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Hundrends of millions have been invested in this feat, after some initial promise such as the Ashtekar's reformulation of GR, the Wheeler DeWitt equation etc (i. E. 100m to a research Group baseb on Imperial college, UK in early '00s).Reseasrch however cumilated to weird theories such as Loop Quantum theory that lost traction by the early'2020s.
Now research is based on 3 premises
GR focused
** diffeomorphism invariance (aborting the meaning of some SR results)
** shape dynamics
QM focused
** restoring locality if the wavefunction update if seen as physical process
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Interesting question-- outside my range of knowledge. Best wishes.
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Share your experience in restoration, restoration of ecosystems, special interest in high mountain systems. Particular interest in the work, methods of implementation and the results obtained.
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It would be useful to add in your report, the soil tests of both sites, and a distribution of the age classes that you transplanted, maybe based on plant height and main stem diameter or some other criteria.
So for your future work in Ecological restoration, do my previous two answers give you some ideas on how to make your future seeding projects more successful? If so, you could recommend them?
Also, if you post an image it is easier to reply to a person, instead of a grey outline of a cartoon character.
Try some native grassland restoration and include a lot of wildflowers. Your country is going to need hundreds of millions of hectares of that kind of restoration in the next decade, so your country can start producing carbon offsets, so that your oil and gas industry can sell Carbon Neutral Fossil Fuel products to the rest of the world.
Similar to what the Saudis just put together with 24 other countries, to plant between one and five million trees per WEEK, until all 50 BILLION are planted, for those trees to sequester carbon and make carbon offsets to help fix Global Warming. See their You Tube video for their "Middle East Green Initiative" they put together at COP27 in November at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QO8PcbxOu0Y
This Ecological Restoration is the only method that we will be able to reverse Global Warming, by having all of the coal, gas and oil that is sold and burned, to be already Carbon Neutral by planting native plants to put that carbon back into the soil before it is even burned.
You are starting a career in Ecological Restoration that could save us all, and consider expanding your work to make that happen quickly.
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Ecotechnology is an emerging science that focuses on applying ecological knowledge and environmental skills to attain sustainability in human developmental progress. It enables human activities to adapt more skillfully to natural ecosystem functions. It involves cross-disciplinary studies of nature, and basic sciences, especially blending ecology, biology, and technology. The emphasis is to avoid ecological and environmental damage in all human activities. Accordingly, it summarizes all the sustainable engineering models for preserving, restoring, and conserving natural ecosystems to make developmental progress accessible through generations. In simple terms, ecotechnology enables humans to protect biodiversity, and soil health, achieve sustainable agriculture, eco-friendly energy sources, food safety, and all other means to manage sustainable development. Therefore, the primary objective of Ecotechnology is to make human life happy forever through proper monitoring of natural ecosystems while employing innovative technologies and novel ideas for progress and development.
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Lot of knowledge was existing in ancient cultures, more specifically those of chamanic practicies. WE should try to learn from those and research on how to adpat them to contemporary mentalities.
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How can new ICT information technologies and Industry 4.0 help in environmental monitoring and conservation of the tropical Amazon Rainforest and other areas of forests, green spaces?
The technological advances taking place are contributing to the improvement of computerized analytical techniques implemented on large data sets. The development of technological solutions typical of the current fourth technological revolution, including the improvement and creation of new generations of ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies, makes it possible to carry out multi-criteria analysis and simulation and forecasting models carried out on large sets of information and data. Such analyses are carried out using computerized analytical tools including Big Data Analytics in conjunction with other Industry 4.0 technologies. When the aforementioned analytical tools are enriched with Internet of Things technologies, cloud computing and satellite-implemented sensing and monitoring techniques, the possibilities for multi-criteria analytics of large areas, e.g. nature, climate and others in real time conducted using satellites, emerge. When artificial intelligence technology, machine learning, multi-criteria simulation models, and digital twins are added to these analytical and research techniques, opportunities arise for creating predictive simulations for multi-factor, complex processes realized in real time. These can be complex multi-factor natural, climatic, ecological processes, etc., and concerning changes in the state of the environment, environmental pollution, changes in the state of ecosystems, biodiversity, changes in the state of soils in agricultural fields, changes in the state of moisture in forest areas, etc. caused by civilization factors. In view of the above, new ICT information technologies and Industry 4.0 can also help monitor the state of the environment and protect the tropical Amazon rainforest and other areas of forests, green areas.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
How can new ICT information technologies and Industry 4.0 help in environmental monitoring the biodiversity status and protection of the tropical Amazon Rainforest and other areas of forests, green spaces?
In what configuration of individual Industry 4.0 technologies should computerized environmental monitoring systems be built as essential elements of the system for protecting the tropical Amazon Rainforest and other areas of forests, green areas?
Please answer,
I invite everyone to join the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear Darius,
I was reluctant in replying / àdding to your this discussion / question, because I felt my comment as I was thinking in relation to this is not well full knowledge applicable to the subject matter of 4.0 ICT technology per to the IT and ICT functioning consultancies are highly advanced to a vast high degree of super advancement, and my explanation may fall short along the already applied technology functioning.
Though, since there's no answers, comments to your valuable discussion question,where you are being well knowledge practitioner /of operator of ICT, raising this question of discussion to bring the topic up opening to a discussion to bring the topic rainforest, for bringing it to our attention.
Thanks you Darius, this topic does matter and I urge to other fellow Researchgate members/researchers to look at this and to input also.
Coming to my answer/ addition to your question discussion. Technology use, yes in this Advanced tech era is useful and must. For data record monitoring tech is certainly useful, database. Further, spreadsheet be useful to for the calculation. Certainlyly CCtv of surveillances is absolutely normal in this era.
Furthermore and foremost, the advanced innovative software tools / tech Webber certainly is essential in this. There are gadgets ie., Temperature gage, weathering monitors are absolutely efficient for biodiversity environmental tasks.
Better answers, input I could have given if I had read some detail current monitoring report of tasks/activities. Hope this much helping readers to understanding and serving promoting your motivational purpose to the discussion.
Regards,
Fatema Miah
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What needs to change for the deforestation of the Amazon tropical rainforests to be converted to aforestation?
