Science method

Research Methods - Science method

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Drainage ditches are useful for draining out excess surface as well as subsurface runoff. Other than this suggest the measures, research, methods, techniques, etc.
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It is true the USA in the past as well as many other countries have used drainage ditches, tiles and other practices to drain lands, and many of these were basically wetland conversion. USA and probably some other countries have limits and compensatory mitigation plans if wetlands have to be drained, filled or otherwise converted. It is not always obvious that wetlands may offer unique habitats, and serve to accumulate and store organics, which helps bind carbon. Wetlands can be identified with soil, plant and hydrology indicators such as those published by the US Corps of Engineers in their Manual (1987) and other adjustment advice since then. But some select plants and trees do well in wetlands, but may not meet the specific desires for commercial crops. It might be worthwhile to consult your local wildlife and botanical specialists to get their opinion. Wetland also help promote water quality and other benefits in some circumstances, but some may have other items that could present problems to landowners.
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I need a complete thesis based on CASE STUDY METHOD.
Research should be carried out in multiple organizations.
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Robert Yin's book on case studies specializes in comparative analysis and it contains a number of detailed example.
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I have a question concerning how to classify this research approach. Let me give you the context:
A couple of colleagues and I found that a particular topic was showing itself to be particular tricky to teach in a classroom environment, thus we spent last year collecting literature on the topic and end up developing a theoretical framework for how to address the issue. We now plan to test our framework by implementing it in an undergrad classroom course that one of us is teaching.
Now here is the thing, we come from a social science background, and we intend to initially approach this effort qualitatively (through observation and semi structured interviews with participants). Thus, my initial reaction would be, from a methodological standpoint, to maybe call this a case study (see Yin, Merriam, Stake, etc.). However, considering that the person implementing the framework (and teaching the course) is also one of the researchers who developed it, can this still be called a case study? Or should it be considered something else? I've heard people suggest Action Research, Participatory Research, or event "a participant observer Case Study" but I'm not quite sure if this is quite it as well.
Any help would be appreciated, thank you.
Obs.: we are well aware of potential bias, and depending on the results of this first phase we then might, later on, run this again, this time as a more controlled experiment, comparing the framework version classroom outcomes’, against the ones from a "non-framework" one.
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Is case study a methodology? Robert Stake (1998) argues: "As a form of research, case study is defined by interest in individual cases, not by the methods of inquiry used". I find it enlightening to regard case study methodology as a meta-methodology; the methodological recommendation is to combine the methodologies which are useful in the light of the issue at stake. A methodology is a recommendation to rely on certain data collection methods, methods to analyze and apply specific quality criteria. Action research procedures and purposes, Grounded Theory methodology, Hypothesis-testing approach (Yin) are examples of methodologies which can be used, alone or in combination, in a case study. In short: (1) Case study methodology is a combined methodology: a meta-methodology, (2) object of the study is a case, (3) triangulation is an overarching quality criterium, (4) a purposeful sampling procedure is used to select the case(s). As a consequence: in research it is more important to make clear how it is done, rather than what it is.
Best wishes
Rolf
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Evaluation for epistemological and ontological differences between different research methodologies and
Evaluate the strength and weakness of variety of business and management research methods
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To study this topic, I think that the comparative research method is useful in these topics
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How many coders are needed for Thematic Analysis: Pilot Qualitative Study?
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I am conducting a hierarchical regression with 4 IVs: anxious attachment score, avoidant attachment score, trauma score and gender.
I wanted to test interactions which gave me 6 1x1 interactions, 4 1x1x1 interactions and 1 1x1x1x1 interaction, giving me 4 steps/models.
When I ran this through SPSS the 1x1x1x1 interaction along with several others was included in 'excluded variables'. When I ran the regression with step 3 and 4 combined (so only 3 steps overall) the 1x1x1x1 interaction was not excluded, but I feel like I shouldn't run it this way (although I'm not sure why, it just doesn't feel quite right).
If I use the initial regression with 4 steps, how do I report the excluded variables? Or would I just not include those in the analysis? I don't want to completely exclude my 1x1x1x1 interaction as that is the one I thought I would be most interested in.
My dissertation is due in around 10 days so my brain has melted a bit and I'm not sure if I'm just being silly here. But I have reached the point where these numbers just look like nonsense to me and I am concerned that I will miss a trick and report completely incorrect data and lose a lot of marks for my results section. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
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If I understand you are interested in interactions wouldn't a factorial design clean this up a lot. Just throwing stuff in is not a good experimental design. Best wishes David Booth
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I am trying to find a good source book of qualitative research methods includes wide ranges of qualitative research methods and techniques not research epistemology or ontology. most of qualitative research books focus on the ontology or epistemology.
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The book by Creswell and Poth (2018) could come in handy. Below is the full citation.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C., N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). SAGE Publications. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/qualitative-inquiry-and-research-design/book246896
Good luck
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I used up almost 18 years to answer this hard question. Perhaps my new paper might give some hints. Any golden advice from experts in research paradigms and methodology?
Kwok, P. L. Y. (2022). A social cartographic mapping of research paradigms: Opening up space for new directions. Asian Qualitative Inquiry Journal, 1(1), 1-15.
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I may be the first academic to use social cartography to map four traditional research paradigms in social and educational research.
If you look at my postmodern thoughts in the paper, you might find that decentering the lens of paradigms, we will find some connection points and re-orientations for comparing or placing four paradigms into some social cartographs.
As a historian of research paradigms in social and educational research, I raise further research questions are as follows:
1. What are the main axiological issues or key axiological features of the four traditional research paradigms when they are in comparison? Can we conceptualize their relationships among those features in some social cartographs or other alternatives?
2. What are the basic logial rules governing the four research paradigms throughout the process of uncovering them using social cartographs or other alternatives? To what extent can we construct the conceptual notion of 'cross-paradigm triangulation' with logical consistency? [c.f. Denzin devises the notions of cross-person/cross-data/cross-perspective/-cross-theory triangulation based on logical consistency.]
