Science topic

Restoration Ecology - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Restoration Ecology, and find Restoration Ecology experts.
Questions related to Restoration Ecology
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
7 answers
Progressive climate change, including the process of global warming, is causing increasing droughts and desertification of areas. The scale of areas with decreasing rainfall is growing. Surface and sub-surface water resources are decreasing. Water resources for irrigation of agricultural fields are decreasing. Drinking water supplies are also declining.
In view of the above, the question becomes increasingly topical:
What are effective solutions for saving and recovering potable water?
How can field irrigation systems be developed in a situation of water scarcity and increasingly frequent periods of drought?
How can water scarcity problems be solved?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this subject?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz
Relevant answer
Answer
Your question is worded very confusingly. Let's break it down into parts, if you don't mind. Despite global warming, the total amount of water in the hydrosphere and atmosphere does not change. I think there is no doubt. During global cooling it is different. During global cooling, the total volume of water in the form of gas and liquid decreases, this water is stored above the ocean surface in glaciers. The ocean level is dropping. Everyone knows this. During global warming, evaporation from the surface of the earth and water increases and water from the hydrosphere passes into the atmosphere. The rain is getting bigger. I think there is no doubt. It rains more and more people die because of the drought. This is true and it is a paradox. If there is interest in this issue, I will continue.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
4 answers
In the advent of climate change, conditions suitable for local species could be significantly altered. Hence, planting characteristic tree species of the planting sites may not be feasible. There are several pieces of literature recommending the use of composite provenance in order to restore climate-resilient characteristic tree species/forests. However, the issue of outbreeding depression is a concern. So, my question is: in the advent of climate change, would it be wise to use planting material from composite provenance for forest restoration?
Relevant answer
Answer
As much as possible, determining the provenance of seed sources to be used in reforestation should be supported by seed source movement trials. The evolution of different genetic variants of the same species from different regions occurs in response to a variety of factors, not just mean annual temperature differences. Depending on the driving climate factors in your region, genetic variants of the same species may develop different phenotypic traits based on a wide-range of climate variables that you may not be able to predict a priori: eg., growing season precipitation, mean hottest/coldest month temperatures, average number of growing season days with precipitation, etc. Your management goals should also inform your planting decisions. Are you managing for wood quality/timber production? Rapid growth? Drought resistance? By mixing provenances from different areas without prior testing you may guess correctly which variants may do well in an altered future climate or you may not. Variants you have planted may grow more quickly in a drier, warmer climate, for example, but may experience reductions in wood strength and stiffness that could impact their stability and or commercial value. Any large-scale forest restoration should be back by systematically designed and installed seed source movement trials that seek to identify genetic variants that display specific phenotypic responses to the specific climate scenarios you anticipate will unfold in your geographic region. If such trials are not in place for your species of interest and if it would take too long or be too expensive to implement them, it would make sense to look for seed source movement trials conducted for related species from areas with similar present and anticipated future climate. I also recommend reading the works of Harrington et al. from the northwestern United States for more information on this subject: (https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2017_harrington001.pdf).
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
3 answers
what is the general trend in the R:S ratio of tree species at the seedling stage? early-successional vs. late-successional which ones have big R:S ratio? i see some contradicting results published. Plus, could these trend vary with tropical and temperate tree species?
Relevant answer
Answer
May be 3:1
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
4 answers
Has anyone been able to successfully cryopreserve coral oocytes? I've only found one case for a Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) through vitrification (Tsai et al. 2015, attached below). I know that in some cases some researchers (personal communications) have been able to thaw and retrieve from liquid nitrogen, but though they are still 'alive', they loose their ability to be fertilized (infertile).
I appreciate your help providing me with your answers and/or experience in this matter.
Relevant answer
Everything is very simple. They are prepared in the same way as mammalian eggs. Deep freezing takes place in liquid nitrogen. There is also an article, unfortunately in Russian.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
11 answers
25 years ago while replanting a 100-mile gas pipeline north of Reno in BLM lands in a cheatgrass area, at http://www.ecoseeds.com/greatbasin.html discovered that the exotic animal grazing had lowered the soil nutrients and organic matter below the thresholds needed for the local native seedling survival, that you can see at http://www.ecoseeds.com/good.example.html
By finding the soil nutrient thresholds in the top 5 cm, from around the seedlings of the desired native, and then testing the project area soils, and then adding fertilizers and organic matter along with the seeds, was able to get a cheatgrass-free planting in only six months, that remained 100% cheatgrass free for at least five years.
So my conclusion is that cheatgrass, instead of an "invasive" plants, the cheatgrass is what I call a "default" weed, only growing in soil too poor for the local natives and indicating poor soil conditions.
THE QUESTION IS, has anyone else used fertilizers to permanently eradicate other populations of cheatgrass, or added fertilizers to bring the soil nutrient thresholds up, so that the desirable plants are favored, and they can out-compete with the poorer-soil adapted weeds?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
20 answers
Collaborations may be forthcoming if I can find anyone working on plant assisted colonization.  It can be anywhere in the world and any habitat.  I want to try out a decision framework recently published on AC and the biogeographic approach.
Relevant answer
Answer
I have established an experiment on A. nebrodensis, a Sicilian fir growing on the Sicily mountains. The whole remnant gene pool has been grafted and transferred toward a northern Apennine site. Each step is monitored, who will come after me will continue that....
Konnert, M., Fady, B., Gömöry, D., A’Hara, S., Wolter, F., Ducci, F., Koskela, J., Bozzano, M., Maaten, T. and Kowalczyk, J. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN). 2015. Use and transfer of forest reproductive material in Europe in the context of climate change. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN), Bioversity International, Rome, Italy(E ISBN 978-92-5-107538-8): xvi and 75 p.
Ducci F., 2014. Species restoration approach 15.1. Species restoration through dynamic ex situ conservation: Abies nebrodensis as a model. In: Bozzano, M., Jalonen, R., Thomas, E., Boshier, D., Gallo, L., Cavers, S., Bordács, S., Smith, P. & Loo, J., eds. . Genetic considerations in ecosystem restoration using native tree species. State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources – Thematic Study. Rome, FAO and Bioversity International. ISBN 978-92-5-108469-4 (print), E-ISBN 978-92-5-108470-0 (PDF), © FAO, 2014: 225 – 232.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
3 answers
I just published a satirical article in a serious journal, and it has a serious argument. The intent was to use satire as a transparent tool to show the limitations of current methods, and to potentially launch more radical ideas that would be capable of more beneficial outcomes.
But there are a lot of problems with satire: it's frequently misunderstood, authorial intent looms inappropriately large, and perhaps it wouldn't be taken seriously. After the scandals around the Sokol paper, and the more recent expose in the humanities, do you have any opinion about when satire would be helpful and when not? Thanks for any thoughts :)
Brick, C. (2019). A modest proposal for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology, 27, 3. 10.1111/rec.12943
References
Relevant answer
Answer
If we limit "intellectual discussion" to research articles published in peer-review high-quality journals, I would say that satire is an attempt to redefine the genre of the research article. Regardless of its intentions, challenging a well-established conventional genre may take time, and may only stand a chance if authors, readers, the community of practice and the gatekeepers see value in it.