The Amazon Tropical Rainforests are referred to as the 'lungs of our planet'. The Amazon Tropical Rainforests and other highly biodiverse natural boreal areas are one of the key factors in removing CO2 from the atmosphere and are thus a limiting factor for greenhouse gas emissions, slowing the rate of progressive global warming, reducing the scale of the ongoing climate crisis. The tropical rainforests of the Amazon and other highly biodiverse natural forests and other natural green areas are a major reservoir of terrestrial biodiversity. In some but unfortunately still few countries and urban agglomerations, the scale of aforestation exceeds that of forest deforestation. Unfortunately, this does not apply to the tropical rainforests of the Amazon and many other natural forests of the tropical and subtropical zones. It is essential for the future of future generations of people, the state of the biosphere and the planet's climate to protect the state of biodiversity in the natural ecosystems of the tropical rainforests of the Amazon and other natural forests and to convert deforestation processes into aforestation. The state of biodiversity of the planet's biosphere and the rate of progressive global warming depend to a large extent on this. It has therefore been a common knowledge issue for many years to significantly increase the level of nature conservation, including the protection of the biodiversity of the tropical Amazon rainforest and other natural forest and natural ecosystems. It has also been a matter of common knowledge for many years, confirmed by many scientific studies and published scientific papers, that the processes of deforestation of the tropical Amazon Rainforest and other natural boreal, forest formations of the planet must be urgently converted to processes of aforestation. This, if it has been common knowledge for years, is why deforestation processes still dominate many times over aforestation. This problem was already signalled by researchers and scientists in the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, large-scale deforestation of the tropical Amazon rainforest and other natural forest formations of the planet continues. In addition, over the last 15 years the scale of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest and other natural forest formations of the planet has increased instead of decreasing. At the UN climate summit COP26, many countries pledged that by the end of this decade at the latest, i.e. by 2030, deforestation processes would be significantly reduced to such an extent that aforestation processes would prevail. But why should we wait until 2030 for this when we know how important this is for the preservation of the planet's biodiversity and for the urgent issue of halting or slowing down the progressive process of global warming. The improvement of conservation techniques and the development of aforestations programmes is fostered by the society-wide pro-environmental awareness of citizens, modern technologies, available financial resources, scientific knowledge, etc. So what is missing, what still needs to change. Is the key problem still the lack of changes in politics and business, i.e. the necessary changes towards pro-environmental and pro-climate reforms, the development of a real environmental policy and environmental protection, the implementation of the concept of sustainable economic development, the realisation of sustainable development goals, the pursuit of sustainability of the development of civilisation with the surrounding nature and climate, the carrying out of a pro-environmental and pro-climate transformation of the classic, dirty economy of excess towards a sustainable, green economy of moderation, a closed loop economy?
In view of the above, I would like to address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
What needs to change for the deforestation of the tropical Amazon rainforest to be converted to aforestation?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this subject?
Please answer with reasons,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Warm regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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There may be no ending. The use of fire means that everything will burning. It is like asking when people will stop destroying nature. The answer will only be given when humans are gone. Totally, a philosophical question.
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Achieving acceptable dental restorations requires efficient communication between dentists and dental technicians.
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Thank you so much
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Mosaic maintenance and restoration has witnessed many experiences and expertise over 50 years, as many materials and techniques were relied upon, but there are many of them that negatively affected the mosaic and affected it undesirably. Giving solutions helps to ensure a very appropriate restoration of the archeological mosaic.
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Thanks for your support
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I have watched a number of videos of people restoring rusted objects. They use a range of methods including physical methods: scraping, sanding, and grinding along with various chemical/electrochemical methods. But can the metal be heated to remove rust? I know rust is caused by oxides. The issue is that when you use these methods they are destructive (some are less destructive) but some material is lost. I have seen some objects heated to retemper the metal. I am sure if I look hard enough I can find an answer. Of course, heating objects can also be destructive as well. Any thoughts?
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If steels are heated to a high temperature, the heating may change the grain structure, hardness, etc. Hence, due care must be taken keeping these factors in mind.
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I have been working on Restoration Plan for the Eastern Grid of Bhutan. this project focuses on restoration procedures in case there is a total blackout in the system. I have been studying the frequency in each restoration step. however, I have not been able to plot the active power generated by each of the plants.
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You can right click on your generator and select define select RMS/EMT studies. After that select ampere current, voltage, or parameter. click enable. After that create curve VI instrument, then add the parameter on the last EMT/RMS selection.
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How can groundwater affect forest Restoration/ aforestation?
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I am working on a 33 bus distribution network and I am trying yo maximise the number of critical loads restored and am using Dist flow for my power flow studies which I incorporated as one of the constraints but i cant seem to get the constraints formulated correctly in MATLAB
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Hi Sibabalo,
Do you get an answer to your question? I have your problem now.
Thanks
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We are looking for any reference that tested sowing all seed in a single year versus sowing the same total amount of seed but spread across several years (e.g., plant 1/3 as much seed over each of 3 years, and compare success to all the seed planted in 1 (or each) of the 3 years), particularly in a revegetation/restoration setting.
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Hi Truman!
This is not exactly what you are asking for, but I love this paper for testing the efficacy of repeat seeding (with different approaches) in multiple sites and in multiple years, and asking about success aggregated over a longer timeframe, after throwing multiple things at the wall.
They didn't split up the seeds, like you are suggesting.
What I love about this paper, though, is what I think you are asking about... we can't expect plants to recruit from seed in every place in every year, and we can't predict when those best years are going to be, so it makes sense to write that in to restoration plans. Meaning, do repeat seeding, in different ways, for multiple years, in order to maximize the chance that in under some magic combination of conditions, seeds will turn into plants. :)
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Hi Researchers,
I would like to start my PhD studies based on Environmental engineering and science. Therefore I need to prepare an effective research proposal as a part of finding my appropriate supervisor. I would like to get suggested topics from you all in one of my following research areas:
1. Renewable resources (materials/energy) at construction or agriculture
2. Green roof technology.
3. Water quality conservation and restoration
4. Life cycle assessment
Since most of the readers of this discussion are well experienced researchers than myself, I would like to keenly here every suggested topics from your sides. Please allocate some time for this discussion and let me know some valuable topics. Thank you.
Shuraik
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I have been into the topic of restoring dead old dry batteries with sulfuric acid rather than replacing the battery with a new one to save some money. But I have my doubts to the practicality and the feasibility of this method. So, to the people of specialty and experts, is this method recommended practical wise and financial wise compared to replacing the dead old battery with a new one?
