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Respiratory System - Science topic

Respiratory System is the tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
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Based on our antiviral theory, why a virus can infect its target cell is because the target cell’s gene expression pattern is suitable for the viral infection, thus any factors that can change gene expression patterns in viral target cells could be used to reduce susceptibility to all viral infections. Low-dose X-ray irradiation can change gene expression patterns in different cells , presuming that X-ray irradiated cells are resistant or immune to all viral infections. Besides, X-ray irradiation can cause epigenetic changes, which could be passed on few generations. Hopefully, one dose irradiation on upper respiratory tract area could protect people for few months, leading to the possibility that low-dose X-ray irradiation ('irradiation vaccine') could be cure-all vaccine for all viral pandemics.
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No because all viruses posses a difference in antigenic structure and genetic diversity which aquired from enviroment' "mutation,"
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Hello,
I am working on the immune response in the respiratory tract 30 minutes after a stimulation, and I'm also analyzing the bone marrow. I observed a rise in the number of Lin-, MPP and CMP, but I'm wondering if 30 minutes of stimulation is enough to influence the BM . Does anyone know, how long it take for progenitors to "sense" the inflammation, to differenciate and to migrate ?
Thank you very much !
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Hi Mahana,
Possibly, obviously the pathways are very complex but if you have mature APCs they would initially move to the nearest lymph and generate a specific humoral response which usually takes about 96 hours after stimulation and more than likely depends on the stimulus still being available. If the stimuli is there for ca 30 mins in the lead up to a more adaptive response and of course any sort of plasma cell or b cell proliferation then it may be too short as innate cells (such as macrophages) in the area in the lack of stimuli will apoptose leading to an increase in IL-10 and down regulating the immune response in the area and secondarily in the lymphatic system.
I think it may be enough to start plasma cell and B cell proliferation but may not be enough to continue the process and yield cells to fight the "infection".
It might be a different story if you repeatedly stimulated for 30 mins (e.g. every 24-48 hours) the times are just a random suggestion but I think repeated exposure within that 96 hour window may elicite more of a response as the antigen will still be present and presented on MHC receptors for example.
If it does stimulate a response in the bone marrow, I would be interested to know how they mature. If they fully differenciate and mature, I would expect with a short exposure that it may start but the stimuli may be too short if it starts at all.
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Erythromycin is used to prevent and treat infections in many different parts of the body, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, diphtheria, intestinal amebiasis, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, Legionnaire's disease, pertussis, and syphilis.
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What is your mean ?
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Hello,
I would like to ask your opinions on an interesting case:
46 yr old female patient had an infection of uppper respiratory system in the beginning of September. Shortly afterwards she developed angina pectoris like symptoms. EKG was without pathological signs. In 24h-EKG only a sinus tachycardia showed, when walking slowly (up to 140-160 beats /minute). Echocardiography was without pathological signs as was lab (CRP, troponin, myoglobin, hemoglobin,...). In a cardio-MRI in November a cardiac microvasculatory dysfunction (endothelialitis? small vessel disease?) was diagnosed.
In a blood test, troponin, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, CRP, c-ANCA, p-ANCA, lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies... and so on all were negative.
Only antibodies against endothelium could be shown.
Does anybody here have experience with a case like that? At the moment, we think mainly about an autoinflammatory process (e.g. triggered by auto-antibodies). Is there any way to find evidence pro or con?
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Thank you for your answers!
I don't have experience with a case like this, but it seems plausible that they could be related with this manifestation. I suggest the following literature:
Best regards
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Theileriosis is a tick borne disease recorded in ruminants. Besides causing anemia it affects the respiratory tract thereby causing pulmonary oedema.
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Yes as a symptomatic treatment, and paying attention to not induce hypotension as secondary effect in weak animals. Buparvaquone remains the best etiologic treatment of theileriosis.
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When human die due to corona then their respiratory system dont work so I thinks from their dead body corona cant be spread. Anyone can explain it that from dead body corona is spreading or not?
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Assume that the body is infectious, possibly via fomites from skin and take precautions accordingly. airborne transmission risk is probably low unless the body is moved aggressively.
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I'm looking for a solution for -7 C using in super cold storage tank. If i use water it will be change phase to solid.
The solution has the following properties:
- still liquid phase at -7 C may be to -10 C in Atmospheric pressure.
- non-corrosive to copper
- cheap price
- not toxic to the respiratory system
- not-flammable
Best regards, Mongkon
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Dear Mongkon Taweebunlon many thanks for asking this interesting technical question. Personally I'm not an engineer, but to the best of my knowledge mictures of glycol (= etehylene glycol) and water are best suited for this purpose. In this context please have a look e.g. at the following potentially useful link:
WHAT IS GLYCOL? HOW IS IT USED IN A CHILLER?
