Science topic

Reptiles - Science topic

Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
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Publications related to Reptiles (10,000)
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The goal of this study is to describe patterns of reproductive activity and associated characteristics in a lizard community from an arid environment in the southern Chihuahuan Desert region of Mexico. Results of this study showed variation in snout-vent length (SVL) in adults female and male among 18 species. A similar pattern occurred in body mas...
Article
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Three adult European glass lizards (Pseudopus apodus Klembara) were caught in the garden of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University (Samsun, Turkey) and were observed to have a tick infestation. During macroscopic examination, tick samples were collected from the lateral groove on both sides of the lizard by using blunt-tip tweezer...
Chapter
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Wang, LK, Wang, MHS, and Wu, BC (2022). Determination of microscopic particle count of Cryptosporidium and Giardia cysts using membrane filters. In: “Environmental Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)”, Wang, LK, Wang, MHS and Pankivskyi, YI (eds.), 2022(12C), STEM-VOL2022-NUM12C-DEC2022. 21 pages. December 2022, Lenox Institute...
Article
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Context Prairies historically covered much of inland North America, and many species have adapted to the unique conditions found in prairie ecosystems. Less than 1% of prairies remain in Arkansas, with much historic prairie having been converted for urban and agricultural development, resulting in steep population declines for many prairie-associat...
Article
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Madagascar's unique biota is heavily affected by human activity and is under intense threat. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the conservation status of Madagascar's terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by presenting data and analyses on documented and predicted species-level conservation statuses, the most prevalent and relevan...
Article
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Streamlining a body is a major adaptation for aquatic animals to move efficiently in the water. Whereas diving birds are well known to have streamlined bodies, such body shapes have not been documented in non-avian dinosaurs. It is primarily because most known non-avian theropods are terrestrial, barring a few exceptions. However, clear evidence of...
Article
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Studies on diet allow understanding trophic relationships within biotic communities. The gray fox is a solitary mammal with activity during daytime and nighttime hours. It has an omnivorous diet, with flexible and opportunistic habits. The tiger rat snake is a diurnal colubrid with a remarkable ability to move between tree branches. The potential p...
Article
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The Alpine Prosanto Formation (Middle Triassic) cropping out in the Ducan region in eastern Switzerland has yielded a rich fish and reptile fauna. Here, we present new pachypleurosaur remains from the upper part of the formation (Early Ladinian), similar to the previously known pachypleurosaurs from the Middle Triassic UNESCO World Heritage Site of...
Article
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The family Herpesviridae includes viruses identified in mammals, birds and reptiles. All herpesviruses share a similar structure, consisting of a large linear double-stranded DNA genome surrounded by a proteic icosahedral capsid further contained within a lipidic bilayer envelope. The continuous rise of genetic variability and the evolutionary sele...
Article
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Addressed here is the biogeographical‐vexing question of why the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the only large mammal on the big island of Tierra del Fuego, answered by comparing alternative colonisation hypotheses. A multidisciplinary examination was conducted into the archaeological, ecological, evolutionary, geographical, genomic, glacial and zoolog...
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As researchers, teachers, and practitioners we often encounter young professionals and lay adults who do not understand basics of mammalian body temperature regulation. Often their single solid piece of knowledge is that some vertebrates (mammals and birds) are warm-blooded and some (fish, amphibians, and reptile) are cold-blooded, which is incorre...
Article
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The welfare needs of reptiles in zoological collections are generally less well understood than those of other taxa. Crocodilians represent an excellent opportunity to study a commonly-housed, conservation-dependant zoo animal. We studied the behaviour and enclosure use of five dwarf caimans Paleosuchus palpebrosus through day and night, at two Bri...
Article
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It is known that ototoxicity is the main cause of toxicity induced by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Effects on cochlea and vestibule in vertebrates are variable, depending on the typology of the aminoglycoside and the animal model examined. Despite this, they are routinely used to prevent postoperative and urinary tract infections and in the treatmen...
Article
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Fire is a natural agent with a paramount role in ecosystem functioning and biodiversity maintenance. Still, it can also act as a negative force against many ecosystems. Despite some knowledge of the interactions of fire and vegetation, there is no clear understanding of how different components of fire regimes (i.e., severity, history, or frequency...
Article
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Background Approximately 50% of freshwater turtles worldwide are currently threatened by habitat loss, rural development and altered stream flows. Paradoxically, reptiles are understudied organisms, with many species lacking basic geographic distribution and abundance data. The iconic Irwin’s turtle, Elseya irwini , belongs to a unique group of Aus...
