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Respiratory System - Science topic

The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
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Publications related to Respiratory System (10,000)
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Background: Pancreato-biliary endoscopic procedures often need to be performed under deep intravenous sedation. The patients are at an increased risk of respiratory depression influenced by the anatomical dead space of the upper respiratory system. We aimed to evaluate the benefit of oxygen delivery through a single-sided trans-nasal catheter (TC)...
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Background: The Human Respiratory Tract (HRT) is colonized by various microbial taxa, known as HRT microbiota, in a manner that is indicative of mutualistic interaction between such microorganisms and their host. Aim: To investigate the microbial composition of the HRT and its possible correlation with the different compartments of the respirato...
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Background Corona virus disease of the year 2019 (COVID-19) is still devastating the world for more than 19 months since its declaration as a pandemic by world health organization. Its manifestations does not stand at respiratory system but involves other body systems including central nervous system and its vasculature. In the following case repor...
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Second-generation COVID-19 vaccines could contribute to establish protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants. We developed COH04S1, a synthetic multiantigen modified vaccinia Ankara-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that co-expresses spike and nucleocapsid antigens. Here, we report COH04S1 vaccine efficacy in animal models. We demonstr...
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The critical power (CP) concept represents the uppermost rate of steady state aerobic metabolism during work. Work above CP is limited by a fixed capacity ( W ′) with exercise intensity being an accelerant of its depletion rate. Exercise at CP is a considerable insult to homeostasis and any work done above it will rapidly become intolerable. Humans...
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Introduction Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) has been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. As of 28 November 2021, there were more than 260 million cases and nearly 5.2 million deaths caused by COVID-19. The most affected system by COVID-19 infection was the respiratory system although several other studies s...
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Objective Exercise has been demonstrated to be beneficial for improving physical capacity and quality of life in people with scleroderma, although knowledge of its impact on the respiratory system is limited. This study evaluated the impact of therapist-oriented home rehabilitation (TOHR) on impulse oscillometry (IOS) and lung ultrasound (LUS) find...
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Background Allergies, including food allergies, are a considerable clinical and public-health problem. The introduced preventive measures and differential diagnostics, including oral food challenges, are the gold standard for determining further treatment planning. Case presentation We present a case of an 18-year-old girl with a cow’s milk allerg...
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Background The effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung ultrasound (LUS) patterns, and their relationship with intracranial pressure (ICP) in brain injured patients have not been completely clarified. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of two levels of PEEP (5 and 15 cmH 2 O) on global (LUStot) and regional (an...
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Background In the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the response to lung recruitment maneuvers (LRMs) varies considerably from one patient to another and so is difficult to predict. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the recruitment-to-inflation (R/I) ratio could differentiate between patients according to the...
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all healthcare systems worldwide. Effective COVID-19 preventive measures, including wearing a mask, hand washing, avoiding the “Three Cs”, and city lockdowns, could decrease other infectious diseases. The case numbers of the major infectious diseases in Thailand were investigated (pneumo...
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Background The World Health Organization declared the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) as a global health emergency on January 30, 2020, and as a pandemic disease on March 11, 2020. This review highlights the international situation, risk factors, and related protections to be taken as prerequisite measures and probable treatment option...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the small and medium vessels involving the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and kidneys. In this case report, we will describe the case of a 60-year-old man who presented to our observation with recurrent episodes of hem...
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The course of the new SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is unpredictable and is still being investigated. Although the majority of complications are expected to affect the respiratory system, there have been reports in literature concerning the adverse effects of the infection on bone and joint tissue. Several complications have been observed in the maxillofac...
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In recent times, coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) becomes a pandemic disease across the globe. This virus affects the severe acute respiratory system that causes a type of pneumonia, which results in an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and then in whole global countries. The virus possesses a complex structure and varied in composition along with its geometrical...
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The immune system generates memory cells on infection with a virus for the first time. These memory cells play an essential role in protection against reinfection. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells can be generated in situ once attacked by pathogens. TRM cells dominate the defense mechanism during early stages of reinfection and have gradually b...
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Environmental parameters have a significant impact on the spread of respiratory viral diseases (temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and air saturation state). T and RH are strongly correlated with viral inactivation in the air, whereas supersaturated air can promote droplet deposition in the respiratory tract. This study introduces a new conce...
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Background Although students mastered the composition skills, they lack of the ability to effectively integrate these composition skills in real clinical situations. To address the problem, we set up different levels of situational simulation training for medical students in grades 2–4, and evaluate the teaching effect of first-aid situation compre...
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Persistent infection and prolonged shedding of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) in children have been reported, and the role of HBoV1 as a sole causative pathogen in acute respiratory infection (ARI) is yet to be established. While the reported prevalence of HBoV infection varies due to different detection methods and sampling criteria, determining the vi...