According to this link mixtures of water and 30% ethylene glycol freeze at -13.7 °C (7.3 F). Glycol is cheap, and the mixtures are non-flammable. Concerning the corrosion properties, please also see the following relevant articles:
Galvanic Corrosion Study in Ethylene Glycol
and
Monopropylene glycol based heat transfer fluid: Effects of green and synthetic corrosion inhibitors on copper and aluminum with ageing tests
Both papers are freely available as public full texts on RG.
Please stay safe and healthy! With best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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At our university, we are making a laboratory to assess the functional state of athletes. Colleagues recommended two brands: Cosmed and Cortex. Please tell me what devices do you use? What type of gas analyzers is preferable: mobile or stationary?
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We use Cosmed in our lab (as well as other labs in Iran).
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Dear scientific community!
Several studies have investigated the hazards posed to human health and the environment by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials, owing to similar material properties as asbestos. Right now, hundreds of kilometers of CFRP elements (strips, bars, wraps, etc.) are being installed to strengthen existing buildings worldwide every year. I would be interested to know, if you could recommend studies on the potential hazards with respect to the construction industry? What is your opinion in terms of human health (especially the respiratory system), required safety measures, recyclability and cost, which are not considered in design and sales?
Thank you very much!
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One solution is design the CFRP retrofit system in a way that can be disassembled during the decostruction process at the end of lifetime of a structure (for example, when unbonded CFRP strips or bars are used). Given the very good fatigue and durability of CFRP, they could be used in new structures for a different application provided that they are recovered in a good state (i.e., circular economy concept).
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is there long-lasting damage to the respiratory system after COVID 19
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Many medical records show that many people who have had a serious illness of Covid-19 have various complications of pocovidia and deterioration of health, including e.g. in terms of the efficiency of the respiratory system. However, this issue requires continuation of research to diagnose to what extent this permanent or partially permanent deterioration of health after a history of Covid-19 is caused exclusively by effects caused by Covid-19 disease, and to what extent and to what extent these effects are also caused by comorbidities .
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Croup is a viral infection affecting the upper respiratory tract. Its causative organisms includes Influenza and Parainfluenza viruses. This question aims to know the role of antiviral agents in the management of disease.
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there is no antiviral role in treatment of croup
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Hello,
in the framework of my master's thesis, I would like to assess the efficacy of probiotic on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence and symptom ratings in athletes under free-living conditions . I think I should use The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS). I will choose WURSS-11 because may reduce the time and burden required for completing the survey. But different protocols have been used in different studies (https://www.fammed.wisc.edu/wurss/).
Hence my question.
Should participants complete the questionnaires every day? Or maybe on the day, when they consider a cold to start?
The study will last 8-10 weeks. I'm afraid of having problems filling out the questionnaires so often.
I will be grateful for your help.
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For a participant to fill out the same questionnaire every day may be boring and you may end up with so many drop outs that will ruin your experiment. You may want to do the following:
1. Increase your sample size so as to still have a reasonable number of volunteers even with a high drop out rate. This is achievable if the questionnaire is electronic.
2. Plan to spread out the questionnaire response (say every weekend) if the tested product is the same and try to know from the respondents beforehand the number of times they will be comfortable responding to the same questions. If they will be testing different products, I suggest you take one product per week (six days resting time). During that period, they can respond to the questionnaire.
3. Think of providing some kind of incentives to respondents every time they respond to your questionnaire.
4. Let the respondents know why your study is important to them and society as a whole and how their contribution is part of the expected success.
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Increasing the demand of lead recycling industries in so call E- vehicles or eco friendly initiatives. It was observed that the SOP and the work culture is rarely bothered about the exposure to the labour in such recycling units at melting section, lead oxide mill, red oxide area and ingots making sections. So I want to know about the study conducted on the accumulation of lead in the lungs of the front line workers and is chances to defuse lead from lungs ( respiratory system/track) to blood ??
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The workers in secondary lead smelters lead normally suffer from the lead poison. It is body accumulated poison which causes by the time a sever effect on the lungs, kidneys, blood, bones, and brain. I worked for several years in lead smelters and suffer from this poison. The treatment of such poison is to follow the following points:
1. The importance of staying away from sources of pollution until starts to go down, or reduce the exposure time.
2. Make sure to wear personal protective clothing and focus on appropriate respiratory masks.
3. The lead in the lungs and blood need to be extracted by special medicines, The pomegranate drink is a good extracted liquid for the heavy metals like lead.
