Questions related to Reptiles
I would like to open a discussion regarding Benzocaine 20% oral administration and its potential as an effective and humane method for the euthanasia of small reptiles. Finding both practical and humane methods of euthanasia that can be used in the field is challenging but essential.
Benzocaine, similar to MS 222, is an accepted euthanasia agent for fish and amphibians under the AVMA GUIDELINES FOR THE EUTHANASIA OF ANIMALS: 2020 EDITION, it is effective and rapid. However, a paucity of literature is available on its efficacy in small reptiles. There appears to be several advantages and disadvantages to the Benzocaine oral administration method. But let's hear from you. Has this method ever been accepted by your ethics committee for small reptiles? And if so, what were some of the comments from the committee? For those that have applied this method, have you ever witnessed vomiting or regurgitation after administration? What were the dosages given, how was death confirmed and after how long? What are your institutions' preferred methods of euthanasia for small reptiles?
I am looking for literature that deals with amphibians in urban areas. Are there studies on threshod values for toxological substances at which amphibians are no longer able to survive? Which species are more sensitive which are less? For example, at what concentration are acidification and contamination by heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead and zinc a problem? What about pharmaceuticals and pesticides? There are a lot of studies for non-urban areas, are the results transferable?
Studies in German are very welcome.
There is a review, but I think it‘s not sufficient for answering this specific question:
Toxicological Threats to Amphibians and Reptiles in Urban Environments (2008)
Maxine C. Croteau, Natacha Hogan, Jennifer C. Gibson, David Lean, and Vance L. Trudeau, In: J.C. Mitchell, R.E. Jung Brown, and B. Bartholomew (editors). Urban Herpetology. Herpetological Conservation 3: 197–209
I've tried the Qiagen RNeasy Mini kit on chicken blood samples but got no RNA.
Started with 1ml fresh whole blood collected on ETDA, after adding the 600ul lysis buffer the lysate was SOOO VISCOSE, and so hard to pipette even after trying to homogenate it with "Syringe & needle 20 guage co.9 mm"
Knowing that the whole blood of birds, reptiles, and amphibians contains large quantities of protein that must be separated from the nucleic acids to perform a successful extraction, But I don't know how ?!
- should I start with less quantity of blood or what should I do
- the pic shows the pellet size before I discard the supernatant & adding the lysis buffer
I observed some thing that resemble an unfertilized egg in my tank of captive Homalopsis buccata. I am curious about this because as far as i know there is only oviparous species who could lay an unfertlized egg. Anybody can explain what is this and suggest some paper about it? Thanks
Morphological looks like buff striped keelback back but as you can see, this one has single stripe that too on the dorsal side.
I know there are different structures referred to as "eyelids" in animals, specifically reptiles. However, I had been under the impression that the eyelids found in Eublepharidae (Gekkota) were more plesiomorphic than the fused spectacles found in other gecko genera, including but not limited to Rhacodactylus and Phelsuma. Is this accurate? I can't find any research expressly stating so (or the opposite), at least not without paywalls.
Thank you in advance!
Remarks about possible sources of nerve cells origins:
1. Repairing nad creating neural cell systems in human body.
2. It may be possible to learn from embryonic cell research and understanding the genetic material - load.
3. The limits of cell sorting and development must of course be addressed in a negative direction (cancer). Possible genetic mutation or P53 protein error should be considered.
4. It may also be possible to learn from the above research regarding the formation of cancer and / or mutations, and vice versa.
5. There is also room to consider understanding about tissue regrowth and repair (possibly more relevant to body organs).
South India s monitor lizards are not studied closely.If any one is interested or doing work on sand goann's,I am interested to call them.
Most of the papers I read on reptile hibernation focus on changes in serum hormones, metabolites, and behavior. Studies on O2 consumption are mostly conducted on species who do fancy stuff (freeze, submerge, and all that jazz), and I can't find much data on reptile metabolic depression under normal conditions, let alone comparative studies. The closest I could find to a review is Hailey & Loveridge (1997), a paper on dormant Kinixys spekii which includes a sparse review of metabolic depression in other hibernating reptiles (all studies > 35 years old), and Guppy & Withers (1999) whose review is based essentially on the same studies. I imagined this body of work would have expanded since then, but managed to find very little.