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I think the following video would provide you an extended idea in this regard:
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What are some good books (both new or classics) on community ecology and restoration ecology, which can be helpful to build concepts for a PhD? (My specific field of study is ornithology)
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Dear Prakhar Rawal,
I used the book of Community Ecology written by Peter J. Morin is referenced below:
Morin, P.J., 2009. Community ecology. John Wiley & Sons, in my doctoral study. I find it as a general holistic book covering all conceptions related to Community Ecology.
Good luck
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Discuss the impacts of local and global change challenges on Forest Landscape Restoration
1.Climate Change
2.Food Security
3.Biotechnology and Synthetic Biology
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The Recovery Umbrella in the World of Elite Sport: Do Not Forget the Coaching and Performance Staff. December 2021, Sports 9(169):1-10.
In the field of sports science, the recovery umbrella is a trending topic, and even more so in the world of elite sports. This is evidenced by the significant increase in scientific publications during the last 10 years as teams look to find a competitive edge. Recovery is recognized to be an integral component to assist athlete preparation in the restoration of physical and psychological function, and subsequently, performance in elite team sports athletes. However, the importance of recovery in team staff members (sports coaches and performance staff) in elite sports appears to be a forgotten element. Given the unrelenting intense nature of daily tasks and responsibilities of team staff members, the elite sports environment can predispose coaches to increased susceptibility to psycho-socio physiological fatigue burden, and negatively affect health, wellbeing, and performance Therefore, the aim of this opinion was to (1) develop an educational recovery resource for team staff members, (2) identify organizational task-specific fatigue indicators and barriers to recovery and self-care in team staff members, and (3) present recovery implementation strategies to assist team staff members in meeting their organizational functions. It is essential that we do not forget the coaching and performance staff in the recovery process.
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Whereas i agree with Stephen David Edwards
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Our university project group is studying the possibility to apply a plan for the (local) restoration of ice based habitats of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Has the idea already been developed in some way?
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Hi!
Please tell, does anyone know where to find information on the method of calculating the cost of an hour of work of a restorer or conservator? I've been looking for such a methodology for a long time, but unfortunately I can't find anything.
Thanks in advance for the reply!
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1) Depende del tipo de piezas que pretendas restaurar:
--- siguiendo las Bellas Artes:
a) pintura (diversos soportes)
b) escultura (diversos soportes)
c) arquitectura (edificios enteros o partes de un edificio)
d) literatura (papel básicamente)
e) música (patrimonio inmaterial: sonoro; papel: partituras)
f) teatro y artes escénicas (patrimonio inmaterial)
g) cine (soporte cinematográfico)
(otras artes menores: cerámica, rejería, vidrieras, relojes, orfebrería, vestidos; ámbitos diversos numismática -metales-, filatelia -papel-, sigilografía -sellos-, etc.; nuevos métodos del arte contemporáneo: vídeo, performance, collages, nuevos pigmentos, materiales industriales, arte térreo, arte efímero, etc., etc.)
2) Depende de los procesos de conservación y restauración:
a) limpieza (de madera, de piedra, de papel, etc.)
b) recomposición (reunificación de fragmentos sueltos o desprendidos)
c) adición de nuevos elementos (basados en la investigación, anteriormente existentes y luego desaparecidos por diversas causas: con técnicas de diferenciación entre lo original y lo añadido-restaurado)
d) reencuadernación (libros, manuscritos)
e) reclasificación + presentación (creación de nuevos embalajes o de nuevos contenedores para la obra de arte y mejor presentación de la misma)
Entonces:
1.a. + 2.a = si he de limpiar un cuadro (óleo sobre lienzo; o un icono...), he de saber el tiempo que tardan en reaccionar los pigmentos (óleos, pan de oro, etc.) con los tratamientos de limpieza
1.d + 2.a = si he de limpiar un libro manuscrito del siglo XVII, he de saber cuánto tarda: desmontar la encuadernación (cosido, etc.) del libro; separar los cuadernillos, separar cada pliego y sumergir cada pliego en la solución acuosa determinada (nº de páginas x desmonte+separación+inmersión)
Y así con todo.
PD. No soy matemático, pero me doy cuenta de que las sorpresas en el momento de la conservación y de la restauración son múltiples, continuas y muy variadas (por ejemplo: en la catedral de Valencia, España, en el ábside, limpiaron las bóvedas, y se encontraron unos frescos más antiguos que cualquier otra cosa de la catedral... habían tenido un hallazgo: eso hizo que todo cambiara y que el proyecto se transformara: ya no sería sólo limpieza de las bóvedas, sino conservación de los nuevos frescos, investigación, divulgación, publicidad etc)
Saludos cordiales
fr. Ignacio Husillos Tamarit, ocd.
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Soon I will be writing a paper on IMPAIRED Folate-mediated One-Carbon Metabolism (FOCM) in COVID-19, and I will be needing input from a vast array of scientists and researchers who are interested in this field of study. Please feel free to introduce questions and thoughts regarding this topic of importance in restoring the FOCM in COVID-19 patients. I am looking forward to your thoughts and opinions and questions.
Sincerely with gratitude,
Melvin R Hayden
University of Missouri School of Medicine
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Shin,
Thank you for your recommended papers I had previously read and referenced
the first paper and I greatly enjoyed the pulmonary paper. I thank you for this great contribution to support the impaired one carbon metabolism in long covid.
Please continue to help in this exciting research.
melvin hayden
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In patients having congenitally missing maxillary laterals, the orthodontist wishes to keep a space,that could be restored later. How can we determine the space required?
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It will depend on the size of teeth. If maxillary lateral incisor is missing unilaterally, then the opposite lateral incisor can be measured. If maxillary lateral incisors are missing bilaterally, then measuring the maxillary central incisor would enable the calculation of the lateral incisor.
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I see a similar issues encountered by other. Can anyone help answering. Thank you.
My hyperledger fabric network consists of 1 orderer, 1 organization and 3 peers. I tampered ledger of first peer and then tried to do another transaction on the same peer, then the following error was thrown:
"Error: deliver completed with status (SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE) before txid received - proposal response: "
But the transaction was executed and also the block was added in tampered ledger of peer. But the tampered data was not restored to previous state.
With the reference of the answer in this link - "https://intellipaat.com/community/17752/in-hyperledger-fabric-blocks-locations-and-validity-criteria", I came to know that if the tampering is done, "the state database can be dropped and rebuilt from the blockchain".
