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Renewable Resources - Science topic

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What is Renewable carbon content? How to quantify renewable carbon content in bio-based polyols? Any equation available?
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CH4 has 1 C atom and 4 H atoms. Hence molecule-wise C is 20 %, C is 80 %. More usefully, the mass of C= mf_C = 1 x 12/(1x12 + 4 x 1) = 0.75 (75 %)
Another example: Biomass C Hn Om Np:
mass fraction of C= mf_C = 1 x 12/ (1 x12 + n x1 + m x 16 + p x 14); Typically for n = 1.6, m = 0.7, p = 0.003, one gets mf_C = 12/(12 +1.6+11.2 +0.042) = 0.483 Roughly 50 % of solid biomass is carbon. If you wish, you can read my book, Understanding energy and fuels from biomass, also on www.hsmukunda.in
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Dear researchers, what are the proposed methods to optimize battery SOC and diesel fuel usage , as an energy management strategy for off-grid microgrids ?
Such system are exposed to uncertainty and high penetrations of renewable resources.
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Thank you very much for raising the interesting question.
As mentioned by other colleagues, there is a wide spectrum of methodology is available when it comes to energy management strategies for off-grid microgrids.
However, it depends on what exactly you want to optimize and up to what extent.
Please find some useful links where you can read about the topic in detail.
I hope this helps.
Best regards,
Kedar
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In order to effectively promote the issue of natural ecosystems in the context of developing models of sustainable development, it is first necessary to develop an information program that will act as the content of specific social campaigns conducted in various types of media, including new media, also on social media portals. Both social information campaigns should be conducted on a large scale. In addition, there should be successive changes to the law, ie new legal regulations that will motivate the transformation of business models towards the development of green economy and sustainable development. These campaigns should also motivate research centers to create new ecological innovations and new technological solutions in the field of renewable energy sources.
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Mohammad Mahamood,
Thanks for the kind word.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Recently, discussions have been held in the public debate on issues related to the development of the green economy concept, the need to introduce pro-ecological policy reforms, etc. to make it possible to achieve globally sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the perspective of the next years.
In the context of the problem of determining determinants of sustainable pro-ecological economic development, the following question also appears:
How should the new economy be developed in accordance with the green economy concept in the field of renewable energy development by means of which instruments and reforms of green energy policy, so that it is possible to achieve globally sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the perspective of the next years?
How effective green economy philosophy should be developed in a pro-environmental energy policy in order to solve key development problems of human civilization, ie environmental pollution, effective and quick to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thus slow down the global warming process , activation of the development of electromobility, development of modern non-emitting harmful waste to the environment, renewable energy sources, development of organic agricultural production, development of biodegradable packaging production, etc. with the use of electricity produced from renewable energy sources?
Therefore, I am asking you the following questions:
How should pro-ecological energy policy be developed according to the green economy concept in the field of renewable energy development?
How should programs for the development of renewable energy sources be financed?
Should the state co-finance, within public-private partnerships with public funds, large investment projects for the construction of power plants producing electricity based on modern technologies of renewable energy sources?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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The development of renewable energy sources is now a key element of the pro-environmental transformation of the energy sector, implementation of the sustainable development goals, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, implementation of the green economy concept, etc.
I invite you to the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I would like to do my PhD on the climate change. If anyone is willing to work with me, we can connect and I can explain the whole theory and then may be we can proceed quantitively to prove my theory is right or wrong.
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The present climate change (example: current heat waves) is due to the pollution in the air brought about by burning fossil fuels for over 100 years.
If we start using renewables, like solar energy, instead of fossil fuels, the amount of pollution will be the same for a while, then will be less later on.
With less pollution, we will get less extreme weather events like heat waves.
If you are suggesting that with solar energy will get more pollution in the air, that is not possible.
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How would you design a similar or different futurological energy and civilization project, containing renewable energy sources of renewable energy and recreation of natural conditions, referring to natural ecosystems, which after years would gain the possibility of self-recreating?
For example, whether with unlimited investment funds or whether it would be possible to achieve a sustainable economic ecosystem from scratch to achieve economic efficiency at least at the zero growth level as follows: Can a large solar power plant be developed in the desert and water obtained from energy to develop agricultural production and plant ecosystems, including forest ecosystems, which, after several dozen years, could almost function themselves? An important factor would be the possible progressive climate change in a given area and the geographical scope of the area covered by this investment project.
In some science fiction movies there are scenes that suggest that it is possible, economically justified and real. However, the vision presented in science-fiction movies to create real projects can, however, be a very big difference. But many futurological visions that were created in the past have been implemented, so it is justified to undertake such attempts to create further futurological projects.
In connection with the above, I would like to ask you the following question: How would you design energy if you had unlimited financial resources? How would you design a similar or different futurological energy and civilization project, containing renewable energy sources of renewable energy and recreation of natural conditions, referring to natural ecosystems, which after years would gain the possibility of self-recreating?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Dear Farid Ali David,
Thank you for your valuable substantive contribution to our discussion on innovative projects implemented in the field of energy technologies.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Renewable energy sources?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Renewable energy sources.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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A very hot question today. Thanks to the colleague Chinaza Godswill Awuchi for the interesting information in this area. I fully support him.
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Kindly suggest some upcoming research areas/ challenges to explore in (but not limited to) sustainable planning, and performance assessment of hybrid renewable grids.
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These investigations can provide you with a very comprehensive overview.
