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# Representation - Science topic

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Questions related to Representation

Hi Hello researchers! need help. I had prepared a cereal-based fermented drink, keeping sensorial properties in mind I centrifuged the sample and collected the supernatant.

And the further analysis was carried out in the supernatant. Antioxidants assays {DPPH/FRAP}. How do I represent the results? Some say it has to be in w/v some say only volume rep eg 500microL but usually in articles we see w/v . And IC50 also is in w/v

So how do I represent this? Thanks in advance....

Greetings dear collegues,

my question deals with representation of "directional" mass and damping in ANSYS Worbench.

In detail, I need to represent the added mass and the radiation damping of an offshore structure and I have find out that commands MATRIX27 and MASS21 may serve to this purpose. Additional mass, indeed, are not sufficient, since they would have the same value in all the three directions, while added mass depends on x-y-z.

Unfortunately, I am not an expert user of Mechanical APDL module of ANSYS and I need to work only with Workbench, where such instructions may be given through the "Command" item, whitin the "Solid Body" tree.

May someone give me some simple explanation on the instructions to give in the "Command" text (e.g. a template) to represent a mass and/or damping symmetric matrix associated to this body'?

Thank you very much in advance,

Carlo

QM stands for quantum mechanics, CS for computer science, CC for cellphones/computers, and Mathematics seems to have somehow missed all three.

Now is the time to catch up. We have come to a stand off. Students are ending up neurologically sick -- feeling math-averse (neurophobia and math trauma).

It is not a matter of selection. Only group/rote work [1] seems to infuse Mathematics, as taught today, even in highly-qualified students. Paradoxically, one finds that the more intellectually qualified, the more averse!

And yet current Mathematics still tries to "instruct" it to the students, and other disciplines, in the US and the world.

This failure has been denied [1], and the “fault” has been put on the victims -- the students. Paradigm shifts are needed: first, QM.

According to QM, only integer numbers should be necessary to build all one can see in nature. Otherwise, all of Physics would be contradicted. This would also contradict all of CS and all of CC. Computers, for example, only work with integers, and are error-free.

Since this contradiction is not even imaginable, QM is ontologically correct. Therefore, all sciences must reflect it, according to a "holographic principle" (HP) in nature, including Mathematics.

The HP is often referred to as "the micro as in the macro" or vice-versa.

These two words macro and micro are commonly viewed as antonyms, meaning that they are the opposite of each other. Macro means on a large scale. Micro means on a very small scale. Both are important, though often complementary, views of nature. The view from the macro, while taking into account the micro, is called "universality" in Physics.

The QM main principle was given by Niels Bohr as, "all states at once". This needs to be understood as different from the following possibilities:

- "Copenhagen interpretation", or
- a "collapse" of the quantum function upon measurement, or
- waves, as a picture of QM, or
- wave-particle duality, or
- the Heisenberg principle, or
- a probabilistic view of QM.

In opening the "black box" of QM as viewed by Bohr, QM does not represent Natur (defined by the philosopher Kant), but Wirklichkeit (ditto). It is not how nature is, but seems to work. A story.

A known analogy is the Plato's Cave". The shadows one can see on the wall are Wirklichkeit, and the open reality outside is Natur. After watching Wirklichkeit for some time, people can make an idea what Natur looks like, even though imprisoned in the Cave.

QM is, ontologically, how one can describe Wirklichkeit -- which is the subject of Physics. Natur may not have QM behavior, and continuity may exist in Natur.

Mathematics is not concerned with Wirklichkeit only, but can include Natur. Although, as no one can see Natur, one is led to treat any "pure" Mathematics as a speculation.

Albeit, Mathematics must agree with Physics in the realm of Wirklichkeit.

This does not happen today, and creates a clash. The inconsistency is seen as an opening. What IS mathematics?

Today's calculus teaching can be seen as relying on outdated ideas, going back before QM, computer science (CS), and cellphones/computers (CC) were discovered. Three major paradigm shifts seem to have been missed.

But these three paradigm shifts represent how science is done, in our seemingly endless task in going from Wirklichkeit to Natur.

