Science topic

Reptiles - Science topic

Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
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I would like to open a discussion regarding Benzocaine 20% oral administration and its potential as an effective and humane method for the euthanasia of small reptiles. Finding both practical and humane methods of euthanasia that can be used in the field is challenging but essential.
Benzocaine, similar to MS 222, is an accepted euthanasia agent for fish and amphibians under the AVMA GUIDELINES FOR THE EUTHANASIA OF ANIMALS: 2020 EDITION, it is effective and rapid. However, a paucity of literature is available on its efficacy in small reptiles. There appears to be several advantages and disadvantages to the Benzocaine oral administration method. But let's hear from you. Has this method ever been accepted by your ethics committee for small reptiles? And if so, what were some of the comments from the committee? For those that have applied this method, have you ever witnessed vomiting or regurgitation after administration? What were the dosages given, how was death confirmed and after how long? What are your institutions' preferred methods of euthanasia for small reptiles?
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It is not a nice thing to hurt those who are smaller and weaker than us. I like small reptiles and would like to protect them. Therefore, my principal question to you: why euthanasia is needed at all? Couldn't another research direction be devised? Please...
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I am looking for literature that deals with amphibians in urban areas. Are there studies on threshod values for toxological substances at which amphibians are no longer able to survive? Which species are more sensitive which are less? For example, at what concentration are acidification and contamination by heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead and zinc a problem? What about pharmaceuticals and pesticides? There are a lot of studies for non-urban areas, are the results transferable?
Studies in German are very welcome.
There is a review, but I think it‘s not sufficient for answering this specific question:
Toxicological Threats to Amphibians and Reptiles in Urban Environments (2008)
Maxine C. Croteau, Natacha Hogan, Jennifer C. Gibson, David Lean, and Vance L. Trudeau, In: J.C. Mitchell, R.E. Jung Brown, and B. Bartholomew (editors). Urban Herpetology. Herpetological Conservation 3: 197–209
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I have done herpetological surveys in several urban areas, most notably in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA). Several species are highly tolerant to heavy metal contamination such as Family Ranidae; Lithobates clamitans, L. catesbeiana, L. pipiens, Family Bufonidae; Anaxyrus americanus. Treefrogs (Hylidae) were less tolerant and more common near the periphery of the city (Psuedacris crucifer, Hyla versicolor). See attached report.
(PDF) Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern Wildlife Population Assessment Report (researchgate.net)
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I've tried the Qiagen RNeasy Mini kit on chicken blood samples but got no RNA.
Started with 1ml fresh whole blood collected on ETDA, after adding the 600ul lysis buffer the lysate was SOOO VISCOSE, and so hard to pipette even after trying to homogenate it with "Syringe & needle 20 guage co.9 mm"
Knowing that the whole blood of birds, reptiles, and amphibians contains large quantities of protein that must be separated from the nucleic acids to perform a successful extraction, But I don't know how ?!
- should I start with less quantity of blood or what should I do
- the pic shows the pellet size before I discard the supernatant & adding the lysis buffer
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The avian blood is very concentrated, so it would be better to study with low volume of blood. Remind that avian erythrocytes contain nucleus. So, I also suggest you to dilute the blood samples with RNAse free water before isolation. You can find enclosed protocol. Good luck!
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I have found this reptile in Western Himalayan Region (Uttarakhand, India).
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in appearance it is an Agama
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Does anyone know of studies focusing on habitat refuge/creation for terrestrial reptiles that might aid in protecting them from aboitic environmental variable
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I observed some thing that resemble an unfertilized egg in my tank of captive Homalopsis buccata. I am curious about this because as far as i know there is only oviparous species who could lay an unfertlized egg. Anybody can explain what is this and suggest some paper about it? Thanks
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I will refresh this topic, because is interesting me a bit. Is there any option in captive breed viviparous snakes (I mean Corallus genus) that we can do to avoid this kind of situation, when the adult female lay slugs instead of alive newborns? Some of the breeders recommend to keep a female with male as long as possible (longer than POS occurs).
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Morphological looks like buff striped keelback back but as you can see, this one has single stripe that too on the dorsal side.
Photograph Attached.
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Hello Dr. Amit Manhas ,
The dead snake in the photo appears to be a buff striped keel-back at first but the features do not add up to it as you have already pointed out. I believe what you have here is a very rare snake species called Indian egg-eater (common in south Bengal) Elachistodon westermanni. It ranges in both freshwater and mangrove swamps as well.
Regards,
Dr. Abhishek Mukherjee
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I know there are different structures referred to as "eyelids" in animals, specifically reptiles. However, I had been under the impression that the eyelids found in Eublepharidae (Gekkota) were more plesiomorphic than the fused spectacles found in other gecko genera, including but not limited to Rhacodactylus and Phelsuma. Is this accurate? I can't find any research expressly stating so (or the opposite), at least not without paywalls.
Thank you in advance!
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Sarah, suggesting these papers may answer to your query, hopefully. Best
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Remarks about possible sources of nerve cells origins:
1. Repairing nad creating neural cell systems in human body.
2. It may be possible to learn from embryonic cell research and understanding the genetic material - load.
3. The limits of cell sorting and development must of course be addressed in a negative direction (cancer). Possible genetic mutation or P53 protein error should be considered.