Would much appreciate thoughts and recommendations from someone more familiar with the subject.
How ecologist and herpetologist can observing small specis. For example, these last week we have descovred a new chameleon species in Madagascar.
This new reptile is become the smallest amniots in the world - the specis : Brookesia nana !!!
Can you give us your opinion about this question?
Does anyone have access of this paper/book chapter? Found this citation in the book Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. Based on the citation format, it looks to be a book chapter, and the language seems to be Uzbekistan (please correct me if I am wrong)?
Any help will be greatly appreciated!
Panfilov AM, Eremchenko VK. 1999. Novye dannye po karyiologii shesti vidov szinkov (Sauria: Scincidae) Evrasii. Nauka i Novye Tekhnologii, 1999(2), 61–67. Bishkek
I'm searching some public databases of baseline corticosterone in reptiles, I know there is a public database of hormones by Vitousek et al. 2018 ( https://hormonebase.org/ ) and has some data about CORT, but anyone know some focused in corticosterone?
I am currently working on a research entitled: “Taxonomical study of some true Lizard family (Lacertidae) species in the Syrian coastal region, using peripheral blood cells morphology”. And I am facing many difficulties such as the lack of classification keys for this family or a field guide to differentiate between its species,I could not obtain an approved classification key, Therefore, I am writing to ask if you can provide me with a classification key to help me completing this research.
Solar Fencing has been set up at few lowland districts in Nepal to control elephant attacks. Does the fence have same effects on reptiles especially snakes? Are there any behaviours recorded before anywhere?
Can anyone recommend research studies conducted before regarding effects on reptiles from such fencing?
I placed the word "eggs" in quotation marks, because maybe they are not eggs... These structures shown in the photos were exposed in a sand dune by the wind in the Negev Desert, Southern Israel. They look calcareous with sand attached to them and they are quite hard and elongated. They are thicker than normal hard-shelled reptile eggs (e.g., geckos, turtles etc). They don't look like soft-shelled reptile eggs, that tear and look like an empty paper bag when they dry out (like Varanus eggs). But the most disturbing character is that they are not round in a cross section, as are all reptile (and bird) eggs that I have seen so far. All of them (found on three different occasions) where flattened in the same way and not round in a cross section.
I will be glad to hear from anyone who has seen something similar elsewhere or has an idea for a process that could lead to form these structures (maybe accumulation of calcium on something else, not necessarily an egg?).
Dear RG community,
I am looking at the limits of ACTIVE flight of various animals.
I am only interested in animals that are capable of active flight. Active flight (also called powered flight) is a type of animal flight that uses muscles to generate aerodynamic force that is sufficient to generate enough lift and thrust. So no flying fish, no frogs that jump from the treetops and use membranes between their fingers to controllably parachute and fall-down, and no flying squirrels etc. Such examples do not count as active flight under the above definition of active flight.
I am interested in limits of ACTIVE flight of the following animal groups:
c) reptiles (extinct, like pterosaurus)
I am particularly interested in the data on the following:
1). Maximum Altitude (km) a given flying animal was observed
2). Longest Travel Distance (km) - I intend it to be only continuous flight, from initial take off to landing (i.e. without landing and resuming flight afterwards for the second time), otherwise a lot of organisms essentially have no limit to distance.
3). Maximum Speed Observed (but it is less critical)
If any of you know papers or studies that show such limits for example organisms of insects, birds, extinct reptiles and mammals please let me know.
Thank you very much for your help, time and consideration.
Hi! I am working with a large-scale phylogenetic tree for fossil reptiles, and I would like to perform an analysis to supplement the primary analysis's implications for paleobiogeography. The patterns in my data seem clear, but I need to be able to quantify and present them in a testable manner using reliable but current methods. I know a number of methods are currently available (DEC, DEC-J, DES); I am hoping to get a sense-of-the-room on which current methods and implementations were considered best for (entirely extinct) fossil taxa. I would prefer to integrate over as many variables as possible to get a best estimate of the broad strokes: optimizing for the range of a single node is reasonable, but I would prefer to have the option to evaluate ancestral ranges over the entire tree.