I would like you to focuses on the first point as soon as possible in order to get raped to reduce lead poison concentration.
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Staphylococcus aureus is a gram - positive, round - shaped bacterium that is frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin. With this, 25% of the people and animals harbor Staph on their skin and in their nose. This can cause Staph food poisoning located in the gastrointestinal tract. This bacteria can be eliminated through preventive measures like cooking but its toxic remain.
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Whooping cough is a bacterial respiratory infection. It is transmitted through the respiratory system during coughs. We talk about whooping cough before a cough that has been accentuated for more than 7 days with fifths, difficult breathing (called rooster crowing) and vomiting. Whooping cough can cause neurological and pulmonary complications.
Whooping cough can be prevented with vaccination.
 
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DTwP can provide antigen-specific cross-reactive immunity?
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In response to viral infection via respiratory system a mucus defense associated with the primary inflammatory response 1 to 3 days after infection, to be followed by immune reactivity some two weeks later.So, is the primary response the most serious problem in this CORO19 infection, producing mucous plugging or is the ground glass matter indicative o0f direct pathology>
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  • DOI: 10.1186/s12575-020-00121-9
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Are nanoparticles in a liquid media generally safe for lungs and health?
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Are nanoparticles in a liquid media generally safe for lungs and health?
generally it dependant mainly on type of substances and materials you are dealing with and used
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I had two general questions:
  1. I was wondering if there is scientific theory behind the re-infection potential and rate on survivors of COVID-19. I have read a News Paper Report that Reinfection happened on some survivors in Korea. How much is that true? Any new information and knowledge in that regard?
  2. Is there any severe and lasting damage (like scar) that the infection by COVID-19 leaves on the lung or other parts of the respiratory system? Please share us new information on these two points or more. Thanks!
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No definite clinical evidence of reinfection based on worsening of symptoms, Lab or radiological prameters or infection in the contacts
It is not yet established that patients who are declared recovered from COVID-19 on the basis of two NEGATIVE RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-19 had actually recovered due to laboratory error of testing kits or the the positivity indicated a carrier state, as none of these reports indicated any worsening of clinical condition of the patient based on symptoms, CT-scan or other parameters (1). We have seen many patients with COVID-19 who despite making a clinical recovery are often having positive reports based on the RT-PCR results up to 35 days after initial diagnosis (2). There has been talk of viral RNA belong to dead virus (viral litter, debris) as the explanation for positive RNA-based PCR tests, as this test does not establish the presence of live virus.
Important point is that there is a disconnect between positive tests and the clinical condition of the such COVID-19 patients. If you follow up such patients, none of the patients had adverse outcome.
1.Preprint Clinical characteristics of the recovered COVID-19 patients ...
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- Therefore, I would like to know if anyone has carried out tests since these waves are capable of interacting in the respiratory passages of exposed mammals.
- Also taking into account and without ruling out the digestive system, as a possibility of testing.
Or if someone can think of how to safely perform that test.
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almost all the articles that I have put are open. Some others had to ask the authors for permission.
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Is there any possibility that nanofibrious materials can be inhaled and end up in the respiratory system if the person who is conducting experiments on electrospinning of nanofibrious materials, without a face mask?
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If you are doping the polymer solution with any toxic material (metal oxide nanoparticles) then you should be wearing a mask before using. Another factor is the degradability of polymer which you use eg: - Biodegradable polymers and Non-Biodegradable Polymers.
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this investigation based on respiratory tract infection both upper and lower respiratory infection in pediatric patients
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Amit Kumar Shrivastava dear your question needs a bit explanation dear. I am also working in pediatric medicine, and there were hundred of patients belong to diagnosis of URTI or LRTI, but the region is too big, if you could point out some explanation. thanks
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The presence of free radicals in photosynthetic and respiratory systems is inevitable, even in optimal condition for growth.
In these conditions, How much free radicals can be loss in yield?
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In a optimum condition for growth, I sprayed my plant with cytokinin, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (POD, SOD, catalase) in these plant was higher than control (foliar with distilled water). why?? It's not a results due to reduce free radicals?
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Respiratory tract is the only organ system with vital functional elements in constant, direct contact-with environment.
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THANKS DR TARIQ
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Pertussis is infectious bacterial infection in the respiratory system, and is characterized by cough out of control, and this makes breathing difficult, followed by the sound of a loud and deep like cock, and this sound resulted from trying to catch a person's breath after coughing and it’s also called ((coughing a hundred days )) My question is as a parent how can we deal with a child during the hundred days ?? Can we reduce the symptoms of this disease?