3. Could we have different results on natural science research using similar social cartographic methods of mapping the four paradigms or other alternatives?
I tend to answer the first and second research questions in social and ethical research in some upcoming international journal papers and refereed international conference proceedings in research methodology and methods. I leave the third one to other top-rank scientists or science researchers who have tremendous research interests in my research project as I cannot extend my discussion into science fields due to limitations of personal knowledge in empirical contexts.
Please help circulate my paper to any interested international colleagues you are familiar with. I look for fruitful answers to the above questions and / or co-research works in future.
From an ignorant Percy KWOK
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Ethno-botanical research work is the mostly carried out research that helps us to identify any plants part used in rural people life . But, what about the effective and efficient research methods ?
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Documentation of ethnobotanical data is very important but if you can make practical implementation of any important use, then that would be great. Give benifit to the persons from whom you collected the data
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I have a question . we want to do the research about the comparing two Countries about education system .and we just collect data from the website of organization and books .But I don't find the research Methods for that. it is my first research to do the qualitative methods.
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Thanks, Fahimeh Hassani for the excellent question and professors for the valuable answers.
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Hi all,
I would appreciate your help. I am writing my thesis based on a case study for which I had the chance to visit the place and also be part of a stakeholder dialogue event. My question is related to: how can I include this in my methodology part and also in the finding sections?
Any help is appreciated :)
#qualitativeresearch #stakeholderdialogue #methods
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Sounds like grounded theory. Bernard Glaser stated: "All data is data." Observations are another piece of qualitative data which should be analyzed and presented in the results. Right now, consider methods of validity/reliability, if saturation is applicable, and triangulation.
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I would be interested in what you see as the advantages and disadvantages of mixed-methods research in the social sciences. Do you do research with a mixture or combination of e.g. qualitative and quantitative research? Do you combine different quantitative or qualitative methods?
What challenges do you face (e.g., sampling, implementation, scope) and where do you see the limitations of the combination?
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Hi
I'm looking for a tool Tool for operationalizing variables into indicators into questions to be used in a questionnaire? This tool could be a directory, search engine etc...
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Here's the background story
I need a questionnaire for an impact evaluation of a school (the variables include creativity, loyalty, job prospects). The test sample are about 150-300 alumni of the school. The school sample are alumni of other schools .
This is a new task for me so would appreciate some tips/ideas/resources on how to address it. The budget for this task is not high so we're not expecting super accuracy.
In order to create this questionnaire, I can :
1- Find a previous questionnaire for a similar study (impact of a school on values, attitudes, etc.. )
2- Choosing a couple of item questions from a group of questionnaires from already established scales/measures or previous studies (mix and match exercise).
3- Converting each variable into an indicator and each indicator into a question or two, but there has to be a precedent in the literature for this. For example, if I want to operationalize creativity by the strangeness of thoughts I have per day and the question as
: How often do you have strange thoughts per day?, then I need to point to a study that has done the same. (perhaps there's a tool or resources for this)
I appreciate your thoughts.
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I have identified numerous barriers to the transition to circular economy from literature and I want to quantify the identified barriers
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Dear Seun Bello,
In my opinion, significant research methods and quantitative data analysis in the area of ​​the analysis of the determinants of the pro-environmental transformation of the economy towards a sustainable, green, emission-free circular economy can be statistical analyzes of data collected and published by national statistics institutions, quantitative data from surveys and Big Data Analytics carried out as part of the sentiment analysis of data collected from entries, comments, posts, etc. posted on social media websites. I have described the methods of this analysis in some publications that I have posted on my profile of this Research Gate portal.
Best regards,
Dariusz
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Hi, I am writing a project on the impact of COVID 19 on consumer buying behaviour and initially i was going to use a qualitative research method coupled with a secondary data collection but i noticed from most of the available research online, scholars have used various methods such as quantitative, mixed method etc to approach their objectives. What i would like to know pls is what is the best research method to approach my topic, should i use a systematic literature review and do i necessarily need a peer group to carry on with this, if so what are the best alternative option available. A reply will be much appreciated as i have a limited time to carry out this research
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Here, the answer is mainly focused on the literature search what is commonly called literature review that can be used by the most of the researchers in the world.
Both Qualitative or Qualitative research need the proper literature review for the particular research undertaken by the researchers.
The peer review is the process of checking or selecting the most appropriate literatures are mainly pertaining to the research titles.
The researchers have never considered the peer review process while doing research. It is the duty of the publication office to monitor those mistakes before publication.
AA
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I am currently teaching a subject, which we call Research Practice, to Y10 students. In the classes, we study how to write a research plan, how to organize references, and how to conduct research, among others.
Is there anyone with this kind of experience with secondary education students? Do you know any articles or other sources about this topic?
Thank you for your attention and collaboration,
Fernando Cunha
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Dear Fernando Rezende da Cunha Junior,
There are many books on Research Methods. A good number of articles are also there in Research Gate. You could find them browsing internet.
You can also search the following link:
Thank you.
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I have been trying to understand research paradigms (neo- positivism, interpretivism/social construction and critical realism) for a few days now, and I've been reading a number of resources, primarily Blaikie and priest's Social research: Paradigms in action (2017), and Tracy's Qualitative research method. In Blaikie and priest, they say that paradigms are used at the level of explanation, but when I read Tracy's work, I get the impression that paradigms come into play at the level of description as well. These various descriptions creates more confusion for me. At what level of research do these paradigms come into play?
In addition to this, I have been reading many articles that does no seem to follow the descriptions of the paradigms strictly. Are there some researches that don't usually follow?
In light of these two, do you think that survey research follows these paradigms?
Looking forward to reading your views and thought.
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Nice question and answers. All the best
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why the researchers used these method?
