods should lead to the same answer. For example, it should not matter whether one measures distances within the Giza pyramid complex by laser rangefinding, by satellite imaging, or with a meter stick – in all three cases, the answer should be approximately the same. For the same reason, different dating methods in geochronology should concur, a result in chemistry should not contradict a result in geology, etc.
The word consilience was originally coined as the phrase "consilience of inductions" by William Whewell (consilience refers to a "jumping together" of knowledge).[1][2] The word comes from Latin com- "together" and -siliens "jumping" (as in resilience).[3]
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Dear Colleague Michael Marek,
Yes, this is so often the case. My husband who is an active observational planetary scientist says how often the "devil" is in the details of data analysis.
Our short story collection, Children of Steel, is being considered by Wayne State UP, BTW. It is a collection of short fiction by people who grew up in steel mill towns. I just noticed where you retired from teaching.
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Voladamir Zelinsky started out as a comedian and satirist. As a man of the people, he even entered a dancing with the stars competition. So when Ukraine was invaded by Putin, Voladamir Zelinsky was given an opportunity to leave Kyiv. He responded “The fight is here. I need ammunition, not a ride.” Satire, Irony, Parody, and Wit have been used to demonstrate Putin’s failures, and Zelensky’s success during Putin’s war in Ukraine. These rhetorical devices are designed to ridicule Putin and Putin’s senseless war, and to show the resilience and wit of the Ukrainian people in a tragic situation. Are these rhetorical devices effective? Why, or why not?
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President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky begins a big "cut" of his country and "distribution of elephants to neighbors."
The Ukrainian leader said earlier that he would send a draft law to the Verkhovna Rada that would introduce a special status for Polish citizens in the country. According to the political scientist, soon Ukraine may lose its territories.
In general, it seems that Zelensky is starting a big cut of his country and distributing elephants to his neighbors. He, of course, will not forget himself personally, and the Europeans will formalize this matter from a bureaucratic point of view correctly.
Warsaw and Kyiv, under the pretext of salvation from Russia, will transfer part of the Ukrainian lands to the possession of Poland, "and there - at least the grass does not grow." Zelensky is simply vilely selling his homeland.
“For a long time, of course, in Ukraine, they haven’t traded their homeland to such an extent openly, brazenly and vilely, but, on the other hand, what else could be expected from all these people?”
Earlier, Polish President Andrzej Duda said that the border with Ukraine should unite peoples, not divide them. In this regard, he proposed to develop a new treaty on good neighborliness with Kyiv.
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Dear Colleagues,
I would like to start a group to consider changing the dismissive treatment of rhetoric in colloquial situations to reflect that people become experts in crowd persuasion. If there were a column in--say--the NYT on just how rhetoric is used by "influencers," then people can see it coming and have sales resistance.
Any thoughts on how to interest the media in the validity and desirability of such a project?
I look forwards to your comments.
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Dear Stanley,
I think people can sometimes surprise us. Anyone who has taught for a couple or few decades tends to adopt the audience model of "least mental effort wanted" but remember that all that is accessible in print and online major newspapers actively promotes this model. Some experimental columns in our local newspaper bring in a more in-depth approach did rather well.
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Hi! I am compiling a bibliographical guide on the current state of scholarship (last ten years) on the Canons of Rhetoric. If you have any suggestions regarding works to be included, they would be greatly appreciated. Wishing the best.
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The attached certainly speaks to the rhetorical canons, albeit obliquely. The text's principle interest is in laying out the the state of the art in rhetorical genre studies; I believe it may have been the very first compendium-style handbook to do so. All told, it offers a pretty up-to-date primer on rhetorical theory writ large, even though its focus is nominally genre studies.
If you happen to find the material in the handbook helpful, I have a syllabus from a course on rhetorical genre studies I took in grad school that lists additional genre-centric rhetorical resources, many of which can't help but engage with the canons as a foundational aspect of the discipline.
I'm also a big fan of Penn State sociolinguist @Suresh Canagarajah, who dabbles in rhetorical theory.
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Rhetorical figures - any of the forms of expression which give beauty, variety, force, etc., to a composition in accordance with the theory and principles of rhetoric, as metaphor, metonym, hyperbole, etc.
A literary trope is the use of figurative language, via word, phrase or an image, for artistic effect such as using a figure of speech.The word trope has also come to be used for describing commonly recurring literary and rhetorical devices, motifs or clichés in creative works.
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Literary forms enrich utterances in rhetoric
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Cultural competence is formed when using :
real life topics:
teaching texts: terms of style; rhetoric,
register :
skills. :
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In my thesis work I developed a new model of cultural competence from an ecological and equity-based approach. I hope it may be of interest to you:
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Every time you open your inbox you are probably welcomed by "editors" messages inviting you to submit a paper to their next journal issue. They then go ahead to give a rhetoric about how quick it will be for them to publish your work just in days or a couple of weeks. My concern is; can a journal produce an authentic paper just in TWO WEEKS, however much the journal is well facilitated?
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Read below article:
Predatory Journals: A Threat to Scholarly Publishing. https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JER/article/view/25482
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Dear Colleagues,
I would like to invite pointers to references on these topic. If anybody would like collaborate on a panel for the Modern Language Association or to write an essay, please comment below.
OUTLINE OF POINTS
DISCUSSION TITLE: The Rhetoric of Naming Urban Spaces
Field of Socio-Onomastics (does this field cover the topic here?)
-----Journal of Onomastics
Architectural journals dealing with onomastics
Protocols for naming in publicly-funded Research Institutions
Shift in naming
Ethos and Power of Naming
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Buildings are becoming tombstones for the wealthy who are putting their names on them. Ozymandias redux.
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Do you know a NLP research about extraction of sarcastic, metaphorical, polemical and rhetorical phrases in texts? For example, in the text “Find your patience before I lose mine.”
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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352060308_University_Students'_Attitudes_Towards_Online_English_Postgraduate_Programs
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Dear RG Academics who Travel,
This is an important topic because many academics relish going to desirable places for conferences. My husband and I used to travel to scientific conferences but so much red tape is involved he and I are glad to attend mostly on video conferencing technologies (yes, like Zoom and others whose names I don't know. No intent to favor one or the other technology company)
It is good to remember that social bragging rights do not equal additions to knowledge (i.e., what exotic place one has traveled lately.). Yet, local economies are helped by all kinds of conferences and the money that they bring.
There are costs and benefits either way, so please share your ideas about continuing in-person conferences when there is little we cannot do via remote presentation, informal conferring and virtual "hallway" chatter.
Look look forward to your ideas.
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Good question related to all of academicians! Its true there is lot of codal formalities to get funding and visa processing time etc. I think face to face attending is better than online mode. As we can make new connections, friends, links in the field, visit different places, understand the work of other and many more. I was lucky to have chances to visit different places in the world. Currently lockdown stations shifted most of the academic activities as online mode. I hope situation will be better soon and we again have a chance.
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Since 2016 coup attempt CHP has accepted the official narrative of AKP government and its discourse (of rhetoric). I am investigating the reasons of this compliance.
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Perhaps Koray Caliskan can help you. He is on Research Gate.
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I need to cross check several words that appear in subtitles of a movie with what is spoken out in a movie - a word in English or Hindi. A list of words in time order is provided. Is there anyone who would have a capacity to help?