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The best strategy regarding pertussis is obviously prevention by vaccinations. Early treatment of pertussis (in the first 2 weeks) is very important in children, as treatment before coughing paroxysms, may lessen subsequent symptoms. Clinical severity is associated with child's age and note that young infants are at high risk for complications and hence diagnosis and treatment are vital.
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Respiratory system evaluation and screening can easily be done by Pulmonary Function Tests. It is an important and useful adjunct for correlation and evaluation of, the presenting complaint of patients like cough and dyspnoea, the imaging studies and pre and post treatment respiratory function status, as well as to identify patients with no or insignificant signs and symptoms of respiratory impairment.
Keeping in mind, the huge physiological and clinical importance I decided to carry out this study. In present study the pulmonary function test of smokers were compare with non-smokers. So, it is expected that this knowledge smoking among the people of Northern Bihar (Koshi region) Bihar, where a large population is migrant workers, with poor hygiene and low socioeconomic status, this study was undertaken for a better understanding of the correlation between smoking and its effects on pulmonary functions.
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Still somewhat confusing; the title of your post is The Comparative of Pulmonary Function Tests Among Smokers and Non-Smokers, but now you're asking about COPD prevalance between Hepatitis B and C, and not about PFT results between smokers and non-smokers. Perhaps you should amend the title of this post; you may get more relevant responses.
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by using different concentrations?
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Do you mean giving lidocaine intravenously? If it's being given only locally, it shouldn't affect the respiratory system at all, unless you're planning on using it to block any of the nerves that supply the respiratory muscles.
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 Hello , I need someone has information about rapid immunochromatography  kit used for rapid detection of MERSCoV antigen in collected samples from respiratory system.
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Hello
Dear Russell tank you for your attention of my question , the you suggested was RT- PCR for molecular detection not rapid immunochromatography  again  thank you very much                               Dr.Mohsen Alrodhan
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I am focus on affect the climate change on Infection rate and the changes caused by climate and climate change?
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I am working on human airways. My geometry is CT scan based from mouth to sixth generation. I want to run the CFD simulation for cyclic breathing (complete process of inhalation and exhalation). Could someone please help me?
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Dear Bholu,
your problem is quite difficult to solve. I have never tried to solve unsteady or transient boundary conditions in blood flow, but thinking about your problem I could suggest two approaches that may help you:
1- try te approach purposed for Shravya and simulate separately the flows, but instead of taking two separated simulations, try to start the second from the solution of the first simulation, changing the boundary inlet to boundary outlet. It is not that simple to do, and the fluent may have problem to indentify correctly the initial scenario what may be hybrid initialization, to not change what you have done before.
2 - there is a coupling possibility between Fluent and GT-power. I've never used it, but I know that is possible. The GT-power uses UDFs for coupling unsteady flows (and boundary conditions), limited in arround 20 changings. This coupling allows you to change the boundary condition in a specific time flow for another specified in the GT-power.
In spite of being hard to do, I'd try the second approach if you have time. I guess the results would be much more significant. But if you don't have time for spend in learning it, try the first it can possibly reach reasonable results if well succeed.
Best regards and hoping in being helpful.
Guilherme.
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E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular and many believe they are a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. But do the substances in e-cigarette vapor really just get exhaled with the vapor? The answer should lie in their particle size which determines deposition in the human respiratory system and organs. Any measurements of particle size distributions published in peer-reviewed papers would be of great interest.
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I am not sure it there is any publication yet that reliably tells the particle size distribution of e-cigarettes and I doubt that there is any publication that based on the particle size distribution gives a reasonable health risk analyse:
1) e-cigarette vapor is completely volatile (by measuring the psd high dilution is required in order to prevent coagulation artefacts)
2) deposition in the human respiratory tract is based on particle size; however, e-cigarettes have a high potential of higroscopic growth but may also completely evaporate depending on their concentration. Equilibrium (in terms of phase transition) models can not be applied here, but most lung deposition models that consider phase transition are equilibrium models
I conclude: tricky topic
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how can nanoparticles in a liquid media affect the lungs and respiration by inhalation?  can they be harmful that way or such injury is caused only by the nanoparticles in the air? please advise ...I need to check the safety factors 
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An aerosol is a suspension of particles, droplets or solid, in a gas. Thus if the liquid is  aerosolized it can be inhaled and the particles deposited in the lung. The site of deposition would depend upon size and other characteristics, however, the nanoparticles will agglomerate upon release from an aerosolized liquid and  could present to the lung particles that are sub micron to micron in size. As a result the initial deposition could be in one or more regions of the lung. Time dependency is an issue for inhalation based upon the change in size caused by inhalation in a moist environment (the lung), but it will be more important for life time in the lung, slow or fast clearance or translocation.