Science method

Research Proposal Writing - Science method

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Hi,
What are the main guidelines, could you give for a new researcher who is going to make a research proposal?
Thank you.
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Hi Praneeth Silva think of a research proposal as a detailed plan of your intended work in which you are going to justify research into your topic to your reader. It is good to show how important the topic is based on existing studies and then indicate how your own study will contribute something else to the body of existing literature. Explaining your research methods very clearly and specifically is also very important and demonstrating a clear intention of what you plan to do. You will find research methods guidance at most universities, for example https://www.westminster.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/research-degrees/entry-requirements/how-to-write-your-research-proposal
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Dear all,
I'm gonna start my PhD project as a Chemical Engineering PhD candidate. Recently, my supervisor proposed the general topic of "Single Atom Catalysis (SAC)" for my project, in order to search and evaluate.
First of all, is it a cutting edge technology approach and a novel topic to work on? Does it have any industrial potential?
If yes, please guide me through the challenges and specific areas of this topic to work on.
Thank you very much in advance
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this is a very tricky question. I would not say these materials are novel as there have been a lot of studies exploring both the electronic structure and the catalytic activity of these materials. Now the key question is what your study can add to the field? If your study is focusing on solving a particular challenge associated with the industrialization of these materials, being a new synthesis method or improving their stability in harsh reaction conditions then you are on the right track.
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Hello, Great Researchers,
There is a high growing interest among scientists especially the highly experienced ones (NOBEL PRICE WINNERS) nowadays for publishing their research output as pre-print or e-prints without bothering about the peer-reviewers views of any journal especially the high impact factor journals. They believe that any body is free to give his/her opinion on their research and that is their opinion.
Please, could you drop your opinion about this issue? I will appreciate!
Thanks
Regards
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Agree with Nidhal Kamel Taha El-Omari
So, in order to solve such this type of issues, it may take several months of following up to remove the manuscript from the database of the preprint. Anyhow, If there were accusations of plagiarism, it is not well for any researcher's reputation, in any meaning.
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Hi,
Excuse my lack of experience but I'm in the process of choosing a topic for my master's thesis and I'm interested in the area of recommender systems using GNNs, but I need help in formulating my research questions and in which direction should I go (for the proposal).
I would appreciate any advice.
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The requirements for a master's thesis varies from university to university. It might be good to ask if it is necessary to formulate a novel idea or is it acceptable if you can reproduce an already existing work (requirements vary depending on the university policy and it is good to ask before engaging the subject).
The best way to do a master's thesis is to look for a paper where you have a clear idea based on the explanation, has reproducible results and the conclusion also includes future work. That last requirement of the paper makes it easier if you have to do original research since the justification for your thesis can be put in context of the paper.
Regards
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Something that is related to Accounting and Business Finance course degree. I'm interested in accounting related to technology. Marketing not really my interest. Maybe the issues that has been occurring that is accounting related. Or cybersecurity related accounting. I want to make sure that it benefits someone. The solutions to solved I will think of it.
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A good topic would be on the Importance of Ethics on cybersecurity to mitigate risks etc.
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I would like to get some pointers as to how DST-INSPIRE faculty fellowship proposal needs to be written. If anyone has a sample copy or an approved (old but shareable) it'd be great to get some information about the format.
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As per the reviewer's comments on my proposal, I would suggest you start your proposal with small tasks that you can complete on your own without having any collaboration, then you move from smaller tasks to bigger on that should be of high national importance. Use Govt. reports on your fields, I mean what are the current national problems, how your proposal will be helpful to solve them, what kind of instrumentation you will need, if it requires fieldwork, then explain it. for the 4th and 5th years you can explain the large-scale applications of your proposal. I hope it will help. wish you good luck with your application.
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Hi everyone
Language editing is a major concern for authors who do not have English as their primary language. Problems with grammar, language, and syntax can result in the rejection of manuscripts from international biomedical Journals. The editors and experts often recommend professional editing which can sometimes cost hundreds of dollars. This is not feasible nor affordable for the majority of authors and researchers based in developing countries who do not have sufficient funds or institutional support.
Many online language editing softwares are now available but the better ones have limited functionality for the free version for example Grammarly.
Please share your experience of using online language editing software with their and strengths and shortcomings. I have been Trinka for 4 months now with excellent results and would highly recommend it
It is the world’s first grammar and language enhancement tool is custom-built for academic & technical writing. Its standout features are that it works with the author and goes beyond the grammar and spellcheck to ensure holistic language enhancement.
If you have not tried it yet, Sign up for a free account from this link
Share your experience of other software too
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You can use grammarly
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I'm in a pickle regarding my research project analysis in SPSS.