  • A hybrid renewable energy system for a North American off-grid community
  • Optimization of PV-biomass-diesel and grid base hybrid energy systems for rural electrification by using HOMER
  • Optimal design and techno-economic analysis of a solar-wind-biomass off-grid hybrid power system for remote rural electrification: A case study of west China
  • A thorough investigation on hybrid application of biomass gasifier and PV resources to meet energy needs for a northern rural off-grid region of Bangladesh: A potential solution to replicate in rural off-grid areas or not?
  • Heuristic indicators for the design of community off-grid electrification systems based on multiple renewable energies
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Recently, several inventions for the electricity-drived N(2)-fixation & CO(2)-assimilation have been reported (Liu et al., 2017; Lu et al., 2020 - see added files). Also, there are many physical, chemical, and biological inventions for removal of dissolved phosphorus from the natural waterbodies and waste waters. However, most of them require large technical buldings or significant expenditure of organic matter (in case of enhanced biol. phosphorus removal) or other forms of energy. On my opinion, it would be perspective to elaborate artifical compartment, made with the membrane coupled with phosphate transporters. As well as in case of artificial nitrogenase in Liu et al., 2017 & Lu et al., 2020, P-transporters would be supplied with power in form of electricity. I anticipate these systems would be more energy-efficient. Such artificial compartments would provide the phosphorus accumulation from natural waterbodies, rich in P, but pure in dissolved organic matter. It would be the potential alternative for the conventional obtaining of phosphorus from the rocks of Earth's crust.
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Thank you, dear Qamar Ul Islam.
I have already read this article.
But if the problems of global cycle of phosphorus and related technologies are indeed interesting for you, I would be very greatful to you, when you let me know about new research in future.
Thank you in advance.
Also I'd like to recommend this research: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306092164.
Arsen.
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Renewable energy sources based on solar energy belong to those types of renewable energy, which should be developed in the next years in the energy sector, because it is the production of clean energy.
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Due to the development of renewable energy sources and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, is it possible that in 2030 most of the world's electricity production will come from solar energy, or will significantly diversified energy sources continue to dominate?
Thank you, Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The analysis of differences in the scope of Renewable Energy Policy in individual countries should take into account the scale of the share of the oil refining and refining industry in the entire national economy. The large share of the oil industry in the domestic economy may generate analogous large-scale lobbying of the industry on the government, on policies on shaping a specific direction of development of this sector in a given country. This lobbying may concern, for example, the deliberate slowing of energy sector reforms in the scope of pro-ecological needs. This type of conservative policy may not take into account the needs of reforming the energy sector, including the development of renewable energy sources, ecological innovations in renewable energy technologies, ecological material innovations, etc. The development of electromobility or the development of power supply technologies based on hydrogen engines should also be added to this issue. oxygen or other environmentally neutral technologies. Such reforms are necessary in the 21st century in connection with the need to reduce greenhouse gases in order to slow down the progressing global warming process, ie the increase of the average annual temperature on Earth. In the 21st century, it is necessary to develop a new green economy in the context of the forthcoming fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
The issues of lobbying the oil industry to slow down energy sector reforms is one of the major problems of modern economics, specifically the issues of sustainable development with the emphasis on ecology, the impact of industry and classic energy sources on the natural environment. This issue is particularly important in the context of climate change, global warming, rising average temperature on the Earth, the progressing greenhouse effect of the Earth and the related new climate disasters is probably the most important topic for discussion, research and human action in the 21st century.
The topics related to the greenhouse effect on Earth, which are the subject of discussion, are particularly important and scientifically important and in the context of human life.
In the context of this issue of lobbying of the oil industry affecting the governments of countries, there is an important issue for discussion in the field of economic development of the world in the 21st century.
Therefore, I am asking you with an important question: Does the issue of oil industry lobbying affecting national governments in order to slow down energy sector reforms be a serious problem and a brake on pro-ecological reforms in the energy sector and the development of, for example, electromobility?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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In recent years, the topic of the pro-ecological transformation of the economy and the implementation of sustainable development goals has appeared in the media more and more often. Therefore, the scale of the pro-environmental social awareness of citizens is growing. More and more companies and corporations add the issues of achieving the goals of sustainable development to their missions and development strategies. Therefore, the following research question appears: Is the lobbying of companies from the fossil fuel extraction sector and classic energy based on these fuels gradually declining due to the growing scale of pro-environmental, public awareness of citizens? Is there a noticeable correlation in this matter?
Thank you, Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dated: 24-June-2020
Why “roadblocks are often been overlooked by forecasters” before moving to the “prediction system (PS)”? Can it (PS) be considered a sustainable in the long term?
Now a days most of the forecasting agencies in India are busy in giving seasonal weather forecast (regional) including extremes and making it instantly available on the net. Many are in race of launching new portal to do so without comprehension of the predictability charade. Mostly been done using numerical modelling systems without exploring (disclosing) the some main factor which are essentially are the roadblocks in predictability.
I think, correcting spatial bias via embedded station data network should not only be the focus, though it will be a help but not sustainable solution. Why main problem lies been often overlooked before moving to PS? For example- intraseasonal variability (main roadblock to the predictability) is not well resolved in GFS forecasting model (or alike other models) and these oftenly used by the forecaster as an input data to their chosen prediction model. My question is, if unresolved or inadequate in specific sense (exam.- not having tendency to reproduce intraseasonal signals) inputs goes into the main predictive model then how sustainable will be the forecast in the long run. I feel, to do any less may result in prediction unsustainable. Surely, it may results in few right prediction and leads to self-acclaimed commendations but in longer run chances of failure in prediction will be higher. In terse, these prediction will have no substantial value in the long term.