One recognizes then, that science does not behave continuously, but by jumps -- that break from the past, and open a new future -- in going from Wirklichkeit to Natur, and back -- does the envisioned Wirklichkeit reproduce the actual Wirklichkeit?

This has been called a "paradigm shift" (PS) by T. S. Kuhn in Structure of Scientific Revolutions [2].

David Hilbert [3], at the turn of the XX century, proposed twenty-three problems intended to guide research in the dawning century, claims otherwise, that “History teaches the continuity of the development of science.”

Michael Harris [4], a mathematician, writes that he, "would still be glad to lift the veil, but we no longer believe in continuity. And we may no longer be sure that it’s enough to lift a veil to make our goals clear to ourselves, much less to outsiders."

The outdated ideas currently in Mathematics date back to the time of Newton, Leibnitz, and Cauchy, before the 3 PSs mentioned. They include (aka Fictions, or incorrect models): microscopic continuity, infinitesimals, hyper-reals, Cauchy epsilon-deltas, and Cauchy accumulation points.

Even in 4-year universities one finds classes, such as at Caltech, MIT, CSU, and abroad, teaching Fictions today [1].

This failure can be denied [1], and the “fault” can be put on the victims -- the students. But, there is no feeling of inferiority. PS [2] combats this, American style -- by innovation.

A technical innovation can reduce this gap by a PS [2] -- already heralded and error-free, as one can see in the history of sciences (contradicting David Hilbert [3]).

This reduces risk by following an experimental model that works, even though no one has explained it mathematically, without Fictions.

By jump-starting to QM one has a solution, which we mark as a first paradigm shift.

Where Fictions interfere with known Physics, they must be mercilessly deprecated -- although, and yet, current Mathematics still tries to "instruct" it to the students, in the US and the world.

The other paradigm shifts, stand for computer science (CS), and cellphones/computers (CC).

We now introduce a coherent, holographic principle (HP), a universe, and understanding yet to be discovered, as two new paradigm shifts -- and gain a cosmic perspective: who is the Creator of all this marvelous scheme?

This final PS leads to a comment. One does not need to learn anything, confirms https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert-Fuchs

One just has to observe.

Mathematics seems, thus, to be discovered — as a hologram and coherent with other sciences, and not, somehow, invented by mere humans.

What is your qualified opinion?

REFERENCES

[2] T. S. Kuhn, Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962.

[3] David Hilbert, Paris International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM), 1900.

[4 I] Michael Harris, “Mathematics Without Apologies”, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-1-17583-6, 2017.

Hello everyone,

i want to create the combined graph with same x axis and two different y axes, one above other in same figure as shown in attachment for academic purpose.

The attached file is just for representation purpose.

Thanks in advance.

Regards,

RAJDEEP JAGDALE

Hello. I have a question regarding the unconfined compression test for soil and my question is "what does this test actually represent in reality?". We notice during the test that the soil sample is not subjected to lateral pressure (Unconfined) and this does not exist in reality as the soil sample is surrounded by soil, which generates lateral pressure. So, what does unconfined pressure test represent and when do we need to perform it

If I have multiple scenarios with multiple variables changing, and I want to conduct a full factorial analysis, how do I graphically show the results?

please is there any mathematical function that relates the SMD (D32) to the mean diameter (D50)? I actually understand what each of them represent.

thanks

I want to know about the reverse causality test in SEM. What is its importance, why we do it, and how to represent the result?

I am publishing this thesis to mark its 30th Year Anniversary, written in 1993. This is a useful time capsule from which one can better grasp the complexities and nuances of the current emergent World Order.

I wrote:

**Come 1997 maps will be literally redrawn, incorporating HK into the mainland boundaries. HK will face pressures that work against its acquired linguistic/ geopolitical identity. The representational practices which contributed to that stability will become destabilised.**

**In the meantime this process is further mediated through growing economic and cultural links across the borders. Despite the growing economic and cultural links, however, HK will still maintain its separate identity from the mainland... When the maps are redrawn, various representational practices will find much difficulty in asserting HK as a distinct from the PRC...**

Hi,

Apologises if the questions at the end are simple but they are causing me a lot of confusion and I'm not sure what to do.