So this process of dropping and rebuilding the database is done automatically by peer or we need to do it manually?
In short, if tampering is done in ledger of peer, how can be the previous state of ledger restored?
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maybe this helps:
or
Though I'm not familiar with the toolset provided by Fabric for such cases, I would rather say you have to rebuild the peer manually. As far as I know, there is no process which reconciliates the state/chain of a peer with states/chains of other peers - so you typically won't see that you deviate from other peers.
Cheers
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Assume that the current coral cover is between 20% and 30%, down from 40% over the past 10 years and that the restoration project can be funded for at least 10 years.
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I think the Saint martin Island of Bangladesh is the minimum impactful target coral restoration area (km2) within the Coral Triangle.
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Churches of the restoration faith are some of the complex churches because they do not have a specific doctrinal tradition like Catholicism, Methodism, Presbyterianism etc...they emphasise restoring the church to its pristine forms. It however has borrowed from the Calvinistic traditions and has embedded traditions in its teachings. These traditions have been overcrowded by different practices - the churches are like a court with multiple centres. The centre of the court can no longer be identified. Churches now clamor for unlearning their practices to relearn the traditions. Therefore the question is, How best can the churches of the Restoration faith unlearn their practices to relearn their faith traditions?
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There is a specific doctrinal tradition only in Catholicism, because of the Pope's teaching guidance.
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We need your help to evaluate a deep learning model for audio restoration. Please fill in this survey (it only takes 20 minutes) or share it with your network. https://lnkd.in/gYY-32P Thanks a lot.
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Greetings! Sounds high and low or perceived less faithfully compared to the original. Medium sounds and the combination of medium sounds with echo sounds were best perceived compared to the original. Good luck!
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Date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga populations restoration project
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Dear Chiara,
actually, it would rather be reintroduction and/or new introduction
thanks for contributing to the discussion
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I am interested in measuring if there has been an improvement in plant health in an arid ecosystem that has been restored by active planting of the dominant species that was over gazed and ultimately removed completely from some areas in the ecosystem. The species was reintroduced by active planting around 10 years ago and has reestablished well, about 1/3 of what I would consider similar to natural density. These planted areas include various additional "remnant" species from the original ecosystem and I would like to compare traits within species across degraded, restored, and natural conditions, but I'm not sure which traits would be the best to explore. What I have off the top of my head is' specific leaf area (SLA), flower/fruit set, stem/leaf water content, but I need more as the difference might be subtle.
Please suggest other traits that I can read up about.
Thanks and best regards,
Nicholas
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Very good question , unfortunately the plant health traits which you have choosen , may not be express any significant difference . it would be mor eprudent to identify traits at molecular level , physiological parameters , biochemical parametres and finally the phenotypical characters. We also need to re-assess changes taking place in rhizosphere ecology facilitating better or poor plant health traits. for example carbon accumulating ability has direct consequences on accumulation of othe rnutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous , aprt form carbon fertilizing capacity translating into improved soil fertility , microbial turnover and mcirobial quotient are another good parameters. Its such an open arena for you , depending upon the facilities that you have at your working place plus your own expertise , all these matter a lot , what should be the excat premise of such work....good luck
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First of all, many clinical cases dealing with deep margin specially in posterior class II composite restorations that needs good control of moisture such as saliva or blood or Both of them.
  1. What is your preferred to Control of bleeding ?
  2. What is the adhesive technique recommended self etch or Total-etch?
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I use laser for control of bleeding. And than I prefer self etch techniques.
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Of course, in the long-term perspective rewetting of peatlands has the potential to fulfil the multiple restoration goals including those targeting on climate, water, and species protection. However, in particular if long-term drained and agricultural used sites are rewetted often shallow lakes are formed due to peat loss and soil shrinkage. Such inundation could be problematic if areas are affected which still have a higher conservation value due to occurrence of rare orchids or butterflies like Euphydras aurinia. Such a case seems to be an exception but indeed such remnants can be occasionally found in larger drained riparian peatlands located in depressions or other areas which were less affected by drainage measures. Is there any publications available reporting on (non-intended) negative consequences on biodiversity due to rewetting measures?
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Peatlands are strategic areas for climate change mitigation because of their matchless carbon stocks. Drained peatlands release this carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). Peatland rewetting effectively stops these CO2 emissions, but also re-establishes the emission of methane (CH4).
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If I don't have aesthetic concerns, I prefer glass ionomer (Equa forte). I use bulk-fill composite in deep cavities. So, you?
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several restorative material and approach available, case and protocol might have a major role and minor role for the operator preference.
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I am seeking the best current methods and datasets (highest possible resolution) for defining and assessing global land degradation - ideally with a time series. I know there are different ways of exploring this e.g. biomass, productivity, land use/cover etc., but I would appreciate any thoughts on current modelling, datasets/resources and novel approaches.
I am also interested in the best methods for quantitatively mapping/modelling land restoration (biophysical) on a global scale, and if possible, historic land reconstruction.
Thanks!
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Hi Jake,
It is a daunting task and not very easy to answer. We have been struggling with it for a while now. From our experiences it comes back to two basic challenges. The first one is how you define land degradation (see our recent publication below), but of course also to obtain the proper datasets. In our research we are focusing on creating a time series of a range of soil properties. We are currently aiming to at a time series of soil conditions for the UN statistics division in the context of their national accounting.
Cheers Jetse
Sterk, G., Stoorvogel, J.J., 2020. Desertification–Scientific Versus Political Realities. Land 2020, 9, 156; doi:10.3390/land9060156.
Stoorvogel, J.J., Bakkenes, M., ten Brink, B.J.E., and Temme, A.J.A.M., 2017. To what extent did we change our soils? A global comparison of natural and current conditions.. Land Degrad. Develop., doi: 10.1002/ldr.2721.
Stoorvogel, J. J., Bakkenes, M., Temme, A.J.A.M., Batjes, N.H., and ten Brink, B.J.E., 2017. S-World: A Global Soil Map for Environmental Modelling. Land Degrad. Develop., 28: 22–33. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2656.