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Hi, I am from India, doing research on subtitles (AVT) in foreign language like Chinese, English. If you have done any research on same, may share with me also.
Thank you! @Agata Bednarek
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Dear Colleagues around the world at RG,
This is an open forum for your comments. RG is one place where people from all over can exchange views.
The world is a rather hostile and violently competitive place in many aspects. That is not new.
But along with frightening news and media coverage, I do see people forming new pathways to work together. Do yo think that this will help to foster cooperatve behavior as a stimulus?
I think that anthropologists, sociologists, historians, creative field workers in the arts and humanities all can answer this Q from their own field's perspective.
How can we make this happen? That include people in rhetoric and communications, those in public health, manufacturers, etc.
What do you have to share?
This proverb may come from China. The sources say it is difficult to pin down:
"It is better to light just one little candle than to curse the darkness."
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Just as the ocean is made of many droplets. sometimes we can be the change we wish to see.
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I perceive that there is total mismatch between how change is managed by leaders in the world at large and the rhetoric. Do you agree? If yes, why; if not, why not?
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I somewhat agree with you but I strongly believe that management of change at all levels organisational-wise is dependent on some many factors like the organisational culture and policies. But on the average, leaders at the international level somewhat manage change better than those at the local level. Thank you
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At the end of the 19th century, the ideas of psychophysiology and its rhetorical devices gave rise to a new way of referring to consciousness and the human being. Literature would change along with this scientific revolution. To such an extent that we speak of nervous and sensory literature, psychophysiological literature. Great novels such as The Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann, Ulysses by James Joyce, In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust, and Azar by Joseph Conrad have as one of their central issues the conditioning of these new ways of saying consciousness.
In recent decades, scientific research around consciousness continues to change paradigms, but the reception by the literature of the rhetorical devices of behavioral neurology, cognitive sciences, and others has been slow to come.
It is possible to consider that new literature is approaching based on this new conception. Is neural or predictive consciousness literature approaching? Is there an example? Or simply, Is it impossible for the literature of this step?
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Thanks for the answer.
Is a surprise that Helmholtz known or suspected an unconscious predictor.
But, my question is relative to the representations of consciousness and how they are applied to say things about humans.
I interest in research how these representations acquired one use in daily life and the literature is a way for close to understanding that issue.
The metaphor, the discursive styles, and the concepts beyond the mathematical realizations are how, finally, we will talk about the phenomenons of consciousness and unconsciousness to the society.
I appreciate your interest very much.
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Dear Colleagues,
I put up this question at RG in order to find out what is being studied about the effects on people of social media memes as they attempt to find reliable information regarding social media memes.
In my original data set about the addictive power of memes to shape memory storage and alter personality, I was mainly looking at political memes.
It may be also important to study the effects of memes upon people's ability to find verifiable information. So please post any studies that you are aware of so that we can compile these in one place. I hope this inspires some study because I already know the power of memes from my past work on rhetoric, communication theory, and meme addictive behavior.
Here are an initial couple of links to studies which I have not read as yet, but which may be of interest. Check the bibliographies or Works Citeds, as well.
Social Media Reigned by Information or Misinformation About COVID-19: A Phenomenological Study
Social Sciences & Humanities Open Online journal:
MIT Psychologists study:
Fighting COVID-19 misinformation on social media: Experimental evidence for a scalable accuracy nudge intervention
Peer-edited Polish Journal
SOMEBODY TO BLAME: ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OTHER IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 OUTBREAK
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Dear Colleagues,
This week on Public Broadcasting in the US, there was a documentary about InfoWars, one of the persistent purveyors of disinformation in the media. It is well to learn how this rhetoric works. First--going back to Aristotle--you assign a good ETHOS to a speaker, then you will follow any path in this person's arguments.
To take a "base audience" farther into believing more and worse sketchy logic, tie your outrageous claim to some other "outrage" the audience already believes. "It's just like the time that...happened...and did the mainstream media tell the truth then?"
A good example was that the InfoWars host claimed on many shows that the Sandy Hook massacre of school children was "fake" news. He even had a court battle with one of the grieving parents.
These same outrageous techniques of misinformation and lying are being applied daily to the problem of the corona virus. Memes are primary vectors of this spread of misinformation. They have no traceable source and are generated by data mining concerns tasked with "meme flooding' a huge audience. This audience, once addicted to sharing memes, will become more and more trapped in a misinformation bubble reinforced daily.
See this documentary if you have time.
LINK:
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I have encountered people who, when confronted with a counterexample to a general claim, will respond with another example that is consistent with the general claim, as if this somehow refutes the counterexample. Is there a name for this fallacy?
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Denis Korneev Well, there's "modus morons" 🤔, but that's just another name for affirming the consequent.
Cheers. 🤡
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In trying to set out the perameters of "social class" in the introduction of a text I am editing upon "social class' and "literature" for Routledge, I fell into a Lewis Carroll rabbit hole of wondrous conflicted definitions and claims about the fabulous Snarkish creature--class!
"
A granfalloon, in the fictional religion of Bokononism (created by Kurt Vonnegut in his 1963 novel Cat's Cradle), is defined as a "false karass." That is, it is a group of people who affect a shared identity or purpose, but whose mutual association is meaningless.
(“Granfalloon,” Wikipedia)
Vonnegut’s definition of a “granfalloon,” seems to fit the problematic semiotic state of the term “class,” as well. Northwestern University Sociologist Gary Fine suggested to me that what Wikipedia offered about “class” was as comprehensive as any other overview of this highly contentious, voluminous, multifaceted concept. Published definitions of social class, reveal a plethora of conflicting and overlapping traits and attributes that may suggest to some that class” is, in fact, a granfalloon. Yet the same may be said of all sociology’s categories to some degree. Granfalloon or not, we feel and experience very real class struggles that create pain in macro-level, full-scale armed conflicts. Micro-level class struggles go on daily, more or less peacefully, if annoyingly."
Would anybody like to shed more light, darkness, and chaos theory on this highly confusing topic? I am all ears and really need some expert opinion.
Thanks and looking forward to comments.
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Dear Colleagues,
Your ideas are most welcome
... regarding social class inclusivity and the formation and development of US College English departments. What were their founding principles?
How have these evolved over time?
How do the theories grounding College English Departments affect the teaching of literature?
Concerning Gerald Graff's Professing English and Terry Eagleton's Literary Theory: An Introduction, again, your ideas are most welcome!
I am reviewing the history of post-secondary English Departments' literature programs for The Routledge Companion to Literature and Class.
Does the rhetorical mode of teaching literature as a part of civic discourse affect the way literature is taught? Eagleton and Graff appear to split over this.
I may add more questions as I finish Graff.
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The introduction of what was once called Third World literature into the debate has created surely immense doubt about the nature of literature and what is taught. I came across a Pelican Original, dated 1940 but republished in 1969, with the usual troupe of dead white men perpetuating a real or imagined tradition. South American and West African literature broke that mold. Now, with internet and public performance literature like art can be anything. Mostly still, literature possessing form is still the literature taught.
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In reviewing a research work which should be the review priority: “to review the excellent manuscript”?, or “to make the manuscript excellent (such as regionally problem-solving), though imperfect)”? Which should be the reviewing criteria of valuation?