It may be helpful to think of a satirical research article (serious journal, serious argument) in terms of the notion of small "c" creativity (Sawyer) and the propulsion theory of creative contributions (Sternberg) -- see http://www.robertjsternberg.com/investment-theory-of-creativity.
Using satire to make a serious point is something that's creative insofar as it may have some originality (this is purely a frequency statement -- you don't see satire a lot in a research journal) but whether it's also meaningful is questionable.
The Sokol affair (strictly speaking the article was a parody) shows that humour has not really caught on as an acceptable way for communicating research findings, with or without an element of social criticism or critical reflexivity; we're nearly 25 years on and similar cases are far and few between.
If there was a larger proportion of these articles across a wide range of disciplines and journals, it could be seen as a form of redefinition or reconceptualisation but that's not yet the case. This would mean that satirical research publications are in fact a form of regressive redirection, a return to some idea, something new that has, however, been discarded before.
As you point out, there are a lot of problems with satire and other forms of humour. When combined with the time it takes to write a satirical piece and getting it past the editor's desk and peer-reviewed, I would say the benefits are not worth the potential risks and harm.
In fact, what is beneficial -- and is a well accepted practice across time and space -- is to introduce sincere intellectual discussion into satire and other genres and forms of literature and art. This may point to a certain cognitive bias.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
5 answers
To assist in weed management objectives, I am seeking information on tropical grass re-establishment methodologies and key references that may help a conservation area in Java, Indonesia.
Relevant answer
Answer
The indigenous grasses of Eastern Africa have been exported to Australia. Especially the c.ciliaris( fox taii) and guinea grass (panicum). The Tropical Savannah Project of Australia should give best advice as Java is close ecologicaly to Australia.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
3 answers
What is meant by ecosystem health?
Give an idea of ecosystem health profile.
State the indicators of ecosystem health?
How health deterioration is diagnosed?
How can health of an ecosystem be recovered?
What protective and ameliorative or therapeutic strategies can be adopted?
How indicators can tell about the good health, the bad health, deteriorating health or the recovering health?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Jayanata,
In his seminal 2003 book entitled "Managing for Healthy Ecosystems" (CRC Press) David J. Rapport refers to ecosystem health as the "capacity of a system to perform normal functions." In the Preface to the book the authors suggest that  "Ecosystem health  embodies the capacity of ecosystems to function without impairment." If you can get a copy of this book it is well worth it. To give you some idea how the concept of ecosystem health is being used in marine sciences I have attached a few reviews that you may find interesting. I hope this helps a bit.
Tomas
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
12 answers
On the successional processes, as we know, initially there is no plant and by the time plants are gradually coming into the ecosystem through various ways. On the restoration project, succession may get faster by artificial planting. Planting tree may cut some successional steps and bring the ecosystem directly to the late stage. However, I am curious, is it important for planting grass and shrub before planting tree? it seems that the successional process is not as fast as planting trees directly, but I am wondering with the effectiveness. 
If any of you can explain about it, I would appreciate it.
Bests
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mukhlish.
Yes, I think it would be necessary to first plant grass and shrubs in order to start succession. This presence of pioneer species is necessary, since this would be able to facilitate the succession of more complex species. They would help such complex species grow and adapt to the environment. Pioneer species would not necessarily just be limited to grass and shrubs, other organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, could also facilitate succession. As for the trees, I think they would not be good facilitators of succession. This is because, in almost all climax communities, trees are the dominant species. In a climax community, there is the presence of a few dominant species. If you would use a dominant species as your pioneer species, this could inhibit the growth and succession of other species (less complex), since they are far too complex and dominant compared to them, and competition would most likely be in favor of the trees. The use of trees would; thus, decrease biodiversity within the area.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
8 answers
Here in Lithuania we face a contrary issue - how to reduce Phragmites australis populations which overgrow some medicinal plants and other wild harvested species. They occupy every more or less suitable site including quite dry habitats. This case looks like a population shift to the North, which is predicted by the climate change researchers. What about the other wetland plants in Central Italy - are there any more species who suffer regression too? E-mail: juozas.labokas@botanika.lt
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Juozas, I'm from Central Italy and I studied with my colleagues the problem. My answer to your question is: I believe in Lithuania the fast spreading of P. australis could be definitely dependent by climate changes, however in Central Italy the problem is probably much more complicated. P. australis is a species with very wide ecology. It can grow in regions with subtropical to temperate climate; in acidic to basic soils temporary to permanently flooded; in olygotrophic to eutrophic and fresh to brackish water. Central Italy is in the middle of the distribution area, not at the edges, so I don't think climatic change can affect directly so much the populations. What instead is true is that climate change is an important factor that affects the seasonal speed of drying out and eutrophication of water bodies. Now the hypothesis for the dying back also reported in the literature are really many. According to my experience in Italy and in other countries my personal main observation is that P. australis population can start to dye for many different localized reasons (rapid decreasing and increasing of water level, chemical pollution, vegetation succession, etc...), from this point what usually happen is a negative feedback mechanism. more and more plants dye, more organic matter deposits on the bottom, less oxygen is in the soil, lower is the regeneration of the the plants, more pathogens attack the plants and so on... up to the compete disappearance of the population. 
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
25 answers
I'm looking for literature on tropical dry forest restoration worldwide. If you know of any projects, I would be very grateful if you could let me know about them. Thank you all
Relevant answer
I found this to be quite informative.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
4 answers
I have an experimental set up where I look at oak regeneration. I have taken hemispherical photographs in order to estimate the percent of above canopy light that is available to the seedlings under different canopy conditions. My supervisor have done this before, but analyzed the images using Gap Light Analyzer. Now that software is to old to run on my computer, so I am wondering if anyone have experience using the software CAN-EYE to answer similar questions? I have spent hours reading their manual, but since I'm new at this I still can't figure out if it can do what I want...
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Madam Linda, I have a simple answer to your question.  However, you need a computer programmer to devise a code to count the number of pixels in an image.  Take some JPEG photos in the canopy, then using a software called IrfanView, you can convert the pictures into monochrome and this is where the programmer will devise a program that can count the black and white pixels.  The white pixels represent light that is penetrating the canopy.  
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
9 answers
Bonjour,
wanting to study bryophyte seed banks in temperate temporary wet ecosystems (ponds puddles etc.) I am looking for any practical advices and/or relevant references. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you all for your answers
"seed bank" is indeed a common locution to refer to the diaspores (seeds, spores, fruits, propagules, etc.) which can be found in a soil. As for Bryophytes of course this is limited to spores and propagules.
Bonjour
marc
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
2 answers
Both phytoextraction efficiency (PEE) and metal accumulation index (MAI) are key parameters to know the ability of a plant for heavy metals removal from a contaminated soil. Are there any other indices?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Anand, For determination of phytoremediation potential I used Translocation Index, Bioconcentration factor (BCF) and Extraction coefficient.  С,% = СHM in vegetation (mg/kg) / СHM in soil (mg/kg)*100% С -Extraction coefficient.