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The notion of Weighted Usable (habitat) Area (WUA) in aquatic environments stems from Ken Bovee's technical report on the Development and evaluation of Habitat Suitability Criteria for use in the instream flow incremental methodology from 1986. The method builds on the evaluation of a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) that ranges from 0 to 1, but is not a probability. Because of the value range of HSI, it is sometimes confusingly used as a multiplier to calculate usable habitat area from two-dimensional (2d) numerical model output. The outcome of this approach is a notion of m²-Index and not m², which is strictly speaking a non-sense unit. To overcome the use of confusing units when HSI is used with spatially explicit 2d models, we use in our River Architect software (https://riverarchitect.github.io) a threshold value as on-off trigger to define if a pixel's area counts as usable habitat or not. Other commercial software, such as CASiMiR, use fuzzy sets to overcome some challenges, but eventually come back to a per-pixel association of habitat area. To this end, habitat assessment is complex and should account for multiple target fish species and their lifestages. For instance, the preferred habitat of juvenile trout differs significantly from that of adult trout. In a nutshell, there are many options and nearby every country has defined own standards for snapshot-like habitat assessment in public projects.
This is why I am addressing the following questions for an open discussion and experience reporting to the community : How do you assess habitat in rivers? How do you account for changing habitat preferences among target fish species and/or lifestages? Ultimately, how do you deal with competing habitat requirements in river restoration design, when the blurry overall goal is to "improve habitat conditions for indigenous species"?
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You are welcome my dear Prof. Ozodbek Abduraimov.
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Hello all,
I am looking for ways to compare recharge of groundwater and determine if precipitation has more of an effect on groundwater levels before or after restoration? My data set contains a time series of groundwater levels and precipitation. I want to determine recharge from my groundwater levels and then compare those recharge amounts before and after restoration to precipitation. Can I do this with simple correlation between precipitation and recharge amounts and determine that the scenario with the highest correlation is the most impacted by precipitation?
TIA!
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Okay. I was asking because sometimes people will have a design where the change is implemented only on some sites. This allows for keeping a site as a sort of control, so that the effect of time can be disentangled from that of the implemented change. This approach is sometimes called a paired watershed design.
For your research questions, I think the approach of Timothy O Randhir sounds about right. You might look up ancova, analysis of covariance, for some notes on this approach.
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I am writing research on the consequences of psychosocial deprivation of adolescents (the situation with сovid-19) and the possibility of restoring the psychological potential of adolescents
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welcome
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I am writing a underclassman research report on the Step Pyramid and want to know about any modern archaeology work going on there since the Pyramid was restored.
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Abusir is historically part of Saqqarah. If you are interested, the Czech egyptologists provide on-line sources:
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One of the principal objects of restorative justice is focussing the restoration. Although debate about the subject matters of restoration is not recent, it has been continuing since 1970s. What is your thought about it?
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Thanks Michael for your great answer. I also think restoration in the criminal justice indicates restoring the victim, offender and the community. The restorative justice puts its focus on victim, offender and community, whereas the prevalent retributive justice gives least focus on the victims. In restorative process, the victim is restored through healing his/her wounds, alternatively, the offender is restored by giving them an opportunity to understand their wrongs, ensuring their rehabilitation for rectification, facilitating to get pardon, helping to feel remorse. In respect of the USA, various restorative models, such as victim offender mediation, conferencing, reparation boards, peacemaking circle are in practice, but VOM are mostly used in almost 32 states. However, thanks again for your answer.
  • Michael A. Cretacci
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I need PCR based markers related to fertility restorer genes in R-line of rice hybrid, fertility maintainer genes in B-line of rice and cytoplasmic male sterility genes related markers in -line.
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Kindly visit the site of gramene https://www.gramene.org/
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Is there any quantitative study on Biodiversity restoration during COVID-19 lockdown?
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Thanks you, i will check it
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Has anyone been able to successfully cryopreserve coral oocytes? I've only found one case for a Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) through vitrification (Tsai et al. 2015, attached below). I know that in some cases some researchers (personal communications) have been able to thaw and retrieve from liquid nitrogen, but though they are still 'alive', they loose their ability to be fertilized (infertile).
I appreciate your help providing me with your answers and/or experience in this matter.
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Everything is very simple. They are prepared in the same way as mammalian eggs. Deep freezing takes place in liquid nitrogen. There is also an article, unfortunately in Russian.
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Ha logrado alguno críopreservar exitosamente los ovocitos de alguna especie de coral? Solamente he encontrado un caso para una gorgónea (Junceella juncea) por medio de vitrificación (Tsai et al. 2015, adjunto abajo). Se que algunos investigadores (comunicaciones personales) han logrado en algunos casos descongelarlas y reactivarlas después de realizar las inmersiones o el almacenamiento en nitrógeno líquido, sin embargo, pese a que los ovocitos salen 'vivos', estos pierden su capacidad de ser fertilizados (quedan infértiles).
Agradezco de antemano su apoyo y colaboración compartiendo sus respuestas y experiencia en este asunto.
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They may have been frozen too quick? Slow freeze and fast thaw is best, I think :)
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G cem an aesthetic resin cement is a valuable source of cementing extracororonal restoration, due to its strength I have used it for core build up in many cases the results were awsum, am I on a rite track??
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If its strong enough, you can use it as core material. In the past we used GIC as core material and had no failures. I think resin cement is much stronger than GIC!!!
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Dear Network,
I’m looking for case studies of depaving / transforming built areas (parking lots, constructions, roads) into green spaces or urban natural habitats. I'm looking for a range of examples, from ecological engineering to passive restoration or urban spaces that have spontaneously evolved from asphalt to brownfields / spontaneous natural habitats
Have your heard about such examples around you ?
Many thanks,
Marc Barra
Ecologist
Paris region Agency for biodiversity
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Have you already heard about the "Jardin des Joyeux" made by Wagon Landscaping on a old car park area in Aubervillliers ?
More informations can be found here : https://www.wagon-landscaping.fr/joyeux-1
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What are the ecosystem functions we measure in order to say an ecosystem has been 'restored'?
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This is a very good question but difficult to answer. The goal of any ecological restoration effort should be to transform the degraded ecosystem to its original state, hence the word restoration. But is this truly possible? In my view, this is not possible since the degradation of an ecosystem involves permanent changes in the biophysical environment that may never recover. Another problem is the temporal dimension. How long are we going to wait for the final result? Will it be 20, 50, 100, or 200 years? And during the long wait, there could be anthropogenic or natural processes (e.g. forest fire, etc) that could derail the recovery process.
