Science topic

Retinal Diseases - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Retinal Diseases, and find Retinal Diseases experts.
Questions related to Retinal Diseases
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
6 answers
Hi, I am aware of anti-zpr3 (from ZIRC) stains rod and double cone outer segments, but I have no clue, what is the function of ZPR3. Could anyone help me to find answer to my question.
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
1 answer
Hello all,
I am currently trying to establish a protocol to differentiate iPSCs to Retinal Pigment Epithelium. I have set up an array of conditions to establish which is the best method to establish the cells. Some cells very early undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition while others have came along nicely and are polyclonal. I have previously tested and the cells are positive for RPE markers including RPE65, ZO-1, VEGFR. However I am having difficulty in that my cells are not showing any signs of pigmentation. I am currently culturing my cells in Miller Media with 1% FBS. I plan in the forthcoming weeks to perform IF and RT-PCR to determine if the cells test positive for MITF and PEDFR.
However in the meantime does anyone have any suggestions as to why my iPS-RPE may not be pigmenting and how to induce such? Any comments are widely appreciated!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, what protocol are you following? Are you trying to passage and expand your RPE?
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
7 answers
Visual acuity 20/32 (6/9) oct macular thickness 350um with incipient cataract.
Relevant answer
Answer
If the patient is asymptomatic then you need to keep him under observation.Patient to keep systemic parameters under control. NSAIDs can be started . Follow up monthly and if stable three monthly
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
25 answers
In a modern ophthalmic setup assistants may send to the doctors images over the internet to diagnose retinal diseases. Which model do you think is the best for this aim?
Relevant answer
Answer
Non-mydriatic fundus camera Centervue Eidon Confocal Retinal Scannerhttps://www.centervue.com/products/eidon/
Benefits
True color, Red Free and infrared confocal imagesSuper-high resolution and contrastCapability to image through cataract and media opacitiesDilation-free operation (minimum pupil 2.5 mm)Wide Field imaging (60° in single exposure and up to 150° with Mosaic function)Optimal exposure of the optic discExam time less than 1’ per eye (single field)From Fully automated to Fully manual modeUser friendly software interface https://www.ophthalmetry.com/retinal-cameras/centervue-eidon.html
Centervue Eidon Confocal Retinal Scanner
Centervue Eidon Confocal Retinal Scanner is a hybrid device with wide-view system that combines non-mydriatic fundus camera with confocal scanning technology to provide a true-color image
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
26 answers
Treatment of severe  retinitis pigmentosa in a young man 
Relevant answer
Answer
Laser. I know it sounds crazy, but SDM laser improves electrophysiology, visual fields, night vision, and CME. I will be reporting ~ 40 eyes at the ASRS in San Francisco. Preliminary results published in IOVS Jan 2016. No adverse treatment effects. 
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
4 answers
I m working on detection of Diabetic retinopathy disesase in fundus images. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Br J Ophthalmol doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2015-307341 Clinical science
Individualised risk assessment for diabetic retinopathy and optimisation of screening intervals: a scientific approach to reducing healthcare costs
S H Lund1,
T Aspelund1,2,
P Kirby3,
G Russell3,
S Einarsson2,
O Palsson2,
E Stefánsson1,2
+ Author Affiliations
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
2Risk ehf, Reykjavik, Iceland
3Health Intelligence plc, Cambridge, UK
Correspondence to Professor Einar Stefánsson, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iceland, National University Hospital, 101 Reykjavík 101, Iceland; einarste@landspitali.is
Received 26 June 2015
Revised 10 August 2015
Accepted 19 August 2015
Published Online First 16 September 2015
Abstract
Objective To validate a mathematical algorithm that calculates risk of diabetic retinopathy progression in a diabetic population with UK staging (R0–3; M1) of diabetic retinopathy. To establish the utility of the algorithm to reduce screening frequency in this cohort, while maintaining safety standards.
Research design and methods The cohort of 9690 diabetic individuals in England, followed for 2 years. The algorithms calculated individual risk for development of preproliferative retinopathy (R2), active proliferative retinopathy (R3A) and diabetic maculopathy (M1) based on clinical data. Screening intervals were determined such that the increase in risk of developing certain stages of retinopathy between screenings was the same for all patients and identical to mean risk in fixed annual screening. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn and area under the curve calculated to estimate the prediction capability.
Results The algorithm predicts the occurrence of the given diabetic retinopathy stages with area under the curve =80% for patients with type II diabetes (CI 0.78 to 0.81). Of the cohort 64% is at less than 5% risk of progression to R2, R3A or M1 within 2 years. By applying a 2 year ceiling to the screening interval, patients with type II diabetes are screened on average every 20 months, which is a 40% reduction in frequency compared with annual screening.