I have constructed a questionnaire, measuring 6 different motivators for shopping* and I want to know if there is a difference between what motivates women and what motivates men.
My data of men vs women is uneven (there are more women than men).
I also have 6 different motivations that I want to see if men and women strongly agree or strongly disagree (5-point Likert scale) but since I only have 1 question per motivator then I can't compute the mean. Will this mean I can't do tests?
I've tried to do Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Ordinal regression, all came insignificant. Does it just simply mean that there is no differences between groups? Or is the fact that I only have 1 question per item causing an error as the values are whole numbers (from 1 to 5)?
Reading about all the tests and arguments about whether to use t-tests or not on a Likert scale is making my head spin! I hope you can provide some guidance.
I should also mention that at first I have looked at the median and IQR and found that 3 factors are stronger than others in motivating my sample to shop*, but now I need to see if there is a difference between genders and which motivator is the most influential for women and for men.
Thank you.
*example
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Justyna Cuglewska If the Chi-sqr test did not return a significant difference, I would presume there is no gender difference. I would definitely check if I could combine the six motivators to create a composite scale (as suggested by David Morgan).
However, I see that David Morse is suggesting logistic regression (though my opinion coincides with David Morgan that it won't make difference if the Chi-sqr test returns insignificant relation). Please run this and share your experience with us here, so that we could also learn something.
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Hi everyone,
I am writing a research proposal for my masters applications and am in dire need of guidance.
I suggest to quantitatively investigate the potential correlation between feminist attitudes and support of antiracism, so that the higher one's feminist attitudes is hypothesized to predict a stronger support for the recent Black Lives Matter movement.
I think it would make a lot of sense to control for various sociodemographic factors such as political leaning and race, however, to what extent do I need to expand on the rationale behind this decision in my proposal? I am already running over the word limit and really cannot afford to justify it thoroughly in my literature review...How much would it require me to show that those factors have been found to influence feminist attitudes & support for antiracism if I want to include them? Is it necessary that the covariate influences both variables, or is its effect on 1 of them enough to control for it?
Alternatively, how problematic would it be for me not to control for those variables? Would it affect the quality of my proposal?
Thanks a lot for your help! Looking forward to reading your thoughts on this.
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Hello, Noémie Bourguignon. This is an interesting idea for a study! There are several ways to approach controlling for variables that might have an influence on your results. You mention one, which is controlling for them statistically. Another is to restrict your sampling in the first place. To reduce the number of potentially confounding factors, have you thought of restricting your study to a specific population of people? Limiting your sample may lead to challenges with generalizing your results, but it will help in terms of having so many confounds to address.
Wishing you the best!
Brooke Hallowell
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When you get results by using some methodology , how can be sure that if these results are 100 % novel? 
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Research always is researching what we don't know. Thus, if the others - peers, researchers, a scientific domain - start (re)knowing on a subject or object from your research, it means that it is original. This word/concept original is much more rigorous than "new" or "novel": one can research again an object or a subject already studied but using diverse perspectives and methodologies, thereafter achieving "new" explanations or interpretations. It is not really "novel", but original, which is one of the main goals of "new" scientific research.
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I have visited many websites for scholarship position and in almost every position the supervisor mentioned a motivation letter for the position.
Now my question is
Is it necessary for a scholarship position? (Absolutely yes because they have mentioned it but why?)
How we can write a strong motivational letter ( Like we try to link our research with the supervisor)
Can a supervisor decide to intake the student from the motivation letter?
Is it worth greater than a CV or not?
Please guide me on these points
Thanks for Your Precious Time.
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A strong and genuine motivation letter describes your aims, goals, and intentions. CV is just facts about you. If you endow the letter with the necessary elements for the potential supervisor, it will create all necessary conceptual environments for the supervisors to evaluate you. Good luck!
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Hello Researchers,
I mostly use WPS and Libreoffice but the problem which is face several times is addinf references and citations. Because even when we change one of the reference it doesn't get updated in the text of research article.
I just checked ENDNote but thats not comaptible with LINUX. So someone who is using such tools or tricks in WPS or Libreoffice , kindly please update me.
Thanks,
Abhinav Nag
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I have a masters research proposal to write. The final dissertation (with findings and discussion of same) is to be in the form of a draft journal article of no more than 8,000 words (not including appendices and references).
Would anyone be able to advise me how long my research proposal should be and which main headings to focus on.
Thanks, Dave  
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Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand its importance. To put it bluntly, one's research is only as a good as one's proposal. An ill-conceived proposal dooms the project even if it somehow gets through the Thesis Supervisory Committee. A high quality proposal, on the other hand, not only promises success for the project, but also impresses your Thesis Committee about your potential as a researcher.
A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it. Generally, a research proposal should contain all the key elements involved in the research process and include sufficient information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study.
Regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions: What you plan to accomplish, why you want to do it and how you are going to do it.
The proposal should have sufficient information to convince your readers that you have an important research idea, that you have a good grasp of the relevant literature and the major issues, and that your methodology is sound.
The quality of your research proposal depends not only on the quality of your proposed project, but also on the quality of your proposal writing. A good research project may run the risk of rejection simply because the proposal is poorly written. Therefore, it pays if your writing is coherent, clear and compelling.
This paper focuses on proposal writing rather than on the development of research ideas.
Title:
It should be concise and descriptive. For example, the phrase, "An investigation of . . ." could be omitted. Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables. However, if possible, think of an informative but catchy title. An effective title not only pricks the reader's interest, but also predisposes him/her favourably towards the proposal.
Abstract:
It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. It should include the research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any), the method and the main findings. Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used.
Introduction:
The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background or context for your research problem. How to frame the research problem is perhaps the biggest problem in proposal writing.
If the research problem is framed in the context of a general, rambling literature review, then the research question may appear trivial and uninteresting. However, if the same question is placed in the context of a very focused and current research area, its significance will become evident.
Unfortunately, there are no hard and fast rules on how to frame your research question just as there is no prescription on how to write an interesting and informative opening paragraph. A lot depends on your creativity, your ability to think clearly and the depth of your understanding of problem areas.
However, try to place your research question in the context of either a current "hot" area, or an older area that remains viable. Secondly, you need to provide a brief but appropriate historical backdrop. Thirdly, provide the contemporary context in which your proposed research question occupies the central stage. Finally, identify "key players" and refer to the most relevant and representative publications. In short, try to paint your research question in broad brushes and at the same time bring out its significance.
The introduction typically begins with a general statement of the problem area, with a focus on a specific research problem, to be followed by the rational or justification for the proposed study. The introduction generally covers the following elements:
State the research problem, which is often referred to as the purpose of the study.
Provide the context and set the stage for your research question in such a way as to show its necessity and importance.
Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing.
Briefly describe the major issues and sub-problems to be addressed by your research.
Identify the key independent and dependent variables of your experiment. Alternatively, specify the phenomenon you want to study.
State your hypothesis or theory, if any. For exploratory or phenomenological research, you may not have any hypotheses. (Please do not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis.)
Set the delimitation or boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus.
Provide definitions of key concepts. (This is optional.)
Literature Review:
Sometimes the literature review is incorporated into the introduction section. However, most professors prefer a separate section, which allows a more thorough review of the literature.
The literature review serves several important functions:
Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".
Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.
Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.
Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to your research question.
Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.
Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual framework for your research.
Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature).
Most students' literature reviews suffer from the following problems:
Lacking organization and structure
Lacking focus, unity and coherence
Being repetitive and verbose
Failing to cite influential papers
Failing to keep up with recent developments
Failing to critically evaluate cited papers
Citing irrelevant or trivial references
Depending too much on secondary sources
Your scholarship and research competence will be questioned if any of the above applies to your proposal.
There are different ways to organize your literature review. Make use of subheadings to bring order and coherence to your review. For example, having established the importance of your research area and its current state of development, you may devote several subsections on related issues as: theoretical models, measuring instruments, cross-cultural and gender differences, etc.
It is also helpful to keep in mind that you are telling a story to an audience. Try to tell it in a stimulating and engaging manner. Do not bore them, because it may lead to rejection of your worthy proposal. (Remember: Professors and scientists are human beings too.)
Methods:
The Method section is very important because it tells your Research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. It will provide your work plan and describe the activities necessary for the completion of your project.
The guiding principle for writing the Method section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether methodology is sound. Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for another qualified researcher to implement the study.
You need to demonstrate your knowledge of alternative methods and make the case that your approach is the most appropriate and most valid way to address your research question.
Please note that your research question may be best answered by qualitative research. However, since most mainstream psychologists are still biased against qualitative research, especially the phenomenological variety, you may need to justify your qualitative method.
Furthermore, since there are no well-established and widely accepted canons in qualitative analysis, your method section needs to be more elaborate than what is required for traditional quantitative research. More importantly, the data collection process in qualitative research has a far greater impact on the results as compared to quantitative research. That is another reason for greater care in describing how you will collect and analyze your data. (How to write the Method section for qualitative research is a topic for another paper.)
For quantitative studies, the method section typically consists of the following sections:
Design -Is it a questionnaire study or a laboratory experiment? What kind of design do you choose?
Subjects or participants - Who will take part in your study? What kind of sampling procedure do you use?
Instruments - What kind of measuring instruments or questionnaires do you use? Why do you choose them? Are they valid and reliable?
Procedure - How do you plan to carry out your study? What activities are involved? How long does it take?