Appreciate any guidance you can give

Aims

1. To explore if their is a relationship between Hai (anxiety) and (Pss-10) stress and treatment delay.

2. To explore if anxiety is predicted by stress and treatment delay and whether this is moderated by Brief Cope strategies (Brief COPE) .

Design

1 continuous outcome variable – anxiety (let’s call this H)

continuous predictor variables (let’s call these D, S, BC)

Control variables (let’s call this age (which is continuous) and gender (which is catergorical - 2 levels))

- D – delay

- S – Stress (measured by pss-10)

- BC - Brief Cope - 1 (consists of 4 questions with each questions represent a different factor)

- BC - Brief Cope – 2 (consists of 9 questions with each questions represent a different factor)

- BC - Brief Cope – 3 (consists of 4 questions which each questions represent a different factor)

I have completed a Pearson r correlation and identified which predictor variables and control variables correlate to H. All the assumptions for this test were met. The results of this test answered the aim 1 wrote above.

To answer aim 2 noted above i completed a hierarchical multiple regression with the models as follows:

Outcome variable for all models = anxiety

Model 1 age and gender (control)

Model 2 age, gender and delay

Model 3 age gender, delay and stress

Model 4 age, gender, delay, stress and BC 1 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered)

Model 5 age, gender, delay, BC 1 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered), BC 2 (composed of 5 predictor variables entered)

Model 6 age, gender, delay, BC 1 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered), BC 2 (composed of 5 predictor variables entered) and BC 3 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered)

The total variance explained was 55% and the findings in the Model summary were found to be significant except for Model 4. Hierarchical multiple regression assumptions were met too.

I also found that statistical significance in the Anovas for Model 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 (within the hierarchical multiple regression).

This is where I have stopped my analysis (not sure if that is right or wrong).

To confirm I have completed only parametric tests as described above. I have 1 sample group completing all predictor variables.

I have the following questions:

Q0. Is the above analysis tests done so far correct in view of the aims described above?

Q1. How do I look at the components of BC 1, 2, 3 (ie determine if the individual predictors variables – 13 in total) predict anxiety? Hierarchial regression is limited to 9 blocks that can be entered at any one time. I did include these individual predictor variables (13 total in the pearsons r correlation with anxiety) and established their were significant relationships. Is this enough ?

Q2. Do I need to complete post hoc tests for the significant anovas in the hierarchial regression? If so what test would I do ? and how would this be entered into SPSS? (To confirm I have 1 sample group answering all the predictor variables described above).

Q3. Have i missed anything from the analysis? Do I need to conduct any further analysis to answer the above aims ? If so what analysis?

Q4. How do I know if coping strategies moderates the relationship of stress and delay in treatment in predicting anxiety.

Appreciate in any support that can be provided.

The mathematical representation of both equations is same.

What does the E-value exactly mean in the result of Blastn (for instance zero or 1e-170 )?

What does 1e-170 represent ?

I am confused about miller indices... Generally, I have observed that miller indices are represented by (hkl) for cubic or hexagonal structures. However, these represent 3D structures like (111) and others.

But for graphene, I have seen different XRD graphs which show a peak at (002). If graphene has a 2D structure, why do we have to treat graphene as a 3D structure according to the present plane through miller indices?

Please explain...

Hello,

How i can represent this antenna with the equivalent circuit?

Lower Matrix to represent the approximate final stages of payment and upper representing the early payments

Dear researchers,

There are many ways to represent orientations, viz. Rotational matrices/tensors, Direction cosines, Euler angles (Bunge or Tait-Bryan or other conventions), Axis-angle representation/Rodrigues vector, Quaternions).

What are the advantages or disadvantages of representing orientation in one way to another? Why do we need multiple ways of defining a single attribute?

Thank you.

Sincerely,

Ravi Varma

As a starting point in structuring human-machine interaction research in the field of innovations for train operators I’m looking for an abstraction hierarchy representation of the train operator system. Are there good examples out there? For example capturing goals such as punctuality, driving comfort, and safety in relation to ATO and ERTMS.