Article
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Social gaze has received much attention in social cognition research in both human and non-human animals. Gaze following appears to be a central skill for acquiring social information, such as the location of food and predators, but can also draw attention to important social interactions, which in turn promotes the evolution of more complex socio-...
Article
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Les îlots coralliens du lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie (Pacifique Sud) sont des sites majeurs pour la reproduction de certaines espèces migratrices ou sédentaires dont certaines sont endémiques et classées en « Danger Critique d’Extinction » par l’UICN. Les îlots sont en effet les sites de reproduction et de nidification de beaucoup d’espèces, qu’ils...
Article
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A predominantly fish-eating diet was envisioned for the sail-backed theropod dinosaur Spinosaurus aegyptiacus when its elongate jaws with subconical teeth were unearthed a century ago in Egypt. Recent discovery of the high-spined tail of that skeleton, however, led to a bolder conjecture that S. aegyptiacus was the first fully aquatic dinosaur. The...
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Aim: Our aim is to document the dimensions of current squamate reptile biodiversity in the Americas by integrating taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional data, and assessing how this may vary across phylogenetic scales. We also explore the potential underlying mechanisms that may have originated the observed geographical diversity patterns. Locat...
Article
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Salmonella enterica is a pathogen capable of colonizing various environments, including the intestinal tract of different animals such as mammals, birds, and reptiles, which can act as carriers. S. enterica infection induces different clinical diseases, gastroenteritis being the most common, which in some cases, can evolve to septicemia and meningi...
Article
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The initial stages of diapsid evolution, the clade that includes extant reptiles and the majority of extinct reptilian taxa, is surprisingly poorly known. Notwithstanding the hypothesis that varanopids are diapsids rather than synapsids, there are only four araeoscelidians and one neodiapsid present in the late Carboniferous and early Permian. Here...
Article
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An individual's fitness cost associated with environmental change likely depends on the rate of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, and yet our understanding of plasticity rates in an ecological and evolutionary context remains limited. We provide the first quantitative synthesis of existing plasticity rate data, focusing on acclimation of temperature...
Article
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During sleep our brain switches between two starkly different brain states - slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. While this two-state sleep pattern is abundant across birds and mammals, its existence in other vertebrates is not universally accepted, its evolutionary emergence is unclear and it is undetermined whether it is a f...
Article
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The environmental enrichment needs of snakes are often disregarded. Using preference testing, we aimed to shed light on the enrichment preferences of a popular pet species, the western hognose snake (Heterodon nasicus). Snakes’ enclosures were divided into enriched and standard sides. The enriched half had substrate for burrowing, interactive stimu...
Conference Paper
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Emerging viral disease is a significant concern, with potential consequences for human, animal and environ-mental health. Over the past several decades, multiple novel viruses have been found in wildlife and often pose a major threat to vulnerable and endangered animal species. Avipoxvirus (APV) infection has been found in at least 329 avian species...
Poster
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Se realizó el presente folleto titulado "Serpientes de cascabel de Zacatecas", en colaboración con la Red de Investigación y Divulgación de Anfibios y Reptiles MX. Aquí se muestran las zonas con mayor idoneidad para su presencia en el estado, así como registros de ocurrencia e información de la especie. * Se autoriza su libre distribución con fines...
Article
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In this paper, we report monitoring of a resident population of Mugger Crocodile Crocodylus palustris (Lesson, 1831) along a stretch of 3.5 km of the river Savitri on the outskirts of Mahad town of Raigad District in Maharashtra, on monthly basis from 2014 to 2021. This river is increasingly becoming a sink of anthropogenic wastes emerging from adj...
Article
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Ammouliani is a small inhabited island of an area about 6.9 km 2 , located in the Gulf of Agion Oros, Chalkidiki, Greece. Hitherto, there have been no herpetological surveys on the island and thus its herpetofaunal composition is still unknown. In the current short note, records of amphibians and reptiles from Ammouliani Island are presented for th...
Preprint
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El fenómeno de las Islas de Calor Urbano (ICU) es un tipo de contaminación térmica, definido como la existencia de un domo de temperaturas más altas en las ciudades y sus alrededores, que impacta de diversas formas en sus ecosistemas interiores y adyacentes. En Cuba no existen antecedentes de estudios a gran escala de este fenómeno, que puede ser e...
Chapter
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El bosque de Ruil (Nothofagus alessandrii) se encuentra en la formación bosque cadu-cifolio maulino de Gajardo (1983) o bosque caducifolio mediterráneo costero de Luebert y Pliscoff (2017). Esta formación se distribuía en la zona costera de la Región del Maule en una franja fragmentada de 100 km de largo (San Martín y Donoso, 1996; Santelices et al...