4. It may also be possible to learn from the above research regarding the formation of cancer and / or mutations, and vice versa.
5. There is also room to consider understanding about tissue regrowth and repair (possibly more relevant to body organs).
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Interesting
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Avian, Reptile and Small Mammals
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Dear Dr. Irindi Çitaku
I am working on avian species, and the most common ones for me were Plasmodium spp.
I am sure you know it, but please refer to Hawkey & Denett (1989).
Wish you good luck,
Amir.
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A black colour pattern of only the head is common (at least here in Israel) for birds, reptiles, insects... is there a known adaptive benefit for this colour pattern?
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Adaptive substrate matching could be a reason, and this adaptive variation could be due to changes in coding and non-coding DNA (Hoekstra, 2006). Pigmentation genes involved in melanin and carotenoid processing, like agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) could have unique amino acid substitutions highly conserved among lineages or even some lateral transfer of genes may occur as has been documented in arthropods (Moran & Jarvik, 2010). Changes in MC1R protein structures specific to a particular set of tissues could also tell us something. Anyways, these traits could serve as camouflage, aposematic coloration, or ornamentations for intraspecific signaling.
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South India s monitor lizards are not studied closely.If any one is interested or doing work on sand goann's,I am interested to call them.
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Most of the papers I read on reptile hibernation focus on changes in serum hormones, metabolites, and behavior. Studies on O2 consumption are mostly conducted on species who do fancy stuff (freeze, submerge, and all that jazz), and I can't find much data on reptile metabolic depression under normal conditions, let alone comparative studies. The closest I could find to a review is Hailey & Loveridge (1997), a paper on dormant Kinixys spekii which includes a sparse review of metabolic depression in other hibernating reptiles (all studies > 35 years old), and Guppy & Withers (1999) whose review is based essentially on the same studies. I imagined this body of work would have expanded since then, but managed to find very little.
Would much appreciate thoughts and recommendations from someone more familiar with the subject.
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Please see the following attached article.
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How ecologist and herpetologist can observing small specis. For example, these last week we have descovred a new chameleon species in Madagascar.
This new reptile is become the smallest amniots in the world - the specis : Brookesia nana !!!
Can you give us your opinion about this question?
Thank you
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I believe that a discovery as intriguing as this must pass, not only to worry about preserving this species, but also to conduct studies in its habitat to continue its preservation. I also think it is interesting to carry out studies in its food chain. This discovery could open more doors for even smaller animals. Conducting research on the types of bacteria that maintain their habitat is also very important.
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Does anyone have access of this paper/book chapter? Found this citation in the book Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. Based on the citation format, it looks to be a book chapter, and the language seems to be Uzbekistan (please correct me if I am wrong)?
Any help will be greatly appreciated!
Panfilov AM, Eremchenko VK. 1999. Novye dannye po karyiologii shesti vidov szinkov (Sauria: Scincidae) Evrasii. Nauka i Novye Tekhnologii, 1999(2), 61–67. Bishkek
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Dear Kai, Bishkek is in Kyrgyzstan (capital). I visited once when checked a proposal to work for the Issyk-Kul Lake hydrobiological lab. As well the Journal changed its name twice. This article doesn't exist in digital form, so I recommend you to find a colleague from the country and ask him for a favor!
Andrey
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I'm searching some public databases of baseline corticosterone in reptiles, I know there is a public database of hormones by Vitousek et al. 2018 ( https://hormonebase.org/ ) and has some data about CORT, but anyone know some focused in corticosterone?
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The one I've listed is the only I found, and data in some reviews about stress biomarkers. Cheers!
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I am currently working on a research entitled: “Taxonomical study of some true Lizard family (Lacertidae) species in the Syrian coastal region, using peripheral blood cells morphology”. And I am facing many difficulties such as the lack of classification keys for this family or a field guide to differentiate between its species,I could not obtain an approved classification key, Therefore, I am writing to ask if you can provide me with a classification key to help me completing this research.
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Use the regional checklists of all herpetofauna, not just lacertidae and you will find some checklists.
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Solar Fencing has been set up at few lowland districts in Nepal to control elephant attacks. Does the fence have same effects on reptiles especially snakes? Are there any behaviours recorded before anywhere?
Can anyone recommend research studies conducted before regarding effects on reptiles from such fencing?
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One of the difficulties with any type of electric fencing is that it can prove dangerous, even deadly, for the animals involved. For both Asian and African elephants, many have died as a result of protecting crops due to such fencing. Aside from this problem, the effectiveness of fences alone greatly varies depending on the context and experience of the elephants involved (O'Connell-Rodwell et al., 2000). A potentially more effective and safer treatment appears to be the use of beehives, either artificially produced via sound or live, which both African and Asian elephants will actively avoid (King et al., 2018; Soltis et al., 2014).