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In a nut shell agree with Dr Sathish Kumar. A systematic review is a detailed, systematic and transparent means of gathering, appraising and synthesisingevidence to answer a well-defined question. While meta-analysis is a statistical procedure for combining numerical data from multiple separate studies. While there is substantial overlap between the two they are not the same. A meta-analysis should only be conducted in the context of a systematic review.
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Hello!
For my research methods class, we are working on a replication plus extension of Vohs's 2006 study, "The Psychological Consequences of Money." We are attempting to identify problems in the paper, one of them being the impact of culture on participant behavior. Does anyone happen to know any paper on the subject? Perhaps studying the impact of cultural background on the alterations in behavior from money primes, or the impact of cultural background on sociability. If anyone happens to know any papers highlighting any problem in the original paper, it would be much appreciated.
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Hello everyone,
I need some guidance on choosing a good method for my master's thesis (we are really struggling, thank you in advance!!). Shortly described, we want to analyze the impact/effectiveness of a particular strategic framework on the sustainability performance of businesses that have used it. Basically, we will ask some questions to the companies that used it, ask when they implemented it, how long they used it, who was assigned for the implementation (middle or upper management), if they hired a consultant or not, etc.
Then, we will go into their sustainability reports and see how certain indicators changed after the implementation and over time (CO2 emissions, water usage, energy usage, etc.).
We will combine the data from both approaches to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of the framework to make businesses more sustainable.
I think that because we will use quali + quanti data, the research type is mixed (right?).
With that said, we are having a hard time defining what "research approach and research method" we are going to use. Especially for the qualitative part. I come from an engineering background and there I did not have to establish my "epistemological and theoretical assumptions" (This would be the research approach. The research method would be something like "thematic analysis". If I understood correctly.)
So here I am asking for help. Any guidance would be highly appreciated.
thank you!
PD: Should we also incorporate into the study a control group? (a set of companies that did not use the particular strategic framework)
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It sounds to me like both your components are quantitative because they rely on descriptive measurements of pre-defined variables. In contrast, qualitative data would usually consist of more open ended interviews that would focus on issues like meaning and would use a more interpretative approach. Instead, I would think of this as a "multi-method" design with two quantitative sections.
One key issue that you are going to face is sample size. If you plan to do statistical analyses, you will need a large N (well over 100). Otherwise, you could select several particularly interesting firms for a series of case studies.
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Given the progress made in the applications of decision-making, optimal planning, and the use of operations research methods, in your opinion, what are the areas of application of operations research in the security and military aspect
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According to Fox et al. (2019) "Applications of Operations Research and Management Science for Military Decision Making," key elements for OAR applications: the formulation process, the solution process, the interpretation of the mathematical answer in context of the actual problem, and the sensitivity analysis. In my opinion there could be two questions to follow up on this: "Did you find appropriate techniques to obtain a solution?" If not, try optional techniques. Another question: "Did you over simplify the process?"
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Investigating the impact of one variable to the other in educational studies
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You can use covariance-based software such as AMOS and variance-based software such as PLS.
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Our lab is conducting a research project about Asian-American families. We are investigating Asian-American families' well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically, their experience of racial discrimination, their parent-child relationships, and their children's development. So far we manage to contact churches, organizations, and school communities, but we still need more Philippine and Korean teenagers (12-18 years old) and parents to participate. Any suggestions to help us recruit? I appreciate your help.
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One way is to go through the schools. A common approach is to reach out to the superintendent of the district with your IRB approval, summary of study, and that you are seeking support/permission. Once granted, you would then reach out to individual principals of schools in those districts to get their support. At that point, you provide the students at the school where you have support an informed consent and permission letter to take home for parents. If the parent consents, you may even schedule a call to address any questions or concerns they might have. Once you have consent, you then can proceed. Good luck.
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One of the most valuable pieces that contribute to psychology is research. Research helps us elucidate the why and how, of theories used to understand human behavior. There are several types of research methods in psychology, some methods include Experimental, Survey, Correlational & Archival Research. These methods involve testing variables, which are known as behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way. When conducting research, some test may be repeated using different research methods. According to Dr. Saul McLeod of Simply Psychology "if a measurement is repeated and the same result is obtained then it is described as being reliable." Therefore, to ensure they obtain reliable and accurate results, a scientist may use various types of research methods.
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Samantha Green, from what you have written in your question (much of which seems to be a bit of a jumble but also a mini lecture about things that are common, and very basic, knowledge), I suggest you try to examine the difference between replication in research versus test-retest reliability.
I hope that's helpful.
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I am looking for information and various methods on displaying trade-offs between different systems by using indicators and related data.
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Dear Stefanie,
As far as I understood your question, a commonly used approach to analyse the trade-offs between systems is Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), one of the decision support systems used to select a course of action that explicitly accounts for the targeted ecosystem services by setting criteria.
Musse.
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Dear fellow researchers, I would like to design an experiment related to relationships and bonding, which involves measuring the level of oxytocin in humans. So, could you please share the best way to measure the oxytocin level? Is there any Neuroimaging for measuring hormones level? Thank you very much!
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Here's a nice paper on ways to measure oxytocin levels in humans: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-17674-7
Unfortunately, it doesn't appear as if you can image oxytocin using MRS (which has pretty poor spatial and temporal resolution anyway) or any other neuroimaging measures as far as I can tell.
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I am seeking a very good free online source for 'Research Methods' please (for qualitative and quantitative). Your assistance in finding out such a source would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you
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A good free source is: Bhattacherjee, A. 2012. Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. USF Tampa Bay: Florida. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=oa_textbooks
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What are the steps in scientific Research process Which can be Automated and How?
One can answer according to your specific Discipline/Subject Area of Research.
Generally automation is used to avoid repetitive manual tasks in any Industry.
If you think this question can be framed better, kindly suggest.
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You can use AI/ML algorithms to automate parts of your research, do to that you have to have a passion to use research methodologies (a systematic and directing approach which leads you to get answer for your hypothesis/objectives) accordingly with research questions. It mus be scientific also, You can then apply AI/ML/DL approaches in that steps.