Preprint
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Until recently, mitochondria were considered essential organelles impossible to truly lose in a lineage. This view changed in 2016, with the report that the oxymonad Monocercomonoides exilis, was the first known eukaryote without any mitochondrion. Questions remain, however, about whether this extends to the entire lineage and how this transition t...
Article
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Tanguar Haor (TH), an ecologically critical area and internationally important as a Ramsar site, is essential for the country’s economic, industrial, ecological, social, and cultural aspects. Fish, aquatic plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals are notable among the floral and faunal compositions found in this haor. Unfortunately, unsusta...
Preprint
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The Flaviviridae are a family of positive-sense RNA viruses that include well documented agents of human disease. Despite their importance and ubiquity, the timescale of flaviviral evolution is uncertain. An ancient origin, spanning timescales of millions of years, is supported by their presence in both vertebrates and invertebrates and the identif...
Article
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The design of successful invasive species control programs is often hindered by the absence of basic demographic data on the targeted population. Establishment of invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, Florida USA has led to local precipitous declines (> 90%) of mesomammal populations and is also a...
Article
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Background. Several works conducted in Mexico have addressed the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicau-dis annectens), a protected subspecies (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010). Objectives. To know the abundance and distribution of the neotropical otter in the State of Campeche in La Lagartera Lagoon (Palizada River). Methods. During 2017 were searched the lagoo...
Article
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Macroinvertebrates are a significant class of creatures that are located in the sediment that lies below the water column and are essential to the health of any aquatic environment. Their research is crucial because, as a result of their sedentary habitat, macrobenthic organisms are well-known markers of anthropogenic stress. Freshwater invertebrat...
Article
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Understanding the trophic interactions of introduced predators is key for evidence-based management of biological invasions. This is particularly important in oceanic islands, where predator-prey networks often include numerous endemic and range-restricted species. Geckos are successful island colonizers and in recent years numerous species have es...
Article
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Predator-prey interactions may be linked to different temporal or spatial patterns, including dynamics in prey populations. Therefore, understanding the adaptive capacity and how top predators respond to shifts in prey abundance and availability is crucial for their conservation. In this study, we investigated the diet pattern of the endangered Eas...
Article
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En Ecuador existen pocos estudios que tratan acerca del parasitismo de garrapatas sobre mamíferos silvestres. En la Amazonía ecuatoriana solo se han reportado casos de infestación de garrapatas del género Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) sobre mamíferos no voladores, aves y reptiles. En este trabajo se reporta, por primera vez, la infestación de Ixodes...
Article
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The dispersal tendencies of individuals can provide an important adaptive basis to counter environmental and ecological variation to increase fitness and benefit populations. We evaluated whether indirect genetic-based measures of dispersal of a large monitor lizard (Vara-nus varius) were sex-biased and further covaried with putative demographic an...
Article
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Introducción as garrapatas (Acari: Ixodoidae) del género Amblyomma son artrópodos hematófagos y parásitos de varias especies de mamíferos (incluido el hombre), aves y reptiles. Se encuentran distribuidas en diversas regiones geográficas y, debido a sus hábitos alimenticios, son capaces de transmitir patógenos (e.g., bacterias, virus, protozoos, hel...
Chapter
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All modern mammals are descendants of the paraphyletic non-mammaliaform Synapsida, colloquially referred to as the “mammal-like reptiles.” It has long been assumed that these mammalian ancestors were essentially reptile-like in their morphology, biology, and behavior, i.e., they had a small brain, displayed simple behavior, and their sensory organs...
Article
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The internet has expanded opportunities for wildlife traders to conduct business globally, but monitoring this activity is often challenging. As monitoring techniques frequently employ language-based searches for particular words, it is important to understand the language traders use, particularly the nomenclature used to refer to traded species....
Article
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El género Erytholamprus Boie 1826 contiene más de 50 especies distribuidas en granparte de América Central y Sudamérica, ocupando una amplia variedad de ambientes y explotando recursos diversos. Los recursos alimenticios son aprovechados de diferentes maneras, encontrándose en la dieta mamíferos, aves, reptiles, anfibios, peces, y ocasionalmente in...
Article
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With no known biological function, mercury (Hg) is highly toxic, bio-accumulates, and biomagnifies up the food web. Long-living marine animals, such as sea turtles, can be exposed to Hg in the oceans. The wide distributions of these reptiles and lifespans compatible with Hg residence time in ocean surface waters (approximately 30 yr) makes them rel...
Article
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With no known biological function, mercury (Hg) is highly toxic, bio-accumulates, and biomagnifies up the food web. Long-living marine animals, such as sea turtles, can be exposed to Hg in the oceans. The wide distributions of these reptiles and lifespans compatible with Hg residence time in ocean surface waters (approximately 30 yr) makes them rel...