Conclusions The algorithm reliably identifies patients at high risk of developing advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, including preproliferative R2, active proliferative R3A and maculopathy M1. Majority of patients have less than 5% risk of progression between stages within a year and a small high-risk group is identified. Screening visit frequency and presumably costs in a diabetic retinopathy screening system can be reduced by 40% by using a 2 year ceiling. Individualised risk assessment with 2 year ceiling on screening intervals may be a pragmatic next step in diabetic retinopathy screening in UK, in that safety is maximised and cost reduced by about 40%.
Epidemiology
Retina
Clinical Trial
Diagnostic tests/Investigation
Public health
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
 
© 2016 Microsoft
Terms
Privacy & cookies
Developers
English (United Kingdom)
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
4 answers
VEP and ERG are subnormal.
Relevant answer
Answer
if you can perform Albino-VEP, do this. What does the child look like? if she origins from your country, she might be a bit paler than the family in albinism, not necessarily white.
Is there delayed visual maturation DVM? this is a very frequent symptom in albinism, more than in other congenital visual impairments. 
Are the parents related? any positive FH for nystagmus, Low vision?
Management:
  • prescribe glasses, 20% and 80% tint for inside/outside respectively
  • affirm parents that visual abilities will definitely improve (especially if the child has DVM) 
  • once the child starts fixating, start alternating patching of 30mins per day per eye - this helps visual development of each eye and may reduce the (high) risk of developing strabismus
  • genetic analysis can be done, but is less reliable than a good clinical analysis, as many albinists (approx. 25%) do not show alterations in the up to now known genes. In addition, genetic analysis does not help to foresee the possible visual development. 
  • If available in your country, start the child with early visual intervention programm. 
  • Alternatively, give the patients the following link which includes many informations for early visual intervention (in many languages): www.lea-test.fi 
I attach some publications.
Greetings!
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
13 answers
What do you use for screening of retinal diseases except OCT and other expensive technologies? In developing country they are not available to cover all population. Moreover, if the territory of the country is huge.
Relevant answer
Answer
We are developing a Tele-OCT. Regional centers send OCT to main hospital. An innovative software analyzes  not-normal profiles and alerts retina specialist submitting the file in his smartphone.
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
1 answer
I am currently working on the effect of salinty in taurine production for brakishwater fish. But, I am also interested on the taurine synthesis pathways in fish. Are you familiar with taurine receptor genes? Or any other enzymes aside from CDO amd CSD that aids in taurine production? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Im not familiar with such genes
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
17 answers
Please I need some help with possible differential diagnoses and/or management plan. Fundus photo of an active 47year old male African, Right eye. VA=CF,  exotropia approx. 30o. Lens, cornea, vitreous are all normal. Good pupillary reaction with mild RAPD, IOP 14mmHg. History of decreased vision since childhood. No history of trauma, diabetes, HIV, or hypertension. The left eye is normal. 
Relevant answer
Answer
You have presented an interesting case of an adult male with a history of poor vision OD since childhood, a sensory exotropia, healthy nerves and vessels, and a unilateral pigmentary retinopathy. Most likely this is due to old infection, but other possibilities include an old foreign body with siderosis, inflammatory causes such as Harada's disease or AZOOR, old retinal vascular occlusive events or perhaps an atypical presentation of a bilateral process such as retinitis pigmentosa or vitamin A deficiency. Likely infectious causes are onchocerciasis, diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, syphilis, ophthalmomyiasis, toxoplasmosis, or rubella. As he is from Africa, there are probably several more infectious diseases that may cause a pigmentary retinopathy that I am unfamiliar with. Perhaps someone with expertise in tropical medicine could add to my list. I recommend a careful history, consider a plain-film x-ray if there is a chance of a retained foreign body, then a laboratory work-up for the most likely infectious diseases. If that does not lead to a diagnosis then I would consider electrophysiology studies to rule out unilateral retinitis pigmentosa, but this is unlikely. There are many good papers on the differential diagnosis of unilateral pigmentary retinopathy. Here is one:
Silveira C, Belfort R Jr, Nussenblatt R, Farah M, Takahashi W, Imamura P, Burnier M Jr. Unilateral pigmentary retinopathy associated with ocular toxoplasmosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989 Jun 15;107(6):682-4.
Thank you again for presenting an interesting case. Please let us know what you find.
