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Hi Hello researchers! need help. I had prepared a cereal-based fermented drink, keeping sensorial properties in mind I centrifuged the sample and collected the supernatant.
And the further analysis was carried out in the supernatant. Antioxidants assays {DPPH/FRAP}. How do I represent the results? Some say it has to be in w/v some say only volume rep eg 500microL but usually in articles we see w/v . And IC50 also is in w/v
So how do I represent this? Thanks in advance....
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Good question. If you are developing a fermented beverage, then it is correct for you to report your antioxidant results in terms of the volume of your sample (mL, uL, etc.). Bear in mind that for calculating the IC50 you need a plot of inhibition percent vs. extract concentration of your sample. For solid samples concentrations would be in mg/L; in your case you would need a v/v concentration; e.g. mL/L. After this you can convert these concentration to mL / kg of DPPH, or equivalent, considering the amount of reacted DPPH.
For the FRAP analysis, standards are used, and the results are expressed as equivalents of Trolox or Fe2+ as: mmol Trolox/mL of sample, or mmol Fe2+/mL. Here I include as a reference, a link to one of our paper related to antioxidant activity of tomato samples.
Hope this helps for your research.
Regards
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Greetings dear collegues,
my question deals with representation of "directional" mass and damping in ANSYS Worbench.
In detail, I need to represent the added mass and the radiation damping of an offshore structure and I have find out that commands MATRIX27 and MASS21 may serve to this purpose. Additional mass, indeed, are not sufficient, since they would have the same value in all the three directions, while added mass depends on x-y-z.
Unfortunately, I am not an expert user of Mechanical APDL module of ANSYS and I need to work only with Workbench, where such instructions may be given through the "Command" item, whitin the "Solid Body" tree.
May someone give me some simple explanation on the instructions to give in the "Command" text (e.g. a template) to represent a mass and/or damping symmetric matrix associated to this body'?
Thank you very much in advance,
Carlo
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Claudio Pedrazzi
, Carlo Ruzzo , Arun Patil
Hii all , i am also stuck in one similar problem,
I am trying to solve an isolator suspension problem in which a mass(pink) is suspended using 4 Nos of 3D springs(Isolators) connecting to grey bodies(fixed). I want to carryout response studies to find harmonic and random responses on mass.
I tried using bushing element in ANSYS mechanical. Here in connections I have provided relevant stiffness and damping in matrix form for bushing elements.
Also overall damping ratio of 0.02 % is given as input under harmonic analysis tab.
Analysis shows that response is function only of harmonic damping ratio not one given in bushing element . Can anyone pls comment on this?
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QM stands for quantum mechanics, CS for computer science, CC for cellphones/computers, and Mathematics seems to have somehow missed all three.
Now is the time to catch up. We have come to a stand off. Students are ending up neurologically sick -- feeling math-averse (neurophobia and math trauma).
It is not a matter of selection. Only group/rote work [1] seems to infuse Mathematics, as taught today, even in highly-qualified students. Paradoxically, one finds that the more intellectually qualified, the more averse!
And yet current Mathematics still tries to "instruct" it to the students, and other disciplines, in the US and the world.
This failure has been denied [1], and the “fault” has been put on the victims -- the students. Paradigm shifts are needed: first, QM.
According to QM, only integer numbers should be necessary to build all one can see in nature. Otherwise, all of Physics would be contradicted. This would also contradict all of CS and all of CC. Computers, for example, only work with integers, and are error-free.
Since this contradiction is not even imaginable, QM is ontologically correct. Therefore, all sciences must reflect it, according to a "holographic principle" (HP) in nature, including Mathematics.
The HP is often referred to as "the micro as in the macro" or vice-versa.
These two words macro and micro are commonly viewed as antonyms, meaning that they are the opposite of each other. Macro means on a large scale. Micro means on a very small scale. Both are important, though often complementary, views of nature. The view from the macro, while taking into account the micro, is called "universality" in Physics.
The QM main principle was given by Niels Bohr as, "all states at once". This needs to be understood as different from the following possibilities:
  1. "Copenhagen interpretation", or
  2. a "collapse" of the quantum function upon measurement, or
  3. waves, as a picture of QM, or
  4. wave-particle duality, or
  5. the Heisenberg principle, or
  6. a probabilistic view of QM.
In opening the "black box" of QM as viewed by Bohr, QM does not represent Natur (defined by the philosopher Kant), but Wirklichkeit (ditto). It is not how nature is, but seems to work. A story.
A known analogy is the Plato's Cave". The shadows one can see on the wall are Wirklichkeit, and the open reality outside is Natur. After watching Wirklichkeit for some time, people can make an idea what Natur looks like, even though imprisoned in the Cave.
QM is, ontologically, how one can describe Wirklichkeit -- which is the subject of Physics. Natur may not have QM behavior, and continuity may exist in Natur.
Mathematics is not concerned with Wirklichkeit only, but can include Natur. Although, as no one can see Natur, one is led to treat any "pure" Mathematics as a speculation.
Albeit, Mathematics must agree with Physics in the realm of Wirklichkeit.
This does not happen today, and creates a clash. The inconsistency is seen as an opening. What IS mathematics?
Today's calculus teaching can be seen as relying on outdated ideas, going back before QM, computer science (CS), and cellphones/computers (CC) were discovered. Three major paradigm shifts seem to have been missed.
But these three paradigm shifts represent how science is done, in our seemingly endless task in going from Wirklichkeit to Natur.
One recognizes then, that science does not behave continuously, but by jumps -- that break from the past, and open a new future -- in going from Wirklichkeit to Natur, and back -- does the envisioned Wirklichkeit reproduce the actual Wirklichkeit?
This has been called a "paradigm shift" (PS) by T. S. Kuhn in Structure of Scientific Revolutions [2].
David Hilbert [3], at the turn of the XX century, proposed twenty-three problems intended to guide research in the dawning century, claims otherwise, that “History teaches the continuity of the development of science.”
Michael Harris [4], a mathematician, writes that he, "would still be glad to lift the veil, but we no longer believe in continuity. And we may no longer be sure that it’s enough to lift a veil to make our goals clear to ourselves, much less to outsiders."
The outdated ideas currently in Mathematics date back to the time of Newton, Leibnitz, and Cauchy, before the 3 PSs mentioned. They include (aka Fictions, or incorrect models): microscopic continuity, infinitesimals, hyper-reals, Cauchy epsilon-deltas, and Cauchy accumulation points.