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Rejections are inevitable but can push researchers to better research papers.
Good peer review leads to better quality manuscripts
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Dear colleagues,
There are currently conducted studies -and presented in journals of social and humanistic orientation- in which the role of technology is undermined or absolutely absent. On the other hand, social, humanistic, and cultural sciences today are directly or indirectly developed, in line to technological advancements. Which is your opinion about this phenomenon? Could be anticipated from readers of such scientific fields to be familiarized and expertized upon the role of technology in their research areas?
Thank you for your posts, these are very welcome. 
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Absolutely yes
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Dear Colleagues,
I am putting together a collection of essays on Literature and Class for the publisher Routledge.
Some of you may look at this question with different eyes than mine.
So please tell me about any experiences you have writing about literature through the lens of social class.
Have you done such analysis?
What theory did you find most helpful?
How do you define social class when it comes to writing about it in the arts?
Thanks for any and all ideas and comments.
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In an academic sense, social class is a reality directly linked to academic attainment, heritage, financial status and social positions. Hence an individual's knowledge of the literary and relevant theories and concepts naturally will be applied in making an analysis. However, these variables I mentioned, in many ways contribute to an individual's social construction of reality, inclination and attributions. Beyond and within academic stipulations of analysis of texts, individuals view texts based on the aforementioned persuasions and worldviews.
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Who are the key people in persuasive language?
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Dear Colleague @Sue Hamzah,
I agree with @Cameen Kettanun. You shd consider the purpose of your use of a style of analysis.
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In a time with political polarization «fake news», epistemological fragmentation, echo chambers and decreasing trust in politicians, media, experts and hostility towards opponents; credibility, ethos and trust are more important than ever. However, it seems that the field is split in humanistic ethos-studies, social science research on organizational and media credibility, sociological theories of trust, and social psychological experiments studying the dimensions of credibility. Is this assumption correct? Does any studies embrace more than one aspect of these fields? And most importantly: What are the most important insights and texts in the contemporary study of rhetorical ethos, credibility, and trust?
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Good point, Colleague Jens,
Ernest Bormann's text The Force of Fantasy deals with images of ethos. This form of communication theory talks about how ethos is created for audiences, rather than "finding" it somewhere pre-fabricated.
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Dear Colleagues at RG,
As a college English instructor who has taught everything from literature to scientific writing, I was taught ways to read essays in order to grade them that were far from my own field.
Scientists often complain that in this time of increasing specialization they can no longer understand research reports from domains outside their own.
Do some colleagues have methods to share that allow use to understand essays or technical reports outside our own fields?
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Many thanks, Agnieszka Will geb. Gronek !
I hope grad students read this who are assigned large stacks of research essays outside their own areas.
Here are the three key parts in outline form (from my Ph.D. professor):
METHODS (note number of subjects in experiment and who is funding if noted in this or INTRO.) Who funded the study is most important when cnsidering possible biased findings or not.
DISCUSSION OF DATA AND EXPERIMENT (skim this unless needed for evaluating the text. May have difficult material such as advanced equations ans innumerbale names of chemical reactions, etc.)
CONCLUSION
The Intro, methods, and conclusion can re written in understandable langauge. If more is needed, get help from a person of that speciality.
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Properly defined terms can help scientists communicate more effectively and efficiently.
Often, writers uses terminology based on their own concepts and preferences. As a result, the search used to interpret a particular topic may contain different (direct or metaphorical) conventions that certainly affect the linguistic and legal meaning of the search ...
Using specific terms may mitigate the risk of using erroneous terms, which can greatly affect translation.
But how do we guide writers to use standardized terminology at the global level, especially when translating research or rhetoric?
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Adil Salhi, this is a fascinating topic and the source of much frustration. I recently read a paper that specifically addresses this topic in the field of psychology where the use of the correct term can be critical for a questionnaire or professional report. I would be curious to hear your reaction. https://www.aclang.com/blog/is-there-inherent-bias-in/
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When evaluating potential drivers as well as potential ways to mitigate political polarization, one of the challenges is to find a relevant and measurable way to evaluate/quantify political polarization. Methods can involve "thermometer scales" (warm/cold feelings), DW-Nominate ideology scores for politicians with a voting record, tracking terms/rhetoric used on social media and others. Another method is to track areas deemed to be effects of political polarization (increasing use of filibusters, etc). I am still in the search phase, so any thoughts/suggestions on methods that have/could be used to measure political polarization would be appreciated.
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Politics is a collective effect, where the Michael Polanyi definition of self-organized behavior can apply. This is is discussed in terms of trust and consciouness, for a non-partisan understanding of the forces at play here, at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328262681_Consciousness_The_5th_Dimension
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As news of this year's Nobel Prizes come out, I am left wondering what practical benefit some of these discoveries have outside understanding basic principles in the universe and chemical reactions, etc.
People in their busy and sometimes financially-stressed lives may see pots of money and honors being bestowed for innovative ideas, fabricated inventions, or other things the layperson really cannot grasp without some help. The public may continue to see science as frozen above their lives in an ivory tower if they do not have a place to visit, some web page, where the practical future value of a discovery, may be unpacked for them.
Or is there a role for the humanities in making a bridge between science and the public? Just a thought.
Any comments? Your input is always most welcome.
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I'm really interested in the Nobel Prizes awarded for fraudulent work. See:
As an example, from the above url, '1926, when Johannes Fibiger won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma." In layman's terms, he found a tiny parasitic worm that causes cancer'.
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In the final stage of my PhD dissertation, I am stuck about how to theorize from my narrative data such that my theorizing is 'not functionalist' in nature but 'something new or novel' - an advice that most supervisors would want their PhD students to heed.
For example, in my study about the rhetorical practices of two foreign teachers in my university, how I read/analysed Teacher A is this:
Her rhetorical practices in the classroom are targeted at two domains: academic (accomplishment of personal goals, e.g., finishing a university degree) and industry (accomplishing life, e.g., entering the workforce as a knowledgeable and competent employee).
Any idea about theorizing from this interpretation? Appreciate any thoughts.
Thank you.
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Thanks for your thoughts, Naeem. Since this is a qualitative study, I started with no hypothesis in mind. My communication pursuit is to find out if intercultural communication is a rhetorical act that accomplishes teaching and learning. To do so is to analyse the 'rhetorical practices' of teachers in an intercultural classroom context. I was advised to theorise (higher form of abstraction) from the narrative data. I did so but it seems that the way I theorised was 'functionalist' in nature, and my adviser doesn't approve of it. Yes, you're right, textual coding is both frustrating but fruitful once you see the unrepresented. I still have to figure out that 'unrepresented'. Cheers - Nimrod
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The question is rhetorical, just like all the absolutely/relative/philosophy questions, within our spirit and that of the universe/entities that help us, without limits or exceptions, through the directions this philosophy presents, they as well unlimited. We must not be tricked by the simplicity of the question nor by its complexity. There is no matter without energy or the other way around, no energy without matter. If someone can give us a single example of matter without energy or of the opposite, then it is obvious that the absolutely/relative/philosophy is no longer limitless nor without exceptions. If not, we must accept this theory, at least until the discovery of a new limit or exception, no matter their nature.