There are really two parts to your question: (1) How effective is electric fencing for deterring wildlife?, and (2) Do reptiles such as snakes learn similarly to mammals to avoid aversive stimuli such as electric fencing? As to the first question, as I've noted above, there are questions about how effective and safe electric fencing is for both African and Asian elephants, as well as viable alternatives. This is likely a case-by-case situation that is species- and context-dependent, but I would guess that there are often effective alternatives, including specific behavior training programs (see some of Ken Ramirez's elephant conservation and training work). As to the second question, the simple answer is that all organisms learn effectively via operant and respondent conditioning, as well as pseudo-learning (habitation and sensitization). It might be worth your time to reach out to Dr. Gordon Burghardt at the University of Tennessee, who is an expert in all aspects involving reptile learning, among many other things. If anyone has an answer to your question that is snake- and learning-specific, it would be Dr. Burghardt. The end result is that this could make for a really great study that provides some effective, safe, and humane options for protecting reptilian wildlife.
King, L., Pardo, M., Weerathunga, S., Kumara, T. V., Jayasena, N., Soltis, J., & de Silva, S. (2018). Wild Sri Lankan elephants retreat from the sound of disturbed Asian honey bees. Current Biology, 28(2), R64-R65.
O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E., Rodwell, T., Rice, M., & Hart, L. A. (2000). Living with the modern conservation paradigm: can agricultural communities co-exist with elephants? A five-year case study in East Caprivi, Namibia. Biological conservation, 93(3), 381-391.
Soltis, J., King, L. E., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F., & Savage, A. (2014). African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees. PLoS One, 9(2), e89403.
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I placed the word "eggs" in quotation marks, because maybe they are not eggs... These structures shown in the photos were exposed in a sand dune by the wind in the Negev Desert, Southern Israel. They look calcareous with sand attached to them and they are quite hard and elongated. They are thicker than normal hard-shelled reptile eggs (e.g., geckos, turtles etc). They don't look like soft-shelled reptile eggs, that tear and look like an empty paper bag when they dry out (like Varanus eggs). But the most disturbing character is that they are not round in a cross section, as are all reptile (and bird) eggs that I have seen so far. All of them (found on three different occasions) where flattened in the same way and not round in a cross section.
I will be glad to hear from anyone who has seen something similar elsewhere or has an idea for a process that could lead to form these structures (maybe accumulation of calcium on something else, not necessarily an egg?).
Thanks,
Amos
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All the best ,Amos
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Dear RG community,
I am looking at the limits of ACTIVE flight of various animals.
I am only interested in animals that are capable of active flight. Active flight (also called powered flight) is a type of animal flight that uses muscles to generate aerodynamic force that is sufficient to generate enough lift and thrust. So no flying fish, no frogs that jump from the treetops and use membranes between their fingers to controllably parachute and fall-down, and no flying squirrels etc. Such examples do not count as active flight under the above definition of active flight.
I am interested in limits of ACTIVE flight of the following animal groups:
a) insects
b) birds
c) reptiles (extinct, like pterosaurus)
d) mammals
I am particularly interested in the data on the following:
1). Maximum Altitude (km) a given flying animal was observed
2). Longest Travel Distance (km) - I intend it to be only continuous flight, from initial take off to landing (i.e. without landing and resuming flight afterwards for the second time), otherwise a lot of organisms essentially have no limit to distance.
3). Maximum Speed Observed (but it is less critical)
If any of you know papers or studies that show such limits for example organisms of insects, birds, extinct reptiles and mammals please let me know.
Thank you very much for your help, time and consideration.
JJ
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In the desert region of Moquegua, South Peru on Cerro Baul (2500 masl) i took a photo of these lizard. Does anybody know to which family and genus it belongs ?
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I think the suggestions of Tropiduridae and Microlophus are correct. I would also suggest uploading this image at www.iNaturalist.com. There is a giant community of Herpetologists there who can provide an accurate ID for you.
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Hi! I am working with a large-scale phylogenetic tree for fossil reptiles, and I would like to perform an analysis to supplement the primary analysis's implications for paleobiogeography. The patterns in my data seem clear, but I need to be able to quantify and present them in a testable manner using reliable but current methods. I know a number of methods are currently available (DEC, DEC-J, DES); I am hoping to get a sense-of-the-room on which current methods and implementations were considered best for (entirely extinct) fossil taxa. I would prefer to integrate over as many variables as possible to get a best estimate of the broad strokes: optimizing for the range of a single node is reasonable, but I would prefer to have the option to evaluate ancestral ranges over the entire tree.
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I use a simple but good software product program WinClada. Regards, Sergey
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I am looking for a current list of protected reptiles in Papua New Guinea.
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He might be able to help you. He works for the WCS and is in close contact with the Indonesian authorities
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In herpetology, a common morphological description of a reptile can be the number of scales (for example scales across mid-body, lamellae on feet etc); and in some cases, it could be the only way to tell two cryptic species apart. I wondered if anyone had found software that could assist counting reptile scales on images.?
I have previously used the counting software on ImageJ and found that rather useful. However, is there any alternatives?
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Something like this, or references within?