For example – in a year when these charade processes will be predominant, forecast will be failure and it leads to socio-economic loss and setback to forecasting organizations. In general it will then, as usual, follow with post-mortem which will again highlights the need in the improvement of microphysics, intraseasonal signals variability, lead lag relationship, issues associated to AWS, standards rules or norms, installations, implementations policies, and money etc. aspects and in some cases probably leads to blame game to defend the failure. Remember, these reasoning to defend the prediction sometimes makes other agency competitive and robust. Healthy criticism can substitute constructiveness. I think, scientific failure must be constructively accepted to explore afresh scientific causes behind instead politicization.
If such things continue then it will be followed with actions such as --- Despondent with exiting forecast, Govt. decided to search for new options, leaving or updating the existing.
I think, Obliviousness should not a substitute for decisive forecasting. Forecasters must ensure that all roadblock are properly addressed or informed properly to tackle forecasting related failures and contingency. The truth must not left to postmortem and implications of the words.
Best,
Vaid, B. H.
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Sustainable development is very important in the context of the increasing use of resources and environmental pollution.
The basic issue that must be achieved within the framework of full sustainable development is the renewal of resources, reduction of economic growth to the optimal level ensuring renewable resources, reduction of environmental pollution, creation of biodegradable substitutes for fossil fuels, replacement of traditional energy based on mineral combustion for technological innovations in in the field of energy, including the development of energy based on renewable energy sources, etc. To this should be added a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to slow down the negative aspects of the oceogenic climate of the Earth. There is so much to do in these themes and, above all, a great deal to do in the 21st century so that it would not be too late.'
To effectively carry out this process, it is necessary to develop universal, precise measures of sustainable development that will be used globally and will be recognized as the standards for assessing the process of achieving and achieving sustainable economic development in harmony with ecology.
But it is very difficult to establish precise measures for the sustainable development process. Sustainable economic development in correlation with ecology should be measured to determine if it is being implemented. It is necessary to define precise determinants that on one hand will determine the pace of economic development and on the other hand will take into account specific issues of ecology. It should be a set of quantified indicators based on selected measurable and quantitative data, so that the whole analytical process can be considered as a research objective method. The best solution will therefore be to develop an analytical scoring method, for which the basic components of this method will be defined economic and ecological quantitative indicators.
In the light of the above, the question arises: Is sustainable development possible taking into account the full harmony of economic development with ecology?
Even if it is unrealistic, what are the reasons for building a theoretical model that would present such a fully balanced development?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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today 18 March is World Recycling Day.
World Recycling Day was established in 2018 by the Global Recycling Foundation.
The anniversary of 18 March celebrates the importance of recycling and at the same time aims to raise awareness of citizens and institutions in protecting the environment. The correct differentiation of waste makes them come back to life, with the mission of safeguarding our Earth.
An anniversary, therefore, dedicated to celebrating the importance of correct waste separation in order to create a circular economy that enhances resources and protects the future of the planet. A green goal strongly reaffirmed also by the constraint placed by the European Union in the Next Generation EU. In fact, a large portion of the post-Covid-19 funds to be distributed to individual states is bound to policies and economic choices aimed at the ecological transition, at a strongly and truly sustainable change.
For more details, please see at: https://www.globalrecyclingfoundation.org/
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Hello Dear Researchers,
Given the potentials, and environmental and economic issues in the field of renewable energy, which type of biomass source will be environmentally and economically superior in the future; Forest Biomass, Herbaceous Biomass, Aquatic Biomass or Manure Biomass?
Bests,
Dashtpeyma
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All of these are effective, but the problem is that in any region of the world, one may take precedence over the other.
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Is it feasible to replace my Photo Voltaic (PV) solar panels system by Solar Water Heater (SWH)?
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welcome!
The solar energy can be used in direct heating such as water heating and it can be used in electricity generation. Normally solar water heaters are more efficient and cost effective than the PV electric generation.
Conceptually, when you use PV to convert solar radiation into electricity the conversion efficiency is relatively low in the order of 15 percent.
The cost of the PV generators are relatively expensive because of the materials used are very expensive.
So, PV generated electricity is never used in heating except under very controlled conditions.
There is a concept which is never use PV for heating.
Simply because the direct heating is more efficient and more cost effective.
Best wishes
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Our group need to start giving topics on which one should we focus on regarding non renewable resources. I've looking these past 2months but nothing comes to mind.
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Which leading Techno-Economic Software is recommended for Renewable Energy Projects...
SAM ?
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BioSTEAM: The Biorefinery Simulation and Techno-Economic Analysis Modules
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Hello, I'm studying the potential of the renewable resources in power generation and I was wondering how can I calculate levelized cost of energy (LCOE)?
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Hope this helps,
sLCOE = {(overnight capital cost * capital recovery factor + fixed O&M cost )/(8760 * capacity factor)} + (fuel cost * heat rate) + variable O&M cost.
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Climate change, including global warming, are some of the biggest challenges facing humankind today. Human activities are mostly responsible for global warming because of their role in increasing greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorocarbons), a heat trapper in the atmosphere. Among the mentioned gases, carbon dioxide is most devastating in terms of the global warming scenario. The Earth’s surface temperature has warmed in the last 100 years, and there is no credible hypothesis for this, other than the net effect of greenhouse gases (especially CO2).
Keeping the average rise of global temperature below 2oC (whereas concentration level CO2, lower than 550ppm) has become the focus of international efforts formed notable in the Copenhagen climate change conference (2009). And indeed, since then, we are seeing the room to tackle the global warming issue by promoting a dialogue based on policies and strategies, including adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable growth perception through the use of renewable resources for the well-being of humanity. The former statement on tackling the climate is reasonably fine and considered as the sustainable way to handle the global warming issue. But you might have noticed that there are several shortcomings in the way (for example- the world political leaders cum the policy makers have their own probable constraints and visualization) of sustainable growth based on policies and strategies. We cannot rely idea which country is doing good and which is not in holding the promise to curb CO2 and including many other such concomitant factors associated with policy making.