Even in 4-year universities one finds classes, such as at Caltech, MIT, CSU, and abroad, teaching Fictions today [1].
This failure can be denied [1], and the “fault” can be put on the victims -- the students. But, there is no feeling of inferiority. PS [2] combats this, American style -- by innovation.
A technical innovation can reduce this gap by a PS [2] -- already heralded and error-free, as one can see in the history of sciences (contradicting David Hilbert [3]).
This reduces risk by following an experimental model that works, even though no one has explained it mathematically, without Fictions.
By jump-starting to QM one has a solution, which we mark as a first paradigm shift.
Where Fictions interfere with known Physics, they must be mercilessly deprecated -- although, and yet, current Mathematics still tries to "instruct" it to the students, in the US and the world.
The other paradigm shifts, stand for computer science (CS), and cellphones/computers (CC).
We now introduce a coherent, holographic principle (HP), a universe, and understanding yet to be discovered, as two new paradigm shifts -- and gain a cosmic perspective: who is the Creator of all this marvelous scheme?
This final PS leads to a comment. One does not need to learn anything, confirms https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert-Fuchs
One just has to observe.
Mathematics seems, thus, to be discovered — as a hologram and coherent with other sciences, and not, somehow, invented by mere humans.
What is your qualified opinion?
REFERENCES
[2] T. S. Kuhn, Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962.
[3] David Hilbert, Paris International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM), 1900.
[4 I] Michael Harris, “Mathematics Without Apologies”, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-1-17583-6, 2017.
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Dear Ed Gerck
Thank you very much for asking this question. The paths of discovery in mathematics are indeed surprising as we see from the following observation concerning the convergence of ideas of Coxeter and Bourbaki discussed in the following blog:
I think that the above discussion provides a positive answer to your question and underlines how important is to know the history of mathematics.
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Hello everyone,
i want to create the combined graph with same x axis and two different y axes, one above other in same figure as shown in attachment for academic purpose.
The attached file is just for representation purpose.
Thanks in advance.
Regards,
RAJDEEP JAGDALE
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Thats a double y graph, see below link:
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Hello. I have a question regarding the unconfined compression test for soil and my question is "what does this test actually represent in reality?". We notice during the test that the soil sample is not subjected to lateral pressure (Unconfined) and this does not exist in reality as the soil sample is surrounded by soil, which generates lateral pressure. So, what does unconfined pressure test represent and when do we need to perform it
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Unconfined Compression Test is used to assess the mechanical properties of rocks and fine-grained soils. it is commonly used to quickly determine a measure of the unconfined compressive strength of rocks or fine-grained soils (clays).The measured axial load and the axial and lateral deformation are used to derive the sample’s elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio.
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If I have multiple scenarios with multiple variables changing, and I want to conduct a full factorial analysis, how do I graphically show the results?
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The best way to display your graphs with variables whose values change is to use the well-known program "Matlab"
Use the plot function inside an iteration chain of variables that takes all the variables' values For more information, see the Matlab book link and you will find the answer
good luck.
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please is there any mathematical function that relates the SMD (D32) to the mean diameter (D50)? I actually understand what each of them represent.
thanks
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Thanks for this
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I want to know about the reverse causality test in SEM. What is its importance, why we do it, and how to represent the result?
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Hello Pradeep,
reverse causality represent the most dramatic form of misspecification--namely that y causes x instead of x causing y. A similar issue is simultaneity which means that there is a feedback loop among both.
There are two roads to test for both:
1) using longitudinal data and assuming that the time lag approximately matches the causal lag. In this scenario you can apply some sort of vector autoregressive model (e.g., a cross-lagged panel model). If you have more then 2 waves of data, continuous time modeling would be an option that is especially suited when you have non-matching lags or different measured lags
Driver, C. C., & Voelkle, M. C. (2018). Understanding the time course of interventions with continuous time dynamic models. In K. van Montfort, J. H. L. Oud, & M. C. Voelkle (Eds.), Continuous time modeling in the behavioral and related sciences (pp. 79-109). Springer.
Ryan, O., Kuiper, R. M., & Hamaker, E. L. (2018). A continuous-time approach to intensive longitudinal data: What, why, and how? In K. Van Montfort, J. H. Oud, & M. C. Voelkle (Eds.), Continuous Time Modeling in the Behavioral and Related Sciences (pp. 27-54). Springer.
Voelkle, M. C., Oud, J. H. L. L., Davidov, E., & Schmidt, P. (2012). A SEM approach to continuous time codeling of panel data: Relating authoritarianism and anomia. Psychological Methods, 17(2), 176-192. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027543
Hamaker, E. L., Kuiper, R. M., & Grasman, R. P. P. P. (2015). A critique of the cross-lagged panel model. Psychological Methods, 20(1), 102-116.
2) When you have cross-sectional data, it becomes more tricky and requires some sort of instrumental variable method--again assuming that the time intervall inherent in the measure of the variables and the stability of the IV is not too fare from the causal lag
Foster, E. M., & McLanahan, S. (1996). An illustration of the use of instrumental variables: Do neighborhood conditions affect a young person's chance of finishing high school? Psychological Methods, 1(3), 249-260. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1037/1082-989X.1.3.249
Gennetian, L. A., Magnuson, K., & Morris, P. A. (2008). From statistical associations to causation: What developmentalists can learn from instrumental variables techniques coupled with experimental data. Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 381-394. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.2.381
HTH
Holger
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I am publishing this thesis to mark its 30th Year Anniversary, written in 1993. This is a useful time capsule from which one can better grasp the complexities and nuances of the current emergent World Order.
I wrote:
Come 1997 maps will be literally redrawn, incorporating HK into the mainland boundaries. HK will face pressures that work against its acquired linguistic/ geopolitical identity. The representational practices which contributed to that stability will become destabilised.
In the meantime this process is further mediated through growing economic and cultural links across the borders. Despite the growing economic and cultural links, however, HK will still maintain its separate identity from the mainland... When the maps are redrawn, various representational practices will find much difficulty in asserting HK as a distinct from the PRC...
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I should add, at the heart of One Country, Two Systems is a linguistic conflict between Cantonese and Mandarin. By 2047, the shift from Shanghai to Hongkong and back to Shanghai will come in full circle. Best encapsulating this transition is Run Run Shaw who transplanted Chinese cinema from Shanghai to HongKong. Cantonese cinema grew as a way to distinguish itself from Mandarin Taiwanese Cinema, especially with the latter's onslaught in 1970s. Cantonese pop culture reached its zenith in the mid 80s and 90s. TVB, Run Run Shaw's creation, has been at the heart of cultivating HK pop culture whose tenacles extended throughout Southeast Asia in the heydays of VHS rentals. Since then, South Korea has overtaken Hongkong in its pre-eminent position in Asia.