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Dear -Colleague, in addition tou our last talk I have found in Wikipedia the following information about physicist Werner Heisenberg, wo was also interested in philosophy and religion.
Für Heisenberg waren Physik und Philosophie untrennbar miteinander verbunden.[11] Philosophisch war er überzeugt, dass die moderne Physik Plato recht gibt: „Denn die kleinsten Einheiten der Materie sind tatsächlich nicht physikalische Objekte im gewöhnlichen Sinne des Wortes; sie sind Formen, Strukturen, oder im Sinne Platos, Ideen, über die man unzweideutig nur in der Sprache der Mathematik reden kann.“ Die Symmetrien in der Grundgleichung seiner einheitlichen Feldtheorie sieht er im Sinne Platos.[12]
Die Materie verstand er im Sinne Descartes als Gegenstück zum Geist.[13] Eine Unterscheidung zwischen Kraftfeld und Stoff geht seines Erachtens in der modernen Physik völlig verloren, weil zu jedem Kraftfeld eine besondere Art von Elementarteilchen gehört.[14]
Wichtig war für ihn der Nachweis der Einheit der Materie: Alle Elementarteilchen können in Stößen hinreichender Energie in andere Teilchen umgewandelt werden, also einfach aus kinetischer Energie erzeugt werden und sie können sich in Energie, z. B. in Strahlung verwandeln. So formuliert er: „Alle Elementarteilchen sind aus der gleichen Substanz, aus demselben Stoff gemacht, den wir nun Energie oder universelle Materie nennen können.“[15]
Die Suche nach der tiefsten Quelle allen Verstehens war für ihn der gemeinsame Ursprung von Religion und Wissenschaft.[16]
In English
For Heisenberg, physics and philosophy were inseparably linked[11] Philosophically, he was convinced that modern physics proved Plato right: "For the smallest units of matter are indeed not physical objects in the ordinary sense of the word; they are forms, structures, or in the sense of Plato, ideas that can only be talked about unambiguously in the language of mathematics. He sees the symmetries in the basic equation of his uniform field theory in the sense of Plato[12].
In his opinion, a distinction between force field and matter is completely lost in modern physics because each force field has a special type of elementary particle[14].
It was important for him to prove the unity of matter: "All elementary particles can be converted into other particles in shocks of sufficient energy, i.e. simply generated from kinetic energy and they can be transformed into energy, e.g. into radiation. Thus he formulates: "All elementary particles are made of the same substance, of the same substance, which we can now call energy or universal matter"[15].
The search for the deepest source of all understanding was for him the common origin of religion and science[16].
Kind regards, Hein
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Fine language now has no place in political argument, rhetorical devices despised, with playground insults now the name of the game, and both Trump and his opponents using gutter language, with references to both male and female sexual organs. Confrontation is preferred to ideas, it seems.
This debases language but does it debase politics?
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i'm not sure but shouldn't there be a comma after liars, indicating a noun/subject phrase?
The reason it seems for such present language is popularism, as rhetoric is deemed suggestive of superiority and elitism-yet Luthor King did it in his 'I had a dream' speech, replicating black church rhythms and phrasing. Can you see any rhetoric here, just disguised?
But his opponents, especially celebrities, respond in kind. Wise? No, because sinking to his level and making targets of themselves.
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RG as a discussion platform is home to many fascinating questions and a whole range of opinions. There seems to be a tendency to couch questions in three forms, the hypothetical, the rhetorical or the most common the polar opposite.
An example is the climate change conundrum, "is it caused by humans or some other phenomena?"
I all research on whatever topic the project starts with a question so here is one for this topic.
What is the best form of question in terms of eliciting quality replies and coherent data?
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1. The format of RG Q&A is not well adapted for scientific arguments; it is extremely cumbersome to enter even very simple mathematical expressions.
2. Many questions, in particular those that attract a lot of followers and generate very lengthy threads, are of a nature that inspires more to arguments than analysis (even in cases where they should not, like relativity theories and quantum mechanics).
3. The RG questions which generate a lot of debate (more than 1-10 answers) have almost never any active participation from active scientists in the relevant fields, because they have long ago realised that this is not a worthwhile way to spend their scarce time.
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If you were to design a course to teach Islamic history, (from outside colonial narratives), within the perspective of Islamic culture, what Islamic thinkers, poets, writers, theorists, and artists would you include and why?
Additionally, should you exclude any controversial sources shared among extremist groups, or should they be included, and subject to rigorous critique by Muslim students?
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Wael B. Hallaq’s The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predicament would be a good choice.
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Is the Indian-born cultural theorist Gayatri Spivak's "subaltern" theory a valid approach to the US Rust Belt dominant narrative?
This question grows from the study of symbolic conversion theory and the work of Gayatri Spivak on inequality and voice. especially her landmark essay "Can the Subaltern speak?"
Ernest Bormann called words and phrases applied to people, events, and places not present "fantasy themes." These themes tend to cluster into positive groups around one's own region or group and negative clusters around "the other."
When a group of people or a region is named with what Bormann would describe as negative "fantasy themes" by outside media, are they colonized by economic and media to the extent that they have been effectively silenced? The very fact that the US Rust Belt region and its inhabitants have no voice in the US media then be cited as evidence that they are incapable of articulating a narrative for themselves and may be described with external narratives with no necessity of dialogue.
So is this rhetorical situation the beginning of a true caste system?
The dirty jobs are not only held in disdain by traditional elites but also progressive ecology-minded media. Thus, the dominant narrative follows that omission is acceptable and that there is no need to hear from this region, the rhetorical construct called The Rust Belt.
Spivak usually is cited for Western colonial issues but can this sort of silence be analyzed rhetorically by her methods?
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Thank you, Colleague Altmann.
I had an idea that also embodies this separation over "nature" and "the environment" as signs of privilege. There is a luxury aspect to the environmental movement that Thorstein Veblen probably would have recognized as some kind of conspicuous consumption in terms of virtuous selectivity--organic foods, living among forest and sea animals, etc.
None of these are possible in the more industrial zones. And that causes a rupture of the self. The person is supposed to leave the industrial zones because employment is so limited, but also to shed a sense of self from there, molded by that setting. I wrote in a question about using Veblen for literary analysis. As important illustration is the huge secret that Gatsby is concealing: his father lives in The Valley of Ashes, a dumpy town where solid waste is burned nearby. So we could look through many novels via the lens of management of solid waste, just as some scholars have been re-reading novels as to type and rates of fuel consumption.
Rhetorical analysis of novels regarding solid waste management can give a look at how the physical "discussion" is framed in terms of the rhetoric of place and things. I don't know if I'll have time to do a major study of this issue, but this method will reveal much about the growing separation of the classes. Although all classes generate solid waste, almost all waste that isn't placed on water stays in the industrial or rural poverty areas.
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Rationality is necessarily political, emotional, cultural, institutional and rhetorical, but not reducible to any of them.
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Misbehaving by Richard Thaler provides some insights to this.
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What are the good souces of rhetorical devices? I'm looking for articles or books that include these devices in details. It would be grateful to find them online as PDF.
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You can go to Google Scholar, and use the search input (without the square brackets) [allintext:pdf "rhetorical device"] to generate a list of available journal articles, then select from it what you desire to be the most relevant. Good luck!
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I need some books that include the rhetorical devices.