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
7 answers
I have been using a procedure for mouse eye fixation in paraformaldehyde. We remove the mouse eye after sacrafice. We immediately put it in 4% pfa for 30 minutes. After that we punch a hole in the eye, we do not remove the cornea or lens. After fixing for 4 hours, we put it in 10% sucrose for an hour, 20% sucrose for an hour, then 30% sucrose overnight. We then put the fixed eye into a cryomold filled with OCT mixture without sucrose. We freeze the tissue on dry ice. Sometimes the retina is perfectly sectioned, other times, it is extremely detached and has cells missing or shrunken. Any advice would be helpful. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Be very careful when taking the eyes out. Sometimes just a little too much pressure and the retina will detach and no matter what you do after it is too late.
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
1 answer
I am looking for antibodies for CNGA3 and CNGB3, important channel proteins involved in the cone phototransduction pathway. Has anyone found antibodies for these proteins that work well for Western blotting of mouse retinal extracts? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, Go to  www.biocompare.com & type in CNGA3...there are multiple ab's available some specifically for Westerns & all with further details available like species generated etc
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
6 answers
45 year-old women was admitted to OPH d/t retinal vasultis. She has a plan to recieve long term and high dose steroid. But, her chest X-ray showd inactive tuberculosis and no history of treatment of TB. Should she take INH for prevention of occurence of acvtive TB ?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think the Quantiferon or Mantpux are positive, so if the paziene must take a long-term high-dose steroids, should take isoniazid.
see WHO guidelines
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
13 answers
My first choice is vitrectomy (including A-V sheathotomy & internal limitting membrane peeling) in case have below condition:
1 Artery on vein
2 occlusion not in disc or on disc
3 short duration from onset (less than 1-2 month)
4 Visual acuity less than 20/30
5 Foveal macular thickness more than 450 micron
6 Patient accept operation
Second choice is Anti-VEGF therapy or Subtennon steroid therapy.
And I never perform photocoagulation for non perfusion area in initial therapy.
Please tell me your recommend therapy and your opinion.
Relevant answer
Answer
the latest data revealed the efficacy of Aflibercept in BRVO comparing with grid laser treatment
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
7 answers
We have an old patient with bilateral BRVO with cystoid macular edema [FFA].
Relevant answer
Answer
Atherosclerosis and systemic hypertension. Please read detailed information
The pathogenesis of retinal vein occlusion is multifactorial while BRVO may be due to a combination of three primary mechanisms: compression of the vein at the arteriovenous (A/V) crossing, degenerative changes of the vessel wall, and abnormal hematological factors. Koyanagi in 1928 first reported the association between BRVO and A/V crossing, and now it is established that mechanical narrowing of the venous lumen at these intersections plays a role in the pathogenesis of BRVO.
Systemic hypertension, hyperlipidemia , diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and smoking are reported to be more common in patients with BRVO.
Sclerosis of the retinal artery which is associated with these systemic disorders may result in further compression of the vein, when the increased rigidity of arterial wall and contraction of the adventitial sheath shared by artery and vein occur. Mechanical obstruction of the vein through the rigid artery in the A/V crossing may result in turbulent blood flow producing damage to venous endothelium and intima media and the sequence of events leading to occlusion of the vein. Some studies have revealed an association between BRVO and hyperviscosity due to high hematocrit, thrombophilia and hypercoagulation,thrombocyte aggregation.
Higher blood viscosity increases under conditions of low blood flow and erythrocyte aggregation .It is thus very important to identify systemic risk factors of the branch retinal vein occlusion to develop preventive measures for the disease.
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
10 answers
These terms are seen in cases of diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy.
Relevant answer
Answer
Excellent question! I think it is helpful to make sure the definitions of each are understood, then their relationships. Cotton-wool spots (CWS), also sometimes referred to as 'soft exudates', are nerve fiber layer infarcts, or pre-capillary arterial occlusions. In other words they are an ischemic event of a very small amount of tissue. Hard exudates represent the accumulation of lipid in or under the retina secondary to vascular leakage. The aqueous portion of the transudative or exudative fluid is absorbed much more rapidly than the lipid component. Thus, the lipid builds up in or under the retina, and becomes visible as discrete yellowish deposits.
Capillary occlusion occur in both diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HTN), thus CWS occur in both conditions. (Hard) Exudate is quite common in diabetic retinopathy (actually diabetic macular edema) due to leakage from damaged blood vessels, and VEGF induced leakage. Exudate is not very common in HTN, it is usually only seen in malignant hypertension.
I hope this clarifies things.
  • asked a question related to Retinal Diseases
Question
3 answers
I'm mostly interested in early life disorders, but late life disorders may also be of interest.
Relevant answer
Answer
This is probably a bit beside you point, but something I found quite interesting when I bumped into it: Visual Advantage in Deaf Adults Linked to Retinal Changes.