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Hi,
Apologises if the questions at the end are simple but they are causing me a lot of confusion and I'm not sure what to do.
Appreciate any guidance you can give
Aims
1. To explore if their is a relationship between Hai (anxiety) and (Pss-10) stress and treatment delay.
2. To explore if anxiety is predicted by stress and treatment delay and whether this is moderated by Brief Cope strategies (Brief COPE) .
Design
1 continuous outcome variable – anxiety (let’s call this H)
continuous predictor variables (let’s call these D, S, BC)
Control variables (let’s call this age (which is continuous) and gender (which is catergorical - 2 levels))
- D – delay
- S – Stress (measured by pss-10)
- BC - Brief Cope - 1 (consists of 4 questions with each questions represent a different factor)
- BC - Brief Cope – 2 (consists of 9 questions with each questions represent a different factor)
- BC - Brief Cope – 3 (consists of 4 questions which each questions represent a different factor)
I have completed a Pearson r correlation and identified which predictor variables and control variables correlate to H. All the assumptions for this test were met. The results of this test answered the aim 1 wrote above.
To answer aim 2 noted above i completed a hierarchical multiple regression with the models as follows:
Outcome variable for all models = anxiety
Model 1 age and gender (control)
Model 2 age, gender and delay
Model 3 age gender, delay and stress
Model 4 age, gender, delay, stress and BC 1 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered)
Model 5 age, gender, delay, BC 1 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered), BC 2 (composed of 5 predictor variables entered)
Model 6 age, gender, delay, BC 1 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered), BC 2 (composed of 5 predictor variables entered) and BC 3 (composed of 4 predictor variables entered)
The total variance explained was 55% and the findings in the Model summary were found to be significant except for Model 4. Hierarchical multiple regression assumptions were met too.
I also found that statistical significance in the Anovas for Model 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 (within the hierarchical multiple regression).
This is where I have stopped my analysis (not sure if that is right or wrong).
To confirm I have completed only parametric tests as described above. I have 1 sample group completing all predictor variables.
I have the following questions:
Q0. Is the above analysis tests done so far correct in view of the aims described above?
Q1. How do I look at the components of BC 1, 2, 3 (ie determine if the individual predictors variables – 13 in total) predict anxiety? Hierarchial regression is limited to 9 blocks that can be entered at any one time. I did include these individual predictor variables (13 total in the pearsons r correlation with anxiety) and established their were significant relationships. Is this enough ?
Q2. Do I need to complete post hoc tests for the significant anovas in the hierarchial regression? If so what test would I do ? and how would this be entered into SPSS? (To confirm I have 1 sample group answering all the predictor variables described above).
Q3. Have i missed anything from the analysis? Do I need to conduct any further analysis to answer the above aims ? If so what analysis?
Q4. How do I know if coping strategies moderates the relationship of stress and delay in treatment in predicting anxiety.
Appreciate in any support that can be provided.
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Hello Satwant,
That's a lot of questions!
For the most part, your hierarchical regressions should allow you to determine whether the brief cope scores add to the explanatory power for differences in anxiety scores beyond what the base variable set can explain. From this, it sounds as if the BC-1 items add the least to the mix (compared to BC-2, BC-3).
However, I probably would have looked for single scores to represent each of the three purported BC factors instead of entering individual items as IVs. Perhaps factor analysis or some other method of generating a composite score for each factor would be helpful here (and make your interpretation of significant effects a bit more straightforward).
I don't see any specific need for post hoc tests following a regression (your Q2).
If you're interested in moderation effects attributable to coping, the key is to evaluate whether BC scores interact with one or more target IVs to increase the explained variation beyond what the BC score and the target IV can account for, without an interaction term.
Good luck with your work.
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The mathematical representation of both equations is same.
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Please, see the attached file...
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What does the E-value exactly mean in the result of Blastn (for instance zero or 1e-170 )?
What does 1e-170 represent ?
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E-value indicates random or non-random selection of sequences, so the closer this number is to zero, the more accurate the sequence selection and the higher the degree of similarity.
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I am confused about miller indices... Generally, I have observed that miller indices are represented by (hkl) for cubic or hexagonal structures. However, these represent 3D structures like (111) and others.
But for graphene, I have seen different XRD graphs which show a peak at (002). If graphene has a 2D structure, why do we have to treat graphene as a 3D structure according to the present plane through miller indices?
Please explain...
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Hello,
How i can represent this antenna with the equivalent circuit?
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This is Equivalent circuits of antennas in the transmitting and receiving modes.
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Lower Matrix to represent the approximate final stages of payment and upper representing the early payments
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LU decomposition is a basic technique in numerical linear algebra. Numerical linear algebra has many applications, since a vast numerical algorithms reduce to linear algebra.
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Dear researchers,
There are many ways to represent orientations, viz. Rotational matrices/tensors, Direction cosines, Euler angles (Bunge or Tait-Bryan or other conventions), Axis-angle representation/Rodrigues vector, Quaternions).
What are the advantages or disadvantages of representing orientation in one way to another? Why do we need multiple ways of defining a single attribute?
Thank you.
Sincerely,
Ravi Varma
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Multiple representations can be useful in terms of (a) User interaction (b) interpolation (c) Storage and (d) Numerical Issues.
For example; to perform rotation to orientation, representation in matrix form is more useful.
Similarly, quaternions are also advantageous such as less memory footprint, and much more efficient during calculation (when compared to Rotation matrix and axis-angle pair). Interpolate between two quaternions is also vey easy so, camera movement, drone movement etc becomes very smooth.
Here is a small tutorial for quaternions algebra.
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Electrochemical polymerization.
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Dear D. Parajuli, you may need further information. The following quote from the first link. Please check the other link. My Regards
"""A typical, three-electrode experimental setup for the electropolymerization consists of a working electrode, which is being coated with a MIP film, a reference electrode, commonly the Ag/AgCl electrode or saturated calomel electrode (SCE), and a counter electrode (Pt or Ni).''"
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As a starting point in structuring human-machine interaction research in the field of innovations for train operators I’m looking for an abstraction hierarchy representation of the train operator system. Are there good examples out there? For example capturing goals such as punctuality, driving comfort, and safety in relation to ATO and ERTMS.