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In 2015 I published Gold Mining: The Art of Rhetorical Discourse Analysis. Xiamen University Press.
All 8 chapters are free to download here on Research gate. Paul Van den Hoven
I distinguish between four basic devices: narration, comparison, argumentation and contextual framing.
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  • Millions of dollars and equivalent currencies are wasted annually in the name of scientific research in advanced countries (Nobel Laureate Alexis Carrel, 1947).
  • Have we stemmed this hemorrhage?
  • Will be able ever to stem this hemorrhage of vital financial sources that could have been used more beneficially elsewhere?
  • Is it national pride that propels authoritative agencies and governments to sustain such hopeless endeavours in scientific research?
  • Or is it the inscrutable face of rhetoric?
  • Or is it both, and much more?
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Dear Vinod,
If we approach the subject from a different angle, we can say that science is a rhetorical effort in Aristotelian manner. As scientists, we try to persuade reviewers, readers (also ourselves) so on. Thus, science is partially rhetorical and rhetoric is scientific as well.
Best regards,
Mehmet
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Anthropologists generally study behaviors that persist in human groups. The invention of print media gave a new area for the preservation and transmission of cultural values.
Literature, specifically, the growth in the 19th C. of the gothic novel introduced a certain kind of female response to danger. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein began the practice of women writing in previously male-only areas of culture such as the natural sciences. Shelley introduces self-reflection regarding the ethos of the actor, Dr. Victor Frankenstein.
Since that time, it has not been uncommon for genre literature to teach as overt lesson or subtext how to behave in the world. Genre literature can operate beneath the radar of dominant cultural norms and strike a different path via various styles of social satire (e.g., H. G. Wells' Eloys and Morlocks in The Time Machine.)
What theory tracks how genre (SF, fantasy, horror) literature trains the young to become adults in their culture?
Or do some genre messages teach alternatives to growing up and an escape from the norms of the socially-constructed, gendered group?
Adolescents in the industrialized world and elsewhere have vast resources in print and electronic texts. They spend large amounts of time reading of playing themed games that use tropes developed in stories.
What are these messages for living and what theories study this role of genre literature?
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Thanks, Colleague, Pal. Interesting theory of Gothic and SF.
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Hello, Colleagues,
I am having some success in mapping a pop cultural fiction phenomenon from small beginnings, to a circle of cognscenti, to a wild upswing in popularity.
There is a dark side to the fiction phenomenon in terms of dealing with human differences. So how can theory help in studying what appeals to the informal reader in this writing and what demographic segment makes use of this writing?
I have posted elsewhere about my case-in-point but now I am just wondering about the mechanics of the transmission and adoption of attitudes. Would cultural studies have theories, anthropology, sociology?
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Hello Gloria, greetings from Germany.
In the field of early European Ethnology , Hans Naumann suggested the theory of "Gesunkenes Kulturgut" in the early 1920s, saying that innovative powers in higher socio-cultural hierarchies create cultural aspects, which are then by time copied and adapted by what was then called "lower classes". Obviously, this theory didn't stand for long, as many examples of modern pop culture show us that culture may be transferred vertically bottom-to-top as well (Jeans, Tattoos, Boots with steel cabs, etc.). But nevertheless it is a considerable idea to begin with. It might also be worth discussing and adapting the Broken-Window-Theory by Wilson and Kelling or the characteristics of innovation diffusion stated by Hägerstrand for your work. Also defining the characteristics of the "Early-Adaptors" in diffusion processes and seeing different mechanisms in "vertical" and "horizontal" diffusion, using cultural expressions to include or exclude, might show a path to how a cluster of theories that might be helpful.
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Is it not rubbish to give so much importance to Similarity Index when due references are cited for the given statement. The language used and the way of expressing the feelings are important in literature, but in science it is the findings and their interpretation that matters. Rhetoric and flowery language have no place in science, where brevity and clarity are appreciated. So, changing the language and expression pattern to say the same thing should not be over-emphasized as is being done now-a-days.
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A similarity report point that I used the same variable name x, t, u, y in a mathematical equations, do I have to change them? what is the significance of changing variables names !!!
Best regards
Sarmad
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And what classroom and self-study tasks would you recommend to deal with these challenges? I would appreciate answers that deal with any of the following areas:
- Different rhetorical patterns and discourse styles.
- Persistent grammatical or lexical errors that may on occasions impede comprehension or distract the reader.
-Frequent non-impeding, "non-distracting" errors which may lead to a negative evaluation of the writer's language level.
- Poor L1(Spanish) writing habits which may transfer to the L2 (English). For example, run-on sentences are frowned on in both English and Spanish, but tend to be used far more by Spanish writers. The transfer of this vice to English may have a stigmatizing effect.
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Hi Chris,
Are you teaching English for academic writting? I'm interested
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Ernest Hemmingway said: "The first panacea for a badly managed nation is Inflation. The second is War. Both bring temporary prosperity but permanent ruin. Both are a refuge for bad politicians.
Should we ignore Hemmingway, since he´s not an economist?
In your country, where do bad politicians hide - in which rhetoric?
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That's right, the bad politicians live more and better in the underdeveloped countries, precisely because in many of them, the power groups and the politicians themselves live in a closed circle where they protect each other, to defraud, corrupt and traffic, with influence of power and under the protection of impunity.
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Often we do that job quite well enough on ourselves. But also we still play tapes in our minds going all the way back to grade school. There are various "overcoming writing anxiety" exercises out there.
Do you have an answer?
Who has told you you can't write?
Do you overcome this?
How?
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I had experienced one of my article was submitted in a most reputed journal and i took it in a positive way and i published in the same journal.
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Over the years, Total Quality Management (TQM) has pervaded the thinking of many higher education managers. This concept is a product of the market ideologies of the 1980s and the corresponding managerialism, which went with them. In that respect are different opinions about TQM, some people see it as a way to achieve competitiveness and some others look it as a management style/fashion. Despite the special features of higher education as a set of activities based on the creation and dissemination of knowledge and understanding, does the rhetoric of TQM work in Higher Education (HE) context? I mean, is there evidence that it is really working? Why or Why Not?
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There are A quality assurance unit within each college in the universities. Evaluates teacher effectiveness by distributing questionnaires to students.
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Looking at theatre as theatre, not as just another medium to use language, so much more goes on in an average play than the lines spoken by characters on stage. How therefore can one actually account for the non-verbal/non-linguistic dimensions of theatre in a drama text?
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That's the whole essence of theater studies. I guess any introduction would do, but for starters I would recommend: The Field of Drama and Fischer-Lichte: The Semiotics of Theater.
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(somehow) re-unite biosemiotics (life as artifact), ecology of communication (coping with the (ever-growing) unknown environment) and de-idealization of material (e.g. Rogers RA, "Overcoming the objectification of nature in constitutive theories.." Anna Henkel's article on post-humanism)? Would be great.
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Regarding "re-unite", yes, it would be probably better to say "reconcile".. Still a doubtful expression, I agree.
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Aspects like user identity and ethos affect how people negotiate meaning and communicate online. How does having an awareness of one's agency manifest the ability to create change in the world?
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The Cooper article helped me negotiate my understanding of agency. I have read the Gabrill et. al. piece, which shows how agency is situated within a certain context.