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Hi computational photography and vision researchers,
I've been interested in this category of problems in a specific setting and I'd like to have a sense of the broader fields with relevance. Is there any work on image restoration or image enhancement that the image is not only optimized for better visual quality, but also towards better CV tasks such as object recognition?
Any pointer would be appreciated!
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I once read a paper which aims to super resolve a video for the better performance of action recognition: "Zhang, Haochen, Dong Liu, and Zhiwei Xiong. Two-stream action recognition-oriented video super-resolution. ICCV 2019". Hope it helps.
Best,
Yongcheng
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Are you aware of any publications that map reef restoration initiatives around the world?
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I am trying to restore an extensional 2D interpretation. I can start by hand, but I was wondering if there were any digital options out there.
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Philipp,
Have you tried Andino3D?
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In our article, we described that the curve of spee (the baseline of upper teeth) was regularly in one common curved plane with the occiput (page 4,5;8 in ). From the side, the very line attaches the baseline of upper teeth exclusive teeth 17, 27 and 18, 28, where the line runs below their baseline.
We observed the common plane even in case of baselines of upper teeth the positions of which had been changed significantly by dental restoration. Nevertheless, they were in one common plane to the occiput, which obviously remodeled its position to the head. This served to position the occiput in the same way as the baseline of upper teeth.
However, we only used 70 cases. so an EbM investigation with 200-500 medical images of head and neck is needed.
Benefit: Insight into the dependency and the mechanism between teeth and posture. Focusing the baseline of upper teeth as parameter that influences posture.
May be a doctorate.
Thank you and best regards.
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I have some ..i shall send it for you.
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Since I am working on saltmarsh restoration project in Bangladesh I want to conduct collaborative research with you to enrich my knowledge in the respect field of study.
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I would like to collaborate; but would like to have more details, please
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Which one would be more efficient in curbing the SARS-COV-2 virus: developing vaccine for the SARS-COV-2 virus, or restoring the innate nonspecific immunity by curing a person’s latent or symbolic metabolic syndromes? Children have a weak immune system, yet they are more healthy without any co-morbidity, so their innate nonspecific immunity is sufficient in coping with the SARS-COV-2 virus.
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المناعة اولا ثم اللقاح
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Are me there any recent papers or articles outlining the latest plans of Cen-SAD / African Union for restoration, renaturation and afforestation of the Sahel Great Green Wall that you could refer to? - Thank you!
Best regards, Lorenz Huebner
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From the UNCCD report (https://www.unccd.int/sites/default/files/documents/26042016_GGW_ENG.pdf) I think 2050 is the ultimate target date. As a chartered environmentalist (CEnv) this sounds like a brilliant scheme bringing hope, sense and rectification of problems to do with desertification, carbon capture, job creation, food, water and a bringing together of nations peacefully. CV19 won't help but let us hope that next year the impetus gets going again.
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Dear all,
I have been searching through the literature for examples of possible impacts on biological communities of interventions targeted at restoring / stabilizing landslides. I found just a few studies focusing on plant/invertebrates. I wonder whether there are no works about the potential impact of landslide restoration/rehabilitation on other animal groups/species (I'm particularly interested in birds), or I missed something...
Any hint would be much appreciated!
Thank you in advance.
Mattia
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Grazie Marco!!
Mattia
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I am currently in Malaysia. Last month, exactly on April 12th, we observed an abrupt change in the gravity acceleration measured at the base station. Our two autograv-5 instruments measured an abrupt increase in the gravity measured by about 2 mgals. the successive measures show restoration to the previous values before the change. I wonder whether any global phenomena could be the reason for this?
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The most plausible explanation for the abrupt increase in gravity observed is that there was probably a tremour which was not felt at the surface. One of the most reliable precautionary signals before earthquakes or tremour is an abrupt increase in the gravity field just before the quake/tremour. This happens because deep earth materials such as asthenospheric mantle/mantle materials are transiently disrupted.
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This will help us to know heavy weight metal ion analysis of natural teeth and prosthesis or restoration
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In principle it is possible, but I have two concerns:
a) measurement time will be very large ( up to hours) due to low heavy metal content ( if any at all); thus very inconvenient to the patient,
b) x-ray radiation dose will be too high....compared to the benefits of such an investigation
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What are the main challenges in transitioning from the emergency to the restoration of local healthcare and how do Field Hospitals help or hinder this?
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Adopting a chronic care model of health care may be helpful
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I want to know more about the advantages and disadvantages of NRCT
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NRCT is not a feasible option for teeth inflicted with caries, as the nonrestored area would cause food impaction or the growth of gingival polyps which could worsen the situation. Thus all carious teeth have to be restored.
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How to choose a community that would be a candidate for restoration in certain region, and create a community model that addresses the questions regarding composition, interactions, structure, and dynamics ?
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In the research in community when looking for understanding how the dynamic interplay between structure and shape a simple/complex communities interacted to structures, a community genetics perspective, however, may not be necessary or informative for all studies and systems. To better understand when and how intraspecific genetic variation and microevolution are important in community and structural dynamics, it is suggested that future research should focus on three areas: (1) determining the relative importance of intraspecific genetic variation compared to other structural factors in mediating community and structural dynamic properties; (2) understanding the importance of microevolution in shaping structural dynamics in multi-member communities; and (3) associating genetic mechanisms that drive community and dynamic analysis processes.
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Fast changes in socioeconomic and environmental condition of forest restoration areas need a fast problem solving method. But step by step experimentation in scientific problem solving methods wastes a lot of time, specially when our selected planting materials are slow growing trees.
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You can study different growth stages within the same forest to take that into account
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there is a lot of variation between the tooth preparation guidelines for zirconia restorations.
What are the evidence based guidelines to prepare a tooth adequately for zirconia crowns? both in the anterior and posterior regions of the mouth? depth of finish lines and their geometry?
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Tooth preparation: • Occlusal reduction of 1.5–2.0 mm. • Crown circumferentially reduced of 1.0 to 1.5 mm. • Subgingival margin extension of 1.0 mm. • Rounded corners.