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G'day Ellemieke,
I came across a master thesis which was part of a joint project between General Electric & MIT ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology), 2016 & titled: Task modeling and assessment for human-system interaction in freight rail operations., I am attaching the file for your information, the thesis is also available by request via Researchgate, I am including all the information obtained to tackle your research topic, hope this helps & all the best, cheers.
Kind regards,
Sofiane
1. Researchgate:
2. Downloaded original version:
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Hi,
I have come across many types of SEMs (PLS-SEM, CFA-SEM etc). The interpretation seems to be different. Am I correct in assuming that the R-Square value derived in all types mean the same(that it is the coefficient of determination)?
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In a regression model, the coefficient of determination (R-Squared or R2) is a statistical metric that determines how much the independent variable can explain variance in the dependent variable. Similarly, R2 represents the explained variance in any structural model and is deemed one of the essential evaluation metrics. However, R2 may not represent the same value for different SEMs (e.g., PLS-SEM & CB-SEM) estimating the same model; therefore, its interpretation should be guided by the employed SEM's evaluation criteria. You could check out the following articles for pertinent deliberation.
Afthanorhan, A., Awang, Z., Aimran, N., & Arifin, J. (2021). An extensive comparison between CB-SEM and consistent PLS-SEM on producing the estimates of construct correlation in applied research. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1874(1), 012083. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1874/1/012083
Jr., J. F. H., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: Updated guidelines on which method to use. International Journal of Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMDA.2017.087624
Good luck,
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Dear Research Gate community,
I have a dataset from a multi-environment trial where not all genotypes are grown in all the environments. Since the dataset is not balanced the standard formula of heritability might not work. I thought an interesting approach might be to calculate the regression coefficient (slope of regression) between the BLUP of genotypes (calculated with RELM), which represent the genotypic value of individuals and the relative phenotypic values.
What do you think?
Best
Lorenzo
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Naturally this kind of data will always be unbalanced because on environment will be balanced in terms of availability of all genotypes. The usual formula based on a balanced environment may not be applicable except under some assumptions. Relative frequencies may apply in place of full frequencies.
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Can we use inferential statistics for a case study that aims to represent a wider target population?
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Yes, if you use a replication logic—not a sampling logic. According to Yin (2018), the replication approach to multiple-case studies begins with theory formulation. It then presents that case selection and specification of measures are critical in designing the study, as well as collecting and analyzing its data. Each case is taken as the focus of a complete case study investigation, seeking convergent evidence for its findings and conclusions. The write-up for each case study investigation should expound on how and why a particular proposition was attested—or not attested. For relevant elaboration, you could go through the replication approach illustrated by Yin (2018), referenced below.
Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods (6th ed.). SAGE. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/case-study-research-and-applications/book250150
Good luck,
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Hopefully someone can help me out with how to quantify a significant representation of a group.
I am analysing a bias in protein detections. To see a pattern I group the proteins in their families I know the baseline occurrence of a family, based on the proteome. The sample data consist of a list of how many times a protein family occurred in my sample (always equal or less than the baseline).
Data -- baseline ---- %
1 -------- 6 --------- 16.67%
2 -------- 15 ------ 13.33%
11 ------ 141 ----- 7.80%
3 -------- 18 ------- 16.67%
58 ------ 361 ----- 16.07%
1 -------- 3 -------- 33.33%
1 -------- 21 ------- 4.76%
7 -------- 421 ----- 1.66%
1 -------- 2 ---------- 50.00%
I could take a percentage of representation, but since the families are not equally represented this creates a bias.
Here the value of 58 out of 361 weights more than 1 of 2.
Is there a way to calculate the 'magnitude' of representation beyond percentage to take the frequency into account?
Chi-square testing doesn't work since the dataset consists out of more than 600 family groups.
I struggle a bit to get my problem forward, please ask if I can do anything to clarify.
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Perhaps I am being dense here, but percentage does take frequency into account,
%A = ( freqA÷total ) ×100
Am I missing something here.?
Best wishes David Booth
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About a photo-mediated 6π cyclization reaction, I have got the single point energy 1A 、3A、 3B and 1B,which represent the energy of excited singlet and excited triplet, how can I got the MECP from these point, and how to use the CASSCF or other ways to find the MECP by g09 or g16? Thanks.
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KST48 provides a much more user-friendly and extensible solution for MECP locating, with a much more simplified preparation procedure.
The content you have to modify here is mainly the first subset, setting the two states you care about; and modifying the coordinate part
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I have LCMV RNA samples of unknown concentration and I want to know how many LCMV RNA copies/mL I have in each sample. To do so, I am going to use the same volume of RNA/sample to perform a One step RTqPCR (Qiagen) and I will use a LCMV cDNA standard curve.
Such standard curve will give me the cDNA copies/mL in my samples. How can I then extrapolate the RNA copies/mL? Otherwise is it accepted to represent LCMV virus quantification as cDNA copies rather then RNA copies?
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Hi Vale,
When I am quantifying RNA copies/mL (e.x. HIV vRNA), I use plasmids with the targeted sequences (e.x. pNL4-3) as standards.
If you want the details, please let me know.
Thanx,
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is it possible to convert a nanosphere of radius 8 nm (each atom has 0 charge) from all-atom representation to coarse grain representation to run a simulation using GROMACS?
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dr ibrahim, it's a difficult way and professional. The possibility of error in Gromex is high
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I would like to ask about the physical significance of the adjoint concept of a densely defined linear operator.
If the operator is not densely defined, it is well known that its adjoint is a multivalued operator, So, from the viewpoint of physics, what does a multivalued operator represent?
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العامل المشترك هو ما يوصلنا الى النتيجه بصورة أسهل واسرع
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In the context of ADAS features, what kind of econometric modeling would be the best to represent it? Here it is to be noted that ADAS parameters will be such that will be recognized the integrity and performance of the system. For example, in-vehicle cooling, seat and glass settings, etc.
Thank you, in advance.
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It is not clear what you want to study. There is no econometric model to help you, if you do not know what you want to do.
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For example for gold nanoparticles we generally acquire spectrum from 300-800 nm. But when we represent results no body mentions errors bars why it is so?
You can see Figure 1 in attached file for more understanding.
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That is a good question.
The high sensitivities of the detectors on UV/Vis spectrophotometers result in minimun desviation between the experimental measurements of the same sample. Thus, the "error bars" would be very small.
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I have a set of independent variables (from 1 to 8 depending) which are all continuous variables. My dependent variable of interest is an ordinal value that is a Likert-scale representation of an employee's intent to remain at their current job from 1 to 5.