Results:
Obviously you do not have results at the proposal stage. However, you need to have some idea about what kind of data you will be collecting, and what statistical procedures will be used in order to answer your research question or test you hypothesis.
Discussion:
It is important to convince your reader of the potential impact of your proposed research. You need to communicate a sense of enthusiasm and confidence without exaggerating the merits of your proposal. That is why you also need to mention the limitations and weaknesses of the proposed research, which may be justified by time and financial constraints as well as by the early developmental stage of your research area.
Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing
Failure to provide the proper context to frame the research question.
Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for your research.
Failure to cite landmark studies.
Failure to accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by other researchers.
Failure to stay focused on the research question.
Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed research.
Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues.
Too much rambling -- going "all over the map" without a clear sense of direction. (The best proposals move forward with ease and grace like a seamless river.)
Too many citation lapses and incorrect references.
Too long or too short.
Failing to follow the APA style.
Slopping writing.
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I'm looking for some suggestions from the expert and experienced people in Deep Learning and Machine Learning fields to write a P.h.D research proposal. I'm thinking of choosing a problem in the medical area!.
If anyone has some examples of the research proposal, share it with me.
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Emotion detection using Audio-Visual data with Deep Learning. Mokhaled N. A. Al-Hamadani
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While I am looking for academic positions in Canada, they are constantly asking for a research proposal in NSERC format. I never had an experience of making a proposal in that format.
Hence, I am requesting the research community here in to share their proposals. If you want to share with me only, please send it as a message. I will keep it confidential.
Any sample of proposal (awarded/non-awarded) in that format will be great help for me to fasten up and amend my proposal. I am very much grateful if someone can share their sample proposals.
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Thanks for your message Priya Dharshana.
I am looking for a sample not for a template.
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I want help for writing research personal statement for PhD in biomedical science(specially Cancer, Immunology and Genetics)
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Hi, bro, as per my expereince, i will suggest you to contact with your supervisor first, for sure he/she will give you some outlines & then according to that university requirments you can write an research proposal. First, find Professor related to your research theme , mail him & tell him that you want to do PhD under his supervision, if he agreed then for sure he will sent you a letter in which he will mention the topic of your research, then you can write an your research proposal.
I hope this will help you. If any other other help is needed, feel free to ask.
Thanks
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Some are against publishing the research protocol as it will challenge the researchers in publishing their main findings after study completion. Dear researchers, please share your thoughts and advice on this?
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Your research proposal is just that: A proposal of how you intend to go about your research. However all research is into the unknown, and factors that you did know at the time of writing the proposal will be uncovered by your research. In practice, nobody seems to publish proposals after the proposed research is over and done with. This is because the proposal is outdated by the research. The final report contains sufficient up-to-date details (including e.g., trade names) of the instruments and procedures actually used.
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How to write an effective research proposal in computer science and engineering so that it has the maximum probability to be selected? What kind of proposal are given more preference? What are the parameter on which a research proposal is evaluated?
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Sudhakar - For writing an effective research proposal for a grant you need to follow certain steps which are common to all subjects whether it is computer science and engineering or sociology 1) Download, read carefully and follow guidelines very strictly, 2) Pick a catchy title among the themes given in guidelines, 3) Write a clear concept note and highlight your objectives very clearly, 4) Cite international and national literature relevant to the title, 5) Highlight the significance of the study and how it will have an impact in the advancement of knowledge or policy making 6) Keep budget as low as possible and don't cross your limits, 7) Present your strong bio-data.
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Currently completing a project as part of studies in Mental health of older patients at the Australian College of Applied Psychology in Sydney Australia
I am currently designing a research proposal and require to quickly secure my document for approval
Urgently looking for a minimum of 6 to 8 qualified therapists who have dealt with older patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder for a qualitative interview and questionaiire
I need to move quickly so if you have had experience in as a therapist I would very interested in talking to you you I have a deadline to secure participants so if you are able to assist please reply as soon as possible
Your assistance in this research will benefit future therapy in the area of treating older patients who have this disorder.
And referrals welcome
My details
Ph 61 434028920
Kind Regards
Gary Darbyshire
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My Proposal date of submission 17th March so I need to confirm opportunity to access and discuss in interview mode before that date.
This will form my major research project for a required component.
Again Thank you.
Gary Darbyshire MMgmt MStratMktng Grad Dip Cou.
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What should be included in a good research proposal?
General Format of a research proposal:
TITLE
Title should give a clear indication of the proposed research.