Keeping this as a base I suggest if we may share our views on the possible scientific approach to reduce dangerous anthropogenic (CO2) in the atmosphere other than that based on policies and strategies encompassing adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable growth (an incessant constructive growth) through the use of renewable resources. May you all please think about it and write down the likely scientific possibilities (a way to handle the problem scientifically rather than policy making) and suggestions to curb CO2.
Happy World Environment Day (05 June).
Best wishes,
Vaid, B. H.
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*Surely, this will be @ co2 release but not co2 impede; if not executed in controlled necessarily framework line.*
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Increasing use of solar renewable resources or farms on weak remote locations are causing significant power quality and voltage notch issues with connecting utilities. High penetration of these resources are increasing the sensitivity of these interconnection issues at the PCC, point of common coupling. There are many sync. close techniques but these are complicated and require single phase closing devices along with complicated expensive controllers. Why are pre-insertion resistors not commonly used?
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Hey guys in a lab setting, chambered experiment in a somewhat enclosed area im working with a CCS company to reduce overall global GHG emission's and we're trying to come up with a machine that essentially uses CO2,CH4 and NO2 as fuel sources with no combustion however we've run into an issue of sorts as we've also decided to go into collecting noble gases as well and we'd like to increase the concentration of these gases however i have no idea as to how to accomplish this. I've looked everywhere on the web and i've ran into methane hydrates, Increasing gas pressure's and an overall lack of sources on the idea as i'm working with atmospheric conditions not aqueous. One solution to this could be building an aqueous permeable membrane but idk how that'd work with the other gases that are absorbed such as the noble gases. So i'd really like some help.
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Manford Malemia thank you for your answer, our company is looking towards the atmosphere
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Some developing countries have plenty of biomass resources, but they couldn't exploit them effectively and efficiently yet due to several reasons --not only technological aspects but also economic aspects. Therefore, which factors do you think are crucial in sustainable utilization of biomass sources in the developing countries?
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in my opinion, we first need to define the "sustainable utilization" of biomass sources in developing countries. In case that sustainable utilization entails the supplementary energy production, then the biomass characteristics (HHV, moisture content), the climatic conditions (solar radiation, water precipitation), agrarian conditions (soil type, irrigation management), and competitive land uses/landscape management for nutrition and livestock feeding vs energy crops (the so named "food vs fuel" debate), are critical aspects. Besides, the proximity of energy production sites to the (nearby, or remote) residential areas, the transportation modes of fossil-fueled machinery, the cost effectiveness and the scaling-up perspectives, are also influential parameters of biomass "sustainable utilization". In a societal viewpoint, the local workforce strengthening and the social cohesion in favour of (or social opposition against) biofuel production units cannot be undermined.
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In many countries, energy based on renewable energy sources is being developed. This development is determined by many economic, ecological and geographical factors. This development results from the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the scale of air pollution by exhaust from mechanical vehicles. The development of energy based on renewable energy sources is indispensable due to the faster global warming process. Therefore, energy based on renewable energy sources should be developed.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What are the main determinants of the development of renewable energy sources?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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The determinants of renewable energies are -
1. The cost of renewables are high and many governments give subsidies to run their renewable energy production. So the cost of renewables must be lowered
2. Non-renewables are cheap and make lots of profit. But renewables are not profitable. But a high carbon emission tax is imposed on the non-renewables and more subsidies to renewables then the shift towards the renewables will accelerate
3. People still dont really know or care for the environmental problems that non-renewables cause. Public awarness should be raised in this regard.
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For the classical power industry to be replaced with renewable energy sources, it is necessary to have the right policy at the state level but also at the supranational level.
The supranational organization of common markets on the example of the European Union is perfect for this issue. In the European Union, successive reforms are being undertaken to motivate the development of modern energy solutions and environmental protection.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Therefore, in the context of the above considerations, the following important question appears:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
Protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development?
In the context of growing and increasing environmental pollution and declining areas of natural ecosystems, the importance and need to improve environmental protection systems, natural ecosystems and biodiversity is increasing. Biodiversity is one of the most important issues of natural ecosystems and life on Earth. Maintaining high biodiversity on Earth should be a challenge and one of the main goals of human functioning on the Earth in the 21st century and in subsequent centuries.
In connection with the above, protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable ecological development. In some countries, the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development is implemented successively, primarily in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques and recycling development. However, in many countries these issues are still insufficiently developed.
Still too small financial resources are allocated in many countries for the development of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation and recycling techniques. In addition to the private sector, besides enterprises implementing ecological innovations, it is necessary to increase expenditures and develop strategic pro-ecological reform projects, including restructuring of the mining industry of minerals supplying classic energy sources and development of energy based on renewable energy sources. This development should be supported and coordinated by environmentally friendly state intervention, and due to the high investment costs of construction of power plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources should be co-financed from the state public finance funds.
In this way, it will be possible to slow down the ongoing global warming process in the 21st century and thus slow down the process of devastating the natural environment, draining green areas characterized by high biodiversity. Biodiversity is a very important issue in the context of the analysis of ecology, sustainable development and the protection of the natural environment, including, in particular, the natural positions of biologically complex ecosystems, i.e. those that are characterized by high biodiversity. Maintaining biodiversity of natural ecosystems is one of the most important problems and tasks for people in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In the context of the above considerations, the following question is still valid:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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In early 20 century most of the world major fisheries are depleted or decline, tropical forest are continues to shrink at 30 million acres per year, ground water withdrawals continues to deplete aquifers in all major water scarce region of the globe. Clearly, management of renewable resource remain a major concern.