I attempted to run a binary logistic regression but I appear to fail the proportionality conditions there and want to give Mlogit a try,
I believe.a downside to this is the loss of "rank", however, in any event, I am not entirely clear on how to do this in SPSS (or R). In particular I am struggling to interpret my results.
In the attached, Factor1-8 are my independent.
My dependent variable is the aforementioned ordinal. I chose 5 to be my reference. My questions are as follows
  1. Am I barking up the right tree here with this approach?
  2. How do I interpret the results?
Thank you for any help you can provide
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I think the following references may support you
1. Regression Modeling Strategies Frank E. Harrell, Jr. With Applications to Linear Models, Logistic and Ordinal Regression, and Survival Analysis
2. LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODELS FOR ORDINAL RESPONSE VARIABLES ANN A. O’CONNELL University of Connecticut
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I created 50 interactions(welding-1 to welding-50) such that half of the region was reactivated through these interaction,which was previously deactivated , through the following code:
Tol=.00000000001
Speed=0.01
for i in range (1,51):
mdb.models['Model-2'].ModelChange(activeInStep=True,createStepName='welding_'+str(i),includeStrain=False,name='welding_'+str(i),region=Region(
elements=mdb.models['Model-2'].rootAssembly.instances['Part-1-1'].elements.getByBoundingBox(-Tol+Speed*(i-1),-Tol,-Tol,Tol+Speed*i,.0025+Tol,Tol+0.002)),
regionType=ELEMENTS)
But when I tried to view region reactivated in any of these newly created interaction,following error showed up,"At least part of the region of the selected interaction has been suppressed,deleted or excuded or is a part of reference representation".I am unable to understand the error.The deactivated region is a cuboid with X coordinate ranging from (0,0.5) ,Y coordinate ranging from (0,0.0025),Z coordinate value from (0,0.004).The direction of welding is positive X axis.Through these interactions I am trying to reactivate lower half of this cuboid with Z axis of the reactivated region ranging from (0,0.002) and range of X and Y coordinate being the same as that of the deactivated region.I have attached an image of abaqus model.
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Hi Atul,
I have the same problem in my modeling. could you finally resolve this error or not? I would appreciate it if you can share with me what you have done.
Regards,
Hossein
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- The graphic representation to show the importance of using geoinformation in public policies can facilitate the perception, perception and understanding of the user;
- A schema can more easily show at which stage of public policy the geoinformation is used.
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Sven Schade Many thanks for the reply. I am very grateful for always responding, as are colleagues who have also responded. Your statements are fundamental to elaborate this representation. The suggestion to categorize the policies and forms of geoinformation that are used is a strategy I can follow. Your comments were very important. Thank you very much.
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Hi,
Currently i am working on a project about decoding human emotions via EEG. we used g.tec unicorn hybrid black device to record EEG data from 12 people while they are watching different videos that evoke three different emotions, and the recorded EEG data are stored in different CSV files for each video watched by the participant.
The resulted CSV file contains 17 columns which represent the 17 channels of the device, and the rows represent the recorded data over the time ( every 250 row represent 1 second) , my question is how can I assign labels to the resulted data according to the type of emotion it represent in order to be fed to SVM ?
I need you help.
Thank you.
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Maybe I am missing something but couldn't you just use 3 different labels for each type of emotion / task you were using? You might consider using RapidMiner studio which is a machine learning software. You can get a free version of it and it has a nice user interface for processing data and running SVMs as well as other machine learning approaches where the data is imported from a CSV. -- That said, I feel like you should probably refine your data bit first instead of just importing raw data, maybe do some computations on it for things like power or connectivity between electrodes using the Neurophysiological biomarker tool box in EEGLAB / MATLAB. There is a paper on my profile about EEG Oscillaitons in patients with chronic pain and concussion you might find useful where we describe a lot of these methods.
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In my research I experiment with the use of ICT in the formation of mathematical concepts in engineering students.
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Inspiring and creative teachers are essential to effective education. While some students may be able to learn the material even from a bad teacher, most won't. I was one such student. I absolutely hated school (the academic part and especially the social part) from kindergarten through two years of college. I may have had three or four good teachers in all that time. I finally did encounter some wonderful teachers and eventually graduated with the highest GPA in the College of Engineering, went on to earn a PhD, and taught for several years. Good teachers made all the difference. I've always thought that the best professors should teach freshman and sophomore classes in college rather than sloughing this off on graduate students or the grouchiest, most boring old codger in the department, as is most often the case.
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A conceptual framework is the researcher’s idea on how the research problem will have to be explored. This is founded on the theoretical framework, which lies on a much broader scale of resolution. The theoretical framework dwells on time tested theories that embody the findings of numerous investigations on how phenomena occur.
The theoretical framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in a given phenomenon. The conceptual framework, on the other hand, embodies the specific direction by which the research will have to be undertaken. Statistically speaking, the conceptual framework describes the relationship between specific variables identified in the study. It also outlines the input, process and output of the whole investigation. The conceptual framework is also called the research paradigm.
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How to create a theoretical framework for social science research?
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Hi, I'm currently in doubt about a problem involving systems with strong spin-orbit coupling and the definition of the proper atomic site representation in this case. Let's suppose we're talking about MoS2 in this case. How do I calculate the appropriate atomic site representation at the zone center when dealing with double groups? Thank you.
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I studied quantum group theory mainly for solid-state physics, but I never hear of double groups, thank you for introducing the topic to the RG community.
I found this external discussion in the physics StackExchange community:
Best Regards. I will follow your thread.
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kindly suggest the best tool to make the graphic representations on maps
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Depending on your preferences, you can use R, QGIS or ARCGIS
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I'ld like to know why 293 number is mentioned along with HEK, why it is called HEK 293, what does 293 will represent/indicate ?
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Can semi-synthetic drugs are also chemical drugs? Can we represent a semi-synthetic drug as a chemical drug?
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Yes
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Excuse me, what functional group does each of the characteristic peaks in the FT-IR spectrum represent?
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I plotted the field strengths of the metamaterial absorber layers, and these values are shown to me on the right of the figure. What do these values represent? If it represents the strength of the field, isn't this value too large?
The values that are shown on the right of the graph, what represent?
what do you mean? What is its unit?
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Saad Zahraw Sekhi You are welcome
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Hi!
I am characterising the distribution of cells and their repartition on a structure in confocal images. I have measured the orientation and distance of the cells from the center point of the structure. Each represents a vector. I want to represent these vectors graphically in order to illustrate the distribution of the cells and compare it's variability between different groups.
I am struggling to find the proper tool in order to transpose these vector measures into a comprehensive graph and I was wondering if anyone knew of a tool or software that would enable me to do this please?
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Hey Sandrine! I think I can help you with that! 😉
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Hello everyone,
I want to draw MOF-5 in Material Studio. I want to draw a sphere to represent the MOF pore 18.5 A diameter.
Thanks a lot!
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Xufei Li Thank you for your answer! I switched to VESTA as it is a free software to avoid any complications. Please share if you have experience with using VESTA to draw a ball inside the MOF.
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The alphafold 2 uses channels in pairwise representation for protein residues. But why are they used? Shouldn't there be only one value, not a cannel array?
The pairwise representation has shape (r,r,c). Why is it like that? Shouldn't it be (r,r)
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I have got the reason. Here the channels represents various features.
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Is it sampling frequency of control loop or some kind of resonance frequency of the system ??
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The frequency response, or variations in magnitude and phase as a function of frequency, is depicted using Bode graphs. This is accomplished using two semi-log scale charts. The top plot is usually magnitude or "gain" in decibels (dB). The bottom plot represents a phase, which is usually expressed in degrees.
A Bode plot /ˈboʊdi/ is a graph representing a system's frequency response in electrical engineering and control theory. It is frequently a mix of a Bode magnitude plot, which expresses the amplitude of the frequency response (usually in dB), and a Bode phase plot, which expresses the phase shift.
In electronics, frequency response is a quantifiable measure of a system's or device's output spectrum in response to a stimulus that is used to define the system's dynamics. It is a measure of the amplitude and phase of the output in relation to the input as a function of frequency.
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E3nn which offers invariant data representation uses irreps, irreducible representation. I am finding it difficult to understand how it works. How the irreps should be defined? Any help is appreciable
The following is the link to e3nn
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Hi
Does anyone know how I can find the specific substructure of each bit in CDK fingerprints and CDK extended fingerprints which are implemented in PaDEL-descriptor and Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) software?
As an example, I am searching for SMILES representation of FP40.
Thanks,
Maryam
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Hi,
it is not easy to find. I had that problem recently, and my only choice was to identify two/three molecules with FP40 and compare its structures, because they should be common to all. In my case it seemed to be an aromatic ring.
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I have difficulty in my research (for my thesis), I confused on choosing variable. Can you give me advises about the variable that represent the revolution industry 4.0. My thesis is about the impact Revolution industry 4.0 to manufacturing industry. Thank you
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There are a lot of maturiy models like Appelfeller et al. within a lot of indicators
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In technical guide pdf, the unit of precipitation in mm/hr.IS MEAN must be mulitable all pixels 24*31 to get mm/month ?
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Are you talking about IMERG monthly data? If the unit of this data is mm/hr and you need to convert it to mm/month, please look at the link and the description below. In general, you are right but don't forget that the number of hours (days) in each month is different.
"Because the total days in each month are different, mm/hr is used for easy comparison. Since the 3B43 product is a monthly average, you could simply do the conversion by multiplying the hourly rain rate with the total hours in that month."
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Hi,
Can we use the species-level data from MGC cluster table? Does it represent an OTU table?
Thank you in advance.
Thilini
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There has been several usage in literature of the term MGC for different things and thus its abbreviation is not universal, I suppose. Now the question is if you are talking about the metabolic gene clusters or multiconstrained gene cluster or anything else is not clear. But I think it is clear that OTU is something very different from these two. The very principle of OTU table is different and I don't think it can be similar to other tables in general. However, definition of OTU is also variable and can be restructured/defined according to individual study/author.
So, you can define MGC as OTU table or vice versa if you can explain/defend your notion behind doing it.
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Which numerical method is more effective for solving parabolic diffusion PDE in 2D [ with Dirichlet boundary conditions, initial condition at time t =0 is given]? The PDE may represent time dependent heat equation in two space variables, an IBVP.
Thanks!
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Dear Tekle Gemechu,
Regarding this question, I am sharing my experience here in this area which may be useful.
I would suggest Crank-Nicolson method for solving your Diffusion PDE, due to the enhanced convergence properties through this method. Unfortunately, there is a small problem. As far as the heat transfer equation is concerned, by taking into account the dependency of thermal diffusivity (thermal properties) to the temperature, numerical modeling of the implicit part of the discretized Crank-Nicolson equation will not be so easy. Therefore, as my second suggestion, It is better to use an explicit time discretization and a simple spatial discretization (second-order central finite difference, as it is a diffusion problem).
Regards.
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Does anyone know how to use Sparse mass stiffness and damping matrices which are extracted from Ansys to represent it State-space model identification using System Identification Toolbox™ ?
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Dear Murana Awad,
Use mechss to represent second-order sparse models using matrices obtained from your finite element analysis (FEA) package. Such sparse models arise from finite element analysis (FEA) and are useful in fields like structural analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, and electromagnetics.
Also i suggest you to see links on topic.
Best regards
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Anyone knows a Matlab code to solve a state-space model which I represent it on mechss ( M,C,K) command? ?
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I am looking to learn representation from location data similar to what word2vec does to the a sentence. I am aiming to develop a system that can understand the region based on the location input and relate it to other locations.
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Assuming you're referring to images of particular locations. Attached are two photos of the same aisle in a supermarket. Pixels have been reduced to adjacent, maybe nested, areas. The operations of choice were applying a Gauss convolution, then establishing areas by clustering pixels by color.
In order to recognize such an encoding of a place (or person or thing), you have to define a distance measure. In the simplest case you choose one prominent area (e.g. the green emergency light on top), take the midpoint of the area, and determine the distance to the midpoint of each other area. You may restrict to areas that have low excentricity or extremal brightness. This gives you a vector which can be compared to the analog vector in the other image.
Note that in this case there is only one reference point (the green lamp on the ceiling), which can be identified easily. In reality there might be no single prominent point to refer to. Each midpoint of n suited areas could be a reference point, which would give you n vectors with n components, an n*n matrix. So you will have to match matrices.
Simply adding up the squares of the differences of corresponding cells of a matrix could be a basis. But you should minimize that sum by simultaneously swapping pairs of rows and columns with the same index.
Regards,
Joachim
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I would like to receive suggestions about which indicators can better represent the recognition that non-state armed groups can receive from the international community.
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عقد اتفاق مؤشر للاعتراف
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I prepared a blend of NaCMC and PEG at different NaOH concentration and I am getting a peak at 2363vm^-1.please tell me if anyone can?