Hi,

I have come across many types of SEMs (PLS-SEM, CFA-SEM etc). The interpretation seems to be different. Am I correct in assuming that the R-Square value derived in all types mean the same(that it is the coefficient of determination)?

Dear Research Gate community,

I have a dataset from a multi-environment trial where not all genotypes are grown in all the environments. Since the dataset is not balanced the standard formula of heritability might not work. I thought an interesting approach might be to calculate the regression coefficient (slope of regression) between the BLUP of genotypes (calculated with RELM), which represent the genotypic value of individuals and the relative phenotypic values.

What do you think?

Best

Lorenzo

Can we use inferential statistics for a case study that aims to represent a wider target population?

Hopefully someone can help me out with how to quantify a significant representation of a group.

I am analysing a bias in protein detections. To see a pattern I group the proteins in their families I know the baseline occurrence of a family, based on the proteome. The sample data consist of a list of how many times a protein family occurred in my sample (always equal or less than the baseline).

Data -- baseline ---- %

1 -------- 6 --------- 16.67%

2 -------- 15 ------ 13.33%

11 ------ 141 ----- 7.80%

3 -------- 18 ------- 16.67%

58 ------ 361 ----- 16.07%

1 -------- 3 -------- 33.33%

1 -------- 21 ------- 4.76%

7 -------- 421 ----- 1.66%

1 -------- 2 ---------- 50.00%

I could take a percentage of representation, but since the families are not equally represented this creates a bias.

Here the value of 58 out of 361 weights more than 1 of 2.

Is there a way to calculate the 'magnitude' of representation beyond percentage to take the frequency into account?

Chi-square testing doesn't work since the dataset consists out of more than 600 family groups.

I struggle a bit to get my problem forward, please ask if I can do anything to clarify.

About a photo-mediated 6π cyclization reaction, I have got the single point energy

^{1}A 、^{3}A、^{3}B and^{1}B，which represent the energy of excited singlet and excited triplet, how can I got the MECP from these point, and how to use the CASSCF or other ways to find the MECP by g09 or g16? Thanks.I have LCMV RNA samples of unknown concentration and I want to know how many LCMV RNA copies/mL I have in each sample. To do so, I am going to use the same volume of RNA/sample to perform a One step RTqPCR (Qiagen) and I will use a LCMV cDNA standard curve.

Such standard curve will give me the cDNA copies/mL in my samples. How can I then extrapolate the RNA copies/mL? Otherwise is it accepted to represent LCMV virus quantification as cDNA copies rather then RNA copies?

is it possible to convert a nanosphere of radius 8 nm (each atom has 0 charge) from all-atom representation to coarse grain representation to run a simulation using GROMACS?

I would like to ask about the physical significance of the adjoint concept of a densely defined linear operator.

If the operator is not densely defined, it is well known that its adjoint is a multivalued operator, So, from the viewpoint of physics, what does a multivalued operator represent?

In the context of ADAS features, what kind of econometric modeling would be the best to represent it? Here it is to be noted that ADAS parameters will be such that will be recognized the integrity and performance of the system. For example, in-vehicle cooling, seat and glass settings, etc.

**Thank you, in advance.**

For example for gold nanoparticles we generally acquire spectrum from 300-800 nm. But when we represent results no body mentions errors bars why it is so?

You can see Figure 1 in attached file for more understanding.

I have a set of independent variables (from 1 to 8 depending) which are all continuous variables. My dependent variable of interest is an ordinal value that is a Likert-scale representation of an employee's intent to remain at their current job from 1 to 5.

I attempted to run a binary logistic regression but I appear to fail the proportionality conditions there and want to give Mlogit a try,

I believe.a downside to this is the loss of "rank", however, in any event, I am not entirely clear on how to do this in SPSS (or R). In particular I am struggling to interpret my results.

In the attached, Factor1-8 are my independent.

My dependent variable is the aforementioned ordinal. I chose 5 to be my reference. My questions are as follows

- Am I barking up the right tree here with this approach?
- How do I interpret the results?