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Foresters usualy use a clinometer to calculate the tree height. These can be quite expensive to buy, but I don't know if using smartphone apps is accurate enough for measure canopy height. Do you recommends using automatic clinometer apps for field research ?
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I was using "Smart Measure version 1.7.7" for measuring height of trees planted along streets within settlements. I am moderately satisfied with the precision. I found the optimal distance to carry out the measurements from a distance about 2-4 times of the tree height. In most cases, however, I was not able to measure from the optimal distance because buildings, parked cars, etc. made it impossible.
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I have a question about normalisation of results on composite indicator.
I am not sure is it methodologically sound to normalise result on a composite indicator?
The situation is as follows.
I have a composite indicator of civic competence and for getting composite score different scales with respective weighting are used.
My dilemma is this: should every scale be normalised and then composite indicator score calculated or it is alright to normalise only results on composite indicator?
Thanks everyone in advance
Ivan
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Creating a z score will result in a mean of zero and a SD of 1, but skewness will still be there and one skewed input variable (or indeed one with outliers) can have a big effect on the composite variable. You may be happy with this; if not then you could do a transformation that produces a more symmetric distribution and has mean of zero and SD of 1 - see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rankit and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_probability_plot
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The Effect of the Black Arts Movement on the Evolution ot Black Identity by Njeri Williams?
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I will encourage you to apply interpretive approach.
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Any recommendations for a good "Research Methods" textbook suitable for Geography undergraduates? Which textbooks do you like? Or any recommendations for open source online research methods textbooks?
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There are a number of excellent references. Take for example:
Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2011, 7th edn.). Research Methods in Education (7th edn.), London: Routledge
Connolly, P. (2007). Quantitative Data Analysis in Education: a Critical Introduction Using SPSS, London; New York: Routledge.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th edn.), Boston: Pearson.
Creswell, J. W. (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and mixed methods Approach. Los Angeles, Calif; London: Sage
Denscombe, M. (2014). The Good Research Guide: For Small Scare Social Research Projects (5th edn). McGraw-Hill.
Morgan, D. L. & Nica, A. (2020). Iterative Thematic Inquiry: A New Method for Analyzing Qualitative Data. (2020). International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 19, 1-11.
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My dissertation is on analysing particular processes/technology for the specific field and my suggestions for improvement.
  • What are the challenges if my study uses a descriptive research approach through a narrative review using thematic analysis?
  • Does it come under a theoretical or conceptual framework?
  • Any suggestion on alternative research methods that can be done in a short time?
N.B. I am new to research and sorry if I mentioned anything wrong.
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secondary sources become important if the study contribute to previous literature. It all depends on your research questions or objectives.
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The question is about contributions of research methods that help to unravel or tackle social or political issues in Ghana
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You are looking at the wrong end of the telescope. What are the research questions that you are trying to answer? Given that, what are the appropriate methods?
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Pandemic has a huge impact on everything including human, organizations and government policies. If a research is designed before the on going pandemic it was assumed that when the data would be collected the usual business would be the same, however, it has been changed enormously affecting the normality. Would a model constructed before the pandemic will still be relevant, explaining the variation. Or it requires a different model incorporating the pandemic factor to better explain the variation?
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Data collection will be straightforward even for business research, as most people, customers, and managers are using online resources. Also, people are more familiar with the onoline tools, hence a higher chance to participate in survays, discussion, etc. The cost is also going to be reduced and from the participant perspective, most of the participants feel free to attend any meeting as they need not worry about the things they faced during a physical meeting
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Dear All,
I have created a mind map of a literature review on How Ontology, Epistemology And Axiology Relate To Develop New Knowledge Through Research Methodology And Research Design.
I want critical comments on my thoughts.
The outline of the finding is as follows and you can follow the above link for a more clear image.
Thank you
Please refer following links of ideas and make critics;
· I found that any research needs to add new knowledge
· That knowledge is resulted from answering a question/s or/and finding a solution/s
· Each problem or solution has its ontology, epistemology, and axiology
· The ontology, epistemology and axiology collectively form a research philosophy while those influence developing research questions or hypotheses or a mix of both regarding the problem or solution.
· As the research philosophy and questions/hypothesis origin from the same sources to both should be conceptually related to each other.
· Then research design is formulated to answer those research questions or hypotheses or a mix of both
· same time the research methodology is underpinning the particular research’s ontology, epistemology, axiology and philosophy continues
· Then research design and research methodology both make the selection of approach in theory development. As well, research design and research methodology make and formulate the rest of the steps in the research.
· After that, the steps are clear. However, the selections of methodological choices, strategies, data collection techniques and analysis techniques are interrelated decisions.
· Finally, all these activities resulted in new knowledge
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They are interrelated somehow.
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I am of the opinion that ACSM's Research Methods is one of the best books in this field and is a must-read.
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I would agree with your view. I do think, however, it depends on the level of the student and the intent of the program. I have used it within our graduate level Exercise Science program where students are required to do research and strongly encouraged to publish.
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The anti-establishment ethos of New Historicism wasprofoundly influenced by Foucault's theories of Power/Knowledge and Discourse. what does new historicism owe to foucault?
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The anti-establishment ethos of New Historicism was profoundly influenced by Foucault's theories of Power/Knowledge and Discourse. His primary concern has been with power's relationship to the discursive formations in society that make knowledge.
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Hi,
I came across to a relatively new theoretical frame work in Political science. I want to see how researchers are actually using it in their research.
Where are the main databases where I can see examples of the framework usage? I already tried cited papers in Google Scholar and ScienceDirect but the results weren’t enough.
Can you suggest other online search engines or databases?
Thanks in advance.
Regards,
Ehssan
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The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating.
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The strengths of a systematic review include a high level of evidence, avoidance of bias, a thorough search, and in addition these are probably more easily accepted for publication. Narrative reviews can address broad topics, and appear more flexible to conduct. If a meta-analysis is not planned, how would one choose between a narrative and systematic review format?