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Hello Community,
I'm compiling trait information of vertebrates and I was wonder if anyone knows about good papers or other types of documents where I can find information related to the dispersal distances, capabilities or proxies to these two measures. I know that for mammals and birds there is information available but reptiles, like usual, seems to be a little bit neglected in this aspect. Any helo will be more than welcome :)
Thanks,
Gonzalo
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This can be a rather complicated subject and variations will occur with the same species within different geographical ranges. Habitat, length of active seasons, species, age, and sex will also will play a role in sizes of home ranges. The majority of my work is with timber rattlesnakes in middle Tennessee in the USA. I am attacching a PDF of my dissertation that can provide information on movements of this species. I hope it can provide some insight to your question.
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How to euthanized small reptile using alcoholic solution? Some of the reference said that pentobarbital are good solution. However in field practice i have difficulties on availability and permission for this solution. Usually only alcoholic solution alvailable and i used injection method to brain. Is there any humane way euthanasia using alcoholic solution?
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No Strictly No. Need ethical approvals if it really a absolute nuisance
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Does anyone know where I can find a Government report on Biodiversity from the Cayman Islands? Something with reported numbers on species of Mammal, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and birds.
Thanks!
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How does one distinguish between cursorial and generalized terrestrial modes of life in lizards? I know that in mammals it is relatively easy to distinguish between a cursorial and non-cursorial species based on the former's much longer limbs, but this is less obvious in lizards. So how would one distinguish between a cursorial lizard like a collared lizard and a non-cursorial species like a chuckwalla or a monitor?
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This maybe useful to you:
With best regards,
Sudesh
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For example, small mammals can trigger a camera with an infrared sensor because these are warm blooded, but perhaps not so for a reptile that is cold blooded. Resolution could be a problem for small animals. Any good model for general purpose?
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We've had our fair share of images of birds (mostly owls) even small ones and monitor lizards (not ant other reptiles) in our camera traps as bycatch data. I hear Reconyx is good, we use Cuddeback which is also good. Depending on which species you focus, you may want to have specific cameras and field designs.
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can anyone suggest me some papers describing the performances and some other characteristics of newborn reptiles hatched in polluted environments?
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Someone will have papers, books or magazine articles about it. It's for my thesis. Thanks
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Thank you!! All the information serves.
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I am working on vertebrates body shape (fish/reptiles)
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Framework: keras
to easily deploy tensor-flow based deep learning classier for object detection and classification.
Search it on google (with specific keywords) you will even find source code to begin with.
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A friend of mine found these 2 decapitated snakes outside his home. These are Philippine snakes by the way. The photos he sent aren't that clear though.
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Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman, please don't be a snowflake on this forum. This is a social space for grownup scientists, not for overly sensitive wingnuts. Frances Bengwayan did not take the photos, but wants the sankes identified. The photos are not optimal for identification, but if you have no useful information for her, there is no reason for you to post in this thread.
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Microsatellite markers make idea ttools for answering a number of important conservation questions. Despite the meteoric rise of genomics, microsatellites remain a widely published molecular methods and suite many applied applications
However, journals are generally not accepting short notes/technical notes on their optimisation, for example, MEN/MER, Cons Genet Res no longer accept these articles.
I have a number of marsupial/mammal, jellyfish, python and reptile datasets that would be suitable to publish as research notes.
My question is, are there any (non-predatory) journals or places that you can publish short technical notes on the design and optimization of microsatellite markers still out there?
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Dear Peter you can check either DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis Journal
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I am currently doing research about environmental enrichment for crocodilians for an internship, but I'm having trouble finding information about this theme.
Does anyone know of any studies or research to suggest?
Thanks!
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I would suggest that you contact the Reptile Keepers at the zoos/aquariums that have good populations/displays of a number of crocodilians. They are often conducting research on behavioral enrichment, know of unpublished work, and have ideas on what not to do. One way to find the keepers easily is to find out who keeps the breeders log or the taxonomic group information and they can get you good contact information.
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I am looking for a key to snake families or any way to morphologically distinguish the families Boidae and Pythonidae, please not DNA, biogeography or reproduction information, as I already know how boas and pythons differ in those aspects.
I know when its a boa or a python but it's only because I know most of the species in said families. What I want is to be able to identify the family even if its an animal I don't know (maybe a weird morph, an uncommon species, etc) or if its preserved and old (thus with faded colors and patterns, damaged or without locality data).
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Dikansh Parmar I'll check the mental groove, the other characteristics (while useful to distinguish Erycinae boas and Pythonidae) are not really useful as they are present in some new world boa genera (Corallus, Epicrates, Boa, Eunectes)
Thank you!!!
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We have a verified record of more than 40 years in a captive Uromastyx (exact species identification still in process). We would like to know how this record compares to the longest known life times in this genus. Thanks to help us find published records (with exact literature reference) or unpublished data!
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Thanks Shai and all who kindly answered! Actually we established a new Uromastyx longevity record of at least 46 years! It is documented in the following note:
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Hesse's rule, also known as the heart–weight rule, states that endotherm species inhabiting colder climates have a larger heart in relation to body weight than closely related species inhabiting warmer climates. Is the opposite true for ectotherms like reptiles, since the metabolism of a reptile living in a colder climate is a lot slower (for example Sphenodon sp.)?
I couldn't find any information on that and would be greatful if anyone knows a paper on that topic or has any ideas!