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Contemporary issues such as epidemics and the prevalence of infectious indicate that there is a pressing need to better understand the dynamics of transmission in air and facemasks. Consistent with previous literature, coronavirus disease (COVID2019) is caused by the novel virus SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus adds a new element to fuid fragmentation leadi...
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La actual pandemia de COVID-19 afecta principalmente al sistema respiratorio; sin embargo, con el aumento de casos en todo el mundo existe evidencia de afectación cardiovascular, que puede manifestarse como infarto agudo de miocardio, miocarditis, pericarditis, miopericarditis, insuficiencia cardiaca, choque cardiogénico, vasculitis, trombosis veno...
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Introducción: la ventilación mecánica es una práctica común en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y anestesiología. Tiene implicaciones terapéuticas, pero también es potencialmente nociva para el sistema respiratorio y los órganos distantes, por lo cual es imprescindible monitorizar los parámetros ventilatorios de manera continua. Objetivo: descr...
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Objectives Papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the respiratory tract in adults. Its histological structure and immune environment vary from site to site. This study investigated the disease characteristics and prognostic differences of papillomas at various primary locations. Methods Clinical data was collected from patients with adul...
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Objective The study aimed to understand the distribution of health problems of a general practice clinic to provide guidance on how to develop primary care in Shenzhen, China. Study design This is a cross-sectional study. Methods Patients' sociodemographic data and diagnoses were recorded from the electronic medical record system of the Universit...
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Maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy has been linked to asthma risk in children, but the role of underlying infections remains unclear. We investigated the association of maternal antibiotic use and infections during pregnancy with offspring risk of asthma. We used two population-based cohorts: the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Stud...
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Face masks serve to protect the respiratory system from unwanted aerosol droplets, in which various types of pathogens or pollutants are present. They are particularly important during a pandemic, like SARS-CoV-2 pandemic we are witnessing. The efficiency of filtration of aerosol droplets, which contain the virus particles, is generally unsatisfact...
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Background: There has been a surge of sufferers contracting healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) in recent times. This has been further exacerbated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic which, beginning in 2020, has severely affected the majority of the world's 761 nations, and one of the biggest problems caused by this infection was the high number of patie...
Preprint
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This paper proposes a weakly-supervised machine learning-based approach aiming at a tool to alert patients about possible respiratory diseases. Various types of pathologies may affect the respiratory system, potentially leading to severe diseases and, in certain cases, death. In general, effective prevention practices are considered as major actors...
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are designed to control the transmission of the disease. However, post-vaccination subacute thyroiditis (SAT) also appears with increase vaccination rate. Three cases of SAT after SARS-CoV-2 vaccin...
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Particles longer than 5 μm and with a length/diameter ratio >3 are defined as fibers. Asbestos or other fibers are still identified in residential environments due to the emission from asbestos‐used building materials. The respiratory system is the primary route of asbestos exposure; under a longer residence time, asbestos‐related adverse health ef...
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The main entry point of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract and as such immune defence in this site determines if the virus will spill-over to the systemic circulation and circulate and infect other major organs. The first line of mucosal immune defence is composed of mucins, an epithelial barrier, and immune cells in the nasal cavity. The lung imm...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused lots of crises, losses, and damages to the people's livelihoods. Undoubtedly, vaccination is the most essential and urgent solution but this solely may not resolve the issue in long term. Since the uneven and partial distribution of approved vaccines further complicates the issue. Besides, none of the present vaccin...
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Background Measuring the respiratory rate is usually associated with discomfort for the patient due to contact sensors or a high time demand for healthcare personnel manually counting it. Methods In this paper, two methods for the continuous extraction of the respiratory rate from unobtrusive ballistocardiography signals are introduced. The Hilber...
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Several manifestations of inflammatory skin reactions have been described. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is an acute skin inflammatory reaction. It is generally triggered by upper respiratory tract infections or by medications such as nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and anticonvulsants. It is associated with a significant mortality of...
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Viral infection in cell culture and tissue is modeled with delay reaction‐diffusion equations. It is shown that progression of viral infection can be characterized by the viral replication number, time‐dependent viral load, and the speed of infection spreading. These three characteristics are determined through the original model parameters includi...
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The pharyngeal airway is a crucial part of the respiratory system’s function. Assessing the pharyngeal airway dimensions in different skeletal types is important in the orthodontic treatment of growing patients. The aim of this study was to compare the upper pharyngeal airway dimensions of 7–14-year-old children with different skeletal types. Metho...
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This study aimed to test the inhibitory effect of hot and cold aqueous extracts of Thymus vulgaris at several concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 400) mg/ml against three types of bacteria that infect the human respiratory tract, namely Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae), and Gram-negative (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophilia) c...
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This review paper focuses on Neti Kriya and its process.Neti Kriya improves the functions of Nostrils and protects from all kinds of viral diseases and proper breathing. The yogic practices maintain the flow of air in each nostril. After practicing the nostrils will admit the greater amount of air/oxygen. The nerves, improves the secretary, and cir...