BACKGROUND
  • the background and issues of proposed research
  • identify the discipline
  • a short literature review
  • a summary of key debates and developments in the field
RESEARCH QUESTION(S)
Formulate these clearly, giving an explanation as to what problems and issues are to be explored and why they are worth exploring.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • the theoretical resources
  • the research approach
  • the research methods appropriate for the proposed research
  • a discussion of advantages
  • limitation of particular approaches and methods
PLAN OF WORK & TIME SCHEDULE
Should include an outline of the various stages and corresponding time lines for developing and implementing the research, including writing up of the thesis.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • a list of references to key articles and texts discussed within your research proposal
  • a selection of sources appropriate to the proposed research.
Need expert opinion about what should include and what should not include in the research proposal???
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State the research goals clearly and then the methodology. State expected outcomes (what you think would be the result) but give it a wide latitude for the possibility that you may find other results than expected and state the conditions under which this would happen. State clearly the resources needed and how much money it is going to cost. Prior to all of that do a thorough literature survey so that there are no surprises from the proposal reviewers.
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I have searched the sources a lot but still want to refine the results. Kindly help me with the following questions:
1. Proper writing methodology
2. Necessary informations to be included in a research proposal
3. Suitable length of a research proposal
Thanks very much! Looking forward to your kind suggestions!
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Muhammed - for my PhD students, I try to set the context of the purpose of the research proposal. It is designed as a piece of summary work to represent what will become the overall thesis. It does not contain the detail of thesis chapters (for obvious reasons) and is different to an ethics submission - which is an even more summarised version of the proposal. A proposal tends to include:
1. Introduction to topic
2. Background literature
3. Aims and objectives - research questions/statements
4. Methodology/framework
5. Methods/design - with the subheadings of sample and setting, data collection, data analysis and ethics
6. Personal interest (this can come earlier)
7. Summary
8. Supplementary information i.e. references, appendices, timeline, resources
Length will vary depending on a few factors i.e. research approach. For instance, a mixed methods study will contain more information as there are several phases to report. I would argue, typically, between 3,000-5,000 words (often the word limit for a journal article) is appropriate. Remember, as well, the target audience. You have to write according to a mixed audience - those with an expert knowledge (reviewers) and those without (lay readers).
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Students' writing thesis and dissertations need to be helped with principles/criteria that makes a thesis of sound quality. Share your views, links and resources. Thanks
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Innovations, theoretical and practical value, creativity and breaking new grounds.
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While drafting a teaching statement what are the Do's & Dont's .How can we be sure about our teaching philosophy and perceptions as to impress our prospective employer. 
While writing down your research statement, what are the limits and where to stop at? 
Please Post your valuable comments ! 
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Here is a blog post that I wrote that you may find helpful. In it I include links to a variety of additional resources, too: How to prepare a teaching dossier https://wp.me/pNAh3-2hu
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I read about the principles of writing proposal and the sections it contains but I would like to read some good examples. So, are there any examples?
Thanks in advance
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You may want to check Keith F. Punch's book entitled Developing Effective Research Proposals published by Sage. The book includes 5 examples of good research proposals in chapter 8. I hope this helps.
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The scale is going to be used in a pre/post test of an intervention for PhD students.
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@Olive McKeown & Margaret Mcallister, I am also interested in this variable as I discover that the students in our research methods class have myriads of challenges in this area. Also, when the time comes to write their dissertations they just want to hurriedly put something down and submit asap. I have also noticed this trend among our postgraduate students. Can this common grounds spur a collaborative research among us? I could be contacted via oyebode_oyetoro@hotmail.com
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My country has a high-stakes multiple-choice exam that everyone should take in order to get admitted to universities. The students who want to study a foreign language should take the general English test, composed of multiple-choice questions in grammar, vocabulary, and reading sections, and get admitted to the most or the least prestigious universities of my country based on their ranks. Now, different studies have shown the negative washback of this test on the instruction of high school English teachers and university preparation courses, indicating that the test leads teachers to overemphasize rote-learning of grammar and vocabulary and not foster development of speaking, listening, and writing, not to mention creativity and critical skills in students. One solution for improving the above condition is to add other language skills to the test. However, objectivity, lack of equipment, and ease of administering a paper-based multiple-choice questions exam to all students (tens of thousands in number) and ease of scoring it are among the reasons why the test format has remained unaltered. More practical and modest reforms are more plausible to be welcomed and implemented.
I believe that addition of a writing section to this test is both practical and can have many beneficial results. It is practical because students can write an essay in the same session of the rest of the test, it doesn’t need any equipment and doesn’t need many interviewers; just a relatively small group of scorers have months for scoring it based on some rubrics. Moreover, it adds a productive skill to the test, making the test have one representative of a receptive skill (i.e. reading) and one of a productive skill (i.e. writing). Academic writing is also an important skill that students need during their college. Most importantly, addition of writing to the test encourages instruction of language production, reasoning, argumentation, and creativity in students.
I aspire to effect a positive change in this test (and in my country), and if the design of my thesis is strong enough, I believe I can do it. I have access to the quantitative data of this test as well.
The problem is that I cannot find any similar work in the literature, and I haven’t been able to think of a powerful research design to make it a compelling thesis proposal. I would really and truly appreciate any suggestions for me in this regard.
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I'm not disagreeing with the view that examinations of this type can impact (negatively) upon the range of skills covered by instructors / teachers and that they encourage a rote learning approach towards vocabulary and grammar and I don't doubt that students would be better served by instruction that has a wider focus, but it seems to me that if what you want is to effect a positive change in the test (and in your country) you do need to conduct some sort of study that examines whether the exam in its current form is failing to prepare students for the rigours of academic life at university. It appears that what you're proposing to do is demonstrate that another form of exam is "better" than the one currently in use and your research may well provide evidence that this is in fact the case, that one exam is better than another. However, I doubt whether this evidence on its own would be sufficient to change the established practice given that suggested changes have previously been declined on grounds of being impractical. If your research is to effect the positive change that you aspire to it does need to address to what extent students are not adequately prepared for university by the exam in its current form and what measures have to be taken by universities to address the ill-preparedness of those students. If you were to obtain evidence of this nature (that students are ill prepared and universities are obliged to offer corrective measures) you could then begin to address how the inadequacies of the exam and the resultant negative consequences might be managed through the adoption of an alternative exam format using the information obtained through the measures you've identified in your second message to propose what that alternative should be.
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I am a postgraduate student working on a research project on relationship between readiness to change and organisational commitment. I am now at the stage of building up my research proposal. Is there anyone can advice how should my research proposal look like and be structured?
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Hi, your pproposal should include the following sections.
*Title of the research project.
*Abstract
*Introduction
*Research context and the background of the study
*Problem statement, key research questions, research aim/objectives and hypotheses/propositions
*Significance of the study
*Identification of the relevant literature (not all, but a few of the key literature)
*Methodology (should include research design, research methods, research plan, data collection, data collection instruments and analytical techniques)
*Timeline of the research projects with key milestones
*Limitations of the study
*References
Hope this would help you.
Kind regards and best of luck with your research
Thushara
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I request simple answer if possible....
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Introduction vs Background
 
Writing a research paper is not an easy job. The writer has to present his findings in such a manner so as to make an interesting reading. This requires giving an introduction as well as background to satisfy the queries of the readers. Many people think of these two vital parts of a document such as a research paper as being same or interchangeable. This article brings out the differences between the introduction and background, as well as their role in making a document compelling for a reader.
Introduction
Introduction is that part of a document that tries to introduce the document in an interesting manner to the reader. Introduction is all about what a reader can expect in the document, in a concise manner. However, the introduction contains all the major points that are actually covered in the document. Introduction has to be presented in such a manner so that it lures the reader into reading the entire document. This is not easy, and an art in itself to compel the reader to pick up the research paper and read it in its entirety. This compares well with the trailer of a movie that picks up highlights of the movie to make it look very interesting for the viewer.
Background
Background of a research paper is written with the intention of clarifying the importance and the necessity of the paper in the first place. Why the study and what the basic purpose behind the study are the major questions that are answered through background that is presented with a research paper. A background is also a tool in the hands of the writer to prepare a reader for the document who is not familiar with the concepts discussed in the paper. Background also tries to prepare a reader to send him finally to read the full document.
It is hard to expect a reader to read the full document without creating a background as to what made the writer prepare the document. Background information is necessary as often a reader is interested in knowing the incidents prior to the research. It is like the foundation stone of a building upon which the entire edifice later stands.
What is the difference between Introduction and Background?
• Both an introduction, as well as, background is necessary and integral parts of a document
• Introduction is like showing a trailer of a movie to entice a reader to go through the entire document
• Background is to make a reader understand the reasons of conducting a study and the incidents leading up to the study.
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I am evaluating a violence reduction strategy and have individual baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow-up data on the same people (obviously drops outs in there as well, so not complete data for all). What is the best statistical approach? I would like to be able to graph changes over time to see if we have a peak, plateau, etc.
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The type of data may be important for how it is plotted. Does each individual have a single score? Are individual scores an average of several measures? Are several measures to be plotted separately?
A good method for visualizing change is to plot the data on a normal probability plot. The data need not be normal. It is the shape of the plot and how it changes with time. You can track indivduals for their position on the plot. You can also see how the distribution metrics change with time.
More details and suggestions are dependent upon the type of data.
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to write research proposal in high performance computing area for my Phd. 
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Reading in general is good, but an important part of original research is, based on knowledge of a field, come up yourself or with some little help with research topics to investigate. An important part of a Ph.D. research is finding the important, relevant, challenging subjects you can develop on, solve, advance.