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Hi Antonia,
This is an interesting question and one that I don't think has been rigorously applied to ectothermic reptiles (maybe, not at all). The Biology of the Reptilia edited by Carl Gans would be a great entry-point to the literature on the subject. Check out Volume 19, Chapter 4, "Comparative aspects of heart morphology", pages 375-419 by Farrell, Gamperl, and Francis. The entire B of R collection is freely available online and I have pasted a link below to the specific chapter on the reptilian heart. I have also attached two articles that list relative heart sizes for several reptile species, which may be of some help.
I am very interested in what your synthesis of the literature reveals as this subject hasn't been given much attention - let me know, thanks.
Good luck!
Best,
Danny
B of R, Volume 19, Ch. 4, p 375: http://carlgans.org/bor-view/?borv=19&borpage=375
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As part of my Bsc Zoo Biology course I am required to interview/ ask questions to people in my desired career to ascertain information surrounding the field. If anybody working as a zoo keeper or particularly in reptile conservation would you mind answering a few questions for me?
Thanks in advance - Louis Pereira
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Yes, of course, if you work in conservation, you should have very important information to publish for this science. I am an ethno-ornithologist, and I work for conservation in my country. If you have wildlife enhancement items or ecosystems, I think you can make it happen. So feel free to explain your need.
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Will the concept of science-fiction genetic experiments to recreate the long-extinct dinosaur species used in the plot of the film "Jurassic Park" ever be possible?
The plot of the film "Jurassic Park" directed by Steven Spielberg is based on a simple, but currently unrealistic concept of laboratory testing of the reproduction of long-extinct dinosaur species.
The collected genetic material of dinosaurs from the blood of a mosquito sunken for millions of years in amber is the main material on the basis of which extinct dinosaur species are recreated.
The genetic material obtained in this way introduced into the germ cell of modern reptiles in the film gives the possibility of reproduction of extinct reptile species.
This idea is based on modern research and genetic experiments carried out in laboratories, whose aim is to create, for example, new crop varieties or produce drugs for specific diseases.
However, the reproduction of long-extinct species such as dinosaurs is still not possible because the genetic material undergoes deep fragmentation over millions of years.
The genetic chain of chromosomes breaks down into very short fragments. So short that there is no information on how to assemble them into whole chromosomes and the lack of enzymes that would be able to fragment these fragmented dinosaur DNA pieces into whole chromosomes.
But the technology of genetic research is developing. The whole genomes of various species of animals, plants and other life forms are studied. The knowledge base of genotypes and related species is successively growing in the Big Data resources created for this purpose.
Therefore, the question arises: Will the fantastic research concept applied in the plot of the film "Jurassic Park" ever be possible? Will it be possible to recreate long-extinct animal and plant species with the help of subsequent generations of research in the field of genetics in the future?
Will it be possible to create a real Jurassic Park in the future, within which dinosaurs will run among the vegetation composed, among others, of flowering and woody ferns, horsetail and ferns, or the restoration of the ecosystem from millions of years ago?
Or maybe a man should not even try this type of other than present ecosystems to play?
Is this also a matter of ethics? Is it not threatening modern ecosystems to restore ecosystems over millions of years, ie consisting of many long-extinct species of plants and animals?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Hi there!
That's actually a very nice question!
First of all, I am not the best person to answer this, but I would suggest you the book "How to clone a Mammoth" by Beth Saphiro. This is a great reading that answers a lot of your questions!
The main issue with the idea of using fossils to obtain genetic material is that "fossils" usually have organic parts substituted by minerals (processes called 'permineralization' and 'recrystallization'). Therefore you cannot extract DNA from these fossils because everything was substituted by minerals. It is also true that recent studies seem to have found traces of soft tissues in extremely well preserved fossils, but this is still extremely far from allowing to obtain the genome of dinosaurs (if you are interested in this, check the works of Mary Higby Schweitzer --> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Higby_Schweitzer#cite_note-18).
However, the movie played it quite smartly on this topic, suggesting that the blood was actually encased in the amber, therefore not really fossilized. Nonetheless, in the book cited above, they explain how they tried to obtain even the DNA of insects from amber (I seem to recall they were working on bees?) but always failed. Again, a team of researchers managed to found "emoglobin-derived porphyrins" in a mosquito encased in amber ( ), but this is still far from Jurassic Park, still.
What you can extract DNA from, is frozen material. That's how they managed to obtain the full genome of the wholly mammoth (in 2015) from frozen specimens unearthed from the ice of Siberia. And yes, there is already who is thinking of using it to inseminate elephants in order to be able to have their "Pleistocene Park" (I now it's in Siberia but I do not remember additional information, again, check the book!).
This obviously generated a lot of discussion on the idea of how ethical it would be to use elephants to breed mammoth.
Sorry for the long answer, but I truly find this topic extremely exciting!
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Currently used methods.
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Museum collections are a great source for dietary analysis. Methods include examining stomach contents of museum specimens to determine prey preferences.
This paper studied the diet of the California Mountain Kingsnake using museum specimens.
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Folks,
What kind of SDM will prove worthy for a cryptic reptile species found in arid landscapes for foreseeing its habitat preference and usage?