My guess is that for a relatively unexplored topic, or subject with little research, it wouldn’t make as much sense to use the systematic format considering little results will be found and/or synthesized. I have learned from and referenced narrative reviews that were conducted relatively rigorously. However, it seems that the trend is to conduct systematic reviews whenever possible. What do you think?
For further reading:
Franco, Juan Víctor Ariel, et al. "Syntheses of biomedical information: narrative reviews, systematic reviews and emerging formats." Medwave 18.07 (2018).
Rother, Edna Terezinha. "Systematic literature review X narrative review." (2007): v-vi.
Greenhalgh, Trisha, Sally Thorne, and Kirsti Malterud. "Time to challenge the spurious hierarchy of systematic over narrative reviews?." European journal of clinical investigation 48.6 (2018).
Thorne, Sally. "Rediscovering the “Narrative” review." (2018): e12257.
Pae, Chi-Un. "Why systematic review rather than narrative review?." Psychiatry investigation 12.3 (2015): 417.
Thanks,
Rob
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Dear @Robert Trager you already mentioned narrative review is flexible. In addition, unlike systematic review, narrative review can be done by a single author. In my view, if you have resources and collaborators go for systematic review.
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[Relatively new to research methods here, so hoping to get some guidance]
Hi,
As mentioned, I have 1 reference intervention, and 1 'novel' intervention, and I intend to have a between-groups approach to test them out. One group gets the reference, one group the novel.
I believe (and hope!) that the novel intervention is better. My questions, and these relate to research design are:
1. Is there still value in having a control where I do no intervention at all? (and then comparing all pairwise combinations)
2. And if I test pairwise combinations across 3 groups, e.g. Control vs Reference, Control vs Novel, it seems like I'm doing tests on the same data. Does my false positive rate increase as a result and I need to do some kind of adjustments e.g. Bonferroni corrections?
3. Can I still do two-tailed tests to account for the possibility that the reverse effect can happen? (i.e. novel intervention ends up going totally off)
Thanks
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2. Planned contrasts within ANOVA was what I was thinking. MANOVA usually doesn't match well onto the research questions.
3. By one v two tailed in ANOVA, the norm is to look for only differences among the means greater than expected by chance, so big Fs correspond with low p values. But if you mean should you look for shifts the means in any direction, I'd say yes. In that sense I don't think one-tailed tests should often be done.
I should add, the analysis will depend on what the interventions are also. I was imagining intervention 1 was doing X and intervention 2 was doing X+Y.
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Dear All
Can you please, write some SSCI, SCI, and ESCI indexed journals which also CHARGE for publication? Number of issue per year and publication charges does not matter.
I really appreciate your suggestions.
Regards
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Generally, Paid Journals are not of good quality Index. However, I am providing list of publishers publish both paid and free but are of good Indexing
1. Elsevier
2. Taylor and Francis
3. Springer
4. Hindawi
5. Willey
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Psychology, as a science that seeks to know the behavior (in the broad sense) of the human being, should it be limited to a single research method? Are theoretical studies valid for the establishment of conceptual frames of reference and the design of constructs? Why are few publications dealing with these investigations? Is it a "pre-judgment" or a "scientific requirement"?
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Hello Dear
In literary criticism, I would recommend the integral approach which means using different approaches wherever it is needed. These approaches include the psychological, historical, political, social etc. Best regards.
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If you were designing a consulting course from scratch for business students, what would you include? Why?
To what extent would it differ from a research methods course?
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In Research Methods, the focus is on the traditional research process and the methods used. In the consulting process, one of the major concerns is the need of the stakeholders- the clients. Usually, the method used is that of action research as differentiated from traditional research. You need to differentiate too the role of the management consultant from the organization development consultant. The process is different since there is entry and contracting, diagnosis and feedback, implementation of interventions, evaluation and institutionalizing the change effort. Consulting can be a one time thing focused or limited to a specific intervention, but the OD work is concerned with the whole process.
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I'm looking for "interventions" to be used as a framework to teach research methods.
a) Quick to apply / have an immediate effect
b) Can be blinded easily
c) Related to the field of physiotherapy / rehabilitation medicine
d) Are ethical
For example, effect caffeinated versus de-caffeinated coffee on hand grip strength.
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Don’t know if this is quite precise, but try:
1) group A is told they are receiving tuning fork to assess avulsion fracture recovery or screen for bone mineral density and effect on testostrtone levels and workout parameters.
-ice the bottom in placebo patients so the sensation is noticeable. Schedule 8:00-8:45 80% resistance training and draw labs at T+45 mins.
2-Consider group not given info tuning fork predicts higher post workout testosterone. Schedule workouts for later in day.
for blinded:
1) group given 3-5000% biotin and told it’s a healing agent promoting testosterone signaling joint repair when used with home exercises. . Send to lab with biotin interference. Levels will be artificially high - does belief testosterone levels are high make patient more functional in outcome and compliant with home therapy?
2) same B pill but use lactose or inert ingredients and rub same labs eith same instructions. Is the inference from normal ranges despite knowledge novel therapy pill revealed no genetic predisposition to enhanced joint repair in the ansence of biotin inference?
3. patients rate their home compliance at initial session and told they are strong indicstors of consistent home exercises improvs outcomes.
vs.
same survey but patients told nothing.
-outcome from self reported adherence better?
-healing endpoints different?
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I'm trying to get a good summary of the main types of architectural research, and the motivations for using each type? any help?
To clearly set up the methodological approach for my new research ...
I rely upon:
(Linking design with research)...
The research as a base for the design
I'm actually trying to use the explanations of the book "Architectural Research Methods" by
Linda Groat and David Wang
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Hello Nadine Al-bqour,
You can also try to read
'Research Methods for the Architectural Profession' by Ajla Aksamija
publisher: Taylor and Francis
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Recently I have learned how to develop Augmented Reality (AR) and i was wondering if I can use it in my researches. Is this a valid research method to use AR instead of Pictures in order to study Visual Preferences?