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In your opinion, how should nature conservation, biological ecosystems, individual species of flora and fauna and biodiversity be developed?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Nature conservation and biodiversity are reciprocal to each other. Conservation always leads to restoration or enhancement of biodiversity. Therefore, first a baseline information about the climatic , edaphic factors including the substrate type etc. should be collected to promote specific type of plants i.e., the producers of the ecosystem. Supporting the right type of vegetation will result in speedy development and conservation of ecosystem. The animals requiring specific set of conditions and resources may be promoted, however, introduction of any non native species may be avoided which may lead to disastrous consequences for native biodiversity. The system should be free from anthropogenic disturbances and should rely on eco-friendly ways of energy usage.
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What materials are used to restore concrete in roofs and columns?
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dear Hassan Abed Tabasei
Chemical admixtures used for concrete construction and repair works can broadly be classified in three groups based on the basic material in their composition, which are:
a. Polymer-based binding material,
b. Synthetic rubber emulsion based latex products, and
c. Epoxy resin based adhesive.
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Caries traditionally has been primarily treated by removing using a rotating bur and restoring the produced hole with a suitable restorative material. Evidence suggests that digging and filling not only makes the under-treatment tooth weaker but also fails to stop secondary caries.Contrarily, sealing of caries as well, has been found effective to stop caries progression. I wold like sharing of views.
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Hello Nicola,
I do not want to spend a lot of time with this article.
I just want to comment on the second sentence:
"However, longevity of resinous restorations is not satisfactory. The failure rate ranges from 15% to 50% according to previous survival investigations [3,4]."
Now let's look into the very few cited references: 3 and 4
4 is from 2006. The observation time is 17 years. The restorations were made in 1987 and 1988 (in a private practice!). "Dentine walls were covered with glass ionomer cement,..." - nice adhesion by the way.
You can further read in 4 "The main failure cause was repair–fracture of restoration (42.9%), and this failure occurred in most of restorations at the occusal surface."
So: adhesion does not seem to be a major issue, even with dentin isolation from adhesion with glassionomer and the earliest available materials for posterior use.
A quick view into reference 3 reveals the following conclusion of the authors:
"In the high-risk group, composite and amalgam restorations showed comparable performance, with amalgam performing better on smaller restorations. For the combined risk groups and the low-risk group, composite restorations showed better survival at 12 yrs."
What else do you want?
Shall I continue to analyse the article sentence by sentence? Or can draw your own conclusions about the care with which the data for the article have been researched?
Sincerely
Karl-Heinz
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I am currently providing advice on the restoration of an 80km long back-barrier coastal lagoon (wave driven, with limited seawater / river water interchange at its northern extremity). The lagoon has experienced restricted flows, a build up of organic matter in the sediment, extensive anoxia and a near-permanent cyanobacterial bloom.
A number of potential solutions are in the table, including increased input of drainage water, an artificial seawater intake, increased riverine flows, dredging and liming.
While I have a few examples where restoration of similar systems has occurred, I would really appreciate having a few more, if anyone has any ideas?
Thanks heaps.
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I would not pretend to know the specifics, but some interest and expertise in hydric soil conditions, wetlands and coastal hydrology. You are probably familiar with this book in Australia, which I have only looked at Table of Contents available in link. I did not know your location in first response. Certainly research and activities in USA may not apply, and especially plants.
Hydric, anoxic conditions prevent oxidation of organics, this the buildup. Ways to remove water to help promote oxidation include several mentioned, as drainage. But how can ooze, with no structure or competence be drained? Removal of organics with phosphate contamination (such as dredging) might make sense if the phosphate sources are no longer active or can be reduced enough to be in balance. Research on wet loblolly pine sites in coastal SC, USA, suggest that phosphorus is not available under high water soils, and fertilization with triple super phosphate beneficial in establishment (William McKee, researcher). Bedding was also a common practice In the 1980s. Once established and growing fast, loblolly pine lowers water table on most sites. We also noticed that clearing forest stands results in a substantial increase in water table, sometimes persistent until regenerated and growing faster as water table reduced.
If you didn’t have the lagoon with persistent water, salt water influence and 8 feet of non-competent oozing muck, a practice of bedding soil, or double bedding of soil and planting pine might be enough if you had margins that are borderline, with some soil structure and not permanently flooded. Loblolly and long leaf pine studies suggest annual evapotranspiration component of 30 inches of water or more. Once established, pine stands can help lower standing water table. A reason for this might be described as leaky stomata, they do not close tight enough, and continue to remove water year around, even under moisture stress.
Most grasses and hardwoods use substantially less water. You might consider salt marsh or mangrove species native to your area, you are correct in avoiding any non-native invasive species. But hydric plant cover, would help reduce water, perhaps use some of that phosphate or as areas are more aerated as water table is lowered, organics oxidation rate increases. Oxidizing muck in a lagoon is a challenge. Removal or control and management of surface water sources is a potential consideration. Even with control of surface water, the close proximity to ocean and topographic depression may also have groundwater influence if drained.
Another idea might be searching options such as the sewage irrigation work of Kardos and Sopper at Penn State in the 1970s. They used the nutrient enriched waters from sewage lagoons to irrigate nearby land and forests. Reed canary grass was used by them in instances as an example of how a carefully selected plant with high nutrient demand might be used to help remove nutrients through harvesting and removal. Might the organic rich ooze have some benefit as a fertilizer or amendment to low productive sandy soils, assuming no heavy metal, salt or biological contaminant issues that prevent use? Whether the organic ooze has any potential beneficial uses if dewatered and processed, I would not know.
Liming of area is still a potential need to help balance pH and nutrients so blue green algae do not dominate. Blue green algae take over when other algae can no longer compete, due to nutrient, CO2 limit for alkalinity at pH, nitrogen or perhaps oxygen, temperature or other limits.
The high organic, anoxic conditions also have potential through sulfate reduction to convert ionic mercury to methyl mercury that might be checked in fatty tissues of carnivorous fish or mosquito fish (Ambrosia spp.)., if present. Like high organic, wetland headwater, black water streams in USA, regulation or advisory for consuming some types of fish species might be an issue for humans, aquatic or dependent organisms. There is much to consider for research and restoration or rehabilitation potential.
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Is there any clinical or in vitro evidence to suggesta benefit from restoring the full buccal surface of abfracted teeth with an indirect restoration?
In other words, if a tooth needs cuspal coverage for structural reasons, and there is a buccal abfraction, is there any reason to prepare the buccal surface other than esthetics? Could the effect of bonding the cervical area to the occlusal possibly outweigh the loss of stiffness related to removing the buccal enamel?
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Thank you.