Thank you for any help you can provide

I created 50 interactions(welding-1 to welding-50) such that half of the region was reactivated through these interaction,which was previously deactivated , through the following code:

**Tol=.00000000001**

**Speed=0.01**

**for i in range (1,51):**

**mdb.models['Model-2'].ModelChange(activeInStep=True,createStepName='welding_'+str(i),includeStrain=False,name='welding_'+str(i),region=Region(**

**elements=mdb.models['Model-2'].rootAssembly.instances['Part-1-1'].elements.getByBoundingBox(-Tol+Speed*(i-1),-Tol,-Tol,Tol+Speed*i,.0025+Tol,Tol+0.002)),**

**regionType=ELEMENTS)**

But when I tried to view region reactivated in any of these newly created interaction,following error showed up,"

*At least part of the region of the selected interaction has been suppressed,deleted or excuded or is a part of reference representation".*I am unable to understand the error.The deactivated region is a cuboid with X coordinate ranging from (0,0.5) ,Y coordinate ranging from (0,0.0025),Z coordinate value from (0,0.004).The direction of welding is positive X axis.Through these interactions I am trying to reactivate lower half of this cuboid with Z axis of the reactivated region ranging from (0,0.002) and range of X and Y coordinate being the same as that of the deactivated region.I have attached an image of abaqus model.- The graphic representation to show the importance of using geoinformation in public policies can facilitate the perception, perception and understanding of the user;

- A schema can more easily show at which stage of public policy the geoinformation is used.

Hi,

Currently i am working on a project about decoding human emotions via EEG. we used g.tec unicorn hybrid black device to record EEG data from 12 people while they are watching different videos that evoke three different emotions, and the recorded EEG data are stored in different CSV files for each video watched by the participant.

The resulted CSV file contains 17 columns which represent the 17 channels of the device, and the rows represent the recorded data over the time ( every 250 row represent 1 second) , my question is how can I assign labels to the resulted data according to the type of emotion it represent in order to be fed to SVM ?

I need you help.

Thank you.

In my research I experiment with the use of ICT in the formation of mathematical concepts in engineering students.

A conceptual framework is the researcher’s idea on how the research problem will have to be explored. This is founded on the theoretical framework, which lies on a much broader scale of resolution. The theoretical framework dwells on time tested theories that embody the findings of numerous investigations on how phenomena occur.

The theoretical framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in a given phenomenon. The conceptual framework, on the other hand, embodies the specific direction by which the research will have to be undertaken. Statistically speaking, the conceptual framework describes the relationship between specific variables identified in the study. It also outlines the input, process and output of the whole investigation. The conceptual framework is also called the research paradigm.

Hi, I'm currently in doubt about a problem involving systems with strong spin-orbit coupling and the definition of the proper atomic site representation in this case. Let's suppose we're talking about MoS2 in this case. How do I calculate the appropriate atomic site representation at the zone center when dealing with double groups? Thank you.

kindly suggest the best tool to make the graphic representations on maps

I'ld like to know why 293 number is mentioned along with HEK, why it is called HEK 293, what does 293 will represent/indicate ?

Can semi-synthetic drugs are also chemical drugs? Can we represent a semi-synthetic drug as a chemical drug?

Excuse me, what functional group does each of the characteristic peaks in the FT-IR spectrum represent?

I plotted the field strengths of the metamaterial absorber layers, and these values are shown to me on the right of the figure. What do these values represent? If it represents the strength of the field, isn't this value too large?

The values that are shown on the right of the graph, what represent?

what do you mean? What is its unit?

Hi!

I am characterising the distribution of cells and their repartition on a structure in confocal images. I have measured the orientation and distance of the cells from the center point of the structure. Each represents a vector. I want to represent these vectors graphically in order to illustrate the distribution of the cells and compare it's variability between different groups.

I am struggling to find the proper tool in order to transpose these vector measures into a comprehensive graph and I was wondering if anyone knew of a tool or software that would enable me to do this please?

Hello everyone,

I want to draw MOF-5 in Material Studio. I want to draw a sphere to represent the MOF pore 18.5 A diameter.

Thanks a lot!

The alphafold 2 uses channels in pairwise representation for protein residues. But why are they used? Shouldn't there be only one value, not a cannel array?