I hope this help. best regards Asil Nurzhanova 
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
9 answers
In restoring ecosystem, nurse plant can be used to facilitate other plants establishment so that successional process can run faster. What I am wondering is, when I need to decide what kind of plant that I should grow under nurse plant, I don't know which one is better, pick shrubs/grass or tree seedlings? I have heard that tree seedling is better because it can cut some successional steps. In the other hand, facilitating shrubs/grass may develop soil so tree will be able to grow in that soil condition.
Relevant answer
Answer
I forgot to mention, we tend to sow grass at first time or season possible for growth and trees are planted during dormant season before growth season begins.  In droughty areas, if we do any ripping of soils on the contour, we would plant the trees in the rips and tamp them in good, as they depressions are likely to capture some excess rainfall or surface water.  In consistency wet areas with high water tables, planting trees on the higher areas when possible is going to be beneficial.  Only certain species can handle the driest and wettest areas, so pick them to fit the circumstances.  If soils are mapped or you have questions, discuss with soil scientist, forester and botanist or ecologist.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
10 answers
In the field restoration and reforestation
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mohandass,
Here are some useful pdf attachments for your persual.
Good Luck
Dr. Arvind Singh
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
4 answers
I´m looking for different ways to find relationships between litter production and the ecosystem services in a process of restoration ecology and know how can I size and quantify it.
Thank you very much, any help will be welcome.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi there,
From the point of view of coastal ecology, litter production is important for ecosystem services. Litter, produced in mangroves and saltmarsh, supports nearshore fisheries. An early review examined the outwelling of mangrove litter. Please refer to the reference as below.
In addition, litter production contributes to sediment carbon accumulation in coastal ecosystems. Please also refer to my review paper re sediment carbon burial of saltmarsh.
Hope it helps.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
4 answers
in most articles i get adding 50g of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation(sand,soil,host root) is sufficient to do AMF inoculation research. is that always true? deos it hold true if i want to inoculate a tree seedling(potted in a 15 cm plastic pot) during planting on the field?
Relevant answer
Answer
you can use 3000 AMF spore innoculant per square metre...
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
6 answers
Brush fire usually happened in somewhere during the hottest Summer of Australia.After put out the fire, is there any methods which linked with landscape architecture can used to help the vegetation restoration of the area? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Let me ride on the responses of collegues above. In such case indigenous plants which are known to be tolerant can be used. In some regions such as the Sahel, farmers are aware of plants that can re sprout after fire or damage. These can be used depending on the ecosystem and it's variability. 
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
4 answers
I intend to gather information about the plants which existed before the KGFs were mined systematically. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Please go through the following literature to know the answer
S. R. Ramesh (1990). Studies on the Flora of Kolar District, Ph.D. thesis, University of Mysore, Mysore.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
6 answers
founders effect is usually referred as loss of genetic diversity due to small population size of pioneers. however, i also rarely read that founders effect denotes to the effect of early colonizing or planted plants on the over all succession and hence, restoration success/speed of a restoration site. so can some one tell me a little bit on this matter?
Relevant answer
Answer
I do agree with Truman that the expression in Lamb and Gilmour is a generalization at community level, which includes priority effects. However, founders effect is a population level phenomenon. Strictly speaking, it should be looked at individual species population level.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
11 answers
What are the top research needs to advance the field or to make projects more effective?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Kate,
One of the biggest gaps is still the evaluation of the restoration success. My field of research is freshwater ecology (so, river restoration in this context) and the problem is as follows: The EU-WFD has led to great efforts in river restoration so that "all surface water bodies will reach a good ecological state by 2015" (or 2027 for many). Billions of Euros were spent on restoring river stretches, but in only a few cases a proper monitoring was conducted afterwards. This is because of a lack of funding for such long-term research activities (revisiting a restored site 1, 5 and/or 10 years later) and so we effectively still do not know if all that money spent will result in a "good ecological state". Recent studies have shown that in many cases river restoration measures did NOT lead to an improvement of the ecological state (measured as a multimetric index using the macrozoobenthos, the fish fauna, macrophytes and the phytobenthos). It has been argued that the time between the restoration and the evaluation was too short for showing any improvements, but my own research (Groll 2011, submitted) and studies analyzed by Haase et al. (2015) show that even 10 or 20 years after the implementation of a restoration measure hardly any effect can be measured. One possible explanation could be that we just measure the wrong things (e.g. that the metrics used for the assessment are not matching the natural succession in certain river types) or that other, more indirect parameters (especially the land use in the upper catchment) have a paramount influence on the ecological quality and thus superimpeed any restoration improvements.
In essence the water administrations, who initiate and govern the river restoration efforts are still in the dark about if the money is spent wisely or not (and cost-effectiveness is one main aspect of the EU-WFD).
My argument is that we still need to know more about the detailed relations between the species used for the assessment (e.g. the macrozoobenthos) and their habitats (as the riverbed features that can be affected by a restoration). The classical "build-it and they will come" paradigm clearly doesn't work and needs to be replaced by a more in-depth and probably more holistic assessment of the conditions of and the changes in restoration sites, as these knowledge gaps can only be closed by gathering more data (both before and after) of successful and unsuccessful restoration measures.
***
Bernhardt ES, Palmer MA, Allan JD, Alexander G, Barnas K, Brooks S, Carr J, Clayton S, Dahm C, Follstad-Shah J, Galat D, Gloss S, Goodwin P, Hart D, Hassett B, Jenkinson R, Katz S, Kondolf GM, Lake PS, Lave R, Meyer JL, O’Donnell TK, Pagano L, Powell B, Sudduth E (2005) Synthesizing U.S. River Restoration Efforts. Science 308: 636-637
Dickhaut W (2005) Fließgewässerrenaturierung Heute – Forschung zu Effizienz und Umsetzungspraxis – Abschlussbericht.
England J, Skinner KS, Carter MG (2008) Monitoring, river restoration and the Water Framework Directive. Water and Environment Journal 22: 227-234. doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.2007.00090.x
Giller PS (2005) River restoration: seeking ecological standards. Editor's introduction. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 201-207. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01020.x
Groll M (2011) Beziehungen zwischen der Gewässermorphologie und dem Makrozoobenthos an renaturierten Abschnitten der Lahn. Dissertation am Fachbereich Geographie der Philipps-Universität Marburg.
Groll, M (submitted) Is the self-reinforced river restoration approach an efficient tool to achieve the good ecological status? Morphologic and faunistic results from two restoration projects in the German lower mountain range. Environmental Earth Sciences Thematic Issue – Water Resources and Research in Germany.
Haase P, Birzle-Harder B, Deffner J, Hering D, Januschke K, Kaffenberger N, Leps M, Lorenz A, Modrak P, Stoll S, Sundermann A (2015) Ein neuer Blick auf die Fließgewässer-Renaturierungen – Wirkung auf Fluss, Aue und Mensch. Endbericht der Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung: 74 p
Koenzen U (2008) Erfolgskontrolle von Maßnahmen zur naturnahen Entwicklung von Fließgewässern – Hinweise für gezielte Maßnahmen zur Kompensation von Strukturdefiziten unter Berücksichtigung der Strahlwirkung. In: Deutscher Rat für Landespflege (eds) Kompensation von Strukturdefiziten in Fließgewässern durch Strahlwirkung, Schriftenreihe des DRL 81: 35-42
Moerke AH, Lamberti GA (2004) Restoring Stream Ecosystems: lessons from a Midwestern State. Restoration Ecology 12 (3): 327-334
Newson MD, Large ARG (2006) ‘Natural’ rivers, ‘hydromorphological quality’ and river restoration: a challenging new agenda for applied fluvial geomorphology. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31: 1606-1624. doi:10.1002/esp.1430
***
I hope that helps.