N.B. : Both presence and absence locations were colected
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I act as series editor for the books published by Cambridge University Press in the 'Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation' series. Two of the books in the series are appropriate for your question; these are:
Franklin, J. (2009). Mapping Species Distributions: spatial inference and prediction.
Guisan, A., Thuiller, W. & Zimmermann, N.E. (2017). Habitat Suitability and Distribution Models: with applications in R.
I hope that these two books are of assistance to you.
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For my Master's thesis I am proposing a road mortality study of a reptile species that migrates across roads from an interior to a coastal habitat for nesting, and in order to create an accurate data set for the use of modeling it is important to have reliable estimations of non-kill road crossing points. To this point, my own searching has come up empty-handed so now I'm doing a little crowd sourcing.
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Hello Travis,
It's a good topic which has recently captured the minds of researchers. I found two links that may help
Goodluck
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Hi all dears
I am going to have a scorpion farm.
Breeding them is possible?
What exactly be needed for this?
Food, light cycle, temp etc
I need details.
Can anyone help me?
Because in my googleate I just see farms capture them not mate and breed.
Best regards.
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Thanks a lot
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In one of populations we work on (capture-mark-recapture studies) the oldest tortoises are already marked. It seams like someone branded them (like cattle) with Arabic numerals on middle of the plastron (ventral part of the shell).
Unfortunately we have no idea who and when did this mass (sometimes three digit numbers!) marking of tortoises, and it would be fascinating to learn more about that.
Please, if you have seen this type of individual markings description in some old publications, or you know about them in some other way, let me know.
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Ha ha Rastko, I have seen you watching them :-) Do you know who did it?
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I will be examining reptile blood smears to look at leukocyte profile (primarily ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes). I would also like to look for the presence of blood parasites,.which may include malaria and/or haemogregarines. Is there a staining method I can use to measure all of this from a single blood smear? Many thanks!
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Leishman is the best
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This skin represent an old museum sample (presumably collected in the late XIX century), the label says "Varanus species - British Guyana", but no Varanidae occur in the Neotropics. I thought it could belong to Tupinambis sp. but the pictures I found on the web do not seem to match.
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In the early 1800's some Tegus and Varanids were included in Tupinambis (see Daudin 1802). Based on the locality and characteristics of the skin you have, it is most likely T. teguixin. For the ID I used: Fuchs and Fuchs. 2003. The Reptile Skin: A Key-feature in the Identification of Lizards and Snakes. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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The pictures were taken between December 2017 / January 2018 (winter).
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Hi Gregor,
It does look like Leiocephalus carinatus, yet the subspecies armouri does not occur on Cuba. It is probably safe to go with the nominate. If you have the specimen, you could use the dichotomous key in the book by Schwartz & Henderson (1985) to check the ID (see attached).
Good luck!
Best,
Danny
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I am planning for a morphological study on Saara hardwickii in the Aravallis in Western India. It has a semi-arid landscape with a fairly good population of the species. But capturing these species became a problem. I need to know some methods by which I can capture these species for morphological study and then release safely in their habitat.
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In West Africa there is a park manager on the W national park trapping Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) with Havahart trap too. He had a big succes
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I'm sure that someone must have already collected this type of data somewhere... Does any one know a paper or series of papers that compile such a list for a large number of species?
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Try Jordan, FFJ., Murphy, S., Martinez, E., Amiot, C., van Helden, A., & Stockin, KA. (2015). Criteria for assessing maturity of skulls in the common dolphin, Delphinus sp., from New Zealand waters. Marine Mammal Science. 31(3), 1077-1097
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I am planning to do small genome sequencing for some mammals and reptiles and wondering if there is a pre- or post DNA extraction method I can use to enrich for mitochondrial DNA.
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You can try RNA-seq (mitochondrial transcripts comprise from 5% to 30% of total mRNA in human).
Looking at data I was working with (mantle tissue from marine mussels/clams, ~10% of mitochondrial transcripts, MiSeq 2x150) 5-10mln of reads was enough to get all mitochondrial protein coding genes.
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I regularly perform AEP on fishes and am trying to modify my protocol for use with chameleons.  Christensen et al. 2012 performed AEPs on pythons using a masking protocol, but I am not sure why using pure tones would not work.
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Can species of Lacerta viridis complex hybridize at all? And if yes, then can Lacerta viridis hybridize with Lacerta bilineata, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata?
Can you recommend literature on this topic?
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Have you seen this paper? http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzs.12115/abstract. They could not unambiguously resolve whether there is gene flow in contact zones between the species or not. So, a very interesting question to dig into.
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Are there any ways to mimick reptile/cold blooded animals in mammels like mice?
Any relevent drugs or pathway inhibitors? 
Maybe thermogenin or UCP pathway inhibitors?
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Like the thermostat for the house which you can set high or low, the body temperature could be altered by influencing the hypothalamus.
Omer
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Are there any morphological features to use to distinguish Podarcic taurica from Podarcic muralis in the wild nature and to distinguish species of the Podarcis genera without making genetical and molecular analyses?
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According to the key by Arnold & Ovenden (2002), in P. taurica:
"Collar usually distinctly serrated, throat scales fairly coarse, bod scales usually well keeled
while in P. muralis:
"Collar more or less smooth-edged, body scales often not very distinctly keeled, or smooth".