In herpetology, a common morphological description of a reptile can be the number of scales (for example scales across mid-body, lamellae on feet etc); and in some cases, it could be the only way to tell two cryptic species apart. I wondered if anyone had found software that could assist counting reptile scales on images.?
I have previously used the counting software on ImageJ and found that rather useful. However, is there any alternatives?
I'm compiling trait information of vertebrates and I was wonder if anyone knows about good papers or other types of documents where I can find information related to the dispersal distances, capabilities or proxies to these two measures. I know that for mammals and birds there is information available but reptiles, like usual, seems to be a little bit neglected in this aspect. Any helo will be more than welcome :)
How to euthanized small reptile using alcoholic solution? Some of the reference said that pentobarbital are good solution. However in field practice i have difficulties on availability and permission for this solution. Usually only alcoholic solution alvailable and i used injection method to brain. Is there any humane way euthanasia using alcoholic solution?
How does one distinguish between cursorial and generalized terrestrial modes of life in lizards? I know that in mammals it is relatively easy to distinguish between a cursorial and non-cursorial species based on the former's much longer limbs, but this is less obvious in lizards. So how would one distinguish between a cursorial lizard like a collared lizard and a non-cursorial species like a chuckwalla or a monitor?
For example, small mammals can trigger a camera with an infrared sensor because these are warm blooded, but perhaps not so for a reptile that is cold blooded. Resolution could be a problem for small animals. Any good model for general purpose?
Microsatellite markers make idea ttools for answering a number of important conservation questions. Despite the meteoric rise of genomics, microsatellites remain a widely published molecular methods and suite many applied applications
However, journals are generally not accepting short notes/technical notes on their optimisation, for example, MEN/MER, Cons Genet Res no longer accept these articles.
I have a number of marsupial/mammal, jellyfish, python and reptile datasets that would be suitable to publish as research notes.
My question is, are there any (non-predatory) journals or places that you can publish short technical notes on the design and optimization of microsatellite markers still out there?
I am currently doing research about environmental enrichment for crocodilians for an internship, but I'm having trouble finding information about this theme.
Does anyone know of any studies or research to suggest?
I am looking for a key to snake families or any way to morphologically distinguish the families Boidae and Pythonidae, please not DNA, biogeography or reproduction information, as I already know how boas and pythons differ in those aspects.
I know when its a boa or a python but it's only because I know most of the species in said families. What I want is to be able to identify the family even if its an animal I don't know (maybe a weird morph, an uncommon species, etc) or if its preserved and old (thus with faded colors and patterns, damaged or without locality data).
We have a verified record of more than 40 years in a captive Uromastyx (exact species identification still in process). We would like to know how this record compares to the longest known life times in this genus. Thanks to help us find published records (with exact literature reference) or unpublished data!
Hesse's rule, also known as the heart–weight rule, states that endotherm species inhabiting colder climates have a larger heart in relation to body weight than closely related species inhabiting warmer climates. Is the opposite true for ectotherms like reptiles, since the metabolism of a reptile living in a colder climate is a lot slower (for example Sphenodon sp.)?
I couldn't find any information on that and would be greatful if anyone knows a paper on that topic or has any ideas!
As part of my Bsc Zoo Biology course I am required to interview/ ask questions to people in my desired career to ascertain information surrounding the field. If anybody working as a zoo keeper or particularly in reptile conservation would you mind answering a few questions for me?
Thanks in advance - Louis Pereira
Will the concept of science-fiction genetic experiments to recreate the long-extinct dinosaur species used in the plot of the film "Jurassic Park" ever be possible?
The plot of the film "Jurassic Park" directed by Steven Spielberg is based on a simple, but currently unrealistic concept of laboratory testing of the reproduction of long-extinct dinosaur species.
The collected genetic material of dinosaurs from the blood of a mosquito sunken for millions of years in amber is the main material on the basis of which extinct dinosaur species are recreated.
The genetic material obtained in this way introduced into the germ cell of modern reptiles in the film gives the possibility of reproduction of extinct reptile species.
This idea is based on modern research and genetic experiments carried out in laboratories, whose aim is to create, for example, new crop varieties or produce drugs for specific diseases.
However, the reproduction of long-extinct species such as dinosaurs is still not possible because the genetic material undergoes deep fragmentation over millions of years.