All the best,
Michael
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
1 answer
We're studying the feasibility of restoring aquatic habitat to a 1.2 km (4,000 ft) length of river pool on the Upper Ohio River. Restoration may include adding large river substrate, terracing the river bank, adding perched wetlands, etc.  We were wondering if there exists any habitat evaluation model/procedure that would allow us to assess potential benefits holistically, i.e., in a linked, perhaps synergistic fashion.  Our evaluation alternatives, at this point, are to use something like time-worn HSI models (e.g., for Smallmouth Bass).
Relevant answer
Answer
I might go off on a tangent here, but from my experience (or better: from German/European experiences from the last 30+ years) I would say that things linke adding large substrate and terracing the banks are neither necessary nor advisable. They are usually quite expensive and after a larger flood event or two none of it will remain (or it has to be maintained which costs even more money). In Germany the authorities now like to apply an approach that allows for a self-reinforced development of the river morphology. This include removing the bank fixation and often (where necessary) the removal of parts of the topsoil (in order to decrease the height difference between the water level and the floodplain). In many cases large woody debris (or boulders)  is also fixated in the riverbed in order to guide the current and promote bank erosion. These combined measures usually do not cost more than 150€/m, while more traditional restoration measures (riverbed modelling, planting of riparian trees, 5-years maintenance and so on) add up to usually up to 2000€/m.
My PhD focused on the evaluation of two such self-reinforced restoration measures with a special focus on the riverbed morhphology and the macrozoobenthos and the results show that these simple measures are very effective in enabling a more natural substrate and habitat dynamic, especially if flood event speed up the process.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
10 answers
I conducted a study on our university's freshwater lake located in our nature preserve. Now, we are in the process of restoring it.
Can anyone recommend any important plants/trees needed to suck up nutrients and filter the water?
The water is very turbid (visibility is low at about 1-2 ft). P is limiting but about 0.04-0.06 mg/L and N is 1.02-1.40 mg/L, dominant aquatic plant spp is FW macroalgae Chara spp., and it is surrounded by Ardesia and Brazilian Pepper. There is a healthy population of eastern mosquitofish and large mouth bass, but there is a high amount of striped tilapia and african jewelfish.
Average depth is about 6 ft, max depth 9 ft. 
Let me know if you need anymore information.
Relevant answer
Answer
1.) BIVALVES--I did not see any mention about any of the 50 species of fresh water Florida native clams or fresh water mussels?  They are good filter-feeders.
2.) WHERE IS TURBID WATER COMING FROM?--No mention why the pond is so turbid-- is turbid water coming into the pond, if so, why not produce a kind of native Florida vegetation filter lining the stream into the pond with some native sedges or wiregrass?  It sounds like this pond is being fed by agriculture, road or lawn runoff? You will probably solve 90% of the pond problems when you fix the source of the turbid water going into the pond.
3.) POND EDGES--And what about the pond edges, solid native plants along all of the edges, or are there bare areas?  Three feet above and one foot below the water line should be covered with native vegetation
4.) EXOTIC PLANTS OUT--And chop down all of those exotic Ardesia ( if they are either crenata or elliptica) and the Brazilian peppers if you can, because their leaves dropping into the pond could be having an effect.  However if you have Ardisia escallonioides, that is a Florida native, so keep that.
5.) EXOTIC FISH OUT--And what about fishing out the exotic fish?  Mmmmm, fried tilapia barbeque?
Also, you did not mention the size of this pond? 
Basically you will known that you fixed your pond, when you can see to the bottom.   Keep experimenting and get a Secchi disk and measure the turbidity at least twice a month, to see how well you are doing on the turbidity.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
51 answers
How can we quantify ecosystems health? What are the criteria to be consider for us to say that a certain ecosystem is healthy?
Relevant answer
Answer
Personally I would avoid using the term "ecosystem health".  It's one of those phrases that is used without any real thought as to what it means, and once you start pulling it apart means nothing at all.  Any ecosystem that supports its component species could be considered "healthy". but that would include ecosystems that appear very degraded from a human perspective, e.g. a highly eutrophic lake.  It's much better to think in terms of ecosystem functions, flows of energy and nutrients, presence of native species and their interactions, etc.  
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
2 answers
I would like to access some of the plant traits information in this site (seed mass, heigth and so on), but I don't know if I have to ask for it in every case. Some previous experience with this site that can help me? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
You have probably answered this question already.... I just looked at the date it was posted.  But since I typed it up I'll leave it in case someone else has the same question:
I have used this site.  You can ask for either all fields for a particular trait (for hundreds or perhaps thousands of species), or for specific species.  I was looking for trait information for a list of about 350 species, and wanted all fields so I could query out the species of interest on my own later. 
It wasn't too difficult.  As you fill out the request you can either receive the public information immediately, or wait while more privately controlled information was released in a request for information.  In the end, I found that the information was not as definitive as I'd hoped, but that the citations given were helpful. 
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
18 answers
Can some one send me a practical positive result(s) in ecological restoration that is (are) obtained from the application of AMF. i read some article regarding some good experience in Spain (Barea et al). are there more of such examples? is the role of AMF in ecological restoration a practical one or its just a myth? many thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
The most visible effect of AMF was observed in Coffee, even in areas where the soil is deficit in P and other key nutrients. Enjoy the attached review, though few years old.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
11 answers
Does anyone know where I can find information/data documenting the loss of native Floridian ecosystems, including mangrove islands, wetlands (marshes and swamps), pine flatwoods (both long leaf pine with wire grass and slash pine with palmetto), temperate hardwood forest and mesic hammocks.  thanks!  
Relevant answer
Answer
There are a variety of sources at different scales geographically with varying accuracy to answer your question. If you want statewide estimates I recommend Myers an Ewel Ecosystems of Florida. I have work on this for the Charlotte Harbor portion of southwest Florida. The ecosystems section of the South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan is a good location for information for the area south and flanking lake Okeechobee inlcuding the Everglades, Big Cypress and the Keys  See http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/ListedSpeciesMSRP.html .
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
17 answers
Based on Lewis (1990), 3 terms for Restoration named, "restoration”, “creation”, and “enhancement” have been defined. Also Restoration can be divided in two parts as “Rehabilitation” and “Reestablishment”. There is no name for "Revitalization" here.  My dissertation is about Revitalizing urban wetland's cultural landscape. Though I couldn't find any classification –method or any common way-  for wetland's Revitalization. Now, my question is:
Could Restoration and Revitalization be the same? Can I use revitalization term instead of restoration? If not, what are the differences?
Could you please introduce me any professor or expert in this field?
Thank you in advanced for your answers and attentions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Negar,
I am not a wetland scientist, but I am an applied limnologist, or "lake manager".
I have never heard the term "revitalization", but maybe the following may help you.