Recently, I came across Zappen's article "Digital Rhetoric: Toward an Integrated Theory." He discusses how discourse is modified through the medium of online communication. Speed, reach, anonymity, and interactivity, through online discourse have modified the way in which people think about communication and interaction has changed, since face-to-face rhetorical persuasion was introduced as an art. But more work has to happen for us to better understand the nuances and heightened emotions which the online medium allows us to engage.
Thank you Reza Biria and Dennis Mazur. This is helpful.
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considering the rhetorical 'magic' deployed in drama texts that realizes such powerful emotion and fear
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Hello! One frequently used and useful method is Kenneth Burke's "dramatistic pentad." An excellent source to learn about it (and his other ideas) is a chapter about him and his work in the book, _Contemporary Perspectives on Rhetoric Theory_ (3rd ed.) by Foss, Foss and Trapp. You'll likely discover the broad utility of KB's work for analysis of texts and human interactions of any sort.
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Dear All,
“Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know.”
― Ernest Hemingway, The Garden of Eden
How true this adage to you and your intelligent others?
Thank you and best regards.
Mariam
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Dear Mariam
Unfortunately in some  societies  is completely true!
One reason why smart people fail to be happy is that they tend to be too strict with themselves. And here, I’m not talking only about one’s achievements and failures. Intelligent, deep thinking individuals often analyze themselves and their own behavior in such a rigorous manner like if they are intentionally seeking out things to blame themselves for.
Being truly understood by someone is one of the greatest experiences a human being can have. How comforting it is to sit with a like-minded person somewhere quiet and have a meaningful conversation, realizing that this person understands your ideas and shares your views of the world…
Sadly, intelligent people rarely have this pleasure. Many of them feel alone and misunderstood, like if no one is able to see and appreciate the depth of their minds.
But on the other side  of the coin, I know some  intelligent people in some countries  who are so intelligent and   are too smart to be happy and their  views  to happiness are just like  a skill, maybe eventually the intelligent people  are  fighting for their survival !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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What do we need parallel corpora for ? Especially if we are humanists or linguists doing work or research ?
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Dear Krzysztof Walk,
Generally speaking, in linguistic research in general and in contrastive linguistic research in particular, the use of parallel corpora is indispensable. Over the past few decades, there has been a significant use of computer corpora in linguistic research addressing various linguistic domains such as discourse analysis , socio pragmatic contrastive analysis and so on. The reason is that parallel corpora  are a valuable source of data which have proliferated the bulk of  insightful research in  contrastive linguistics. As such, we can say that parallel corpora can serve a number of purposes in linguistic and humanistic studies:
a) They increase the level of rigor  in comparative analysis of  the two targeted languages.
b) They provide us with an in-depth  understanding of micro/ macro linguistic objectives which serve as the tertium comprationis in contrastive research.
c) They can shed light on the delicate structural and cultural  differences between languages under investigation.
d) They can serve a wide range of pedagogical and professional objectives such as  lexicography,  researching nature of language teaching and learning as well as translation.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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My name appears incorrectly on Research Gate--must have been a typo. It is Shelley not Shell. How do I correct this?
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Shelley:
You may write to Help Center of RG.
Best
Syed
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Today I marched here in Albuquerque for science. I carried a sign which read, "Science is a method to dispel ignorance. Politics is a method to promote ignorance." I had been asked if politics necessarily behaved in this fashion, its present usages seemed to make it so. On the way home, I was thinking in terms of rhetoric and if successful rhetoric disabled ones reasoning and ethical values. Can argumentation be respectfully supportive of the individual?
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Dear karl Burmeisster,
What a beautiful question! Notably, the rhetorical dimension plays a pivotal role in the act of argumentation because it offers the orators and speakers the advantage of a seemingly altruistic account of what they want to convey to their respective audiences. Generally speaking, the main goal of an  argument is to boost adherence and rapport  by making the  audience agree with  the legitimacy of  the arguer's  reasoning in regard to a specific course of action , an attitude as well as  a belief and/or an   action guiding commitment to certain beliefs. On this basis, as you have rightly observed, we can enlist the powerful mechanics of rheorics to dispel ignorance as in science or to promote ignorance as in politics. This is certainly a paradoxical situation. The rhetorical aspects of the act of arguing are used to advance the frontiers of science, while those used in politics often seek to take advantage of the public. I really believe that,  in political debates,  the element of  appealing to the emotions of the targeted audience and their  shared ethos enable the political speaker to reach his/her clandestine goals. Conversely, in the realm of science where emotions have no place, the scientist enlists the power of rhetorics to promote the universal body of knowledge. As such, like nuclear energy, rhetorics can be used both positively as in science and negatively, as in politics.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Argument against this statement
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Dear Viyusani Fayi,
Generally speaking, reactions against the utility of new technologies and media for education have been inconsistent. Many practitioners (e.g., Leitch, 2006 & Tillander, 2008) believe that new technologies and media provide the education experts with potential tools of trade for education because they have an inherent educational value which cannot be ignored. However, there are some writers who doubt the real efficiency of such provisions for education. As such, the  debate on the effectiveness of technology in education has been going on for quite a long time so that we cannot easily decide on the issue unless the points of the debate are examined and resolved. Questions like: Should we remove  all technology from education? Or,  Should we stop adding  any more because we are not getting a satisfactory return on our banking on new technologies?, Or why is the quality of education not improved despite the use of technologies? are common themes addressing  the true position of technologies in education. For more details, I refer you to the following links, which  hopefully  satisfy the question. Best regards,
R. Biria
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Just wondering if you guys have some new publications out yet -- would love to see what direction you're headed in...
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1.     S. D’Oca, T. Hong. Occupancy schedules learning process through a data mining framework. ENERGY AND BUILDINGS 02/2015; 88.
2.     S. D’Oca, T. Hong. A data-mining approach to discover patterns of window opening and closing behavior in offices. BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT 11/2014; 82.
3.     S. D’Oca, S.P. Corgnati, T. Hong, Data Mining of Occupant Behavior in Office Buildings, 6th International Conference on Building Physics for a Sustainable Built Environment, Energy Procedia - 2015, Vol 78, pp. 585-590, ISSN 1876-6102 
4.     T. Hong, S. D’Oca, S.P. Corgnati. Occupant Behavior of Window Opening and Closing in Office Buildings: Data Mining Approaches, BECC Behavior Energy and Climate Change Conference – 2014, Washington DC, USA
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 The social media are useful and very attractive. We can find old friends, we can establish new contacts... Do you think that they can help us to "cure" the
alienation and loneliness?
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In my humble opinion the answer is definitely YES. Even if we often focus on the negative aspects of the social media (bullying, manipulation, fundamentalism, etc..), it can not be denied that social media opens a new niche for people in a manner that was never seen before in the terms of equality. Today, you can be anybody in the social media irrespectively on your socio-economical or health status. I personally know a lot of people who were simply unable to develop a massive social network before, from different reasons. On the other hand there is a healthy population, who will lose some social skills, interpersonal face-to-face strategies and coping mechanism by the extended usage of SM. The smaller problem is the (false)factual communication and the adverse effect of closed discussion (inbred) groups (conspiracy-theories, fundamentalism, etc) . The major problem is the fact that you need to simplify the colorful spectrum of the human emotions for interaction in SM. This reductive tendency may simplify the emotional toolset of IRL isolated subjects, making it even harder to communicate face-to-face. We will see, how the human evolution will handle this challenge. Personally I think we are currently on the doorstep of a new evolutional paradigm. As I can see our evolution in the terms of creating physical and theoretical complexity just entered into an exponential phase. Gutenberg developed an evolutional strategie for unlimited sharing of adaptive knowledge, Marconi found out how to transfer this information beyond physical boundaries, Neumann created the theory to orgainize this information into graph bifurcations automatically, the DARPA provided accesibility for anyone, and the Facebook created the space for the emotional context of this adaptive information. I think the circle just closed with this final step, and only the time can tell how can we live with this...