Is there any research that have used this method?
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You might look into marketing research regarding AR, as a fair amount of work has been done comparing AR to traditional media (i.e. AR vs images) and some of it relates to preferences. Here is one example, which may be a little off the topic, but there are probably many useful pieces of research out there in this space:
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Question related to the research methods
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@David Eugene Booth most likely they don't read and care about this kind of works) This is not a new phenomenon. They let us to live)
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I'm a Masters Public Policy student. The question is related to the course on Research Methods where we've been instructed to write a critical review of three articles that pertain to the main research question. In reviewing the three articles I selected, I note a few glaring gaps, which the authors themselves do not address. Therefore, my question is can I/should I cite other literature in order to back-up my observations of these gaps??
Thanks for any guidance.
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All the literature relevant to your research should be cited. The literature review should include all the relevant research that describes similar or contrasting findings. You can definitely cite other literature to back up your observations.
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Any Recommendations on Textbooks for Teaching Research Methods in Information Systems?
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There are textbooks that focus specifically on methods for researching information systems, including:
Ronald King (2012) Research Methods for Information Systems, and
Williamson & Johanson (2018) Research Methods: Information, Systems & Contexts.
However, I would encourage you to introduce the 'bigger picture' (such as the research landscape in the attached diagram) before presenting specific methods.
Textbook material should also be supplemented and updated with recent journal articles that present the state-of-the-art for specific methods. These include:
Davison et al. (2021) Improving action research by integrating methods, Journal of the Association of Information Systems.
Hair et al. (2017) An updated and expanded assessment of PLS-SEM in information systems research, Industrial Management & Data Systems.
Venkatesh, V (2013) Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Guidelines for conducting mixed methods research in information systems, MIS Quarterly.
Wiesche et al. (2017) Grounded theory methodology in information systems research, MIS Quarterly.
Cheers!
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This may sound like a chicken and egg problem as new questions are usually based on previous answers. In my understanding, nowadays that many answers could be found via simple googling, asking (novel and good) questions are more important as they could hardly be generated by artificial intelligence. On the other hand, providing useful answers to such questions is challenging as well. What is your opinion?
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A challenging Q / A can lead to an interesting A / Q in response.
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Qualitative content analysis is a well-known analysis method in qualitative research. However, it was noted that some researchers use this as a research design. Is it appropriate to use as a research design? The same study it uses as an analysis method too. Kindly clarify.......
Can we use the qualitative content analysis method as a research method/design?
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Research design is a theoretical and procedural plan a scholar follows to address their study question(s). A method is a technique or strategy they employ to fulfill their investigation plan. In other words, a method is part of a research design. That being put into perspective, qualitative content analysis is a method/approach/technique used within the qualitative research design. You could go through the following for in-depth inputs.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). SAGE. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/research-design/book255675
Selvi, A. F. (2020). Qualitative content analysis. In J. McKinley & H. Rose (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Applied Linguistics (1st ed., pp. 440–452). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367824471-37
Good luck,
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I am conceptualising research into the impact of renewable energy consumption on green economic development. Various studies have adopted various approaches. What is most interesting that most if not all studies in this area relied on GDP as a measure of economic growth. GDP does not consider environmental and social issues that currently affect us.....What do you recommend?
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I agree with you, I had already concluded to adopt the same approach, I am now trying to think ways of enriching the study by adding a primary research as well. While it is all well and good to measure GDP per capita, it omits serious issues like economic activities that take place in remote areas, subjectively, one has to ask whose income? Renewable energy in Africa should have social economic impact particularly in places and local economies that operate in the margins of mainstream economy or urban areas. We should be talking increase in economic opportunities for the people whose economy was nonexistent, we should be talking entrepreneurship and innovation that has emerged as as result of renewable energy or electrification...............GDP can be distorting in a sense that can increase because of the improved productivity amongst the same old firms that depended on coal energy. Now, that for new is a problem. What are your thoughts
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If you were designing a qualitative research methods course from scratch for business students, what topics would you include? Why?
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The course must also include a software component for analysis, like MAXQDA or NVivo or even Excel. Many course designers miss this but a course should introduce basics of a s/w for analysis so students can use and later learn the advanced techniques of it on their own.
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I often read research articles that do not appropriate describe the sampling procedure. For example, the authors mention that the sampling was accidental or purposive but they don’t explain why they had only 10 participants or they say that the sampling was theoretical and describe the a priori established socio-demographic characteristics of their subjects.
I think that the sampling procedure is one of the most important elements of a research. I think that the research should be evaluated according to this procedure and I think that many pieces of research should be rejected because of sampling not being appropriate.
Please help me to clarify this and correct me if I am wrong:
The sampling procedure should state the sampling criteria and should justify the number of participants.
There are two kinds of sampling in social research: statistical – probability or non-probability (when the sampling criteria and the number of participants are established before entering the field according to some rigid sampling rules) and theoretical (when the sampling criteria and the number of participants are flexible, decided in the research process according to relevancy and saturation rules).
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Very useful discussion. I remember, the saying "it is better to study one rat for 1000 hrs rather than studying 1000 rats for one hr if you need to study behaviors of rats". But that particular rat should be selected carefully; not to choose a 'mad' or 'disabled' rat. Now by studying this carefully selected rat (theoretical sampling) we can generalize certain behavioral patterns of rats, as well as can gain a deep understanding of the behavior of rats, in that time and space. Observing 1000 rats, randomly or even purposively (statistical sampling), for one hour would help to identify a single or couple of features of rats, in that particular context. So, the sampling technique depends on the nature (not the purpose) of the research.
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We are conducting a study on the knowledge and experience of psychology journal reviewers regarding the qualitative research method.
If you have reviewed a qualitative manuscript for a psychology journal please take part in our study:
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Hello, is this study a qualitative research in the form of ethnography or case study done through immersion? Does it include policy analysis as well?