Two terms are used in modern lake management: (lake) restoration and (lake) rehabilitation.  The introduction of the term "rehabilitation" is more modern, and you can find the original definition and rationale in Cooke (1999).  As far as I know, the definition still stands today.
The matter is concisely reprised in Cooke et al. (2005: 14), and I reprint the original statements verbatim (but abridged) from here:
"In the strict sense, restoration means returning something to its original form.  With the possible exception of dredging, which removes nutrients, excessive vegetation, and sediment, hopefully toward a former state, other lake treatments are not true restoration activities.  Restoration (sensu strictu) is defined (Webster 1972) as "the bringing back to a former or normal condition, as by repairing, rebuilding, and/or altering."  Cairns et al. (1992) defined restoration as "the return of an ecosystem to a close approximation of its condition prior to disturbance."  They recognized that actual restoration is not possible.  The pre-disturbance species list and the chemical, biological, and physical interactions for a lake and its watershed are not known for any lake.
A more accurate term for what we, as restoration ecologists, are attempting, is rehabilitation (Cooke 1999).  Rehabilitation means re-establishment of important missing or altered processes, habitats, concentrations, and species [...]  This concept emphasizes return of degraded systems to attainable approximations of pre-disturbance conditions, and the establishment of protections against future disturbances."
So, rehabilitation is restoring a lake (or any other ecosystem) to a condition that is functionally very similar to the pre-disturbance condition, but the lake ecosystem will not be exactly as before (e.g., different biological species composition).
Based on your question, I would then say that "revitalization" is closest in meaning to "rehabilitation", but then again I'm not a wetland scientist.
I do not know if Cooke et al. (2005) is easily available in your country.  You can order it online at the publisher Webpage at the link provided below.  As far as I know, there is no plan for a fourth edition of this book.  (Dennis Cooke, the first author, has been my academic advisor in my graduate studies, so I can enjoy first-hand accounts in this regard.  Dr. Cooke is an Emeritus Professor and has since retired from active research, but I'm quite positive that the info that I provide here is pretty much what he would tell you directly.)
I hope that this helps a bit.
Best of luck with your Thesis!
-Paola
Cairns J. et al., 1992.  Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems -- Science, Technology, and Public Policy.  National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Cooke G.D., 1999.  Ecosystem rehabilitation.  Lake and Reservoir Management 15: 1-4.
Cooke G.D., E.B. Welch, S.A Peterson & S.A. Nichols, 2005.  Restoration and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs, 3rd edition.  CRC / Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
Webster, 1972.  New World Dictionary.  World Publishing Co., New York, NY.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
82 answers
In a new version (Canoco 5) there are few new options: variation partitioning build - in the analysis, use of GLM, and the possibility to use traits data. Does anybody have experience with Canoco 5 already?
1. Particularly in analyzing change over time in the plant community (with a additional factor acting at the known moment in time, but not incorporated in the environmental data sensu stricto). I know the principal response curves procedure, I'm wondering if there is a different/better approach.
2. Analyzing the changes of mean plant traits over time in community, but within a relatively small data set (something like 16 plots, recorded for a couple of years). Is this even possible? what kind of results do you get? What are the possible mistakes in interpretation?
Relevant answer
Answer
You get some guide book to read before you take analysis. Book: multivariate analysis of ecological data using Canoco. If you need it I can share to you
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
8 answers
The location is a corridor from the Florida panhandle, westward to east Texas. Longleaf pine is a significant component of this landscape but riparian, wetland, seepage bogs, and other fragmented ecosystems need to be addressed simultaneously within this landscape. Developing a course tool to prioritize connectivity and where ecological restoration should/can occur is needed. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Joe - I appreciate the problem you present. There are a number of approaches available to consider. In some ways what you present is a unique case of conservation planning, in that you have specific systems you are interested in as well as restoration as a specified goal. But in the general case, numerous methods are out there to spatially prioritize areas for different conservation and management actions. If you are relatively new to this, I might suggest contacting your local LCC (Landscape Conservation Cooperative) and see what they might offer. I know the SALCC has a conservation blueprint process underway and it includes connectivity. Their products might help. They only cover part of the panhandle, the neighboring LCC is Gulf Coastal Plain and Ozarks. SE Climate Science Center has done some connectivity modeling for target species that might be adapted to your part of the region. But if you already know all this and are looking for more specialized tools to help predict where restoration should occur, I would turn to groups like the Long Leaf Alliance, and maybe contact Tom Hoctor at UF. Tall Timbers might also be able to help. Finally if you need to start from scratch there are an array of spatial planning tools to consider, depending on your goals, data availability, grain size, budget, and time frame. If this is a new field to you you might want to spend some time on the websites related to connectivity and reserve network panning. These might include Marxan, Zonation, Circuitscape. 
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
7 answers
I am trying to quantify the time needed for indirect canopy regeneration of burnt areas (i.e. from patches or individuals that didn't burn). Did somebody com across any estimates of primary and secondary dispersion of seeds? Also what factors could prevent this process?
**Edit***
As suggested by S. Hari I specify that I am interested in particular in mediterranean low forest, composed both by pioneer (seeder) and postpioneer plants and where crown fire are the most common. My question arises from the need to give indication to forest workers on when they should look for signs of recovery
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
It really depends on your ecosystem and species involved, as S. Hari indicates.  In many places the pulse of recruitment can last decades, with gradual infilling; in others, if recruitment doesn't happen right away, grasses, sedges, and other species can out compete seedlings for water and succession much delayed.  There are many things that influence this rate- climate in the following years, distance from the intact edge, whether it's a good seed crop year for the survivors, herbivory/seed predation, etc.  Also the intensity of the fire may matter, if it alters the biogeochemistry or physical properties of the soil in some way (at least some abnormal way).
So overall, it really depends on the system and species.  In most places, though, you've got to give it a few years for seed from the outside.
I would recommend looking for post-fire studies in your ecosystem and then looking into the methods sections to see how long post-fire the study was done.  But again, other things will matter which vary, like climate, distance from edge, etc...
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
19 answers
Focus on: criteria for selection, establishment, conservation, management and  monitoring
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Louhaichi,
You can surf Journal of Arid Environmental (http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-arid-environments/). There you'll find papers a lot about conservation in that arid habitats. Good luck.
Best regards.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
5 answers
Soil bioengineering is the use of living plant materials to perform some engineering function, from simple erosion control with hydroseeding to more complex slope stabilization with willows and other plants (Schiechtl 1980).
Pioneering woody species are of particular importance in the development of bioengineering systems. In Mediterranean countries the water stress resulting from a dry summer is a limiting factor for plant success, and the plant selection for bioengineering should consider the more suitable native species.
Relevant answer
Answer
If you are also interested on wetlands restoration you can contact with Maria A. Rodrigo Alacreu, from ICBIBE (University of Valencia): http://www.uv.es/~rodrigoa/
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
14 answers
In California, serpentine soils contain unique native species, and also contain some of best examples of wildflower fields, but when projects like pipelines go through, there do not seem to be any successes in rebuilding those areas from scratch.  
Any successes within California or in serpentine in other parts of the world, and what was the plan? With the lack of restoration knowledge of serpentine in California, I am estimating at least $5 million per acre to invent the methods we need to succeed.