If you get direct advice from others you can be a technician of some sort, but not a complete researcher!
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I am a Honours student, applying for the masters programme in counselling psychology. I am expected to produce a research proposal for my possible master's thesis. I have decided on doing an exploratory study on knowledge and beliefs, but I can't figure out how to incorporate a theoretical framework which is required in the proposal. Please help.
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Perhaps it would help to narrow things down. Do you want to know to what degree a young person's knowledge about a particular area (which area?) is increased by various amounts of Internet exposure? Theories of learning could be used as frameworks. Do you also want to know whether a young person's beliefs (about what?) are changed by exposure to the Internet? This is more complicated since the person may only expose himself to sites that share his belief. I think the first question would be easier to address.
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Open for all, specially those who are working on Islamic Finance they must help. 
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Dear Sir
Unlike the previous persons, who commented above, I would like to offer a much more comprehensive answer to your question about a topic that is valuable enough to earn you Ph.D. in your area of interest. 
First, let's focus your study on Oman and on Islamic Banking - only. All those ideas to compare traditional and Islamic approaches to financial intermediation are not-so-original (as we hear about it each time someone asks about a research topic in Islamic Finance/Banking) and they go beyond your designated scope (Oman&Islamic banking). 
Second, let's make your Ph.D. meaningful and your results&conclusions applicable for the sake of improving quality of management at Islamic banks. You should think about global impact of your research. Benefits that you may generate for institutions that you are interested in seem to be quite substantial. 
Third, I attach here a paper by a prominent Econometrician (J. Osiewalski) who developed a method for capturing efficiency at banking industry. This is supposed to be a reference for you. I will explain the idea for your Ph.D. in detail below.
Cost efficiency is something that can generate competitive advantage of any business, and Islamic banks are not excluded. 
Scope and coverage of your Ph.D.: Why don't you focus on Islamic banks operating in Oman. Use the method (this Bayesian method is elegant and effective) presented in the attached paper for analyzing cost efficiency of different branches of one Islamic bank in Oman. You need to receive some support from this bank of your choice. If you find it possible, you could extend your coverage to two or more Islamic banks operating in the Sultanate. However, this is perfectly enough to cover all branches of one Islamic bank in Oman, and then study cost efficiency, as presented in the attached paper. 
Think about your local and global impact - when you present your results to top management at this Islamic bank (I don't know which you chose to study). Then, when you are a recognized expert on cost efficiency at Islamic banks - each and every Islamic bank on this planet will ask for your consultancy and you will apply your methodology for the sake of financial intermediation done according to these special rules. 
Find a better idea for a Ph.D. dissertation in Islamic banking and I will buy you 10kg of best Omani Halwa. 
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Hello everybody,
I have the idea that phases in e.g. a research proposal are not linear but sequential. So for instance, problem statement and research method are phase 1 and phase 2, but their relationship is not sequential, but recursive.. so research method makes part of the problem statement, like matryoshka puppets. What consequences does recursion have in this case for both?
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Dear Bob,
A similar model of phases which can be revisited has been devised for the writing process - see Humes, A. (1983) Research on the composing process. Review of Educational Research, 53(2), pp. 201-216.
I recently wrote about the connection between this model and creativity, and how both are involved in the process of creating and writing up mathematics - see: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265058163_Techniques_for_capturing_critical_thinking_in_the_creation_and_composition_of_advanced_mathematical_knowledge
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  There are many published articles titled as inexpensive study. I hope there are points ruled this trend.
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Thanks for all of you for your kindly explanations.
I am just concluding in little paragraph:
·         Inexpensive study would produce quality results and can be more useful in that it investigates vital questions.Heather
·         High costs are not an indicator for high rated research. Charles 
·         It should never be about 'cheapest or easiest' - but far more about 'what is required to achieve what is needed. Dean
·         Most of the inexpensive studies are observational studies. Mohamed
·         Prospective studies required high fund to cover the expenses of the needed procedures, manpower and equipment. Ahmad 
 It is clear that the research output value is the main indicator for the research rate assessment.
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I write my PhD right now in the field of Nordic corporate culture and M&A.
Therefore I would like to run a series of structured interviews across institutions in the Nordic countries. I already looked for funding options of the EU. Normal PhD scholarships are difficult since they are usually only focused on one country. Maybe you have some ideas and suggestions.
Thank you in advance!
/Björn
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Thank you all very much for you suggestions and the congratulations. Yes I will try to apply for some grants from the EU and or the Danish state as well as maybe some banks or advisory firms who might be interested in supporting the M&A concept.
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I need it for a research work on medical claim processes.
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I think searching it on google could help.