The genetic chain of chromosomes breaks down into very short fragments. So short that there is no information on how to assemble them into whole chromosomes and the lack of enzymes that would be able to fragment these fragmented dinosaur DNA pieces into whole chromosomes.
But the technology of genetic research is developing. The whole genomes of various species of animals, plants and other life forms are studied. The knowledge base of genotypes and related species is successively growing in the Big Data resources created for this purpose.
Therefore, the question arises: Will the fantastic research concept applied in the plot of the film "Jurassic Park" ever be possible? Will it be possible to recreate long-extinct animal and plant species with the help of subsequent generations of research in the field of genetics in the future?
Will it be possible to create a real Jurassic Park in the future, within which dinosaurs will run among the vegetation composed, among others, of flowering and woody ferns, horsetail and ferns, or the restoration of the ecosystem from millions of years ago?
Or maybe a man should not even try this type of other than present ecosystems to play?
Is this also a matter of ethics? Is it not threatening modern ecosystems to restore ecosystems over millions of years, ie consisting of many long-extinct species of plants and animals?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
For my Master's thesis I am proposing a road mortality study of a reptile species that migrates across roads from an interior to a coastal habitat for nesting, and in order to create an accurate data set for the use of modeling it is important to have reliable estimations of non-kill road crossing points. To this point, my own searching has come up empty-handed so now I'm doing a little crowd sourcing.
Hi all dears
I am going to have a scorpion farm.
Breeding them is possible?
What exactly be needed for this?
Food, light cycle, temp etc
I need details.
Can anyone help me?
Because in my googleate I just see farms capture them not mate and breed.
In one of populations we work on (capture-mark-recapture studies) the oldest tortoises are already marked. It seams like someone branded them (like cattle) with Arabic numerals on middle of the plastron (ventral part of the shell).
Unfortunately we have no idea who and when did this mass (sometimes three digit numbers!) marking of tortoises, and it would be fascinating to learn more about that.
Please, if you have seen this type of individual markings description in some old publications, or you know about them in some other way, let me know.
I will be examining reptile blood smears to look at leukocyte profile (primarily ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes). I would also like to look for the presence of blood parasites,.which may include malaria and/or haemogregarines. Is there a staining method I can use to measure all of this from a single blood smear? Many thanks!
This skin represent an old museum sample (presumably collected in the late XIX century), the label says "Varanus species - British Guyana", but no Varanidae occur in the Neotropics. I thought it could belong to Tupinambis sp. but the pictures I found on the web do not seem to match.
I am planning for a morphological study on Saara hardwickii in the Aravallis in Western India. It has a semi-arid landscape with a fairly good population of the species. But capturing these species became a problem. I need to know some methods by which I can capture these species for morphological study and then release safely in their habitat.
I'm sure that someone must have already collected this type of data somewhere... Does any one know a paper or series of papers that compile such a list for a large number of species?
I am planning to do small genome sequencing for some mammals and reptiles and wondering if there is a pre- or post DNA extraction method I can use to enrich for mitochondrial DNA.
I regularly perform AEP on fishes and am trying to modify my protocol for use with chameleons. Christensen et al. 2012 performed AEPs on pythons using a masking protocol, but I am not sure why using pure tones would not work.
Can species of Lacerta viridis complex hybridize at all? And if yes, then can Lacerta viridis hybridize with Lacerta bilineata, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata?
Can you recommend literature on this topic?
Are there any morphological features to use to distinguish Podarcic taurica from Podarcic muralis in the wild nature and to distinguish species of the Podarcis genera without making genetical and molecular analyses?
Hi to all,
Recently I am thinking about 5mC which does not occur in CpG island.
I found that some paper said about 70-80% of scattered CpG (not CpG island) in human genome get the C methylated, and the 5mC is much more easier to deamination, that is to say, it will become T and may lead to a mismatch during replication. (I am not sure whether these pionts are all correct.)
Since the only function of 5mC is inhibiting the transcription to some extent (the only funtion I know). I am wondering why beings still retain such a mechanism at the cost of high mutation possibility.
Does it has some benefit related to transcriptional modulating compared with other mechanisms, or has some other funtions?