Relevant answer
Answer
In Piedmont Pennsylvania, where I'm very much involved in serpentine grassland restoration at several sites, we are achieving good success and learning as we go by applying the adaptive management approach, which includes applying experimental design principles to routine management activities and monitoring carefully selected key indicators long-term. This is evidence-based management in which a management team is accountable for the results. You can see two adaptive management plans for serpentine grassland restoration on my website. Go to www.continentalconservation.us, click on Publications, scroll down to Other Recent Publications, and download the first and fourth items. Implementation is well underway at both of those sites. Incidentally, my ResearchGate profile photo was taken at a serpentine grassland in Riserva Naturale Monterufoli-Caselli, one of several protected areas of serpentine vegetation in Tuscany, where, in the 1580s, Andrea Cesalpino was the first natural historian in the West, and maybe anywhere, to note a connection between plant species distribution and bedrock type.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
7 answers
On every spot where any individual exotic plant gets established, it is causing what I call "Spatial Extinction" of the local native plants on the spot that the exotic plant is occupying. We usually consider "extinction" is the final death of every last individual of the species, but I am suggesting a new concept, that when an individual exotic plant gets established, that it is causing "Spatial" extinction, that lasts as long on that spot and is as effective as regular extinction is. Pictures from California, Poppies and a few feet away solid European foxtail grass causing Spatial Extinction of the native ecosystem.
Relevant answer
Answer
Your concept is flawed, until you take into account the seed banks.  In Mountain Fynbos and some Lowland Fynbos species, seed banks may persist for 3 fire cycles (45-100 years) under 100% cover alien (pine and wattle) stands.   
It stands to reason that "spatial extinction" in these cases only occurs after 3 generations.  If in the meantime a biocontrol is introduced (see the extensive South African literature), or moves in (e.g. Zulubius on Acacia cyclops), or "evolves" (e.g. switching hosts - examples??) within the 3 generations (or land use management changes) then spatial extinction may be forestalled.
Also spatial extinction is likely to be selective: short-rotation species may for instance be able to survive with the alien (completing their life cycle before a longer-lived species can re-establish full closure following a disturbance), whereas long-lived understorey species may be selected against (and canopy-stored seed bank species extremely strongly selected against - extinction occurring with the death of the last individual plant), but of course, it is the seed bank longevity that determines time to extinction.
For your concept to work you need to generalize it to more than systems of annual or near-annual plants with seed longevity of the same order of magnitude.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
5 answers
NGS platforms, sequencing whole genome of an individual in few hours, are being used in bio medical sciences tremendously and in agricultural and environmental sciences upto a some extent. Soil microbes play key role in degradation of organic matter, biogeochemical cyclying, soil structure formation and ecosystem structural and functional stability. How knowing understanding structure, function and diversity through NGS platforms can contribute in ecosystem restoration process?    
Relevant answer
Dear Craig,
Why don't you perform a research first taking into ocnsideration genetic variability with molecular markers (you can collaborate with people from breeding programs for grasses) and / or biomarkers or barcodes for grasses (reeeeally don't know what information to count on in literature but there's something interesting concerning markers and taxonomy) and, after that you can select the "different" ones to further characterization if need. Could be interesting...
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
1 answer
I like to think of this a tool being used in conjunction with other restoration practices (planting, seeding ect), but not sure what other folks think of it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Since you are in California I assume you are talking about grassland habitats?  Or riparian?  If grasslands, there are three basic methods to deal with the weeds, to get back to as close to 100% native cover, that you can see examples at http://www.ecoseeds.com/WMA.html.
1.) Mark Van De Pol 14 acres in the Santa Cruz Mttn. went from 1% native cover to 99.5% by spraying the weed seedlings in winter as they germinated.  That means you need to learn was the seedlings of both the weeds and the native look like.   All of the natives the grew back were dormant seeds in the soil underneath the weeds that sprouted once the weeds were sprayed out.
2.) Michael Shaw's 74 acres south of Santa Cruz, went from 1% native cover to 93% cover, by mowing all of the annual weeds before seeds ripen, and the perennials were cut and wick-applied herbicides of the cut stems.  As with Mark's place, all of the native that sprouted up, were dormant seeds, and you can see the list of weeds and natives at http://www.ecoseeds.com/shawlist.html,
3.) My Arastradero preserve project at http://www.ecoseeds.com/arastradero.html, where I am using both weed straw harvested after the seeds have shed like wild oats and Italian thistle, plus native grass straw, as a 3-4 inch deep mulch to cover all the annual weed patches in summer, to kill the germinating weed seedlings from October to December, and then sow or plant in the natives by raking back the mulch.   Was able to get over 99% weed management within 60 days of application of the mulch.
However, for tough perennial weeds like Harding grass or Rumex, only herbicides of the cut stems will control those species,
 
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
13 answers
For instance, do we aim at the point where it was pristine ( which I don't think is possible) or to a point where there is minimal adverse impact?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Prishnee, the Society for Ecological Restoration International has a primer about using terminology in restoration ecology, e.g., when to say ecosystem restoration vs. rehabilitation. That might prove useful, especially Section 3 "Attributes of Restored Ecosystems", Section 5 "Reference Ecosystems", and Section 8 "Restoration Planning".  I agree with Matteo that the "pristine state" is a problematic reference point for restoration, but more because it would be hard to define what pristine means! Is that before industrialization, before the most recent round of human disturbance? Does the scenario change if the disturbance was natural? Does the environment you are considering have a long-term history of human manipulation, i.e., for centuries or millenia, so removing that disturbance(s) changes the ecosystem? It might prove prudent to consider multiple restoration points, along a trajectory, to buffer against uncertain future changes in the environment (a la Mori 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology).  Best of luck with the project.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
3 answers
How landscape connectivity influence anthropogenic pressure in biodiversity rich area?
Relevant answer
Answer
In California. let's say that 100 native plant species make up a grassland ecosystem, and you start removing the native species one by one, what I call "spatial extinction".
And then at the same time, start adding exotic plant species one by one until you have 1,000 total, and maybe a few exotic animals with equal biomass to humans of cows and sheep. And these new grazing animals are protected from the native carnivores because you have killed them all, and for these new animals the native grassland is a very yummy thing to eat.
Then at the same time, you remove the native peoples by putting a bounty on them in 1853, the people who were managing the native landscape for the last 15,000 years. So there was an important connection between the native peoples and the landscape that has now been broken.
You can clearly see the biotic connectivity when the species are going in either directions. For example you can see when connections are broken as you remove a species one by one, like unplugging batteries from a circuit. Each species of plant and animal contributes its own energy and support to the system.
However, going in the opposite direction, it is much moire dramatic to see those connections return when you reintroduce a native species that has been spatially extinct, and see how fast the connections return--it looks like adding cells to a wound and watching the wound heal. That is what I have seen at my project in Palo Alto, California that you can see at http://www.ecoseeds.com/arastradero.html.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
10 answers
I manage two very different forests in Mauritius, which we are restoring and I would be keen to learn other techniques to tackling invasive weeds as well as different approaches. We learn a lot from applying successional theory and also trying different techniques, but I would like to know if anyone has published a handbook that is applicable to oceanic or tropical forest management.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Graeme. That is much appreciated. I have also bought Restoring tropical forests: a practical guide by Elliot et al. It is always good to get as much information as possible and ideas about how to improve our cost-effectiveness or what different approaches we could use.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
3 answers
In Central-European riparian woodlands the North-American Box elder/Ash-leaved Maple (Acer negundo) has established itself as a neophyte. The recently reintroduced European Beaver (Castor fiber) is, despite contrary expectations, neglecting the Acer negundo and no trees have been felled.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Martin for the quick response.