The pairwise representation has shape (r,r,c). Why is it like that? Shouldn't it be (r,r)

Is it sampling frequency of control loop or some kind of resonance frequency of the system ??

E3nn which offers invariant data representation uses irreps, irreducible representation. I am finding it difficult to understand how it works. How the irreps should be defined? Any help is appreciable

The following is the link to e3nn

Hi

Does anyone know how I can find the specific substructure of each bit in CDK fingerprints and CDK extended fingerprints which are implemented in PaDEL-descriptor and Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) software?

As an example, I am searching for SMILES representation of FP40.

Thanks,

Maryam

I have difficulty in my research (for my thesis), I confused on choosing variable. Can you give me advises about the variable that represent the revolution industry 4.0. My thesis is about the impact Revolution industry 4.0 to manufacturing industry. Thank you

In technical guide pdf, the unit of precipitation in mm/hr.IS MEAN must be mulitable all pixels 24*31 to get mm/month ?

Hi,

Can we use the species-level data from MGC cluster table? Does it represent an OTU table?

Thank you in advance.

Thilini

Which numerical method is more effective for solving parabolic diffusion PDE in 2D [ with Dirichlet boundary conditions, initial condition at time t =0 is given]? The PDE may represent time dependent heat equation in two space variables, an IBVP.

Thanks!

Does anyone know how to use Sparse mass stiffness and damping matrices which are extracted from Ansys to represent it State-space model identification using System Identification Toolbox™ ?

Anyone knows a Matlab code to solve a state-space model which I represent it on mechss ( M,C,K) command? ?

I am looking to learn representation from location data similar to what word2vec does to the a sentence. I am aiming to develop a system that can understand the region based on the location input and relate it to other locations.

I would like to receive suggestions about which indicators can better represent the recognition that non-state armed groups can receive from the international community.

I prepared a blend of NaCMC and PEG at different NaOH concentration and I am getting a peak at 2363vm^-1.please tell me if anyone can?

Dear colleagues.

Considering that ASCII characters take range from 32 to 127, so we need 7 bits to represent each character, what is the highest theoretical value of information entropy for a given text?

For example for grayscale images, since we represent each pixel using 8 bits and there is a maximum of 2^8=256 shades, the highest entropy value is 8.

Does this hold for text? So is the highest possible atainable value 7?

I am trying to configure this for a text encryption design.

Does the entropy command in MATLAB provide the correct result for this?

SpMin6_Bhs, a descriptor captured in the MLR equation in the QSAR model having the value of +3.88521.

SpMin6_Bhs represent: smallest eigenvalue n. 6 of Burden matrix weighted by I-state

So my question is that what's the means of i-state here?

and how SpMin6_Bh(s)'s impact the activity......may be increase or decrease ?

I'm looking for Egyptian architects and urbanists who, at some point along their line of work, explored the representation of cities, societies and cultures in Egyptian films.

It would be very helpful. Much appreciated

I am aware that knots are characterized by polynomial invariants (Alexander , Jones, HOMFLY etc) but except for the Alexander polynomial, the other polynomials seem non-intuitive. In this context, could an arbitrary knot be represented as a sum of lissajous / fourier knots ( as in fourier series) ?? The difference between the former and the usual methods of knot decomposition would be the difference between representation as a sum of orthogonal knots and as a product of (prime / irreducible ??) knots . Would the invariant polynomials be the sum of the corresponding polynomials of the constituents ??

Qamchuqa formation represent forebulge depozone of zagrose foreland basin. Iraq 🇮🇶 segment.

I I would like to represent the abundance of the microplanton along the Algerian coast

I would like to create a graphical representation of these properties in the upper atmosphere. But I can't find data for these parameters. Can anyone point me to some?

Thanks!

There are different types of models used to represent a certain data. Where / when / why does one may use polynomial models ( such as cubic ones) to represent the data?

Thanks!

Hi everyone, I hope you doing great. I already installed QE, and while I was doing some calculations I noticed the notion of K_points. After doing some research, this is what I got:

In 1D, the energy bands are plotted in the Brillouin zone, where the quantum number (wave vector) is ranging from -pi/a to pi/a on the x-axis.