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The multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing method is commonly used in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) epidemiology. It remains unknown if clinical manifestations of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children differ between different MLVA genotypes. We aimed to determine if specific M. pneumoniae MLVA genoty...
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Respiratory systems of birds may be parasitized by rhinonyssid and ereynetid mites, which are commonly found in their nasal cavities. Levels of infection caused by mites in relation to maturity and gender of birds have been poorly investigated. Although Columba livia is the host of both Tinaminyssus and Trispeleognathus species worldwide, there are...
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Understanding the respiratory mechanics of ARDS patients is crucial to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), and this is much more challenging if not only lung compliance is altered but the whole compliance of the respiratory system is abnormal, as in obese patients. We face this problem daily in the ICU, and to optimize ventilation, we esti...
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Initially recognized as a respiratory system disease, COVID-19 has been found to be more of a systemic illness with multiorgan involvement. Recently, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19 infection, mainly on the cardiovascular system. Here, we report the case of a young man with myopericarditis and m...
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Healthcare delivery reorganization during the COVID-19 emergency may have had a significant impact on access to care for older adults with chronic conditions. We investigated such impact among all adults with chronic conditions aged ≥ 65 years, identified through the electronic health databases of two local health agencies—ATS Brianza and ATS Berga...
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The wide use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) increases the concern of their potential risks upon human exposure, especially through respiratory tract. The small size of CNTs allows them to deposit into the deep lung where they inevitably interact with pulmonary surfactant (PS) monolayer and thus could profoundly influence the biophysical function of PS...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes transmissible viral illness of the respiratory tract prompted by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. COVID-19 is one of the worst global pandemics affecting a large population worldwide and causing catastrophic loss of life. Patients having pre-existing chronic disorders are more susceptible to contracting this viral in...
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Female workers in the asbestos processing industry of Eastern China are at high risk of developing multiple types of cancer, and more data are urgently needed to better understand and address this issue. Death certificate data were selected from an asbestos processing city in China from 2005 to 2006. Information was investigated using the relatives...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease associated with the respiratory system caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The aim of this review article is to establish an understanding about the relationship between autoimmune conditions and COVID-19 infections. Although majority of the population have been protected with vaccines agains...
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Objectives After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged, there has been a substantial decline in emergency department (ED) visits. However, the impact of the pandemic on pediatric ED (PED) visits has not been well discussed. This study aimed to compare the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of PED visits before and after th...
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The aim was to analyze the clinical characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by Osimertinib and their effects on the prognosis, so as to further provide reference for clinical medication. This was a retrospective study, and 66 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who had ADR in the 2nd‐line treatment with Osimertinib from Janu...
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Immune response in the asthmatic respiratory tract is mainly driven by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, represented by Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, especially Th2 cells. Asthma is a heterogeneous and progressive disease, reflected by distinct phenotypes orchestrated by τh2 or non-Th2 (Th1 and Th17) immune responses at different stages of the disease course....
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). According to the World Health Organization statistics, more than 500 million individuals have been infected and more than 6 million deaths have resulted worldwide. Although COVID-19 mainly affects the respiratory...
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The SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic has demonstrated the importance of studying antiviral immunity within sites of infection to gain insights into mechanisms for immune protection and disease pathology. As SARS‐CoV‐2 is tropic to the respiratory tract, many studies of airway washes, lymph node aspirates, and postmortem lung tissue have revealed site‐specific i...
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Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease presenting with various phenotypes usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify epidemiology of bronchial asthma phenotypes in patients attending to tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional st...
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Literature is lacking on the spectrum of symptoms of long COVID-19 (defined as symptoms persisting beyond 28 days of diagnosis) and its impact on quality of life. This single-center, cross-sectional study included mild COVID-19 cases as determined by a positive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Patients were contacted...
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Different immune-mediated diseases have been described after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, being antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) one of the possible side effects. In this study, a total of 35 patients presented ANCA for the first time during 2021, being this number of 15 during 2019. 27 out of 35 patients develope...
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Purpose. The aim of this study was to further understand the distribution characteristics of staphylococcal virulence genes in the Jingzhou area, in order to provide a basis for clinically effective treatments and prevention and control measures. Methods. A total of 181 strains of staphylococci were collected from Jingzhou Hospital Affiliated to Ya...
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The emergence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the most serious public health threats worldwide. The inappropriate use of antibiotics is considered the main determinant for the increase and development of ABR, contributing to a greater risk of therapeutic ineffectiveness, particularly within primary care context. Therefore, this pilot study...
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Forced oscillation technique (FOT) provides unique information on respiratory system mechanical properties complementing pulmonary function testing. However, a lack of evidence guiding acquisition/reporting of parameters has slowed clinical FOT adoption. Current European Respiratory Society (ERS) standards recommend 3–5 trials per session comprisin...