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hi
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Most of us know the slight difference between site score(scopus) and impact factor (clarivate) of the any indexed journal. However, several predatory journals are already indexed and have cite score and/or impact factor. In your opinion and experience, which indexing is more trusted concerning the non predatory journals included in their lists?
There are some indexed journal, in particular open access journal that ask a charge for publication, did accept papers without real reviewing and comments.
Thanks in advance
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Dear Nawras H. Mostafa Clarivate Analytics indexed Journals (Clarivate Analytics calculated impact factor).
Best Regards, AKC
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I am a social media researcher so that I have to collect various communication data from different social media platforms. The research data I am talking about include comments, reactions, views, and so on. In Bangladesh, the two leading social media platforms are Facebook and YouTube. As I am not much efficient in any programming language yet, so I must rely on other data collection/scraping tools (mostly free) to collect data easily from these two sites.
For Facebook and YouTube, for instance, I use CrowdTangle (www.crowdtangle.com), Mozdeh (www.mozdeh.wlv.ac.uk), Webometric Analysts (www.lexiurl.wlv.ac.uk), Comment Exporter (commentexporter.com), Export Comments (www.exportcomments.com), Social Blade (www.socialblade.com), etc. Previously, I also used Netvizz and Facepager, but they are unavailable right now.
What could be more suitable alternatives? Also, TikTok as a popular social media is thriving in South Asia, mostly among teenagers. Therefore, can anyone suggest to me how to collect/scrape TikTok data (e.g., channel metrics, video views, reactions, comments)?
Thanks in advance.
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Social media research can help your business in a number of ways: from understanding and improve the perception of your brand online; understanding the market for new products; comparing your presence to a competitor, or attracting new audiences through understanding the trends and discussions within your category.
Twitter
Twitter Analytics is incredibly helpful for research on the impact your own or brand’s Twitter channels, where you can see the best and worst posts from any month, and download data on likes, replies, retweets and so on, as well as understanding the reach and impact of your ads on Twitter. Twitter also allows you to search on a detailed level for keywords over specific time periods and in specific locations which allows you to get a feel for the sentiment around a topic.
Facebook
Facebook Analytics also offers detailed downloadable statistics on your owned Pages on its analytics tab. You can see details of reach and engagements on posts and videos on Facebook Pages, as well as demographics about the people who like your page. You can also research how people engage with public Facebook Pages, but it is difficult to aggregate this because of Facebook’s privacy restrictions.
Instagram
Currently, you can gain access to some tools provided by Facebook for Instagram analytics through Instagram Business Tools. The analytics offer a variety of insights on both posts on your Instagram timeline, and Instagram Stories, from viewership, reach and engagement to the days of the week your audience is most engaged and breakdown of locations by city, and age groups. It is possible to research the usage of hashtags which can be important but it is difficult to get more granular data on the images themselves without the use of a specialist tool like Pulsar, which offers vertical AI image analysis.
YouTube
YouTube has a variety of metrics to study in the analytics area for creators including watch times for your videos, traffic sources to see where the viewers are finding your videos from, and Demographics reports. Other social media research available on YouTube includes looking at the YouTube Trending page and studying the view counts and comments on videos, but again this is hard to aggregate without a specialist tool. You can learn more on YouTube analytics by checking out YouTube Creators Academy.
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I would like to know how the structure of polysiloxane modified epoxy resin changes during the combustion process, and how to study it?What is the structure of the burnt coke layer?
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Just a simple note + a reference : If you already have polysiloxane modified epoxy resin, then you have to consider the possibility that it may contain curing agent(s). I shall not give examples of these agents because the reference gave them.
Of course, the presence of such agents will complicate the outcome of the combustion process or when you carry out thermal degradation because there will be a number of products coming from the copolymer, the curing agent(s), and other probable additives.
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AS I am student of MSc public health and i don't have much depth knowledge of research, i want to know in much about secondary research methods,.
i choose topic of side effect of antidepressant drug but i am bit confuse about how to get data as in UK during this pandemic time it is hard to get permission from NIHs to collection any kind of data and as new researcher i am still confused how to collect data for primary as well as secondary research.
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Hi ..
In the beginning, you must set the research problem, then define the goal of this problem, and then solve it by means of study and research, and then the results you have reached
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I think most businesses have changed their menus around, relocated products in the store, and in other ways changed aspects of the experience, specifically to see how customers would respond so that they could improve their operations.
Facebook got in a lot of hot water for changing its algorithm around to see how its users would react. Now, the users aren't exactly customers, as they're not paying for anything and are volunteering to use the service. But that just means that if FB is going to get into hot water for such studies, other businesses that are analyzing their customers' behavior might get into hot water too.
But there's really no standard or discussion, that I know of (and maybe I'm quite wrong here, which would be fine) as to when IRB approval would be necessary for businesses to change their way of doing business to test customer activity. Should there be, and what should that protocol be?
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Abraham Graber I was on my school's IRB. IRB approval is not only for experimentation. It is for any kind of data collection from human subjects, including qualitative methods. However.....
A school can survey students, survey faculty, survey alumni, etc., without going through IRB. It can analyze enrollment trends based on data collected from students without going through IRB. Admissions can collect and make use of data on prospective students. Foundations collect a lot of data directly from prospects, particularly for major gifts fundraising.
I would be interested to know of any institutions where these undertakings require IRB approval.
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I would like to use the two research methods to assess the relationship between culture sustainability and economic development. Is there any conflicts or benefits if the two methods are both applied in this study? Thank you.
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The main issue you will have to deal with is integrating the findings from different samples that use different methods. The more you think about this in advance, the better your overall results will be.
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Soft skills research
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Take a look at the research that is just out on Soft Skills Assessment
Maybe some ideas of references might be of use!
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Research Methodology
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Yes, it is among the factors!
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I am looking for a classification of the research methods included in literature review papers or Meta analysis ones .