Can we study the pattern or the ratio of scattered 5mC in many species to get some cues about the evolution of this mechanism? I mean, if there are more scattered 5mC in fish or reptile, can we say that this kind of mechanism is a kind of "primary/original modulation"?
Thank you for your time!
I am doing thesis work on gecko retinas and am countering Walls hypothesis that nocturnal geckos do not have rods; Instead, I am attempting to support Schott's hypothesis ii that states that the rod photoreceptor is evolutionarily modified into a cone photoreceptor that acts physiologically as a cone however contains traces of rod opsins/proteins.
A few years ago I have seen the above mentioned plot (Snout Vent vs. Julian Date) in a Herpetology book, but I can't remember now which book it was, nor how was the plot called. The plot may be used to determine cohorts and to see patterns in growth at different ages.
I attach such a plot that we have produced, hoping that it will remind someone if they have seen or used such a plot in a publication.
Do captive Correlophus ciliatus require UVB? And are they thought to be nocturnal or crepuscular?
I am writing a paper on whether Crested geckos require UVB lighting as part of their husbandry, any help will be greatly appreciated.
Since 4 years, our association studies the demography of a European pond turtle population (Emys orbicularis), located on a wet area (about 7 ha) in southeastern France. This population is totally isolated. There is no road nearby, not limiting (apparent) factors that may cause high adult mortality. Laying areas are located near water areas in relatively well preserved terrestrial habitats. However, a significant reduction of the water surface is observed.
We found a growing imbalance in sex ratio, a very low survival and a large decline in the number of breeding males over time.
Do you know of a similar case?
I am currently working in the leather industry, we tan crocodile skins (Crocodylus Porosus, Crocodylus Niloticus and Alligator Mississippiensis). To obtain an unique coulour, we remove natural pigmentation by oxygenation (using sodium percarbonate). On some of the skins, especially on Porosus' skins and even though it looks well discolored, we can still see the pattern after the dyeing process, which looks unsightly.
I would like to understand the exact composition of the skin pigmentation in order to know why the skin is reacting that way during the dyeing process.
I have no zoology skills but a good chemistry level.
Any contribution would help.
I'm looking for researchers working on, or able to contribute to a project investigating the bacteria responsible for wound infections in crocodile bites (human or non-human).
We need people based in areas where such bites occur relatively regularly, and infections ensue.
The literature is pitifully small, including a few much cited papers like Raynor et al., Flandry et al., Caldicott et al., Vanwersch et al., and Wamisho, B.L. et al.
The phobia to amphibians and reptiles is very frequently in Cuba but this emotional phenomenon have not been assessed appropriately. I would like to know if there are studies in other countries to permit us comparative assessment and know methodologies.
Although the phobia could be to any native or introduced amphibians and reptiles, the introduced species like house geckos are more close to the peoples.
Dear all, I have been looking for information on the half life of activity of the alfa adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine. I have used an intramuscular dose of 2 mg/kg in rattlesnakes maintained at 30°C and I could see a blockage after 6 hours given an injection of phenylephrine at a concentration of 2 micrograms/kg. I would like to know if there is some information regarding other organisms so I could compare my results - preferably reptiles, but any other organism would be relevant.
Thanks in advance
please advise on reptile monitoring protocols/sampling designs that can be used in statistical tests/modelling for land-use comparisons and not only for collecting mere species inventories. The question pertains to terrestrial reptiles, not amphibs. and I am not interested in PITFALL TRAPPING.
Thanks in advance.
Pheasants have been introduced in Europe for centuries. As gamebirds, there are still introductions in some areas, sometimes hundreds of thousands of birds (Wallonia).
Pheasants are known to eat reptiles. Are there scientific studies about the impacts of this bird on reptiles and wildlife ?
Thank you !
Can someone help me about the colour morphs (male, female, juvenile) of the Paralaudakia himalayana specimens in the attached file from Ladakh? Thanks!
I would be very interested to find any studies that pertain to animals (mainly social, communal animals) discriminating other members based on differences such as color (especially pertaining to reptiles). If anyone could help out, it would be greatly appreciated.
while an reptilian investigation at Doda region (Jammu and Kashmir) i came across an snake moult which have an extra small head shield. Photography is attached, it would be very helpful if somebody help me with its identification.