Article
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Marine turtles were common in the subtropical Upper Cretaceous epi-continental seas that once washed the coasts of the ancient European archipelago. But unlike its contemporaneous faunas from North America, in Europe no taxon surpassed the 1.5 m shell-length. Here, the remains of a new large marine turtle, Leviathanochelys aenigmatica gen. et sp. n...
Article
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Background: Reptiles and amphibians provide untapped potential for discovering how a diversity of genetic pathways and environmental conditions are incorporated into developmental processes that can lead to similar functional outcomes. These groups display a multitude of reproductive strategies, and whereas many attributes are conserved within gro...
Preprint
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Vertebrates show diversity in their sex determining systems. The main reasons to explain why a species shows a specific system is yet unclear. The Charnov-Bull model predicts that temperature-dependent sex determining system (TSD) evolve when there is a differential fitness between sexes, linking the sex determination system to different environmen...
Article
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Marine ecosystem recovery after the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (PTME) has been extensively studied in the shallow sea, but little is known about the nature of this process in pelagic ecosystems. Omphalosauridae, an enigmatic clade of open-water durophagous marine reptiles, potentially played an important role in the recovery, but their fragment...
Article
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Small vertebrates on islands are expected to attain a larger body size, and a greater survival than their mainland counterparts. Comparative studies have questioned whether lizards exhibit this set of adaptations, referred to as the ‘island syndrome’. We collected data on 730 individuals the endemic Lilford's lizard (Podarcis lilfordi) throughout a...
Article
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Gout is a metabolic condition, common to animals and humans, issuing from the excessive accumulation of end products of proteins degradation. In this study, histopathological and cytological examinations, combined with Raman spectroscopy, have been performed to investigate tissue samples from reptiles, chickens, and humans, presenting lesions produ...
Presentation
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The relocation of the paleontology collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Paris (MNHN) responded to several fundamental challenges. The first was the direct threat of a hundredyear flood of the Seine River, which would flood 75% of the collection. The second was to gather all the paleontology collections in the same place by 2022. T...
Article
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Identifying historical drivers of biodiversity distribution patterns is a central issue in ecology and biogeography. Iran is a biodiversity-rich country in southwestern Asia. It is known that past events like climatic oscillations and mountains uplifting have had an outstanding impact on evolution, speciation, and diversification of biodiversity in...
Article
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Environments, particularly developmental environments, can generate a considerable amount of phenotypic variation through phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in response to incubation temperature is well characterised in egg-laying reptiles. However, traits do not always vary independently of one another, and studies encompassing a broad range of tra...
Article
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The Dahomey Gap is a human-derived savannah zone, interspersed by patches of moist tropical forest, that separates the forest zone into two blocks, the Upper Guinean and the Lower Guinean forests. Community ecology aspects of amphibians and reptiles are still relatively unexplored in this ecological zone of West Africa. Here, the overall species ri...
Article
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The marine predators algorithm (MPA) is a metaheuristic algorithm for solving optimization problems. MPA divides the whole optimization process into three phases evenly, and each phase corresponds to a different search agent update strategy. Such a setup makes MPA inflexible when facing different optimization problems, which affects the optimizatio...
Article
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Actual loss of lizard biodiversity continues, even with the implementation of conventional conservation programs. An approach including assisted reproductive techniques such as sperm cryopreservation may contribute to the management of endangered species. We developed a method for sperm cryopreservation in sceloporine lizards and compared the respo...
Article
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The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an ancient reptile with strong immunity that lives in wetland environments. This study tested the antibacterial ability of Chinese alligator serum (CAS) against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and analyzed the potential underlying mechanisms. Re...
Article
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Eggs are a vulnerable stage because they are sensitive to thermal and hydric conditions and yet cannot behaviourally avoid stressful environments. A general mechanistic model of egg development in natural nests requires microclimatic predictions of temperature, humidity, radiation (if above ground) and water potential (if buried in soil) to be inte...
Article
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Reptile behaviour and welfare are understudied in comparison with mammals. In this study, behavioural data on three species (Astrochelys radiata, Stigmochelys pardalis, Aldabrachelys gigantea) of tortoises were recorded before and after an environmental change which was anticipated to be positive in nature. The environmental changes differed for ea...
Article
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The herpetofauna occurring in the Selva Maya is one of the richest assemblages in the Americas. We herein provide an updated list of herpetofauna species for the Calakmul region, located in the southern Yucatán Peninsula, Campeche, Mexico. This species list was compiled considering the results of herpetological surveys conducted between 2015-2019 i...