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No, this is considered as qualitative analysis. This follows "Grounded theory" research method of refining and categorizing different studies to develop a theory(ies) through constant comparative method and theoretical sampling.
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I have run an split-plot design experiment evaluating the efficacy of a treatment (with 3 whole plots and 4 sub-plots), and I am planning to analyse the collected data in Stata.
However, I do not find a pre-defined command to perform such analyses in Stata. I found that some statistical software such as GenStat Discovery have already pre-defined designs to analyse results of such experiment. Unfortunately, I do not have a licence for GenStat. I am planning to do my analyses with Stata.
Does anyone know how to analyse such data in Stata ?
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I'm a paleontologist studying marine phytoplankton microfossils (Acritarchs). From the main species to new species (with a completely different shape), we can see the gradual forms and trends of evolution at the species level that even the gradual forms are more than main species and new different species.
I ask my colleagues what papers are based on giving more importance to intermediate forms and what papers to introduce about less concerned with introducing new species and more on the topic, a new perspective on speciation with gradual trends?
Of course, any discussion in this regard can shed light on the research method of this side, that is, giving more importance to intermediate species and the gradual evolutionary trends in speciation.
Sincerely
Jafar Saburi
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Great discussion
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In the realist methodology (especially by Raymond Pawson et al), the CMOc is a common structure to explain what works, for whom, in what circumstances, and why?
I'm always asked about the criteria that the context and mechanism and outcome are indeed logically linked to form the CMOc? How ensure that there are causal connections between these components? What are your experiences on this? Any suggestions? Thank you.
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Great discussion
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What criteria determines whether something should remain in the main text or should become an appendix?
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My advice is always to think like an assessor... does the assessor really need to read this detail or example to understand your argument or might it serve to illuminate your main narrative? For the former then make best use of your word count and include it for the latter consider how likely is the assessor to choose to read this or expect to see it as evidence? I always remind postgraduate students that as markers we usually just dip into the appendix and rarely read them in detail.
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I am doing primary research method and for that I am working on the questionnaire so would you please give the answer of the above question. Thank you
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Dear Shubham Patil,
The answer depends on what we want to get from the composite.
Sometimes it turns out to be cheaper, sometimes stronger, sometimes more plastic than conventional materials.
It is often possible to combine the advantages of the original components in one material and even strengthen (increase) them or get completely new properties (this is the so-called synergistic effect). But sometimes it turns out and vice versa, deterioration of properties.
There are materials called multiferroics, which combine several ferroic properties, for example, such as ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. It is possible to control their electrical characteristics using a magnetic field and vice versa. However, ordinary multiferroics, as a rule, show their wonderful properties only at very low temperatures. If, for example, you create a composite consisting of substances that separately exhibit strong magnetostrictive and piezoelectric properties under normal conditions, you can get an artificial multiferroic that works at a higher temperature than usual.
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I am using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) Trauma Events scale (original version) that has 17 items (17 different traumatic events) with 4 response options, indicating 4 levels of exposure: experienced, witnessed, heard about it, and no. In SPSS, I have already coded each of the 17 items with the following value labels: .00 = No, 1.00 = Heard about it, 2.00 = Witnessed, 3.00 = Experienced.
I want to calculate a categorical variable by counting all the positive responses on each of the four categories of responses to produce a total number of events experienced, total number of events witnessed, total number of events heard about, and so on.
Because I want to differentiate between direct and indirect exposure, I also want to calculate the total number of events by counting as 1 any response other than 'no' and 'heard about it,' which would mean that I would need to create a dichotomous dummy variable.
In order to do the above, do I need to create two additional variables for Part 1 of the HTQ? If so, how do I go about doing this in SPSS? Any guidance would be greatly appreciated.
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Hello Rosalind,
Assuming your items were given variable names of v1, v2, ..., v17, then the following code would create the two sets of variables you seek:
count none = v1 to v17 (0) .
count heard = v1 to v17 (1) .
count witness = v1 to v17 (2) .
count experience = v1 to v17 (3) .
execute .
compute direct = heard + witness + experience .
execute .
Good luck with your work.
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What kinds of research methods are suitable during this condition (covid 19)?
Could you show me some article about a learning using Whatsapp?
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Hi Eva Susanti...
Through my experience ... I chose a topic that is in line the current issues, which is the impact of the virus on society , and adopted a questionnaire that I distributed through social media , including WhatsApp...
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My question is concern with the correct categorization of the data collection phase
As known in the research methodology phases, there is a data collection phase .
I want to write the process of the data collection phase :
Is it right to put the process :
Data Selection and Data Preparation Or
Data Preparation and Data Preprocessing and put the selection of the data as part of the data preparation ?
Looking Forward For your answers
Thanks,
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Dear Sumaia
The data collection phased usually consists of multiple steps (all of which you might wish to report on in any publication):
- Definition of your population
- Decision on the sampling strategy
Once you have the data you would perform:
- Data cleaning
- Data wrangling
- Data analysis
I assume that with data selection, you likely mean data cleaning and with data preprocessing, data wrangling?
I hope this is in some way helpful to you. This is certainly a very simplified perspective on it, but still, could serve as a starting point for you.
All the best for your research.
Best,
Daniel
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I've been looking for more information and methodological concept to conduct "Content Analysis" research as in this pandemic time collecting primary data has become a cubersome task, thank you.
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Kamil Filipek thank you for your valuable feedback,
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Please give me valid reference for answer.
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Hi mam, it doesn't matter if all hypotheses (alternative) are accepted? is there any references to it? Thank you Tea Reljic
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Recently I decided to switch my PhD project to a cumulative form. I have already written an extensive methodological chapter about my adaptation of interpretivist methodology and ethnographical research methods (interactive observation, in-field-mapping, netnography) to my social-movement-studies/ political science question. I would like to publish these thoughts as a working paper, but I'm struggling a bit to find an appropriate working paper series or platform. Does anybody know a good one?
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