Don't know how much this helps.
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How can we calculate the swim speed and swim depth of fresh water reptiles?
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@Virendra Kumar Saxena , thanks a lot, I will surely go through the paper
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Hi to all,
Recently I am thinking about 5mC which does not occur in CpG island.
I found that some paper said about 70-80% of scattered CpG (not CpG island) in human genome get the C methylated, and the 5mC is much more easier to deamination, that is to say, it will become T and may lead to a mismatch during replication. (I am not sure whether these pionts are all correct.)
Since the only function of 5mC is inhibiting the transcription to some extent (the only funtion I know). I am wondering why beings still retain such a mechanism at the cost of high mutation possibility.
Does it has some benefit related to transcriptional modulating compared with other mechanisms, or has some other funtions?
Can we study the pattern or the ratio of scattered 5mC in many species to get some cues about the evolution of this mechanism? I mean, if there are more scattered 5mC in fish or reptile, can we say that this kind of mechanism is a kind of "primary/original modulation"?
Thank you for your time!
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Dear Vincenzo Rocco and Rajendra Pangeni
Iam sorry to reply too late since I am preparing final exams these days. Thank you for your anwsers! So the methylation of CpG not in CpG island may play an important role in stabilizing human genome right? Many viral derived sequences have the ability to transfer in the genome, and the methylation is one of the method to inhibit this process, protecting the genome (I am not sure whether my understanding is reasonable or not, bu it seems convictive to me).
Later, I also found that the methylation pattern in human genome has been shown associated with aging, thus it is far away from what I proposed before that it is "useless even harmful".
Thank you for your anwsers and time agian!
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I am doing thesis work on gecko retinas and am countering Walls hypothesis that nocturnal geckos do not have rods; Instead, I am attempting to support Schott's hypothesis ii that states that the rod photoreceptor is evolutionarily modified into a cone photoreceptor that acts physiologically as a cone however contains traces of rod opsins/proteins.
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Where can I find an illustration of a Varanus komodoensis nesting chamber? I can't seem to find any on the internet or in any publications. Thank you, Lisa
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A few years ago I have seen the above mentioned plot (Snout Vent vs. Julian Date) in a Herpetology book, but I can't remember now which book it was, nor how was the plot called. The plot may be used to determine cohorts and to see patterns in growth at different ages. 
I attach such a plot that we have produced, hoping that it will remind someone if they have seen or used such a plot in a publication.
Thanks,
Amos 
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Many thanks, Evgeny. Being an article in French, I would probably not be likely to find it in regular searches.
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Do captive Correlophus ciliatus require UVB? And are they thought to be nocturnal or crepuscular?  
I am writing a paper on whether Crested geckos require UVB lighting as part of their husbandry, any help will be greatly appreciated. 
Thanks. 
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Since 4 years, our association studies the demography of a European pond turtle population (Emys orbicularis), located on a wet area (about 7 ha) in southeastern France. This population is totally isolated. There is no road nearby, not limiting (apparent) factors that may cause high adult mortality. Laying areas are located near water areas in relatively well preserved terrestrial habitats. However, a significant reduction of the water surface is observed.
We found a growing imbalance in sex ratio, a very low survival and a large decline in the number of breeding males over time.
Do you know of a similar case?
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IF there are any ways to reduce the bias of the traps by using different collection methods that might provide a different sex ratio. Try using different bait types (or rotating bait types), more intensive sampling, drift fences (fike-nets) into the traps, use of decoys, etc. 
What was your recapture rate? If your male recapture rates are low, you may just be sampling them poorly. 
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This geconidae of big dimension was photografated in Southeastern Sicily. 
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It would be very unusual to encounter Hemidactylus flaviviridis on Sicily, where this photo was taken.  It is a north-African/ Asian species - although individuals may turn up as casual introductions elsewhere.
The two common geckos on Sicily are Hemidactylus turcicus and Tarentola mauritanica.  As David pointed out, the toes show it to be Tarentola rather than Hemidactylus, and other characteristics are typical of the Moorish Gecko.
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I am currently working in the leather industry, we tan crocodile skins (Crocodylus Porosus, Crocodylus Niloticus and Alligator Mississippiensis). To obtain an unique coulour, we remove natural pigmentation by oxygenation (using sodium percarbonate). On some of the skins, especially on Porosus' skins and even though it looks well discolored, we can still see the pattern after the dyeing process, which looks unsightly.
I would like to understand the exact composition of the skin pigmentation in order to know why the skin is reacting that way during the dyeing process.
I have no zoology skills but a good chemistry level.
Any contribution would help.
Thanks,
Tristan PLAYS
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Yes, xanthophores contain yellow pteridine pigments and erythrophores contain red or orange carotenoids. I don't think you need to be concerned with carotenoids, but the guanine-derived pteridines are probably abundant in some regions of crocodilian integument. You might try the enzyme xanthine oxidase ( if you can find a supplier) to convert xanthine to uric acid, which should wash out with repeated rinsing.
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I'm looking for researchers working on, or able to contribute to a project investigating the bacteria responsible for wound infections in crocodile bites (human or non-human).