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From ecological point of view it is important to apply sustainable managment of fisheries as determining best catching rates and monitoring for pollution prevention. International cooperation is also important because most major fisherues are exploited internationally. New technologies must be adopted to improve the productibility of fisheries and support millions of people worldwide who are depeding on fisheries for living.
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Please can anyone explain how can I know the ability of renewable resources (solar and wind) to meet hydrogen demand at refueling stations?
any document, report, pdf, book, and articles or answers please share them with me.
thanks in advance
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Thank you very much dear Cihangir Kale. I will be in touch when I finish your article.
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When the depletion of minerals, classic energy sources such as oil, hard coal and lignite, natural gas will generate market high increases in prices of these commodities on commodity exchanges?
In this question I point to economic issues and not speculative ones. Investment funds and large energy corporations are buying forward contracts for the supply of these raw materials.
The investment risk is high and the possibility of price forecasting is not easy considering the speculative transactions of investment funds and a number of non-economic factors, such as political factors in the production of crude oil.
However, in a few dozen years some of these minerals may start to run out. Until then, the economy should determine the creation of other energy technologies, ecological innovations in the field of energy and substitutable energy sources, mainly based on renewable energy concepts.
So when are the non-economic determinants influencing the energy prices on the wholesale exchanges, the commodities will be replaced and replaced by economic determinants?
When the scale of depletion of these minerals will affect the prices of these raw materials, it will increase the prices of these minerals and in this way will accelerate the process of creating eco-innovations and renewable energy?
In view of the above, I am asking you: When the depletion of minerals, classic energy sources such as oil, hard coal and lignite, natural gas will generate market high increases in prices of these commodities on commodity exchanges?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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I believe the human without energy like the dead. The depletion of minerals, traditional energy sources are the end of the world .Natural gas not only will generate high market increases in prices of these commodities on commodity exchanges but generates a brutal war
However, at the same time, the human has a high ability to develop the future.
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One of the great challenges is to find a sustainable way to obtain biobased products from renewable resources. A significant emphasis has been on the developmental biorefinery concept and maximizing the exploitation of biomass into value-added products for utilization in Metallurgical Industries.
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I may suggest you this paper on biomachining.
Regards
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wonder if papers are considered as renewable resource or not.. i searched a lot but seems that it is controversial....any help?
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Dear Hegazy
The Renewable energy is any energy source that can be naturally replenished. So, depending on the definition, I think papers are not renewable energy source.
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I am looking for an example feed-in-tariff which is released by any goverment to encourage users for battery installation to consume self-generated electricity in smart homes.
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Dear friends, colleagues, and professors,
I am interested in become familiar with electrification process in different countries. As I read, in some countries, such as Sweden, householders have this option to buy energy from different retailers and the maintenance/reinforcement of distribution network is done by distribution system operators. In this regards, how is distribution network loss allocated among consumers and/or retailers? 
Thank you for sharing your experience from different regions of the globe.
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The situation in Australia is similar. The generators produce electricity - from coal. oil, gas, wind, solar etc., add their on-costs and sell it to the transmission company and make a profit. The transmission company distributes the electricity to various substations, adds its costs, sells it to a distribution company, and makes a profit. The distribution company distributes the electricity to end users, adds its cost and sells the distributed energy to retail 'resellers'. The resellers often have no idea at all what electricity is but charge the end users as much as they can for it, and make a profit. And people wonder why the electricity prices here are among the highest in the world . . .
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Hello, I am looking at possible ways to store and use the surplus power generation from renewable energy plants, solar and wind farms above all. I would be willing to collect some data first, so it would be great if anyone had literature or information about how much surplus is generated. I know the topic is very broad but anything could help.
Thanks a lot.
Enrico
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this is the system which iam trying to simulate 
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Dear Tanseem 
  1. Analysis and Implementation of a Novel Bidirectional DC–DC Converter can use it.code in attachment.A novel bidirectional dc–dc converter is presented in this project. The circuit configuration of the proposed converter is very simple. The proposed converter employs a coupled inductor with same winding turns in the primary and secondary sides. In step-up mode, the primary and secondary windings of the coupled inductor are operated in parallel charge and series discharge to achieve high step-up voltage gain. In step-downmode, the primary and secondary windings of the coupled inductor are operated in series charge and parallel discharge to achieve high step-down voltage gain. Thus, the proposed converter has higher step-up and step-down voltage gains than the conventional bidirectional dc–dc boost/buck converter. Under same electric specifications for the proposed converter and the conventional bidirectional boost/buck converter, the average value of the switch current in the proposed  converter is less than the conventional bidirectional boost/buck converter. The operating principle and steady-state analysis are discussed in detail. Finally, a 14/42-V prototype circuit is implemented to verify the performance for the automobile dual-battery system.
  2. Configurable Simulink Model for DC-DC Converters with PWM PI Control:This package includes a configurable Simulink model for three different types of DC-DC converters (Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters) with a PWM PI controller. The example provided shows a case to boost voltage from 5 volts to 25 volts. It can be used to learn DC-DC converters and their control. The model itself also provides an example how to mask a subsystem in Simulink. A HTML and a pdf files are provided to explain the principles of the unform Simulink model for three different types of DC-DC converters. The model does not require other Simulink blocks, such as SimPowerSystems.
  3. Design, modelling and control of bidirectional DC-DC converter (for EV):modelling design and control of a bidirectional dc-dc converter for EV applications. The provision for energy regeneration is achieved by using half bridge non isolated dc-dc converter. Small signal modelling of the system is done by the state space averaging technique. A PI controller has been implemented for the speed control. The soft switching technique has also been incorporated to minimize the switching losses. The system model has been simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK.