After a quick overview I see your assumption confirmed that North-American Beavers are avoiding boxelder as well, like their European counterparts.
It would be interesting why, but this is a different question.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
11 answers
Many restoration/revegetation/reafforestation projects have goals to improve biodiversity or ecosystem services from a degraded site.
Projects often use monocultures of non-native plants (usually trees) or monocultures of native plants (also tends to be trees). However, at considerable cost, some projects employ a diverse planting approach (a few to many species), trying to match the community that was present initially, with the idea that these diverse plantings give better biodiversity or ecosystem function outcomes.
Apart from the initial differences at planting, I'm interested to get people's thoughts on how good the evidence base is for diverse plantings giving better biodiversity and/or ecosystem function outcomes.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would agree with Carlos, it very much depends on what kind of community you´d like to restore and what the environmental frame is. In general when you look at ecosystem services it applies to me that diversity targeted restoration is always more sustainable because stability is increased, complementarity in plant traits is fostered (which has positive effect on multiple ES) and cascading effects (sometimes even self-energizing) are likly to be entailed.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
8 answers
Does anybody know of a good (specific) example where a rehabilitation project for marginal/degraded land resulted in a significant increase in biodiversity, i.e. that the land is now acting as an important refuge for native plants and animals?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear John,
We have published a newsletter about this botanic gardens but its in Arabic. A short article about the gardens and the plants preserved there was published in a publication produced by the UNDP its called Community Action to Achieve Environmental Sustainability (The experience of the Global Environment Facility's Smal Grants Programme in Egypt and the Occupied Palestenian Territory 2013. pp 22-25. hope this is helpfull for you
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
6 answers
I would like to test how dissimilar are some traits of an intruduced species with respect to an established community.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Florencia,
R packages are the best tool to deal with FD. try downloading the FD package (that includes the vegan package) and you will find a lot of tools in there. you can also choose the dist function or, if you have also categorical variables the gowdis.
Let me suggest you to use more than two traits as some could be very easy to find or measure yourself. the traits you use really depend on what your hypothesis is and you will get different distances of FD indices by using different traits. Some traits could be:
max height, seed mass, wood density (but I'm guessing you are not working with trees),
max photosynthesis, specific leaf area, nitrogen per mass (for these last three you might want to check this article "The worlwide leaf economics spectrum".
The FD package also tolerates missing values, but sometimes you can fill the missing values. for example you could fill them using the value of phylogenetically near species living in the same environment.
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
9 answers
I'm looking for a Ph.D. and I would like to know what are the European most active Research Centers in the fields of Landscape Ecology and Ecosystem Conservation/Restoration.
Relevant answer
Answer
It's good to be in a happening place, but for a PhD, your advisor is at least as important as the department. I would suggest searching on European landscape ecologists who are doing excellent work. For example, have a look at European members of the editorial and advisory boards for Landscape Ecology (http://www.springer.com/life+sciences/ecology/journal/10980?detailsPage=editorialBoard).
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
1 answer
For instance, for plants we could observe community succession to predict the direction of degraded grassland, for belowground soil the microbes used to be a prerequisite e.g. microbial biomass of carbon and nitrogen. When we obtain data from both community succession and microbes, we usually do some regression and explain the reason for degradation. Could we use other methods?
Relevant answer
Answer
The first grassland ecologist 100 years ago in the USA, Arthur Sampson, used particular grassland species to predict trends for either improvements or degradation in grasslands. In California I use percentage native plant cover, zero exotic plants, a low level of bare soil present, and species diversity, and about a 50:50 mix of wildflowers and grasses. If you look at the http://www.confluence.org pictures across the world, you see how rare the non-grass members of the grassland communities are becoming, planet-wide.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
15 answers
Ronaldo (CR7) just came to my country over the weekend to campaign and support efforts to educate and raise public awareness of the importance of protecting mangrove forests. Is it an effective way?
As we know that over half the worlds mangrove forests have been destroyed over the last 30- 40 years to make way for commercial enterprises such as aquaculture (mainly shrimp farming), agriculture and coastal development. Intensive shrimp farming has devastating environmental effects. Not only does the practice clear large areas of coastal habitat including mangrove forests but it also pollutes nearby coastal waters and marine habitats such as coral reefs with waste matter from the shrimp ponds.
Increased human settlement along our coastlines also leads to agricultural expansion. This is believed to be the most destructive human impact on mangrove forests due to the scale of the problem. Unregulated urban development increases pollution and alters the distribution and use of water and with increased tourism into tropical regions over recent decades; this is only compounding the problem.
Relevant answer
Answer
Help people to know more about mangroves is a good way to start:
Then, get people, community and government to preserve, conserve and even replanting mangroves!
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
33 answers
Ecological Engineering is a new baby of Ecosystem Ecology, its principles and their applications are not very different from conceptual ideas and practical applications of Restoration Ecology. However, it is very true that, once severely degraded ecosystem, can not be replaced, or can not be converted in ditto as of the original state.
We can replace or convert a degraded ecosystem into a full functional or up to in–full productive form, but can not be possible to achieve its original shape as it was. Therefore, spirit of my question has posed me to know any possibility for recovering severely degraded or unproductive ecosystem via ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING discipline whose time has come!!
Based on literature, about 50 % of the total geographical areas of the earth is existing in several format of degradation (anthropogenic, as well as natural calamities). For example India is one of those countries, having a significant size of unproductive/ degraded lands. Moreover, natural calamities like flooding, tsunami and huge human population are also challenging.
If concepts, ideas and practical applications of Ecological Engineering being true, we can reshape and redesign our natural unproductive/degraded ecosystems into most desirable ones.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Anand,
The short answer is yes, it is possible to restore wasteland areas to ones that are more productive and /or biologically diverse. The amount of resources needed to succeed in the restoration efforts can sometimes be prohibitive though, and continuous running costs can be very high. For example, maintaining irrigation supply to arid areas where crops have been planted. A good article on the limits and goals of restoration ecology is:
Joan G. Ehrenfeld. 2000. Defining the Limits of Restoration: The Need for Realistic Goals. Restoration Ecology Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 2–9
There are also some very good articles on restoration of wasteland areas in the journal Restoration Ecology. I personally would be more keen on the restoration/redesign of anthropogenically-derived wastelands, rather than tampering with natural desert ecosystems. Desert reclaimation is however, becoming more common in places like China and Egypt. A quick Google search using the term 'desert reclamation' will bring up a lot of information for you.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
1 answer
We have calculated drift in a 3rd-4th order river in W OR USA, a system that has low nutrient concentrations and perhaps has the capacity to support better anadromous fish runs. We have found limited information in the literature that is comparable to our system and would be interested in hearing from others. We see baseflow as a bottleneck that could be exacerbated by climate change. Part of the problem is methods and how results are reported vary , and there is high temporal and spatial variability naturally.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello: I'm responding because you mentioned temporal and spatial variability. It is pretty standard opinion that plankton abundances (whether marine or in stream drift) are so variable as to be near-chaotic. But the temporal variability should be modelled, i.e. included in the analysis, not treated as noise.