We need people based in areas where such bites occur relatively regularly, and infections ensue.
The literature is pitifully small, including a few much cited papers like Raynor et al., Flandry et al., Caldicott et al., Vanwersch et al., and Wamisho, B.L. et al.
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Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Volume 16, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 143–159
Review
 
Crocodile Attack in Australia: An Analysis of Its Incidence and Review of the Pathology and Management of Crocodilian Attacks in General
David G.E. Caldicott, BSc(Hons), MBBS(Lond)1, , ,
David Croser, FRANZCR1,
Charlie Manolis, BSc(Hons)2,
Grahame Webb, PhD2,
Adam Britton, PhD2
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The phobia to amphibians and reptiles is very frequently in Cuba but this emotional phenomenon have not been assessed appropriately. I would like to know if there are studies in other countries to permit us comparative assessment and know methodologies.
Although the phobia could be to any native or introduced amphibians and reptiles, the introduced species like house geckos are more close to the peoples.
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Hello Rafael,
here are some references concerning snakes:
TI : On fear of serpents and ophiolatry.
AU : Christy N.P.
SO : Trans. Am. clin. climatol. Ass.
CO : 79:21-33.
PY : 1968
TI : The origins of fear of snakes.
AU : Murray E.J.; Foote F.
SO : Behav. Res. Ther.
CO : 17(5):489-493.
PY : 1979
TI : Teach respect - not fear: getting along with rattlesnakes.
AU : Vogler J.
SO : Wyo. Wildl.
CO : 35(11):22-25.
PY : 1971
TI : 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement.
AU : Fita D.S.; Costa Neto E.M.; Schiavetti A.
SO : J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed.
CO : 6(13):1-13.
PY : 2010
TX : Viperidae.
TI : Cross-cultural comparison of student attitudes toward snakes.
AU : Prokop P.; Ozel M.; Usak M.
SO : Soc. and Anim.
CO : 17(3):224-240.
PY : 2009
TI : Combating ophiophobia: origins, treatment, education, and conservation tools.
AU : Burghardt G.M.; Murphy J.B.; Chiszar D.A.; Hutchins M.
SO : In S.J. Mullin, R.A. Seigel, eds. Snakes: ecology and conservation.
PB : Ithaca, London : Comstock Publishing Associates.
CO : I-XIV, 1-365 [pp. 262-280].
PY : 2009
Cordially.
Philippe
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Dear all, I have been looking for information on the half life of activity of the alfa adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine. I have used an intramuscular dose of 2 mg/kg in rattlesnakes maintained at 30°C and I could see a blockage after 6 hours given an injection of phenylephrine at a concentration of 2 micrograms/kg. I would like to know if there is some information regarding other organisms so I could compare my results - preferably reptiles, but any other organism would be relevant.
Thanks in advance
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Hi Renato
As I know
Half life of  Phentolamine 19 minutes, also you can certify  from drugbank.
Regards
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Hi,
please advise on reptile monitoring protocols/sampling designs that can be used in statistical tests/modelling for land-use comparisons and not only for collecting mere species inventories. The question pertains to terrestrial reptiles, not amphibs. and I am not interested in PITFALL TRAPPING.
Thanks in advance.
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New Zealand's standard practice...some of this might be relevant
Dylan
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Pheasants have been introduced in Europe for centuries. As gamebirds, there are still introductions in some areas, sometimes hundreds of thousands of birds (Wallonia).
Pheasants are known to eat reptiles. Are there scientific studies about the impacts of this bird on reptiles and wildlife ?
Thank you !
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Can someone help me about the colour morphs (male, female, juvenile) of the Paralaudakia himalayana specimens in the attached file from Ladakh? Thanks!
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How do you know they are one species? Are the colors stable? The one with the relatively longer head would be juvenile (#2?), The colorful #1 - male, & #3 female. But better check non-color morphology, best -- open some and check gonads.
Good luck, Yehudah
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I would be very interested to find any studies that pertain to animals (mainly social, communal animals) discriminating other members based on differences such as color (especially pertaining to reptiles). If anyone could help out, it would be greatly appreciated. 
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while an reptilian investigation at Doda region (Jammu and Kashmir) i came across an snake moult which have an extra small head shield. Photography is attached, it would be very helpful if somebody help me with its identification.
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I might call it 'a small azygous posterior prefrontal' but that's just a descriptive label, not an 'identity', because the idea of direct homology between the 'same' scale or suture in different individuals or species is slightly problematic.
From my experience (especially but not only with Australian elapid snakes), I'd say it's the sort of thing that might occur as a rare variant in any species, but would be more likely in certain lineages where the regular large head scales have a tendency to 'break up' at the edges (associated with increased flexibility and gape in e.g. Acanthophis, viperids, some seasnakes, homalopsids etc.). Consider a series of python or viper species where some (e.g. Liasis, Causus) have regular large head shields, others (e.g. Morelia viridis, Crotalus) have small scales over nearly the whole head, and there are intermediates with distinct major shields separated by irregular small scales. All these conditions exist on a continuum historically and developmentally, but trying to establish homology or identity of particular scales or sutures may not always be worthwhile.
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I am aware that some sort of mats are used but what kind and where would i find them?
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