  4. Modeling and control of bidirectional DC-DC converter fed PMDC motor for electric vehicles:modelling and control design for a bidirectional dc-dc converter fed permanent magnet dc (PMDC) motor traction drive system for EV applications. The incorporation of the half bridge non-isolated bidirectional dc-dc converter improves the efficiency by allowing the provision for energy regeneration during braking (in the case of an EV or an HEV) and during down slope motion (in case of a pedalled electric bicycle). The state space averaging technique has been used to obtain the small signal model of the system. A unified PID controller working in both the modes i.e motoring and regeneration has been implemented for the speed control. The soft switching technique has also been incorporated to minimize the switching losses as well as to address the issue of parasitic ringing. The system model has been simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK and the results have been verified with the theoretical calculations.
Kinds Regards
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Due to increasing population, there is a trend to move towards offshore wind energy harvesting for better energy management
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I am not specialist in offshore wind energy. However, there are at least three factors to take into account: high installation costs, complicated logistic and maintenance and technical issues of the power transmission.
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According to Marek and Michael, the pyrogas of scrap tires comprises hydrogen, methane, ethane, butadiene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propane, propene, butane and other hydrocarbons.
(1)What are the average percentages of these compositions in the pyrogas?
(2)How can I calculate it's Gross Calorific Value (GCV) since its compositions vary according to pyrolysis processes (correct me if I'm wrong).
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you can calculate heating value of pyrogas from this equation
LHVpyrogas = sigma  (yi x LHVi)
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There is an issue in a region in the Philippines wherein an excess of renewable energy seems to be the problem. I would like to know how this is considered to be problematic when having an excess of renewable energy is not really 'wasteful' as it is renewable in the first place.
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Don't forget that the cost of the raw material used to generate solar PV electricity is zero, so the value of 'excess renewable energy' is simply what you can do with it. If you can't do anything at all with it, there is no cost involved in just switching it off!
However, the points raised by Dr Rehan are all very appropriate and I think well worth considering. I too would be interested to know which area you consider has excess renewable energy.
A situation arose like this in South Australia some months ago. Due to some  windy weather a lot of the transmission lines from the wind farms blew over (they must have been quite flimsy) and reduced the power supply to the state so much the entire grid shut down. So the wind farms were furiously generating, but had no customers at all. They too all had to shut down! Of course the fossil fuel lobby promptly blamed the renewable energy lobby - but even if the power stations had still been running they would be using the same transmission lines as the wind farms and would have been just as effectively disconnected. All goes to show you need a robust grid system when the source and use points of electricity are well separated.
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I am preparing a sustainability column for the Pastemagazine.com Science page focusing on wave energy as a renewable resource. I recently learned that NASA has developed a new technology that can boost the output of wave energy devices, but I need to understand how the energy from waves is captured now.
I'd apprentice any direction you can provide to (a) guide my research - published papers, current researchers, university programs in this area, and (b) find an expert willing to be interviewed about this subject.
And I'd like your thoughts on whether wave energy is an untapped resource - just a solar and wind once were.
Thank you.
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Hi Margo,
I've attached a copy of my lecture notes in the Green Energy Systems (GES), ENVT S105E,  course that I teach at Yale University.
I'd appreciate if you would kindly reference this source in your article.
Professor Yehia Khalil, Yale University, USA
Fellow of the University of Oxford, UK
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Human urine is a nutrient rich renewable resource. There is prejudice of using urine and it gets lost down the drain and becomes the cause of concern for receiving environment. Presently a good number of studies has established potentials of bioregenerative reclamation of human urine in aquaculture and hydroponics practices. By this was we can kill the two birds with single stone! We can recover nutrient resources and use it in productive economic practices and avert the pollution.
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The urea in urine can be a good source of nitrates for plant production but it must be properly processed in a bio-reactor that breaks down urea by microbial activity, removes the high levels of sodium and chloride ions, and breaks down proteins and amino acids.
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I will like to ask about the existing methods for performance assessment of hydro power plants.
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Performance of hydro power plants can be evaluated using reliability analysis both at the components levels and the system-level.
You'll need to use reliability models like Weibull distribution or the exponential distribution to predict the system-level reliability as a function of operating hours of the power plant.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil
Yale University
USA
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Today marks the day in which the renewable resource of the planet have been exhausted, which creates a so-called Ecological Debt. I would like to know how statistics for this statement are compiled? How serious is this claim on scientific merit? 
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"Earth Overshoot Day is computed by dividing the planet’s biocapacity (the amount of ecological resources Earth is able to generate that year), by humanity’s Ecological Footprint (humanity’s demand for that year), and multiplying by 365, the number of days in 2015:
(Planet’s Biocapacity / Humanity’s Ecological Footprint) x 365 = Earth Overshoot Day"
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Options for development of RES are based on FIT or TGC models of energy generation payment ?
What is better solution for country/investor? Why?
Any literature?
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I would like to suggest to read the paper entitled Analysis of FiT and TGC support mechanisms for renewable energy in Europe. 
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While simulating DFIG model . i am getting following error . Kindly suggest solution 
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Thank you sir for your valuable response . 
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I've been read some journals about microalgae biofuel. I think it seems to be feasible in engineering view because microalgae have high content of lipids and carbohydrate. Beside that, microalgae also have high growth rate. But, I doubt its feasibility in economic view because the first investment is very high. How do you think about this? Can you give the other sources of biofuel which more economic feasible than microalgae?