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this is caused by CO2.
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Dear colleagues.
Considering that ASCII characters take range from 32 to 127, so we need 7 bits to represent each character, what is the highest theoretical value of information entropy for a given text?
For example for grayscale images, since we represent each pixel using 8 bits and there is a maximum of 2^8=256 shades, the highest entropy value is 8.
Does this hold for text? So is the highest possible atainable value 7?
I am trying to configure this for a text encryption design.
Does the entropy command in MATLAB provide the correct result for this?
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Several methods are there for determining the entropy of a text or its individual segments, called n-grams. Shannon method is one of the most popular method, which is based on the representation of the text by a Markov chain of depth n.
Second one is dictionary-based method for determining the entropy of n-grams, which combines the Kolmogorov’s combinatorial approach and a corollary of the Shannon’s second theorem, which gives an asymptotic estimate of the number of meaningful texts.
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SpMin6_Bhs, a descriptor captured in the MLR equation in the QSAR model having the value of +3.88521.
SpMin6_Bhs represent: smallest eigenvalue n. 6 of Burden matrix weighted by I-state
So my question is that what's the means of i-state here?
and how SpMin6_Bh(s)'s impact the activity......may be increase or decrease ?
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Hi,
basically you look to the value and signal: positive mean that biological activity is positively correlated with this descriptor, so in theory you want to increase its value to obtain more potent compounds.
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I'm looking for Egyptian architects and urbanists who, at some point along their line of work, explored the representation of cities, societies and cultures in Egyptian films.
It would be very helpful. Much appreciated
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The city and cinema have a formidable relationship. The images and sounds of cities found in movies may be the only experience many people have of cities they will never visit. Films influence how we construct images of the world and, as a result, how we operate within it in many cases. Cinematic Cairo: Egyptian Urban Modernity from Reel to Real provides a history of Cairo's urban modernity through the lens of film, with cinematic space serving as both an analytical tool and a medium of critique. Cairo has been a rich source of subject material for Egypt's film industry since the art form's inception at the end of the nineteenth century.
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I am aware that knots are characterized by polynomial invariants (Alexander , Jones, HOMFLY etc) but except for the Alexander polynomial, the other polynomials seem non-intuitive. In this context, could an arbitrary knot be represented as a sum of lissajous / fourier knots ( as in fourier series) ?? The difference between the former and the usual methods of knot decomposition would be the difference between representation as a sum of orthogonal knots and as a product of (prime / irreducible ??) knots . Would the invariant polynomials be the sum of the corresponding polynomials of the constituents ??
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Some more hypothetical leaps based on the above :
- Links to the roots of unity idea (vertices being roots of unity in each region) with possible links to hyperbolic triangles and polygons where the sizes of the arcs / segments at each edge do not matter (since we are looking at topology) with the winding number possibly representing the exponent. When we are looking at nested / interior regions, one would possibly add a constant winding number to all the regions bound by a particular curve (possibly corresponding to addition / multiplication by an appropriate power of the independent variable).
I know the above is pretty speculative but anything formal has to be based on intuitive grasp of what is going on. If that makes sense, one can go ahead. Else, one has to continue the search for ideas
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Qamchuqa formation represent forebulge depozone of zagrose foreland basin. Iraq 🇮🇶 segment.
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The Qamchuqa formation is a formation or a well exposed which located in northeast of Iraq which contains thick reservoir units in high folded zone.
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I I would like to represent the abundance of the microplanton along the Algerian coast
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If you are familiar with R Programming. You may try this. You can customize your bubble plot using ggplot library.
Let me know if you need further help.
Best!!
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I would like to create a graphical representation of these properties in the upper atmosphere. But I can't find data for these parameters. Can anyone point me to some?
Thanks!
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Volker Maiwald …. I don’t have access to the actual data but hope the links listed below give you some of the information. Though temperature is the common topic my hope is they offer source ideas. - Two other sources, though a bit indirect are; (1) NASA has a test Flight Center on Wallops Island , Wallops Island, Virginia. Much of our atmospheric tests (since 1961) are conducted from there. along with a center in Alaska. You’ll find results that in the “Notes” below. — (2), I suggest a search of the information you want using Google Scholar Scholar.Google.com
........ ................Links...
1)__ Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Meridional Circulation in the Thermosphere I. Equinox Condition Temperature by Robert Dickinson
2)__ Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Extension of the MSIS Thermosphere Model into the middle and lower atmosphere.......N.B - abstract only - need a log-in
3)__ Science Direct - Thermosphere
........................Notes :
4)__ NASA Wallops Island (Virginia) (very general info) (https://www.nasa.gov/centers/wallops/
5)__ NASA Extends TIMED Mission for Fourth Time
"The primary science objective of the TIMED mission is to understand the energy transfer into and out of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere/Ionosphere (MLTI) region of the Earth's atmosphere (energetics), as well as the basic structure (i.e., pressure, temperature, and winds) that results from the energy transfer into the region".
6)__ NASA “sounding rockets” from Alaska
NASA Sounding Rocket Program Office - UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA
7)__ National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
Studies on the Thermosphere….in Colorado
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There are different types of models used to represent a certain data. Where / when / why does one may use polynomial models ( such as cubic ones) to represent the data?
Thanks!
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The simplest type of functions are polynomial ones. They are easy to evaluate their derivatives, integrals, zeroes and basically most notions you can associate to a function. Furthermore polynomial functions can be used to suitably approximate any other function in a specific interval by the Stone_Weierstrass Theorem. It is also quite easy to approximate suitable datasets by regression methods provided you use a high enough degree polynomial but not large enough to cause "overfitting". Now to find what degree you need there are a couple of methods, the easiest being just to conduct a visual inspection and note how many monotonicity changes you get. Notice that linear regression (if you are familiar with the term) is just a simple case of polynomial regression.
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Hi everyone, I hope you doing great. I already installed QE, and while I was doing some calculations I noticed the notion of K_points. After doing some research, this is what I got:
In 1D, the energy bands are plotted in the Brillouin zone, where the quantum number (wave vector) is ranging from -pi/a to pi/a on the x-axis.
In 2D, the energy bands are plotted in the Brillouin zone, where the quantum number this time has two components Kx and Ky, which means we have a 3D representation for the energy bands.
In 3D, the energy bands are plotted in the Brillouin zone, where the quantum number this time has three components Kx, Ky and Kz, consequently, it's complicated to represent the energy bands. Therefore, a new representation for the energy bands is needed. We define a path as a set of selected K_points K = (Kx, Ky, Kz) and we draw the energy in the function of this path. To minimise the choices of these paths, we define these later using the symmetry point (special K_points), which are Gama, x, ..etc. and by using the same path one can find the same energy bands as the others.