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I am finding more and more that graduate students are not fully prepared for presenting their research proposals, with deficiencies mostly in the methodology and literature reviews as well as in their presentation skills. What have been your experiences with students' research proposal preparedness and can you share, if possible, what successes you've had and how you overcame challenges?
Many thanks,
Debra
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Hi
Please see two presentation tips.
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I need some PhD proposals for chemical and biochemical engineering.
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Dear Anand, success has no short cut. There are some basic sections in every research proposal. These are the introduction, the body, the conclusion (may be omitted sometimes), and the list of references.  You should also state clearly your research objectives and research questions. I furnish you some links over here:
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Theoretical physicists and mathematicians often work in areas that may not have any immediate applications in industry or lead to any IP. I am currently in the process of applying for funding but am finding it difficult to explain the potential value of the research other than “it will lead to a better understanding of X which will then allow us to study more about Y”.
I am wondering how others go about describing the potential value of their research to funding agencies when the research might be as described above.
Also how do others justify budget costs when many mathematicians and theoretical physicists sometimes require little more than pen and paper and a few books? In a previous proposal one of the reviewers commented that budget justification was weak saying collaboration and paper writing could be done via Skype…
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Niels, the best way is always to be very specific - you hardly can raise funds for broad or general purposes. Draft a full-fledged Business Plan describing precisely the 'issue to solve', the steps thatneed to be taken to get there, the operating etc. environment, and the yield (or 'return on investment'). I have helped raise funds in my day, let me know if I can possibly help.
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As a law researcher, I always have the feeling that these three are the same. Therefore, I want to learn from your experiences in this area of research. The concise answers and comments here will be of immense help to novice and up coming scholars.
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A "literature review" should cover all of the scientific literature in a field that is defined by the author. Much of this is usually achieved by reference to previous reviews. By doing this, it is not necessary to review all of the past literature, but all studies that have been published since the most recent thorough review should be included. The amount and quality of analysis in a review may vary from little (i.e. a mostly descriptive review) to a lot (i.e. an analytical review).
A theoretical analysis would only include reference to those works that are necessary for the analysis (although subjectively omitting works that may run counter to the analysis is not acceptable in a scientific work). The analysis should be rigorous.
A conceptual analysis may be the same as a theoretical analysis, but this category allows for more flexibility and less rigour. In essence, it's the first step in analyzing an idea and may be floated for the purpose of stimulating feedback.
These publication categories overlap (they are not mutually exclusive) and journal editors may define them in their own distinctive ways.
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Can RQs and Hypotheses be included in the research proposals simultaneously? Can a hypothesis be developed in exploratory studies?
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Aftab, Agreed, success or failure of a study has nothing to do with whether the study was designed correctly, which is what you should be learning with an advanced degree. Not all studies find what we want them too. Failure teaches us just as much as success.
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I am working on two research proposals and I would like to elaborate a checklist for grant proposal, for economics and management (it could also be other disciplines, given that some I am thinking of interdisciplinary focus).
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Always follow the instructions to applicants (e.g. how long the proposal should be, how many of your own / your research group's articles you should cite, which additional files you should upload etc.: if you do not do this, your application may be rejected). It can be also a good idea to read the instructions for reviewers if these are available: then you will understand which aspects are considered to be more important (e.g. the principal investigator's CV or the practical value of the project) and then you can strengthen some parts of your proposal if necessary. Also, if possible, try to read some proposals that were successful last year: this may give you some additional ideas.
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I don't know how to write a research proposal. I want to write a research proposal based on cancer biology. So please help me write a research proposal.
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Dear Ritu,
Your starting point is to find a suitable funding source and then to read all their background documentation and instructions on what is needed for a research proposal. Research excellence is usually high on the list of evaluation criteria, so you need to ensure that the research you propose is internationally competitive. Most research is now collaborative, so you will probably need to identify suitable partners to share the research activities. ... the list of what you need to do to get a proposal funded is long and will depend on many factors, the majority of which can not be identified easily in a forum such as this.
I have a YouTube clip on proposal writing that you may find useful: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jSQU-_tdA4. I also have a pdf document accessible at "https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Steve_Quarrie/contributions/?ev=prf_act" that may give some help. I should also say that many other documents and many other YouTube clips are available on the subject of writing project proposals, and a little searching with key words, as suggested above, will locate them.
At least this should be a starting point for you.
All the best with your endeavours.
Steve
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I am writing my phd proposal for neuropharmacology.
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Please suggest how to write research proposal for Phd in Finance.
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For the beginning, I suggest Chapter „Conducting Empirical Research or Doing a Project or Disertation in Finance” from Brooks, Chris, Introductory Econometrics for Finance, Cambridge University Press, 2008 or more recent editions.