Thanks anyway
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Dear all,
I agree with the opinions written above regarding the profitability of processes involving microalgae. Bio-oil cannot compensate the costs and you should get value from other products like carotene and valuable proteins. Unfortunately I think that a few industrial plants in the world would saturate the overall market for these valuable compounds. I have no information about the economics using genetically modified microalgae but this option has issues related to possible contaminations outside the battery limits. Only if the consumption of CO2 by microalgae will be sufficiently rewarded the economics could turn positive. But this scenario is not predictable at the moment because CO2 emissions are not penalized enough (CO2 certificates are worth only a few $/tonn).  
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Management of a renewable natural resource such as stock of fish is key to sustainability of the resource. While simulating the population of a renewable resource such as fish stock, we expect the system (Stock & harvest) to converge to a steady state equilibrium (i.e. initial stock is in the basin of attraction). However, this is often not the case since there is a likelihood of experiencing a complex dynamic behavior  including deterministic chaos where steady state equilibrium is never reached. Consequently, managing a fishery becomes a nightmare. What are some of the key determinants of such complex dynamic behaviors & how should a resource economist deal with such problems as far as managing a renewable natural resource is concerned?
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One key determinant of the equilibrium state is a reliable stock-recruit relationship; simply put, when the population of adults is high, the number of fish born that live to be big enough to catch is also high. But this relationship is not often well-understood despite being the basis for most management. And this is but one source of variability.
Fisheries are typically managed in our region by assessing the population size with stock modeling and/or fishery independent indices in relation to thresholds established through historical stock performance or biological limitations. When thresholds are exceeded or approached, the only tactic we use is to reduce fishing effort, including reallocation among user groups. Fortunately, we have an adequate command and control regime so that reductions in effort lead to population growth, although not always does the response happen quickly enough. And we are still vulnerable to the mysteries of recruitment variability! 
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How can one get the load demand data for importing the same in a HOMER software for renewable energy modeling?
Can we use random data or we have to monitor it for a year or else do we have to get it from any of the authorities?
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Whether you get it in monthly average form or in time series, you can import it to your software and it will automatically give you the annual monthly average load profile. You may find the data either from service providers from data base or in person or you may need to do load assessment.
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I am trying to find out the degree days , heating degree days and the cooling degree days for Abu Dhabi. My question is how do I determine which base temperature value to choose for my calculations. I have come across different base temperature values for different regions. For Saudi Arabia I came across a base temperature value of 18.3, for Scotland the values were different for CDD and HDD values, any help in this regard would be helpful. 
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I suggest to take into account the ASHRAE or other standards and make your calculations not only for one case, regarding the base temperature, but for two, at least. So, you can also have a comparative perspective.
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When applying the UKMO equations I am getting the negative values for the HDD (heating degree days), though when applying the Ashrae Formula we either get positive values or 0 (given that the condition remains unfulfilled). So I was wondering what is the significance of these negative values of Degree Days?
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Look at the link for the specification of the UKMO calculations.  Making the calculations in Kelvin rather than degrees C can avoid confusion. 
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we have 14-bus IEEE,  and replace one of the existing generators with a renewable generator  (wind or solar). The power capacity of the renewable resource should be equivalent to that of the conventional generator
that it will replace
renewable data is of sufficiently high resolution, at least five-minute resolution.
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In fact the question can be widened:
How is water flow measured, how is the head measured and how is the efficiency calculated, are there different methods for obtaining efficiency of different types of water turbines, or for different set of flow-head parameters?
A set of practical papers or standards may be suggested for practical use.
Should we ask running a model test before manufacturing or running efficiency test after commissioning or both.
We would like to verify the claimed efficiency . Thank you
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I support Mr. Bacetti Abdelmoumen. Being a research engineer involved in turbine design, manufacturing and laboratory testing. I would suggest you to check the used equipments there arrangements and callibration and cross measurement readings to ensure rhe reliability of test result. Also, in my view you should check laboratory test result than field test since it justifies almost all the operating conditions.
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There are so many ways to ensure the micro grid run with the renewable resources, which is the best way to connect the main grid under lower harmonics and high voltage quality?
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Advanced Metering Instruments and interconnecting the Generation, Distribution and Utilities in a So Called Enernet is the trend. Peer to peer Electricity transfer is another challenge and may be interesting for you. Follow IEEE Smartgrid. 
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Today I watched the video about 3D printing construction and I thought renewable/recycling materials could be adapted as a 3D printing material or used in other ways as a part of construction such as insulation or complex facade. 
However, I assume there are some problems using renewable materials in 3D printing construction.
I hope to know any instances in terms of my assumptions.
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Here's a website for a 3D printer that uses recycled plastic (I don't work for them).
Additionally, people are using a RecycleBot, to turn their used plastics (i.e. milk jugs) into usable plastic filaments for 3D printers that can use them (2nd Link below).
Hope this helps. It would be nice if this became another way to keep plastics out of landfills and to make them more useful.
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In Spain the reguralization is not too equal than other countries. There are some taxes which are not correct. This is slowing the integration of the Renewable Energy Sources in the households. Although Spain has much renewable resources, the government keeps off the development of RES. The auto-consumption is now viable and it needs inversion to improve the technologies and the payback.