This is what I have understood, and I hope it's right.
Don't hesitate to correct me if I did a mistake or missed something, please.
Waiting for your comments.
Ahmed
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Nice question
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Usually, repeatability is defined as the measurement of one point. We want to assess the repeatability of the measurement of a profile. In fact, we want to exclude the systematic error from random error and then represent a quantitative assessment for the repeatability of the measurement system for the target profile.
I have performed a comparison of one against all and also cross-correlation. Does anyone have other suggestions?
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Hi, Richard. It very much depends on the application. Gauge R&R as part of the Measurement System Analysis (MSA) performs well in the Semiconductor industry.
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Dear All,
I wonder if there exists any 3-dimensional representation of a spiral (e.g., prime number spiral)?
Here is, what I mean:
In 2D, a spiral is an ordinary object. E.g., a spiral of numbers (picture a).
In 1D, I can imagine a spiral as subsequent numbers put on the right or on the left of the origin (picture b).
In 3D, a spiral can be thought as one pictured in (c) but it is not what I mean.
In 1D and in 2D, the sequence of numbers surrounds the origin in all directions in the space. Is it possible to imagine any spiral representation in 3D which could surround the origin in all 3 dimensions in the space?
My question is motivated by thinking of Ulam spiral or prime spiral.
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hey to you...
Dirichlet’s theorem, statement that there are infinitely many prime numbers contained in the collection of all numbers of the form na + b, in which the constants a and b are integers that have no common divisors except the number 1 (in which case the pair are known as being relatively prime) and the variable n is any natural number (1, 2, 3, …). For instance, because 3 and 4 are relatively prime, there must be infinitely many primes among numbers of the form 4n + 3 (e.g., 7 when n = 1, 11 when n = 2, 19 when n = 4, and so forth). Conjectured by the late 18th–early 19th-century German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, the statement was first proved in 1826 by the German mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet.
but
Spherical coordinate mathematically NOT plausible
In geometry,
a coordinate system is a system that uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold
BUT.....
Spherical coordinate system
Any spherical coordinate triplet ( r , θ , φ ) specifies a single point of three-dimensional space. On the other hand, every point has """infinitely many equivalent spherical coordinates"".
but
2.11Termization In number theory, the fundamental theorem of arithmeticthe unique-prime-factorization theoremitself or can be represented as the product of prime numbers and that, moreover, this representation is unique, up to (except for) the order of the factor [7 The fundamental theorem of arithmetic or the product of prime factor decomposition theorem is statedfollows: any strictly positive integer can be written as a product of prime numbers in a unique way,order of the factors. Here is a computer program made in python which allows to decompose any integer [+, terms of prime numbers (ending) (PDF) Global Dimensional Mathematics. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354142587_Global_Dimensional_Mathematics [accessed Aug 31 2021].
2.12 Conjecture de Goldbach Goldbach's conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and all of mathematics. It states that every even whole number greater than 2 is the sum of two prime numbers [10]. This program can also find all numbers from GOLDBACH [even, odd] up to the one specified. Indeed, the Goldbach conjecture is thus resolved. (PDF) Global Dimensional Mathematics. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354142587_Global_Dimensional_Mathematics [accessed Aug 31 2021].
but
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I wish to estimate the particulate matter air dispersion indoors from the outdoor environment in an urban setting.
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Tanya Kaur Bedi please go through the following articles attached herewith
  1. https://youtu.be/OqRUtRytanI
Regards
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When you set up an experiment, with "defined" "stimuli", these are the stimuli in YOUR imagination and/or YOUR model.
BUT: very often it is a matter of representation (from long-term memory) of the circumstance(s)/setting(s), AND the stimuli can only be understood in THAT context -- the context of the content of developed representation of such circumstances/settings (think, for example, of problem-solving). The Subject, in most significant settings, has her/his representation of such circumstances/situations/settings. THAT actually more than helps to properly define the stimuli , for such is often the MAIN THING for defining (recall that it is the Subject (surrounding behavior patterns) very often _THAT_ MUST, in science, be what allows any empirical or true definition of stimuli).
All this is outlined by, and fully consistent with, Ethogram Theory (see my Profile and, from there, read A LOT-- I do provide guidance on readings order). The Theory itself is internally , and likely externally, consistent and it is strictly empirical (in the grounding/foundation of ALL concepts -- i.e. ALL clearly linked to directly observable overt behavior PATTERNS); and thus, given all those characteristics, there are hypotheses that are clearly verifiable/falsifiable .
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Dear Brad Jesness,
Isn't looking at the phenomenon from different angles provide us with better understanding of it?
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The representation of ethical dilemma is admittedly a quite difficult topic. On the first hand, the very definition of what constitute a dilemma is subject to numerous vivid discussions and debates among philosophers (from Kant denying the existence of such things as ethical dilemma to Sartre and the famous example of the existential dilemma).
Nevertheless, it seems plausible that since ethical dilemma actually exists (at least according to persons subject to these dilemma) and therefore should be representable. Here comes another difficulty, more theoretical and grounded in the very essence of what constitute a dilemma. A dilemma, it would seem, is a contradiction, a conflict between two (or more) obligations that can't be mutually fulfilled.
Modal logic and particularly deontic logic studies the relations between Propositional Calculus and the deontic operators ([] obligation and <> permission). I have not been able to find an interpretation of these operators in description logic. I would be interested in opinion concerning relations between deontic operators and the usual constructors of description logic (set intersections/existential and universal quantification).
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Many so-called ethical dilemmas may arise because general rules specifying obligations are not absolute but subject to implicit ceteris paribus conditions. Those conditions also raise epistemology problems. W.D. Ross distinguished between prima facie duties and duties proper, to resolve conflicting obligations. Duties proper were arrived at by assigning different weightings, relative to context and circumstances, to the prima facie duties.
  • Ross, W.D. The Right and the Good (1930). Philip Stratton-Lake, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Ross, W.D. Foundations of Ethics: the Gifford Lectures Delivered at the University of Aberdeen, 1935-6. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939.
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Dear Scholars,
I am working on LTCC mechanism using FEM , ANSYS APDL.
can I distribute setting load equally on the corresponding nodes along the roof area to represent a shield support?
Is there any simplest acceptable way for simulating shield support?
Please help.
Nasina Balasubrahmanyam
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