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A randomized controlled evaluation of posterior resin restorations of an altered resin modified glass-ionomer cement with claimed bioactivity
Jan W.V. van Dijken, Ulla Pallesen, Ana BenettiIn Press
Significance
The use of the AB restorative in Class II cavities, applied as instructed by the manufacturer after a short phosphoric acid pretreatment but without adhesive system, resulted in a non-acceptable very high failure frequency after a one year period
link: /www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0109564118306146
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Nicola Minotti should be complemented for raising the question why the stated product performed so poorly in a properly conducted clinical trial. When deconstructing for potential reasons we often discuss operator, patient and material.
I believe it is essential to underscore that this trial was undertaken by an outstanding clinician in a clinical environment that has produced dozens of previous excellent trials. Hence, I do not believe that the poor results are any effect of the operator.
I also do not have any reason (or competence) to distrust the chemistry hypotheses suggested above.
This leaves the third potential factor, i.e., the patient. After reading the paper one may speculate whether some form of carry-over effect may have occurred since the paper state "Reasons for placement of the resin composite restorations were primary and secondary carious lesions, fracture of old amalgam fillings, replacement because of aesthetic or other reasons." (I assume that the "resin composite" in this sentence is just a cut and paste from a former publication and that the statement applied also to the RMGIC restorations). At least for old corroded amalgams, metallic ions can remain in the dentin and I assume that a minimal intervention philosophy was being practiced. I am not a chemist so I cannot judge a potential effect on the very complex chemistry that is being discussed above. Most in vitro studies on hard tissue de- and remineralization, secondary caries and microleakage are conducted on uncontaminated bovine dentine slabs that are "clean".
Observations from experiments conducted on such substrates may perhaps not apply directly to "old cavities" impregnated with whatever. Perhaps we should not take for granted that all biomaterials behave similar when placed in a primary cavity versus a cavity formed after an old restoration has been removed?
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In a recent review we attempted I was amazed to find very few restoration examples in rivers in the southern Balkans (south and southwest of the Danube basin). Could anybody help us in finding such examples? (i.e. riparian restoration, de-daming, fish-passes, eco-flows, re-connectivity works, urban river restoration, wildlife habitat enhancment, rewilding rivers, nature-based solutions, anti-pollution technologies, re-introduction of threatened species, etc).
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I studied the effect of green fertilizers (siderates) on the restoration of organic matter of the soil. It turned out, that such a siderate as radish oil (Raphanus sativum d. Var. Oleifera Metrg.) quickly mineralizes and practically does not affect the increase of the labile pool of soil organic matter. Are methods known to slow down the process of mineralization of the green mass of such siderates?
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Hi Veli,
Yes indeed. In our experiments with the addition of 2 t / ha of straw, the rate of mineralization decreased. It is also important, that the addition of straw increased the content of labile organic matter in the soil.
Thanks
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Ceramic is always shrinking.how this shrinkage is compensated?
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Thanks again for your answer
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Paintings restoration using image processing
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Dear Yonten Jamtsho,
in addition to proper image processing techniques, you might need a multispectral or hyperspectral image acquisition technique.
Kind regards,
Sascha Grusche
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Dears,
I developed a travel cost model comparing data which was collected before and after an ecological restoration. The aim is to determine if the restoration affected the recreational value of the natural area.
I used a pooled model, like in contingent travel cost model. The results are that dummy variable (expressing whether visitor is pre or post restoration) is significant and negative, whereas its interaction with cost is not significant.
I understand that being pre or post is influencing number of visits but it is not influencing the demand curve. Is this true?
Therefore, do these results mean that ecological restoration is not significantly affecting the value of a visit?
(I attach the results of the model)
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Thank you. Cost is a variable expressing the cost of a trip to the natural area, post_ER is a dummy variable expressing whether individual is surveyed before or after the ecological restoration. The aim of the model is to determine if restoration changed the demand curve (inferred from cost).
So, I understand that if post_ER is not interacting with cost, the demand curve of natural area is not influenced by ecological restoration, right?
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Hi all,
I want to design a questionary to evaluate the impact of a restoration -implementing multifuntional herdgerows- on farmer's opinion. The hedgerows will also have functions as hosts of alies to avoid plagues, control of erosion, etc.
Many thanks for your help and best regards
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I think it would be very important first to get information (from your questionnaire) about the demographics of your farmers' sample (age, gender education, economic status, whether or not farming is a primary activity for the farmer, etc.) and then information about their farm (Ha. of cultivated land, Ha uncultivated land, crops grown, livestock) and management (organic/ecological, irrigation, soil fertility, crop protection with or without agrichemicals). Then to measure the impact of a restoration -implementing multi functional hedge rows you may considered: the percent of land that was restored with hedgerows, the purpose of this restoration, the costs involved (money, time, on-farm and off-farm resources) and then the benefits gained (windbreaks, biological control, increased biodiversity, soil/water conservation) and drawbacks (loss of land surface that could have been cultivated and others). These (in my opinion) are/could be main concepts to identify the variables for your questionnaire. After designing the questionnaire you could run a small-scale study and administer your instrument to a reduced sample of farmers in order to verify that your questionnaire is a valid instrument, capable of yielding consistent results. Any program evaluation manual can give you more detailed information about the design and construction of a survey/questionnaire. In my research I used a jury-panel system to identify key concepts for the construction of my questionnaire. Here attached is the paper that although was constructed to evaluate students' preparedness in sustainable agriculture, I think that could be of inspiration to develop the questionnaire you need for your research project.
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In Syria now, there is a problem with plant water hyacinth (Eichhornia), in my opinion, reintroduced of Bubalus (water buffalo) as a natural enemy and restoration of natural cycles of Environment, it's enough to solve this problem and to keeping water resources in save.
What's your opinion ? and what solutions can be taken?
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Dear Mustafa Nur Istanbuly
You are right. Surely, using Eco-friend solutions is much better than herbicide.
Regards
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I am conducting a meta-analysis on plant abundance in restored vs. natural habitats. I am using a response ratio measure of effect size ln(restored)-ln(natural). I want to calculate effect size variance, but in some situations I find that the variance in one of the treatments is 0 because all sample values are equal to the mean (either 100% or 0% cover). Must I omit these trials if I want to include variance in the analysis? I know sometimes authors will omit studies that do not properly report variance, but is seems like there might be a bias introduced if I omit studies because the data itself did not allow for the calculation of effect size variance.
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