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Could be considered deliberative placed to stand on this procedural difference 
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منهج مادة تاريخ ادب العصور المتاخرة /المرحلة الثالثة قسم اللغة العربية كلية اكفاداب
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Hi, I'm doing a multidimensional analysis following the work of Douglas Biber, on two corpora (one learner data, one professional texts).  I have the following dimensions following exploratory factor analysis, but am having trouble working out how to define and characterise these dimensions according to function (e.g. involved vs. informational discourse, context (in)dependent discourse, etc.). 
Here are the 5 dimensions.  In EACH CASE, the z-scores are HIGHER in the learner texts than the professional texts except where a * is seen after the linguistic feature.
1) 
VBD – Past tense verbs
PRT – Present tense verbs*
2) 
NN - Other nouns not nominalisations or gerunds*
NOMZ – Nominalisation
POMD – Possibility modals
VB – Verbs in base form
TO1 – Infinitives
3) 
JJ – Adjectives*
PRMD – Predictive Modals
4) 
PIN – Total prepositional phrases
DT – Determiners
VBN – Verbs with part participle
FPP1 – First person pronouns
5) 
SPP2 – Second person pronouns
QUPR – Quantifier pronouns
TPP3 – Third person pronouns
IN – Preposition or subordinate conjunction.
I hope that anyone who has done their own MDA might want to provide some pointers here.  Many thanks in advance!
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Interesting point regarding the CFA point above, quite a few linguistics papers that have done MDA via EFA have NOT then gone on to do CFA to confirm the model, e.g. Hardy & Romer (2013), http://uteroemer.weebly.com/uploads/5/5/7/7/5577406/hardy_and_roemer_2013_cor2e20132e0040.pdf.  
That said, I did a PCFA myself on the data, and got quite poor normed-fit and comparative fit indices, although RMSEA was appropriate.  It was interesting to attempt something like this, however, so thanks for the suggestion.
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Hello, Research Gate Colleagues,
Maybe some of you have been trying something like this.  As an experiment I watch unpopular posts running counter to the recursive programming loop aspect of cascading "likes" to posts that give what may be called (in field of rhetoric) group-binding "fantasy themes."
Memes, going viral, etc.
Make some posts and check with a log what gets 0 "likes."  I don't mean where a post is horrendous in some way but just strange and oblique to the point that people pass it by.
Now consider Alzheimer's research.
How do we help people with cognitive impairment?  We get them to do something different, no matter how small because doing an entirely new thing builds new neural pathways.
Q: Are people at much younger ages mimicking the neurological "auto-pilot" behavior of seniors who tell that same family story over and over in almost the same words?  What does this do to seniors?
I hit on this cross-reference because I like obscure things and many of my posts get no "likes' at all.  I don't think I am offending anybody with posts about theremin music playing folk songs or such things.  The readers just have 0 cognitive hooks to decide what they think and pass these posts by.  I do think one English prof. colleague is on to me know and she routinely "likes" my posts just to ruin a perfect record.
What do you think of the implication of this above?  Are you aware of studies on 'no like' posts on social media?
Respectfully,
Gloria
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Babies generative, children creative,  youths immitative, middle-aged immitative, seniors reflective.
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I am developing a technique for supervision in systemic family therapy which is based on the exploration of rhetorical questions uttered in the course of a supervision session/consultation. So far I haven’t found a language strange to the use of rhetorical questions. If this is a universal feature of human communication, perhaps linked to the fact the metacommunication about the question -that it is not to be answered as “real” questions are-, then this supervision technique can be used in contexts where the culture (expressed in  language and use of language) of the interlocutors is different, yet the use and understanding of what is a rhetorical question is common.
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Dear Carmen, 
Impossible to know but there are roughly 6,500 spoken languages today and about 2,000 languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers
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Rhetorical function of...
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I would like to see if I understand the definition of Rhetoric.
Is rhetoric defined as the use of language for a special purpose? Does it require a form of predicate logic or grammar?
Is a code language a form of rhetoric? Is a secret numeric script rhetoric?
Maybe I am confused, but it seems to me that the guitar tunings are rhetorical forms of music language.
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"Astroturf Movements" are what Ernst Bormann would call a fantasy theme in his scheme of symbolic convergence theory.  Astroturf movements are often highly polarizing and hateful.  They seem to be coming from the grassroots but may be products of highly paid political strategists in the service of elite donors.
Are they more potent now than in the past?  Surely they have always been some part of political movements.
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Thanks for your answers.  My experience was mainly with the US version of astroturf movements.  I have just recently learned this term and have been trying to see what scholarly literature is out there.  Do either of you know studies of astroturf movements?
Here is how Wikipedia defines "astroturfing..."
"Astroturfing is the practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization (e.g., political, advertising, religious or public relations) to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by grassroots participant(s). It is a practice intended to give the statements or organizations credibility by withholding information about the source's financial connection. The term astroturfing is derived from AstroTurf, a brand of synthetic carpeting designed to resemble natural grass, as a play on the word "grassroots." The implication behind the use of the term is that there are no "true" or "natural" grassroots, but rather "fake" or "artificial" support, although some astroturfing operatives defend the practice."
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I think the rhetorical positionings of person deixis (I/you and exclusive we/ inclusive we) are predictable and over-flogged
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Dear Akin Adetunji,
I'd suggest you the two following volumes:
- Duszak, Anna (ed.). 2002. Us and Others: Social Identities across Languages, Discourses and Cultures. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
- Pavlidou, Theodossia-Soula  (ed.) Constructing Collectivity: ‘We’ across Languages and Contexts, Benjamins.
Best wishes,
Carla Bazzanella
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I'm doing research on contrastive analysis. My intrest is contrastive studies of rhetorical devices between English and Chinese. I need some supportive materials like the latest books or articles. Can anyone give me any help? 
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Hello Ronglan, 
concepts such as ''  approximative system, interim grammar, idiosyncratic dialect , and
developing grammar are also  intimately related to  CA.  
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"Building Bridges" is a very likable metaphor, one of the most vivid, in my opinion, within Cold War, especially Detente rhetoric. Yet the roots of an idea that certain nations are suited to become intermediaries between East and West are older. I can trace aspirations for such a role in my research, concerning WWII governments-in-exile, in 1943, 1944. There I got curious: Who was the first to employ the metaphor in the said context? "Oxford English Dictionary" lists NYT´s W. Safire in 1967 which looks pretty late to me. I also count on possibility that the concept predates the coinage.
Any ideas? Research available?
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Very old: pontifex maximus.
Julius Caesar once was the pontifex maximus.
And lawyer.
Regards,
Joachim
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I want to study how the ideologies and rhetoric of far right parties in Poland have developed in the last 20 years due to Globalization processes. Which research methods would be the most suitable?
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it was already mentioned, read the the party programmes (combine them with the day to day statements of the party leaders - something similar was suggested already by some other respondents) and maybe try to use Norberto Bobbio (Right and Left) as background idea. I did this with Slovenian parties and figured out that extreme parties are sometimes very much polarized between political and economic dimension (sometimes left is right and vice versa). however be careful with implication of globalisation. Sometimes it is more national ideology than global effects.
Might be that technically you need first to set the elements (usually those which are part of public concern) that you consider right: (e.g. in political sphere - opposition to abortion, opposition to alternative families or sex life, etc. in economy absolute privatization, no minimal wage, etc) and then compare programmes of the parties and statements of selected politicians according to the measure. Looks pretty much primitive but i think it gives good result.
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"Bernard's highly-refined rhetorical skills and legendary ability to persuade at their best."
(Sancti Bernardi Opera, eds. J. Leclercq, C.H. Talbot, H.M. Rochais (Rome: Editiones Cistercienses, 1957-77) 4:59-116).
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I also found the bibliography in Le Coat's The Rhetoric of the Arts 1550-1650 (Peter Lang 1975) fun exploring.
Karl
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I am looking for distinct rhetorical patterns of Ukrainian academic writing as compared to English writing.
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I also suggest the following:
Yakhontova, T. (2002). “Selling” or “telling”? The issue of cultural variation in research genres. In J. Flowerdew (Ed.). Academic discourse (pp. 216-232). London: Longman.
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My motivation is to somehow (blindly) learn (negative) patterns with plain text corpora.
For a bag of words {this, is, a, book}, once a corpus tells us there is no usage of "book is this a" for sure, and so on so forth, then hopefully by negation one may find some hidden rules to promote the bag-of-words model to something similar to LDA.
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If I understand your question in the right way, then it is more about the syntactical possibilities given by a language, especially an SVO one. If that is the case, then you could try to define the term via the function the specific wordcluster fills i.e. "determiner" or "premodification". You can find more information on this terminology in Quirk 1985 - 'A comprehensive grammar of the English Language'
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The earlier mode of Greek and Roman civilization of Rhetoric analysis.
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Indeed, as Luisa Isabel tells, it is stasis. Four issues are distinguished. Formulated somewhat losely: did the claimed act indeed happen? Is the act correctly qualified? Can the agent indeed be held responsible? And is the one giving these judgments qualified to give them? In criminal law these issues are formally codified. If you want to find an entrance to read more, go to my favorite website about (classical) rhetoric: sival rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/
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Roman rhetoric
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James,
Ars aedificatoria seems to be an equivalent basis as ars poetica or ars rethorica...
I do not know if this meaning was also I c aC considered. At least, I can provide three references. Yes, I know, not a definitive answer.
Lía Viguria
1. Critical and Explanatory Notes on Vitruvius
Morris H. Morgan
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology
Vol. 21 (1910), pp. 1-22
Published by: Department of the Classics, Harvard University
Page Count: 22
2.You can read in this link:
It is a .pdf file you also can download
"Je nachdem, welche Produkte hergestellt werden (Bauwerke, Gewebe, Schmiedearbeiten, Reden oder Gedichte), werden die Techniken (ars aedificatoria, ars textrina, ars ferraria, ars rhetorica oder ars poetica) und die Produzenten unterschieden, wobei aufgrund der gemeinsamen theoretischen Basis der artes „Begriffe für die Produktion sprachlicher Werke mit dem technischen Vokabular des Handwerks, speziell der Garn-, Holz- und Metall­verarbeitung“ (s.u. zu (19)) übereinstimmen. (BICKERT 1988, 5)"
3. Another reference:
This I haven't viewed. 
Ars Et Ingenium: The Embodiment of Imagination in Francesco Di Giorgio Martini’s Drawings
Routledge Research in Architecture
Author Pari Riahi
Routledge, 2015
ISBN 1317755995, 9781317755999
206 pages
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Is this epideictic discourse rather than deliberative one? Or are the two types mixted according to Aristotle's harmony of rhetorical genres?
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There is a genre continuum in film reviews between clearly deliberative ones and clearly epideictic ones. Ordinary moviegoers tend to treat reviews as a tool for deliberation. Thus most user created reviews you find online have a quite explicit deliberative slant.
At the other extreme professional film critics, film theory scholars, aspiring film philosophers and general film-nerds-with-way-too-much-time-on-their-hands will be on the epideictic side.
Audience design plays an important role in deciding whether the discourse is epideictic or deliberative. The film theory scholar or dilettante largely speaks to people who share her/his enthusiasm for cinema and are supposed to have watched the movie (and the countless other obscure movies that are cited in the review). The run-of-the-mill online review addresses people who have to decide whether the movie is worth watching. Explicit preoccupation with "spoilers" is a clear sign of this audience design and of a deliberative function.
Professional reviewers writing for newspapers and non-specialist magazines fall somewhere in between. They know that their readers will use their review as a deliberative tool. However, also in order to maintain their ethos of experts, they will dress their review more as an epideictic exercise that as an explicit advice. They will carefully avoid spoilers, but they will not mention the issue of spoilers explicitly.
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I "stumbled" across this group while responding to a researcher's request to join ResearchGate. I had done some editing some time ago, and I was surprised he remembered me (probably scanning old emails...). I'm a Report Specialist for a contract research company, meaning that companies hire us to do studies on a wide variety of things, and my job is to gather the data and create a coherent report. So I'm not "technically" a scientist, although I have a BS in Ceramic Engineering, so my brain thinks "scientifically".
I'm also in the process of finishing a Masters in Professional Writing, and my focus has been on scientific writing/editing. I started to narrow in on that field specifically when I took a course in Rhetorical Theory and wrote a research paper entitled, "Beyond Logos: An Overview of the Rhetoric of Science," which you can read at http://www.scribd.com/doc/15967165/Beyond-Logos. My professional website, though, is a combination of advertising my services as a freelance author's editor, working specifically with scientists and researchers, and blogging about the rhetoric of science. You can find it at http://www.kkieva.com/.
I hope you check it out, and I'm definitely looking forward to further discussions on this fascinating topic.
(cross-posted to the Philosophy group)
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Kathy Kieva, I am reading your paper right now. Very interesting. It reminds me a lot of Michael Polanyi and what he writes about in his book Personal Knowledge. One of the things he talks about is how science imports rhetoric but then calls it something else in order to hide its rhetorical nature. He calls these "pseudo-substititions." I think the greatest rhetorical trick of science has been to hide or deny its rhetorical nature to give the pretense of objectivity and the scientist as a mere instrument through which the "pure reality of nature" are processed and made sense of. The ghost of positivism still haunts us. 
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I am exploring the use of verbs of communication (verba dicenda) across languages and genres. My main aim is to see whether typological differences across languages (as described by Talmy) are maintained in the domain of communication. I am particularly concerned with how different languages use VoCs to introduce (and reconstruct) Direct Speech in written narratives and the rhetorical implications of this use, but I am also interested in their use in oral contexts. Any research dealing with this will be much appreciated.
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The proper name is: VERBA DICENDI, not verba dicenda.