In 2D, the energy bands are plotted in the Brillouin zone, where the quantum number this time has two components Kx and Ky, which means we have a 3D representation for the energy bands.

In 3D, the energy bands are plotted in the Brillouin zone, where the quantum number this time has three components Kx, Ky and Kz, consequently, it's complicated to represent the energy bands. Therefore, a new representation for the energy bands is needed. We define a path as a set of selected K_points K = (Kx, Ky, Kz) and we draw the energy in the function of this path. To minimise the choices of these paths, we define these later using the symmetry point (special K_points), which are Gama, x, ..etc. and by using the same path one can find the same energy bands as the others.

This is what I have understood, and I hope it's right.

Don't hesitate to correct me if I did a mistake or missed something, please.

Waiting for your comments.

Ahmed

Usually, repeatability is defined as the measurement of one point. We want to assess the repeatability of the measurement of a profile. In fact, we want to exclude the systematic error from random error and then represent a quantitative assessment for the repeatability of the measurement system for the target profile.

I have performed a comparison of one against all and also cross-correlation. Does anyone have other suggestions?

Dear All,

I wonder if there exists any 3-dimensional representation of a spiral (e.g., prime number spiral)?

Here is, what I mean:

In 2D, a spiral is an ordinary object. E.g., a spiral of numbers (picture a).

In 1D, I can imagine a spiral as subsequent numbers put on the right or on the left of the origin (picture b).

In 3D, a spiral can be thought as one pictured in (c) but it is not what I mean.

In 1D and in 2D, the sequence of numbers surrounds the origin in all directions in the space. Is it possible to imagine any spiral representation in 3D which could surround the origin in all 3 dimensions in the space?

My question is motivated by thinking of Ulam spiral or prime spiral.

I wish to estimate the particulate matter air dispersion indoors from the outdoor environment in an urban setting.

When you set up an experiment, with "defined" "stimuli", these are the stimuli in YOUR imagination and/or YOUR model.

BUT: very often it is a matter of representation (from long-term memory) of the circumstance(s)/setting(s), AND the stimuli can only be understood in THAT context -- the context of the content of developed representation of such circumstances/settings (think, for example, of problem-solving). The Subject, in most significant settings, has her/his representation of such circumstances/situations/settings. THAT actually more than helps to properly define the stimuli , for such is often the MAIN THING for defining (recall that it is the Subject (surrounding behavior patterns) very often _THAT_ MUST, in science, be what allows any empirical or true definition of stimuli).

All this is outlined by, and fully consistent with, Ethogram Theory (see my Profile and, from there, read A LOT-- I do provide guidance on readings order). The Theory itself is internally , and likely externally, consistent and it is strictly empirical (in the grounding/foundation of ALL concepts -- i.e. ALL clearly linked to directly observable overt behavior PATTERNS); and thus, given all those characteristics, there are hypotheses that are clearly verifiable/falsifiable .

The representation of ethical dilemma is admittedly a quite difficult topic. On the first hand, the very definition of what constitute a dilemma is subject to numerous vivid discussions and debates among philosophers (from Kant denying the existence of such things as ethical dilemma to Sartre and the famous example of the existential dilemma).

Nevertheless, it seems plausible that since ethical dilemma actually exists (at least according to persons subject to these dilemma) and therefore should be representable. Here comes another difficulty, more theoretical and grounded in the very essence of what constitute a dilemma. A dilemma, it would seem, is a contradiction, a conflict between two (or more) obligations that can't be mutually fulfilled.

Modal logic and particularly deontic logic studies the relations between Propositional Calculus and the deontic operators ([] obligation and <> permission). I have not been able to find an interpretation of these operators in description logic. I would be interested in opinion concerning relations between deontic operators and the usual constructors of description logic (set intersections/existential and universal quantification).

Dear Scholars,

I am working on LTCC mechanism using FEM , ANSYS APDL.

can I distribute setting load equally on the corresponding nodes along the roof area to represent a shield support?

Is there any simplest acceptable way for simulating shield support?

Please help.

Nasina Balasubrahmanyam