Surprisingly, in data I had for some years, when I began to include the periodic terms to cover the key astronomical cycles (time of day, lunar month, time in year), I found substantial, surprisingly substantial, R-squareds (many in the range of 0.4) in significant regressions. It's documented in this paper: Bell K.N.I. 2007. Opportunities in Stream Drift: Methods, ... Temporal Cycles, In situ Mortality Estimation, and Conservation Implications. In Biology of Hawaiian Streams and Estuaries. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 3: 35–61 (2007). (The paper is downloadable at http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~kbell/pubs/index.html.)
In the paper, p 47, I commented "The results also have implications for how we approach something as simple as comparing two species’ abundances at one site. If we sample, even with replicates, and find that species 2 is twice as abundant as species 1, that simple conclusion could mislead us because the abundance trends of different species can cross each other as the cycle progresses. For example, if we sampled around day 250, we would tend to find many more type W larvae than type F [W and F are operational taxonomic units]; but at day 100 the situation is very much reversed. We must accustom ourselves to think of abundance as not a number, but a pattern...."
You may wish to try it. The methods for periodic regression (and the traps to avoid) are made accessible in my book "Analysing Cycles...". The book is easily available.
Feel free to contact me if you have further questions.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
46 answers
I'm working on the design of an experiment related to seed bank of road sides, and I'm looking for some alien invasive plant species for it. I already now that Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a major concern in several countries in Europe, but I will need some other species. It would better if they are annuals. Any ideas?
Relevant answer
Answer
You could also check the European Alien Species Information Network (http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). Try the 'combined criteria search' in 'Tools/Services' and select 'Terrestrial' 'Plantae' and 'High Impact'. Apart from the list of high-impact plants (based on DAISIE, NOBANIS, SEBI and CABI) you can also produce distribution maps of one or more species. By pressing the green buttons next to each species you will get relevant information (e.g. links to the factsheets of DAISIS, NOBANIS, CABI.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
5 answers
Exotic species are better for structural development for soil development at any cost. However, they accumulate substantial amount of biomass but allocation of biomass is somewhat unusual especially in degraded soil. Carbon is one of key element utilized by soil biota for energy and structural development, but carbon accretion in soil by exotic plants is substantially poor (based on my unpublished work).
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Anand Singh,
Recently I was doing some (first literature) study on exotic (shrubs) species and their effects in invaded ecosystems (focused on a one exotic species , originating from N America and behaving invasivally in some sites in Europe). In my opinion its a bit risky business to use the exotic species for restoration (even severely degraded sites). I know it happens e.g. in US, but is rather criticized by restoration ecologists (at the last Ecological Restoration conference by SER Society for Ecological Restoration we had a vivid discussions about it - including so called "novel ecosystem" concept used for it). The arguments are (based on my review): the exotic species usually allocate their biomass above ground - so they can be very competitive & take over more resources (light, nutrients, water). This, usually results in decline of species richness of native species (or simply the native species will not establish). The exotic species may also change characteristics of litter quality (very important!), and because of that affect soil microbial community. Some exotic species were found to have a profound effects on the soil communities (microbial, macrofauna, sometimes promoting invasion / increase of non-native organisms in the soil). They also may have effect on ground-dwelling fauna (eg. result in less species, less individuals or provide food / shelter in the different moments of the cycle than necessary). Change of the litter quality or even some substances accumulated in the soil or roots of exotics can be detrimental for other species - and subsequently lower the prospects of the recovery of an ecosystem ,and establishment of the native species (even some time after exotics are eliminated). This is of course based on studies of other species - but all in all I would say that there is a lot of native species that can be used for a restoration purposes (I am sure there is a lot of species to choose from - India is oneof the ). This is usually a bit more challenging (since many exotic are easy to get in large numbers from the trees nurseries and they are of e.g. a commercial interest - for wood production or so), but in a long run such introduction of exotic may cause a degradation of system (not only in a site itself, but surrounding as well - if it spreads), or simple a situation when much better recovery could have been reached with native species. I agree here with Mr. Karakut that species to be used could be selected in a way , that they are also facilitating growth (establishment) of other species (nursing plants / cover) and pioneer species sometimes make a good nursing plants! Next to planting some of such species it could be considered to: cover the bare soil with some straw / or poor quality hay if available, (mulching) - it usually helps a lot with improving the establishment success of samplings / seedlings. If possible collect some native seeds and spread it there - to accelerated the vegetation establishment (in Europe such method is used with good results I also tested it myself in restoration on degraded peatlands). Please don't hesitate to contact me if you have any questions. best regards dr. Agata Klimkowska, the Netherlands
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
4 answers
Most difficult tasks related to the plant conservation.
Relevant answer
Answer
In general - always include society and socio-economics of the region you are working in. It is becoming more and more obvious that "strict" conservation plans which do not take the social level into account will most certainly not work!
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
1 answer
What is the most influential paper in genes-to-ecosystems research that you have read in the past year and why?
Relevant answer
Answer
Have run across this paper about four times in several different settings:
Jones, Thomas A. "The Restoration Gene Pool Concept: Beyond the Native Versus Non‐Native Debate." Restoration Ecology 11, no. 3 (2003): 281-290.
Hope all is well with you. Three words: Tree Pose, Raft.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
2 answers
In arid and semiarid areas?
Relevant answer
Answer
The gravel needs to very light weight, full of air bubbles, able to retain water, and preferably light colored. Examples: Vermiculite, pumice. Volcanic cinders worked for the ancient people north east of Flagstaff Arizona, USA for about 200 years until they became clogged with clay minerals.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
16 answers
Do you know of examples of shortened plant life cycles (like selective hybridization) which have been used to reclaim mine areas and restore virgin forests?
Relevant answer
Answer
I've gotten some additional answers back from other restoration researchers. Although not a sterile hybrid, secale spp. have been used to suppress weeds and pave the way.
Herron, G. J., R.L. Sheley, B.D. Maxwell, J.S. Jacobsen. 2001. Influence of nutrient availability on the interaction between spotted knapweed and bluebunch wheatgrass. Restoration Ecology 9:326-331.
Also, from the forestry literature:
Beyers, J. L. 2004. Postfire seeding for erosion control: effectiveness and impacts on native plant communities. Conservation Biology 18:947-956.
  • asked a question related to Restoration Ecology
Question
1 answer
Which groups are doing the work to test, develop and propagate cultivars for this important work?
I know that the NRCS Plant Materials Centers are involved in some of this work. I would like to know the names of other private or government institutions in the US doing this work.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Lorinda. I actually just saw the post-doc announcement for MPG Ranch on the ESA job board. In your opinion, how essential is prior experience with molecular genetic techniques when getting into this field? It is certainly something I am interested in and willing to learn--just wondering what angle I would take to get my foot in the door to a position in this field. My experience has largely been field-based plant community ecology.