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Dear Ibán
In Brazil we have no law for enabling consumers to produce their own energy. Regulation is granted by governmental agency of electric energy, called ANEEL, which is in charge of manage transmission and distribution of energy all over the country. Each distributor has the right to increase the rate once a year, according to Federal Law. We have several distributors, some of them public, other private, but they have limited geographic range, also definied by laws of the late 1990's. As now we have lack of water in Southeast region,hydropower reduced their participation in the electricity generation matrix from almost 90% to less than 70%, and we are using coal and oil for power generation. It caused increeasing taxes, because the costs of generation are not more expensive. Our electricity bills we are being labeled with green, yellow, or red flags. Green is when the situation of generation is at normal costs. Yellow means "beware", indicating that we are operating with higher costs, and each 100 KW consumed is burdened with R$ 3,50 (more or less US$ 1). The red flag, that is the flag we are being labeled now, means that we are operating with the highest costs for generation, and each consumer must to pay R$ 5,00 (more or less US$ 1,50) for each 100 KW spent . However, we have also problems of lack of investment in transmission. 
Summarising: we as citizens cannot produce or own energy. There is no regulamentation for such initiative. Furthermore, we would need Environmental Impact Asssessment. I see it as lack of governmental planning, because we have abundant solar (natural) resources available during the most part of the year.
Besides, we pay high taxes in our electricity bills. We pay State taxes (around 25% of the bill payment goes to State authority),and we pay Federal taxes (more or less 1-2%) that are inverted to health insurance, social contribution, and funds for technological development os electricity sector, but I particularly see this amount as too low compared with our needs of investment. 
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I am planning to prepare fact sheets and quizzes for secondary school and pre-university students in order to promote awareness of environment education in regard to climate and conservation.
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Dear All
Thanks. Will digest, screen and create class based  Demo for one hour. Schools and Pre University  colleges are enthusiastic but preoccupied with stereotyped syllabus. I will be satisfied if an awareness is planted wherever necessary and fill up the gap where awareness is visible. 
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According to the IEA Perspectives (or the EU SET Plan), the share of Renewables is expected to increase in the coming years. Biodiesel is a well-known technology and the production potential of installed plants is largely underexploited. So it seems reasonable to presume that Biodiesel production will still keep growing in the near future. However, competition for feedstock supply, development of new technologies (i.e. green diesel) and concerns about biodiesel degradability and long-term effects on engines have also to be taken into consideration.
So what will be the most probable development of biodiesel production in the next 10-20 years?Will it keep growing or will it be outcompeted by other Renewables?
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Biodiesel is likely to have an ever exapnding role in liquid fuel procurement practices. Pressure both in terms of restricted natural resources, political disturbances and energy independence will keep research in this field pertinent. Also, environmental advantages are part of the motivation as well, however the difference between the perceived and actual benefits have not quite aligned completely. The first generation biofuels such as corn and soy ethanol are particularly telling. For instance, biofuel from corn requires large amounts of freshwater and their upstream impacts from harvesting and processing can sometimes increase the total life cycle impacts of the fuel (depending on many different assumptions and parameters). There are also legitimate concerns over food versus fuel for these first generation fuels.
To cut to the chase, third generation biofuels have significant potential in the future, particularly algal fuels. Algae has a larger capacity per area of land to produce oil and has recently been shown to grow in saltwater and or wastewater, which has obvious potential benefits. Costs remain high for this technology now, but one can assume this will improve over time. Again however, the total life cycle impacts should be studied to understand what the upstream impacts from growing, harvesting, extracting and converting the oil will be compared to traditional fuels. It is my opinion that this should be included in the development of any biofuel choice going forward so some of the same mistakes from first generation fuels aren't repeated.
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Poly(3–hydroxybutyrate)–co–(3–hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is the only 100% biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters synthesized by bacterial fermentation from renewable resources. Cellulose nanocrystals only enhance the strength of PHBV, which restrict its application.
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In standard fiber reinforced plastic technology, ensuring a good bond between the fibers and the matrix is essential to maximizing toughness. If inspection of failed (post-test) specimens indicates that the mode of failure is separation at the fiber/matrix interface, you may want to investigate ways to surface treat the fibers to ensure better bonding. Sometimes silanes are useful for this purpose. Also, I don't know the geometry of your nano crystals. If it is possible to use obtain and us crystals with a length/diameter ratio of ca. 10, this should also improve strength and toughness. 
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Can any part of lead furnace slag be reused? Can the heat it produces be converted to energy sources?
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The slag heat is most certainly not renewable, as conventional fuels / electricity is used to produce it in the first place.
There may be ways to extract waste heat from it, driving some low temperature steam or hot water process e.g. by dumping the slag into water. With lead however, there are environmental and health risks, which has to be mitigated.
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We have 40 to 50 years dedicated to research on renewable energies. I would say the first big impulse was the oil crisis of the early 70s. But previous research existed.
Many books and articles and other texts were produced in this period. Which would you say is your favorite?
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Wind Power, Paul Gipe, James &James 2004
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The term 'renewable' is often used to indicate that a material (or a form of energy) originates from a non-fossil source (biomass for example). However to be 'renewed' the material must return to a form that can be considered as a feedstock again. To be 'recyclable' only implies that a material can be recycled, which may not actually be the case. Is it wrong to use this terminology in a 'cradle to gate' sense or is this a sensible approach because what happens after use cannot not be known before and during use?
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Moving beyond regurgitating Wikipedia definitions ad nauseum, I am investigating indirect methodologies for renewability of bio-based products, which requires definitions to establish the scope of the study. We found current definitions in national standards (see http://shop.bsigroup.com/en/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000030262005) unsatisfactory because they are feedstock focused and don't consider what happens after use. However we want to be consistent with the opinions and perceptions of people in the field, hence the question.
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Taking into account the limited land area, water resources, energy resources, economic aspects, and considering the threat of global warming and rising sea levels, small islands would face more difficulty in having a sustainable source of water. This research is an attempt to find a solution to make isolated areas self-sustaining in terms of their water and energy demands.
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I will search for something better, but for now I hope this helps you a bit:
You can also check the reference of this study: