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Renewable Energy Technologies - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Renewable Energy Technologies, and find Renewable Energy Technologies experts.
Questions related to Renewable Energy Technologies
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98 answers
Based on your expertise, what are advantages and disadvantages of producing H2 or CH4 from renewable sources (wind, PV etc)? I am mainly interested in collecting different points of view, e.g. local pollution, global climate mitigation, energy engineering and mitigation of peak demand, economic aspects, social impact, policies, quality and safety of the final product, regulatory barriers.
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ew There are no miracles. In fact, there are two initial sources of so called "renewable" energy - solar and gravitational (Earth's rotation energy, for example). The whole question is how much waste will be allocated in the specific process of its fixation. For example, harvesting of "solar energy" produces a significant amount of waste (production of the elements themselves, copper conductors, heat, etc.). For strange reason, if the waste is concentrated in another place (where the elements are produced, for example), the technology of "solar energy" is considered to be "nature-friendly". As to the substance of the matter, the use of “conditionally renewable energy” to produce a source of non-renewable energy does not seem to me a reasonable idea. In addition, it should always be taken into account that any energy conversion has limited efficiency ...
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140 answers
Which leading Techno-Economic Software is recommended for Renewable Energy Projects...
SAM ?
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BioSTEAM: The Biorefinery Simulation and Techno-Economic Analysis Modules
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56 answers
I am currently working on the design of a hybrid renewable energy system for a factory. I have obtained the monthly consumption of energy but unfortunately the hourly demand load is not available.
Is there anyway to derive the hourly demand profile from the monthly consumption data?
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Dear Abdulhamid,
welcome!
If you have the monthly consumption of the factory you can only calculate an average consumption per day. You can not in principle get an accurate profile for the hourly consumption. You need more information to get the dailly profile.
For example:
The working hours of the factory in the day
The working days
Knowing these data and assuming that power consumption is constant during these working hour you can get an approximate hourly consumption.
The idea brought by Marcel is an other solution.
Best wishes
Question
104 answers
I want to use the MOGA which is in the Matlab optimization toolbox. it is known that this function is used to find the minimum for the two function. my question is how to use it to find the minimum of one function and the maximum of another function simultaneously?
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Dear Alaaeldin,
This is an interesting question. To find your answer you can refer to the following publication which describes MOGA and how to construct one.
You can also check the following Web site for setting up MOGA in MATLAB environment.
Question
63 answers
Photovoltaic integration with grid. Voltage fluctuation limits
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In worse condition like cloudy weather the solar irradiance will fluctuated highly and the output power of of the PV Solar system will fluctuated too not as a result of voltage fluctuation but as a result of current fluctuation due to the linear proportion between the generated current and the solar irradiance, generally the responsbility of of the voltage stability is the inverter according to the RE code.
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144 answers
With more and more renewable power integrated into power grids, the proportion of synchronous generators significantly decreases. As many researchers recommended the renewable power to emulate the dynamic behavior of "inertia" in conventional generators, is it still be a meaningful in the future with near 100% penetration level of renewable power?
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In PV generators there is the PV array, the DC/DC converters controlled by a maximum power point controller which contains inductive elements. The controller has a settling time for the output power. There is the inverter which contains contains also controller to control the output power and a law pass filter.
So, it contains also delay components.
The same can be applied on the wind energy that have initially mechanically moving parts with real inertia. This is in addition to power electronic components
which has delay times.
I think the matter is not easy and one can find a simple answer for this question.
So i think one has to develop a physical model considering the real behavior of the system components.
Best wishes
Question
540 answers
What types of eco-innovation are being developed in your country?
What kind of ecological innovations should be developed in your opinion?
How should they be finansed, whether by the industry from commercial enterprises funds, or by the state from public funds or in the framework of public-private partnership?
What types of renewable energy sources should be refined and developed through new eco-friendly innovations? What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of ecological innovations?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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On the urgency and need to support Green Technology for the environment and its protection, I am reminded of this article Tragedy of the Commons by Garrett Hardin. Hope it is not too late to play our part.
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210 answers
The analysis of differences in the scope of Renewable Energy Policy in individual countries should take into account the scale of the share of the oil refining and refining industry in the entire national economy. The large share of the oil industry in the domestic economy may generate analogous large-scale lobbying of the industry on the government, on policies on shaping a specific direction of development of this sector in a given country. This lobbying may concern, for example, the deliberate slowing of energy sector reforms in the scope of pro-ecological needs. This type of conservative policy may not take into account the needs of reforming the energy sector, including the development of renewable energy sources, ecological innovations in renewable energy technologies, ecological material innovations, etc. The development of electromobility or the development of power supply technologies based on hydrogen engines should also be added to this issue. oxygen or other environmentally neutral technologies. Such reforms are necessary in the 21st century in connection with the need to reduce greenhouse gases in order to slow down the progressing global warming process, ie the increase of the average annual temperature on Earth. In the 21st century, it is necessary to develop a new green economy in the context of the forthcoming fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
The issues of lobbying the oil industry to slow down energy sector reforms is one of the major problems of modern economics, specifically the issues of sustainable development with the emphasis on ecology, the impact of industry and classic energy sources on the natural environment. This issue is particularly important in the context of climate change, global warming, rising average temperature on the Earth, the progressing greenhouse effect of the Earth and the related new climate disasters is probably the most important topic for discussion, research and human action in the 21st century.
The topics related to the greenhouse effect on Earth, which are the subject of discussion, are particularly important and scientifically important and in the context of human life.
In the context of this issue of lobbying of the oil industry affecting the governments of countries, there is an important issue for discussion in the field of economic development of the world in the 21st century.
Therefore, I am asking you with an important question: Does the issue of oil industry lobbying affecting national governments in order to slow down energy sector reforms be a serious problem and a brake on pro-ecological reforms in the energy sector and the development of, for example, electromobility?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Lobbying takes place in any society with elected legislators. The ideal would be to demand transparency in election campaigns so that candidates show exactly what they intend to do.
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50 answers
Hi
I work in the field of renewable energies in buildings, exactly the economical impact of adopting solar energy in building.
I am looking for a scientific journal specialized in publishing scientific works in this field. It shall be available for the following conditions:
1- The topic of renewable energy and buildings.
2- Indexed Scopus.
3- Quick response to submitted works.
4- Free of charge.
I would be very grateful if you could help and guide me!
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Hi
In economic field I recommend you energy conversation and management journal (ECM).
Last year I published one paper in this journal (6 months maximum)
Good luck.
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63 answers
What is the performance of flat (0 angle) Solar PV installations?
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There is an interesting recent study on the orientation of the solar arrays and the relation of their optimum value to the latitude: World estimates of PV optimal tilt angles and ratios of sunlight incident upon tilted and tracked PV panels relative to horizontal panels
Best wishes
Question
108 answers
For example, if I want to find the stochastic OPF of a system, shift factors can provide a way to find shifted power for different scenarios. Therefore, OPF for each scenario is not required but only for base case. This will reduce simulation time. Please share relevant code if possible. Thanks.
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Thanks for your kind response.
Question
132 answers
Hello all,
In most cases, the output voltage a DC-DC converter controlled by MPPT technique is different from the desired load voltage.
How can I achieve MPPT control technique with a desired & stable output voltage at the same time, please?
Any refrence? Please, I need an answer frome an expert!
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Dear Mohammed,
It is not possible to achieve MPPT for a load that requires a constant voltage supply to operate unless the power consumption of that load matches (or is very close) to the MPPT point of the PV.
The only way to achieve MPPT is to supply a constant voltage source (such as a battery) and vary the current into it by using a power converter. In a similar way, this can work with a constant current source and vary the voltage across it.
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44 answers
I would like to know the estimation process of municipal solid waste in a city. That too in case of India.
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Thank you for the links Sarwan Kumar Dubey
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300 answers
There are many possible applications and reasons of utilization of renewable energy.
Please share your opinion where and how renewable energy utilization can be increased?
Also, share your opinion, why renewable energy sources are not accepted significantly?
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Renewable energy is, without a doubt, one of the main energy sources used by many countries for electricity generation and the cleanest type of energy source available in the world. However, and despite practical and convincing technologies on renewable energy available for its use for elctricity generation, the process to switch from the use of non-renewable energy sources to the use of renewable energy sources has been quite slow and uncertain especially in the developing nations. Some of the main barriers to be faced in this process are, according to Dorcas Kariuki, the following:
· over-reliance on fossil fuels (coal),
· political and regulatory barriers,
· technical barriers,
· market-related barriers,
· social-cultural barriers,
· financial and economic barriers,
· geographical and ecological barriers.
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56 answers
Hey guys in a lab setting, chambered experiment in a somewhat enclosed area im working with a CCS company to reduce overall global GHG emission's and we're trying to come up with a machine that essentially uses CO2,CH4 and NO2 as fuel sources with no combustion however we've run into an issue of sorts as we've also decided to go into collecting noble gases as well and we'd like to increase the concentration of these gases however i have no idea as to how to accomplish this. I've looked everywhere on the web and i've ran into methane hydrates, Increasing gas pressure's and an overall lack of sources on the idea as i'm working with atmospheric conditions not aqueous. One solution to this could be building an aqueous permeable membrane but idk how that'd work with the other gases that are absorbed such as the noble gases. So i'd really like some help.
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Manford Malemia thank you for your answer, our company is looking towards the atmosphere
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270 answers
Renewable energy sources based on solar energy belong to those types of renewable energy, which should be developed in the next years in the energy sector, because it is the production of clean energy.
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Question
91 answers
Hi again, while working on the carbon capture methods from a renewable energy project, i realized that thermodynamics has somewhat of a huge role to play when discussing gaseous capture, what are some of the available methods such as OxyFuel where co2 and o2 can be captured however but aren't energy intensive or are very low energy requiring methods?
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Hai,
Carbon dioxide capture allows separation of CO2 from gas streams, allowing it to for post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) as it has lower regeneration energy and include post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxygen fuel or .Several methods, if not all, have been of interest to process intensification .. This is the thinking behind the oxygen approach, where instead of air, the power plant is fed approaches in use today requireclean-up of the NOx and SO2 prior to CO2
Best Wishes..
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180 answers
In many countries, energy based on renewable energy sources is being developed. This development is determined by many economic, ecological and geographical factors. This development results from the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the scale of air pollution by exhaust from mechanical vehicles. The development of energy based on renewable energy sources is indispensable due to the faster global warming process. Therefore, energy based on renewable energy sources should be developed.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What are the main determinants of the development of renewable energy sources?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
The determinants of renewable energies are -
1. The cost of renewables are high and many governments give subsidies to run their renewable energy production. So the cost of renewables must be lowered
2. Non-renewables are cheap and make lots of profit. But renewables are not profitable. But a high carbon emission tax is imposed on the non-renewables and more subsidies to renewables then the shift towards the renewables will accelerate
3. People still dont really know or care for the environmental problems that non-renewables cause. Public awarness should be raised in this regard.
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85 answers
Dear friends and colleagues,
Are you aware of existing or developing infrastructure works, under which two or more renewable energy technologies are coordinated towards the co-generation of green power energy wordlwide? In general, which renewable-based technologies could be ideally/technically combined to each other towards energy production? Which is the typical output rated power, the advancements, and the technological shortcomings of such large-scale infrastructure works? What about the socio-economic impact concerned?
Thank you for your reply.
Grigorios
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Dear Grigorios,
You can combine different renewable technologies to increase the energy yield from specific sites, but you should do this when necessary, considering the characteristics of each of the technologies used, and the level of energy supplyby these technologies into the electrical grid.
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154 answers
A lot of today's world vices can be eliminated if certain targeted modules and adapted curricula are introduced in the schooling system. One of these vices is energy squandering with all its negative consequences for the planet (e.g. depletion of finite energy sources and the subsequent climate change).The routine energy-related behavior and proves that this behavior changes to a more energy efficient one, after the dissemination of relevant information and the participation into the energy education projects. Namely, response percentages indicating the energy-efficient behavior increased after project participation while the ones indicating an energy-squandering behavior decreased.
Need for renewable energy education and training at all levels is globally recognized. During the last three decades a large number of countries across the globe have initiated academic programmes on renewable energy technologies and related aspects. A review of published literature on renewable energy education initiatives across the globe, challenges faced, and potential approaches towards efficient and effective solutions is needed.
In Your Opinion
  1. Is renewable energy course an element Effective learning
  2. Is renewable energy awareness needed from childhood
  3. Is renewable energy course should be sustained for energy Scenario issues
  4. Is renewable energy paves way for effective teaching learning process
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Dear Gurjit Singh,
Yes, I fully agree, teaching the role and importance of renewable energy development should be at the earliest stages of education. In addition, teaching the role and significance of the development of energy based on renewable energy should also explain the following key problems and issues related to ecology, sustainable pro-ecological development such as: eco-friendly innovation in energy, zero-energy construction, saving natural resources, reduction of environmental pollution, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, replacement of classical energy based on mineral combustion based on renewable energy sources, the need to improve the technology of automatic waste segregation, improvement of recycling, elimination of plastic from packaging, development of biodegradable materials, development of electromobility, including efficient, fast-charging batteries , etc. In the teaching of ecological issues, proecological awareness should be shaped, including pointing out to pupils the necessity of a sustainable implementation successful, proecological economic development carried out according to the green economy concept.
Best wishes
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110 answers
Green Electricity refers to Electricity produced from renewable energy sources. It may be Co-generation also.
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It is the only figured soloution for the energy supply road map. So it must and therefore it will.
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33 answers
Economic Dispatch forms the important analysis functions dealing with Operation in an EMS. Economic Dispatch (ED) is defined as the process of allocating generation levels to the generating units in the mix, so that the system load is supplied entirely and most economically.
Economic dispatch is the short-term determination of the optimal output of a number of electricity generation facilities, to meet the system load, at the lowest possible cost, subject to transmission and operational constraints.
The constraints enforced during the power flow are, for the most part, the constraints that are enforced during any power flow solution. These include the bus power balance equations, the generator voltage set point constraints, and the reactive power limits on the generators.
The Optimal Power Flow module is an intelligent load flow that employs techniques to automatically adjust the power system control settings while simultaneously solving the load flows and optimizing operating conditions within specific constraints.
Is this
  1. severe the purpose of optimal power dispatch.
  2. algorithm based Artificial Intelligence marks convergence for optimization
  3. Green Electricity Plants Optimization algoritms for power systems
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Not sure if you have expressed and understood the 'optimisation problem' appropriately. What did you mean by '... optimisation using AI'? There are many classic approaches to optimisation problems out there for ages, for example, gradient-descent based optimisation algorithms.
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120 answers
Why, despite the scientifically confirmed fact that the global warming process is progressing faster and faster in many countries, so little is done in terms of necessary proecological reforms and implementation of ecological innovations and development of energy based on renewable energy sources, development of electromobility, plastic reduction from packaging, improvement of waste segregation and development recycling?
Due to the accelerating process of global warming, it is necessary to increase expenditures on the development of eco-innovations, their industrial implementation and accelerate the implementation of necessary pro-ecological reforms, first of all development of energy based on renewable energy sources, development of electromobility, plastic reduction from packaging, development of biodegradable applications materials of organic origin, improvement of waste segregation processes, development of recycling, organic farming, zero-energy construction and other key aspects of sustainable pro-ecological development carried out according to the concept of green economy, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Why is the process of implementing proecological reforms in energy and other eco-innovations so slow?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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I think it is moving forward, but it should be highlighted more.
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55 answers
In other words, what is the likely fossil fuel emission required to create 100% transformation in energy technology, assuming today level of energy usage? Any estimates out there?
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I agree completely with Prof.Abdelhalim Zekry
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255 answers
A significant part of the pro-ecological reforms as part of the transformation of the energy sector and the development of renewable energy sources is carried out by private companies.
However, these are usually undertakings not resulting from market processes only from changing legal norms established by the state administration.
In addition, the construction of large nuclear power plants, water plants and the type of large wind and solar farms absorbs huge financial resources with predicted relatively low profitability.
Therefore, private enterprises are not interested in investing in the development of large power plants that produce electricity under renewable energy sources if the state does not provide financial support under financial guarantees and a share in investment costs.
The development of electromobility in the automotive industry in some countries is also supported by the state to a large extent.
In some countries, the state from the budget funds of the central public finance system refinances a significant part of the costs of purchasing an electric car and finances the development of the necessary infrastructure of electric vehicle charging points deployed on the streets and arteries.
Therefore, the development of renewable energy sources, ie the key element of the pro-ecological transformation of the energy sector, should be coordinated organisationally and financially supported by the state.
In the context of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and the ever-faster global warming process, the pro-ecological transformation of the energy sector should be carried out as soon as possible.
It is not possible to implement proecological reforms in the energy sector and implement ecological innovations in other sectors of industry as well as wait for the resources of energy (hard coal, lignite, oil, natural gas) to run out.
This process can not be left solely to the market mechanism within the framework of classical or neoclassical economics.
In order for an environmentally-friendly transformation of the energy sector to be effected efficiently and as soon as possible, a significant share of financial support from the state is indispensable.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
Should the state co-finance the development of renewable energy sources or only the private sector?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Yes, all states must support the renewable energy resources' development. It is a global interest to sequester the atmospheric Carbon and other green house gases. Each country must participate willingly.
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120 answers
Has the classic economy lost its relevance to the energy market and therefore whether the process of necessary proecological reforms in the energy sector involving the replacement of energy sources, ie classic energy sources based on burning minerals for renewable energy sources should be coordinated by the state as a pro-environmental interventionist anti-crisis state?
Still at the end of the 21th century, in many publications written in the convention of classical economics, theses were formulated that energy should be shaped by the mechanism of market-harmonizing sides of demand and supply. However, this philosophy concerned classic energy based on the combustion of minerals. Mineral energy deposits in certain parts of the world are determined for several decades of extraction.
If the development of mining technology allows to reach and extract energy from deeper deposits than currently exploited and decks located under the sea and ocean bottoms, such estimated deposits would allow mining of these deposits in some places of the world for much longer than 100 years. However, humanity can not wait so much for pro-ecological reforms in the energy sector and the slow process of switching to renewable energy sources, which is happening in some countries, including the largest economies in the world, the largest emitters of greenhouse gases.
Currently, the philosophy of the energy sector is starting to change. Now the obvious issue is the need to quickly implement pro-ecological reforms without contemplating the depleted energy resources of the Earth's crust. This wait could take about 100 years or more than 100 years in many countries and this is too long, because at the end of the 21st century, according to climate change analysis, drastic climatic catastrophes will occur due to the predicted acceleration of the global warming process in the following decades.
According to the published and presented results of climatologists' research during the recent UN Climate Summits and Conferences on the problem of progressing global warming process, unless by 2030 at the latest the world will not show the classic energy based on the burning of minerals for renewable energy sources and motorization for electromobility and there will be no appropriate improvement of segregation waste and recycling, by the end of the 21st century, the average temperature at the Earth's surface will increase by 3-4 degrees Celsius globally, and the scale of climate cataclysms and weather anomalies will increase many times in relation to the current state.
In view of the above, the world can no longer wait for the depletion of energy minerals. This issue, which is particularly important for humanity and life on Earth, can not be left to the market mechanism and classical economy, whose philosophy has long been undermined, already in the period of the Great Depression of 1929-1934 it was demonstrated that Keynsovian state interventionism is needed to bring the economy out of the deep economic crisis if the liberalized private sector led to a crisis and the economy quickly does not return itself to balance and high economic growth on the basis of self-acting market mechanisms.
We currently have a similar situation. The world inevitably aims at increasing climatic cataclysms caused by the accelerating global warming process. these unfavorable processes for humanity and life on Earth will become a source of intensification of migration of people from subtropical areas, on which it will be impossible to live and live in a few dozen years due to high temperatures and droughts. In addition, there will be economic crises resulting from the global warming process. Humanity has no time to put off the necessary pro-ecological reforms for the future, these pro-ecological reforms in the energy sector need to be implemented now and it should be a process coordinated by the state in the context of pro-environmental anti-crisis state interference.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
Has the classic economy lost its relevance to the energy market and therefore whether the process of necessary proecological reforms in the energy sector involving the replacement of energy sources, ie classic energy sources based on burning minerals for renewable energy sources should be coordinated by the state as a pro-environmental interventionist anti-crisis state?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Excellent and topical question.
Energy market are concerned with, among others, the analysis and financing of renewable (wind power, water-hydro, water-wave, solar, geothermal, hydrogen, biomass from plants, conversion of agricultural commodities into bio-ethanol), and non-renewable (fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal) energy sources.
The by-products from energy markets, such as pricing carbon emissions, depend on supply and demand, and taxes levied by governments.
These are standard aspects of the classic economy, but with a modern flavour.
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255 answers
For the classical power industry to be replaced with renewable energy sources, it is necessary to have the right policy at the state level but also at the supranational level.
The supranational organization of common markets on the example of the European Union is perfect for this issue. In the European Union, successive reforms are being undertaken to motivate the development of modern energy solutions and environmental protection.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Therefore, in the context of the above considerations, the following important question appears:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
Protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development?
In the context of growing and increasing environmental pollution and declining areas of natural ecosystems, the importance and need to improve environmental protection systems, natural ecosystems and biodiversity is increasing. Biodiversity is one of the most important issues of natural ecosystems and life on Earth. Maintaining high biodiversity on Earth should be a challenge and one of the main goals of human functioning on the Earth in the 21st century and in subsequent centuries.
In connection with the above, protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable ecological development. In some countries, the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development is implemented successively, primarily in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques and recycling development. However, in many countries these issues are still insufficiently developed.
Still too small financial resources are allocated in many countries for the development of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation and recycling techniques. In addition to the private sector, besides enterprises implementing ecological innovations, it is necessary to increase expenditures and develop strategic pro-ecological reform projects, including restructuring of the mining industry of minerals supplying classic energy sources and development of energy based on renewable energy sources. This development should be supported and coordinated by environmentally friendly state intervention, and due to the high investment costs of construction of power plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources should be co-financed from the state public finance funds.
In this way, it will be possible to slow down the ongoing global warming process in the 21st century and thus slow down the process of devastating the natural environment, draining green areas characterized by high biodiversity. Biodiversity is a very important issue in the context of the analysis of ecology, sustainable development and the protection of the natural environment, including, in particular, the natural positions of biologically complex ecosystems, i.e. those that are characterized by high biodiversity. Maintaining biodiversity of natural ecosystems is one of the most important problems and tasks for people in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In the context of the above considerations, the following question is still valid:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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630 answers
What actions should be taken to remove or replace these barriers to the chances of developing renewable energy sources?
Are the main barriers to the development of renewable energy sources the lobbying of enterprises in the energy sector producing electricity and heat based on traditional energy of burning minerals? Is there a lack of financial resources in the majority of countries regarding the financing of high-budget pro-environmental projects from public finance funds? Should there be new, new ecological innovations, new technological solutions in the field of renewable energy sources, electromobility in the automotive field, new generations of batteries, photovoltaic panels, energy storage and transmission stations, hydrogen engines, etc. to produce and use electricity generated on the basis of renewable source of energy has become profitable to become a profitable business? If this process lasts for a long time, there may be a shortage of time to implement the necessary reforms aimed at disseminating in the global economy a model of sustainable pro-ecological development based on the concept of green economy. If this process lasts much longer than by 2030, there may not be enough time to carry out the necessary reforms to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, consequently, the planet's warming process will accelerate considerably, this process will be irreversible and will continue to accelerate and towards the end of the 21st century century will lead to a global climate disaster that threatens the life of all humanity and most other forms of life on Earth.
In view of the above, the current question is: What are the main barriers to the development of renewable energy sources?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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In my opinion the basic barriers in most countries for the development of renewable energy sources is the lack of financial resources in state budgets and lobbying of the mining sector of energy raw materials and the energy sector based on classic energy sources.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Question
150 answers
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Renewable energy sources?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Renewable energy sources.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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Interesting....... following
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435 answers
Key questions for humanity in the 21st century:
- Will the man manage to switch the classic energy to renewable energy sources to slow down the global warming process and prevent global climate catastrophe and the destruction of most life forms at the end of the 21st century, if so little will be done on the issue of the implementation of the necessary proecological reforms?
- In the 21st century, will man be able to convert most of the classic energy into renewable energy sources to achieve a fully sustainable ecological economy based on the concept of green economy?
- In the 21st century, will man be able to switch most of the classic energy based on the burning of minerals by turning this source of environmental pollution and a source of global warming to renewable energy sources to achieve a fully sustainable ecological economy based on the concept of green economy?
- In the 21st century, will a man in the development of civilization manage to achieve a fully sustainable ecological economy based on the concept of green economy before the global climate catastrophe?
The ever-faster greenhouse effect on Earth has already been recognized by many research centers as fact.
If the global warming process is not stopped by introducing environmentally-friendly economic policy reforms, the development of ecological and innovative technologies, primarily in the field of renewable energy, electromobility, waste segregation, recycling, etc. Earth at the end of the 21st century is threatened by global climate disaster related to global warming and rising frequency and scale of emerging weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms.
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
In the 21st century, will a man in the development of civilization manage to achieve a fully sustainable ecological economy based on the concept of green economy before the global climate catastrophe?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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Yes
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15 answers
What is the typical pitching speed of modern MW turbine blades and do this blades pitch fast enough compared to changing wind speeds?
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Significantly very fast. Standing at the control panel of a Vestas 850 kw , I saw the display was showing the instantaneous power production and pitch angle. The display was updating either every second or half second and each reading gave different readings. so a time constant for the pitch of under a second, for 40 m blades is astonishing!
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75 answers
Recently, discussions have been held in the public debate on issues related to the development of the green economy concept, the need to introduce pro-ecological policy reforms, etc. to make it possible to achieve globally sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the perspective of the next years.
In the context of the problem of determining determinants of sustainable pro-ecological economic development, the following question also appears:
How should the new economy be developed in accordance with the green economy concept in the field of renewable energy development by means of which instruments and reforms of green energy policy, so that it is possible to achieve globally sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the perspective of the next years?
How effective green economy philosophy should be developed in a pro-environmental energy policy in order to solve key development problems of human civilization, ie environmental pollution, effective and quick to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thus slow down the global warming process , activation of the development of electromobility, development of modern non-emitting harmful waste to the environment, renewable energy sources, development of organic agricultural production, development of biodegradable packaging production, etc. with the use of electricity produced from renewable energy sources?
Therefore, I am asking you the following questions:
How should pro-ecological energy policy be developed according to the green economy concept in the field of renewable energy development?
How should programs for the development of renewable energy sources be financed?
Should the state co-finance, within public-private partnerships with public funds, large investment projects for the construction of power plants producing electricity based on modern technologies of renewable energy sources?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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I''m afraid that any so-called "pro-ecological energy policy" is a fantasmatic, and clearly unreachable, goal due to an obvious contradiction between the words 'ecology" and "energy policy". The sole possibility is to target an energy policy that, oppositely to be only relying on Supply Energy Policy is, oppositely, based on a real "Deman-Side" Energy Policy, then taken in the greatest priority both of 3 fundamentals goals : Energy Efficiency, Rational Use of Energy and Energy Efficiency through very voluntary Programs. This is clearly demonstrated in California since about 40 years!
Jacques
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How are investments in renewable energy sources financed in your country?
Are pro-ecologic investments financed in your country mainly by commercially operating enterprises or from the public finance system of the state?
Will the state co-finance new pro-ecological investments from the state budget funds in a situation of low-cost ecological projects developing renewable energy sources?
In my opinion, in the situation of low profitability of investments in pro-ecological undertakings, in the absence of pro-ecological projects financing by the private sector, the state should co-finance new pro-ecological projects from public funds, including primarily the development of energy based on renewable energy sources, infrastructure for development electromobility, etc.
Do you agree with my opinion?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear colleague, in my country there is no identifiable and clear vision about the including of renewable energy. But, in my opinion, the public investment in renewable energy seems like a necessity in order to incite the private sector to invest and create a public-private partnership in the renewable energy sources in order to boost the share of renewable energy in the global mix. Through the financial, technical and international expertise, it could be a great opportunity to pass to action. It is a necessity to preserve our blue planet.
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Do you agree with my opinion that in the context of the projected acceleration of the global warming process, humanity in order to avoid a global climate catastrophe should take as a priority in the 21st century a change in the classical economy on the new green economy to develop economies according to the concept of sustainable pro-ecological development, including replacing classic energy sources based on the combustion of minerals for renewable energy sources. In addition, in economic processes should be implemented as soon as possible and possibly the largest funds programs for reduction of greenhouse gases?
How can you slow down the global warming process in the 21st century?
Please reply
Best wishes
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This issue can be solved only through social participation and understanding the importance of this crisis.
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Despite having the lowest per capita electricity consumption, Bihar is not doing very well in making itself energy secure. There can be broad answers to this question but I want to know that what in your perspective or understanding is the most influential reason for very low level of adoption of solar energy in Bihar.
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I agree with madam Pragya
Regards
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There has been an increasing support for floating solar panels over water bodies saying that it reduces the land footprint for such solar projects, decreases surface temperature of the water body thereby reducing the rate of evaporation and utilises a large dynamic area which is more effective way of capturing the solar radiation.
I am trying to find out and understand the negative side of such floating solar panel projects (if there are any).
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Hi Ankit,
The impacts of floating solar panels on water bodies can be analyzed depending on the type of body...If the water body is artificial (a dam or channel) then some positive (environmental) aspects might arise as the ones you describe.
Some negative environmental impacts can appear when the floating solar panels are installed on natural water bodies such as lakes or rivers. Perhaps the most import impact has to do with the food chain of these ecosystems. Since the solar energy is limited by the panels, the bottom of the chain (producers such as algae) would not be enough to support the next levels (insects, fish, etc.) affecting/changing the whole ecosystem. Other negative impacts (socio-economic) could also affect tourism, fishing, and navigation.
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In order to estimate the extent of rooftop area available for solar PV for domestic electricity demands, I am calculating the rooftop area of a district by extrapolating the rooftop to ground surface area ratio as calculated by randomly generated samples of clusters in Google Earth. So, I was interested if there are any pre-defined algorithm which might be more efficient for the same.
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Cornelis Stal and Harish Puppala thank-you so much, the links indeed are helpful.
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Flying Car is now reality. Still it is not affordable in many aspects but future of flying cars cannot be underestimated. It has huge potential to give flying wings to an individual. Everybody can fly like birds.
Question is what are the possible pros and cons?
and
What are the major challenges which need to be addressed to make flying cars reality to common man?
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first of all, the factor of saftey is very important, if a car stops on the road it just sits there while if it flies it would just fall on people or houses, there is two technological “limitations“ that needs to be considered, one of them being what will you use to power the car ? if it was gasoline then you are talking about a considerably large jet engine, if it was electric then you would have two problems first being that the propellers would be large in size and would not generate much thrust, the second which is a technological limitation of storing electric power most commonly used method is li-po and li-ion batteries which is not verry efficient and have safty issues of self igniting if subjected to shock, overcharging, and short circuiting.
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The problem is when the economically weak, small domestic economy has only traditional energy minerals, such as hard coal or lignite, and there are no developed different forms of renewable energy sources. In such a situation, there is a lack of financial resources for switching energy to renewable energy sources so as to move towards sustainable development according to the philosophy of the new, green economy, in order to limit the emission of greenhouse gases. The warming of the Earth's climate is already a fact and is a serious growing problem. Therefore, renewable energy sources should be developed. Rich countries should support countries characterized by weaker economy, lower incomes and based on traditional energy technologies. It is therefore necessary to strengthen international cooperation in the area of promotion, support and financing of investment projects, thanks to which it will be possible to develop renewable energy sources in the future and aim at sustainable pro-ecological development.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: Why is there still traditional energy based on burning minerals in some countries?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion
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In Poland we have problem as you described Dariusz Prokopowicz but also lack of proper legislation is maybe a bigger problem which stops green entrepreneurship. We are one of last countries in the European Union without feed in tariff and instead of clear system of quota/TGC schemes we have multiply colours of certificates (purple , red, yellow, green). Please read a document in Polish: https://www.ochronaklimatu.com/attachments/205_Feed-in%20tariff%20w%20Polsce.pdf
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In which large pro-ecological investment projects many new jobs can be created and in the long-term, new economic added value will be generated, and revenue will be increased and economic growth will be improved?
In what undertakings, types of economic activity should a pro-development sustainable development policy be used to generate additional jobs and improve economic growth for the period of forecasted slowdown in economic growth?
In my opinion, an example of this type of large pro-ecological investment projects is the construction of large power plants producing electricity as part of renewable energy technologies.
What other large pro-environmental investment projects can generate new economic added value, increase in revenues and improvement of economic growth in the long-term perspective?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Virtual Laboratory for Environmental Protection. With a lot of applications for education, research and development.
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Hello. I am working on the potential impact of the electrification of heavy duty vehicles (battery-propulsion systems) on the electricity demand, and in order to estimate the changes in the demand (with different time resolutions) I need to have some estimates about the charging patterns of these vehicles. Do you know any good experiment/publication associated with real cases all over the world?
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Thank you Dr. Onsa for the suggestion. I will take a look at the potential contributions of Microturbines.
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What is the maximum yield of H2 will be produced from non-catalytic SCWG of 1 g glucose in 100 ml distilled water? The assumption is no CO2 and CH4 released during the gasification process, but only H2 and CO are assumed the final gaseous products. It hopes that the presence of CO will enhanced the H2 yield via a water-gas shift reaction. 
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Thank you Dr
Sherif H. N. Elsayed
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Biogas generation is regarded as one of the most technically matured, economically viable bioenergy generation systems (gasification, combustion etc.). Also, there's no constraint in biogas feedstock availability and govt. support programmes. Despite this, the biogas programme in India is still a failure. Why has biogas failed to emerge as a strong competitor to firewood and LPG in rural India (though there are demerits e.g. lack of supply, rising cost with firewood and LPG)? What could be the reasons and how can they be overcome?
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cost is main facctor
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What ways to do this
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Viet Nguyen thanks for your attention, i saw that wind enters from v1 to v9 and then the velocity increases due to convergence of the channel. in the large extended section, the cross section area increases to decrease the velocity, but the increase in cross section change is not so slightly to ensure very low losses, and the wind facing the turbine will not be uniform. At last I must admit that I may make a mistake about your design and you are more expert about that.
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Every day have 24 hours but most of the human being following 12 hours clocks why? how to change people mind set in 24 hours clocks mind set?... any thing special of 12 & 24 hours clocks? may follow 24 hours clocks "am" and "pm" how follow in regular formats?...
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I think the position of the sun at its highest point in the sky ("high noon") must've seemed a significant division of the day; an ascent to the highest point followed by a descent.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Sustainable pro-ecological development of the global economy?
Probably the future of humanity depends on the next decade. If, over the next few years, renewable energy sources replacing traditional energy based on the burning of minerals are developed on a massive scale, it might be possible for humankind to avoid a climatic catastrophe in the 21st century. The international climate agreement that currently (December 2018) concluded in Katowice in Poland may be a late and insufficient agreement, because most countries do not intend to develop high-budget projects for the construction and development of power plants based on renewable energy sources. In addition, changes in the automotive industry, changes leading to the development of motorization in the direction of electromobility are too slow. The problem is serious because it concerns the future of all humanity in the perspective of the next two to three generations, yet the necessary changes and reforms in the implementation of economic principles of sustainable pro-ecological development are too slow. With the current pace of changes, there may be a shortage of time to implement the necessary pro-ecological undertakings, and then the problem of global warming will become an irreversible process and will constantly accelerate!
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Not sure if the Sub-SaharanvAfricans are ready for this in terms of their preparedness in all aspects.
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Sustainable development is very important in the context of the increasing use of resources and environmental pollution.
The basic issue that must be achieved within the framework of full sustainable development is the renewal of resources, reduction of economic growth to the optimal level ensuring renewable resources, reduction of environmental pollution, creation of biodegradable substitutes for fossil fuels, replacement of traditional energy based on mineral combustion for technological innovations in in the field of energy, including the development of energy based on renewable energy sources, etc. To this should be added a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to slow down the negative aspects of the oceogenic climate of the Earth. There is so much to do in these themes and, above all, a great deal to do in the 21st century so that it would not be too late.'
To effectively carry out this process, it is necessary to develop universal, precise measures of sustainable development that will be used globally and will be recognized as the standards for assessing the process of achieving and achieving sustainable economic development in harmony with ecology.
But it is very difficult to establish precise measures for the sustainable development process. Sustainable economic development in correlation with ecology should be measured to determine if it is being implemented. It is necessary to define precise determinants that on one hand will determine the pace of economic development and on the other hand will take into account specific issues of ecology. It should be a set of quantified indicators based on selected measurable and quantitative data, so that the whole analytical process can be considered as a research objective method. The best solution will therefore be to develop an analytical scoring method, for which the basic components of this method will be defined economic and ecological quantitative indicators.
In the light of the above, the question arises: Is sustainable development possible taking into account the full harmony of economic development with ecology?
Even if it is unrealistic, what are the reasons for building a theoretical model that would present such a fully balanced development?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Unfortunately, it is impossible
Best Regards Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The visions of the future, in which global sustainable pro-ecological development is dominating, actually looks like a dream.
But it would be nice if it happened. Unfortunately, currently, too little is being done on this issue, primarily in the field of international co-operative.
The international agreement signed today (December 2018) in Katowice in Poland during the UN Climate Summit does not generate much real new ventures.
Most countries have declared that there will be something to do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but this is not much.
Most countries do not intend to increase expenditures on pro-ecological undertakings, on necessary reforms in enenvironment, on the development of large investment projects in the field of renewable energy sources.
And there is so little time left, supposedly only a decade of time for necessary reforms to avoid climatic armageddon at the end of the 21st century.
In view of the above, the current question is: If too few activities are being undertaken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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The activities are too low because
Most of the rural people are migrating towards urban cities for enhancing livelihood.
Rest who are involved in farming, still don't use the improved technologies,
& are continuing with their faulty conventional practices which cause depletion of resources and degradation of environment.
The improved varieties and technologies developed at research institutes are not disseminated timely to the end users.
Economic residual management techniques are not available, like in North Indian regions, most of the farmers burn the paddy straw in the fields which triggers toxic smog in winters.
So farmers are left with no other option instead of burning it as they have to take their next wheat crop.
Even some of the studies says now that in-situ incorporation of paddy straw increases emissions of Methane (CH4), a gas about 25 times more potent than Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) in causing global warming.
So it's just not the technology that will do something good to sustain the environment, but also the farmers & rural masses must be made aware of the facts that they are significantly contributing to these emissions.
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I need to know some kind of prospect about the future renewable technologies, which types will come over the others? could you please discuss about it (in economic, energy efficiency, reliability, energy share in electricity or heat production and ... aspects i mean)
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Thank you for initiating this discussion, Amirhossein.
I believe the ability to utilize the generated energy by renewable sources would be more important than the renewable energy technology itself (whether it is solar, wind, wave...). Therefore, I think energy storage technology is the key in the field of renewable energy.
You can find my reports on sizing energy storage systems for increasing the penetration of renewable energy systems using these three links:
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When comparing, for example, solar and atomic energy, many significant differences can be shown.
Solar energy is safer than nuclear energy. There are no environmentally hazardous radioactive waste in solar energy. In addition, solar power plants can be of any size, while nuclear power plants are usually very large investments and require huge financial outlays for the construction of a modern nuclear power plant.
But besides, many other energy technologies are being developed, energy innovations are being developed in the field of renewable energy sources, such as wind, water, or sea waves. In addition, geothermal energy and the development of energy storage technologies. This is an important issue because the consumption of electricity is growing in many developing countries. In the future, electricity consumption may increase even more when electromobility starts to spread, ie electric cars will be produced and sold on a massive scale.
In view of the above, I am asking you: Which type of energy should be developed in the future?
Please reply
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The types of energy that are clean and have less levels of pollution to the environment will be mainly adopted in the future.
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In the 21st century, various solutions based on ecological innovations, renewable energy technologies, green economy, clean economy, reclamation of secondary raw materials, etc. should be developed. This way, added value can be generated based on the synergy achieved in parallel, mutually supporting processes. In this way, this kind of ecological added value can help to create a new economy in the future based on more sustainable development.
In view of the above, I am asking you: How can you describe, explore and measure the ecological added value resulting from the synergy of pro-ecological activities ...?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Before any problems coming from ourselves can be addressed the mantra of denial needs to be accepted. When it comes to current climate change is measured and demonstrated we can only address it when we accept it. I will not deny but accept it and act accordingly..
Authorities not crack pots point to reducing fossil fuel emissions not denying there part and increasing sequestration as the solution to the issues this from experts with training and capacity in the subject matter not chimps, old farters or whatever derisive inappropriate term you are presently trying to concoct.
Reducing of emission has been demonstrated over and over the Montreal Protocol a good example proven by science and the cap and trade for sulfur emission another good example. But if we cannot even get out of the river in Africa of denial none of these can be support publicly because of campaign of vilification. This is way I believe the polemic of derision is a conscious decision of propaganda not scientific discussion.
Take a good example the value of solar energy competitive available and effective growing recognized around the world for its utility and usefulness. Lengths some are willing to go. A good way to deride the whole issue is crucify that tree on a cross of ignorance. Deny deny and deny.
Trees recognized for ecological environmental and economic value huge natural wonders which have shrunk with planetary mis management they too a subject of denial and ridicule.
Now my devotion to our mother earth the soil. While the amount of carbon in the air in its wildly enriched state yes the one that is engaging a observable and accelerating global warming is 3 to 4 times that of atmosphere pool. If the idea is that where can we put the excess baggage of Carbon dioxide we have a massive field to deal with. Taking a look at the global carbon budget there is almost carbon in the planetary biomass as in our atmosphere and lo and behold the budge and pool can transfer from the air to green mass. It is called carboncycle.
Lets start with no till agriculture completely accepted by conventional farmers in Brazil who are pioneers which has reach over 7 million acres for zero in just a courple of decades. Dr. Rattan Lal, the world foremost Carbon sequestration agriculture expert estimate when this technology is applied on all tillable global land it will sequester 10% of the actual current greenhouse emission.
Puget and Lat from a 4 decade controlled field in Ohio show that no till alone can sequester over 300 kg/ha per acre while simultaneously reducing fossil fuel use foe land tillage.
But wait the long term experimentation on cover crops from the Rodale Institute and now USDA and land grant universities show cover crop can sequester easily 2 to 3 times the no till sequestration while reducing needs for ammoniated fertilizer use which is the biggest carbon foot print in our current system. That very useful concept which actually allow things to be measured no wonder that would be under attack.
Now 10% no till and 30% cover crops that sounds like 40% of the issue can be dealt in proven economical ways with reduce energy costs and improve the environment. These things are zero end games as they depict chose energy or chose environment. We can grow both with a sacrifice this is part of the idea of synergy. You know another idea to deny.
Lets look at compost modest applications of this organic amendment can lower our costs related to waste procession and the sequestration at that rate both avoids issues in comtaminating a widely fouled water system and works to regenerate it but also can give the types of sequestration at level of no till and cover crops together. Math 40% plus 40% that is 80% of the presentday carbon emissions.
Lets keep growing compared to our tillable lands globally the pastures of our world are twice as extensive indeed the highest most fertile soils come for grassland than naturally sequester massive amounts of greenhouse gases. Now the potential sequestration of these system using intensive rotation grazins is found to over double the combined no till, cover crop, and compost field system. Now let double the acreage and double the potential 80 plus 80 there 160 much more than all the current emission presently.
But wait we have not looked biochar this technology applied at Pre Colombian Indian level can sequester a 1,000,000 kg/ha of carbon dioxide and has been demonstrated on lands greater than the size of modern day France and it has been shown to produce carbon which has thousands of year of half life.
The experts in the field has shown that through pyrolysis we can produce renewable energy and char with provide a clean renewable energy system superior to fossil fuel. Oh yes fossil fuels are not renewable and are declining. In this system half of the carbon becomes fuel and the other have builds the soil carbon and reduces the content in the soil.
This system could completely over ride all the others and address the very real issue of soil acidity particularly plaguing the tropics but prevalent through the zones of the world.
In terms of the emission we need to start with our energy system. For instance coal represents our worst case scenario just converting to natural gas would reduce emission from the electrical sector in one half. In addition natural gas is abundant cheap the plants are faster to construct and the health issue related to them are much less than coal.
Secondly wind energy is completely competitive in price to natural gas and can be used responsively. Solar is becoming more the real option every day. But also micro hydro electric is not exploited fully and yes when new approaches of nuclear which are both reliable and resolve waste nuclear material issues they certainly can be on the table.
Just a while back my friend Kenneth Towe quipped that carbon dioxide levels have been much higher than currently and no problem.. It was not even warm then. Wow. You may want to read Dr. Peter Ward who is paleogeologist at University of Washington.
He takes all the massive extinction events in geological record and points to level of carbon dioxide. In the last 200,00 years when it is considered at the human area arrived and in the 100,000 years when populations started growing or in the last 10,000 years when we experienced the agricultural and industrial revolution the Carbon dioxide fluctuated between 180 to 290 ppm.
Yet tn the prehistoric age we have 10 massive extinction even with the following CO2 concentration 4,000, 3,800, 3,900, 3,000, 1,200, 1,800 1,600 1,200 and 600 ppm with recorded by Dr. Ward. .
At 410 ppm Carbon dioxide and climbing the deniers are not worried Kenneth says we seen this before was not even warm. Yet there is an undisputable geological record that show when carbon dioxide as risen the temperature of our earth has followed suite. Also in 10 known massive every single one of them are associated with greatly enriched greenhouse house environment 600 to 4,000 ppm.
Our civilization and are advanced as all come in levels which are much inferior to the current and certainly. Now if geological record shows how temperature rise naturally with increasing carbon dioxide and it the 10 events of massive extinction are occurring under the high carbon and heat events are we willing to ignore all evidence and say lets just roll the dice.
Lets just deny say there is no evidence and say there is no solution.
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Should the development of industry be burdened with additional environmental taxes in order to finance the development of energy based on renewable energy sources and reclamation of a devastated natural environment?
In subsequent years, developed countries will be under pressure to increase spending on environment-friendly targets, including financing the development of power plants based on renewable energy sources, reclamation of devastated natural environment and reduction of emissions of environmentally harmful industrial waste.
On the other hand, the increase in fiscal burdens can be transformed in a short time into a decline in business investment and a decline in the country's economic growth. However, if enterprises switched their business concepts to the production of better-quality goods and characterized by a longer period of usefulness and functioning in the product and service life cycles, then it would be possible to reduce the use of resources and reduce the negative external effects of industrial development. In addition, the state from the collected additional pro-environmental taxes would provide public goods that would improve the level and living conditions of citizens, therefore there would be opportunities to better use and perhaps reduce spending on some other departments providing public goods such as public safety, administrative, health, etc. In the longer term, economic development would take place in a slightly different macroeconomic balance and with a slowdown in economic growth. However, this mentioned issue of exempting economic growth would no longer be negative.
In view of the above, I am asking you:
Should the development of industry be burdened with additional environmental taxes in order to finance the development of energy based on renewable energy sources and reclamation of a devastated natural environment?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Hi Kenneth,
1) I agree that it probably wouldn't work as it is currently set up. The UK have a carbon tax. What usually happens with taxes (in the UK) such as Sugar, road tax, tax on cigarettes, etc is that they are put into one pot and distributed how the government see fit. As I currently understand it the money generated from the sugar tax isn't directly utilised for education on excessive sugar intake or to treat diabetes. I'm thinking outside the box here but what if they took the tax and used it to acquire land and plant trees rather than take the carbon tax put it in one pot and use it to fix roads, etc.
2) If they used it to protect green areas and plant trees it would potentially go some way to reducing C02 although I understand it would be negligible but its better than nothing. It would be either prove you can reduce C02 or pay the tax that directly goes towards planting trees.
I understand that the current methods dont work. In the conclusion on the paper below: "The impact of a carbon tax on manufacturing: Evidence from microdata" it states:
"While curbing industrial emissions must be an integral part of any such policy, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence on the impacts of large-scale regulations of industrial GHG emissions".
I think in conclusion we should never write off any ideas, but we should never go into anything without carrying out comprehensive research into the economical / environmental impact and feasibility. It is very complex and as I mentioned its as complex and diverse business as the industry it affects.
Just to clarify I'm just an engineer in automotive industry, I'm not claiming to be any type of expert on this subject. I would just like to see people thinking more outside of the box and generating discussion. I think we can all do something. Personally I have been growing trees over the past three years, its my very small way of teaching my son how to do something positive as well as teaching him about nature.
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The nuclear power industry is also making significant technological progress in terms of security.
On the other hand, the earthquake recorded a dozen years ago in Japan and the unsealing of nuclear reactor coatings indicated the potential high risk of radioactive environmental contamination.
Therefore, in some countries, especially those without traditional energy minerals, new technological solutions are being developed in the field of renewable energy sources.
In view of the above, the current question is: Does nuclear power have a future or will new technologies of renewable energy be developed in the energy sector?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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The earlier answer on the entropy of renewables answered the question; especially when allied with a simple calculation on energy density for solar and wind. I strongly recommend https://www.withouthotair.com/ by either buying the book or it is available to download for free. The author sadly died in his prime but his most important legacy has global implications and is factual. It proves that the energy balance cannot be met with natural, non-depleting sources. Please be careful with what you read, many exponents of renewables equate electricity with energy. In advanced countries electricity is only about 20% of the primary energy supply. Heat and transport dominate by far worldwide.
As for nuclear, the IVth Generation of high temperature fission reactors is the near term future. Light water moderated reactors have been deployed almost universally in all countries except India, UK and Canada who have each chosen different routes. The reason for the light water reactor's dominance despite escalating safety costs is well documented in the military history of the last century. UK amongst some others developed and deployed the high temperature gas cooled 'dry' route which has many advantages as are now recognised.
The Generation IV small modular reactors are inherently safe (see Ref Kletz, Trevor for a definition) as has been physically demonstrated in Japan and China on real plants. These countries have looked carefully and dispassionately at the options and developed devices which are inherently safe, factory reproducible, provide high enough temperatures for industrial and domestic heat, also high enough to produce thermo-chemical hydrogen for synthetic transport fuels and provide distributed energy sourcing since it is not feasible to transmit the total energy quantities demanded electrically in mature economies. Growing economies can move directly to distributed low-carbon nuclear elegantly avoiding electricity or gas or liquid fuel transmission infrastructure.
The most advanced demonstration plant in the world is the HTR-PM, presently in commissioning at 2 x 100 MWe in China following the proving of its smaller prototype and serious worldwide development effort over decades. The worldwide body of knowledge on high temperature small nuclear is at a point where deployment at scale is practical before 2030. Most advanced countries have small modular reactor programmes with designs at advanced stages. The high temperature small modular reactor preparations in China, Japan, USA, UK, France and many others produce heat at a temperature matched to repower large coal stations carbon-free by re-using all except the boilers. Deployment studies for such repowering have been completed in China and USA. You will appreciate the massive impact this will have upon global emissions.
The fuel is of course radioactive but is non-proliferating for weapons use because it is contained in ceramic which is harder to break down than newly mined materials so is unattractive and this also makes it safer to store as waste. Waste storage volumes are smaller than from light water reactors due to the higher utilisation of the fuel in the lower energy density core and the conversion efficiency of the downstream processes plus other helpful factors. These high temperature small modular reactors can operate on other fuels such as thorium but can also consume legacy 'hot' residues from pressurised water reactors and the military.
In practical terms, it is physically impossible to build traditional large nuclear power stations at a rate relevant to the latest Paris imperatives. The only way to achieve a high pace of transition, even without global energy growth, is by factory manufacture of small distributable energy plants on a numerical scale similar to other volume manufactures such as aircraft. The Boeing 737 now has delivered 10,000 units manufactured at licensed factories worldwide and is still growing. This aircraft has a similar investment profile to small modular reactors in factory set up and economies of repetition. Volume manufacturing techniques from other industries are especially relevant to small modular nuclear but have not yet been widely applied in nuclear.
As has been said by others in this post, the energy subject is large but that should not prevent thinking fundamentally about the underlying thermodynamic realities as MacKay has done, applying the immutable laws of physics in this debate as few have done and unemotionally analysing the problem and reaching conclusions as many enlightened nations have already but perhaps too quietly done so that democracies can be offered rational choices.
Perhaps the final arbiter is cost in all these things. The UK Government Techno Economic Assessment has shown that small nuclear is attractive from a socio economic perspective and was followed up by a formative expert finance working group to make ready the market and the commercial context. Most recently a study, which can be extrapolated internationally laid out a pathway. https://d2umxnkyjne36n.cloudfront.net/insightReports/Preparing-for-deployment-of-a-UK-SMR-by-2030-UPDATED.pdf?mtime=20161011145322
So the answer to Dariusz's question is in my view, YES, supported by massive programmes of excellent work invested in small modular high temperature reactors which is largely unseen by the general population and decision makers to who sadly have so far only been offered rather poor, expensive and regressive energy choices for all our children.
Please read widely and draw your own conclusions.
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When the depletion of minerals, classic energy sources such as oil, hard coal and lignite, natural gas will generate market high increases in prices of these commodities on commodity exchanges?
In this question I point to economic issues and not speculative ones. Investment funds and large energy corporations are buying forward contracts for the supply of these raw materials.
The investment risk is high and the possibility of price forecasting is not easy considering the speculative transactions of investment funds and a number of non-economic factors, such as political factors in the production of crude oil.
However, in a few dozen years some of these minerals may start to run out. Until then, the economy should determine the creation of other energy technologies, ecological innovations in the field of energy and substitutable energy sources, mainly based on renewable energy concepts.
So when are the non-economic determinants influencing the energy prices on the wholesale exchanges, the commodities will be replaced and replaced by economic determinants?
When the scale of depletion of these minerals will affect the prices of these raw materials, it will increase the prices of these minerals and in this way will accelerate the process of creating eco-innovations and renewable energy?
In view of the above, I am asking you: When the depletion of minerals, classic energy sources such as oil, hard coal and lignite, natural gas will generate market high increases in prices of these commodities on commodity exchanges?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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I believe the human without energy like the dead. The depletion of minerals, traditional energy sources are the end of the world .Natural gas not only will generate high market increases in prices of these commodities on commodity exchanges but generates a brutal war
However, at the same time, the human has a high ability to develop the future.
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How would you design a similar or different futurological energy and civilization project, containing renewable energy sources of renewable energy and recreation of natural conditions, referring to natural ecosystems, which after years would gain the possibility of self-recreating?
For example, whether with unlimited investment funds or whether it would be possible to achieve a sustainable economic ecosystem from scratch to achieve economic efficiency at least at the zero growth level as follows: Can a large solar power plant be developed in the desert and water obtained from energy to develop agricultural production and plant ecosystems, including forest ecosystems, which, after several dozen years, could almost function themselves? An important factor would be the possible progressive climate change in a given area and the geographical scope of the area covered by this investment project.
In some science fiction movies there are scenes that suggest that it is possible, economically justified and real. However, the vision presented in science-fiction movies to create real projects can, however, be a very big difference. But many futurological visions that were created in the past have been implemented, so it is justified to undertake such attempts to create further futurological projects.
In connection with the above, I would like to ask you the following question: How would you design energy if you had unlimited financial resources? How would you design a similar or different futurological energy and civilization project, containing renewable energy sources of renewable energy and recreation of natural conditions, referring to natural ecosystems, which after years would gain the possibility of self-recreating?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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The Hanging Gardens in Babylonian civilization are the best idea to invest and develop the emerging power of hydro-power. It not only energy but the best life
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Should the dimension and scope of ecological knowledge in contemporary education and schooling systems be increased in the context of the growing problems of the modern world?
Contemporary XXI century is, among other things, the age of national and globally recognized growing problems regarding environmental protection, ecology, protection of ecosystems and species of various life threatened by extinction, growing risk of climatic cataclysms associated with the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth, exhausting some categories of resources necessary for development modern industries, the need for energy transformation, conversion of classic sources of energy based on minerals to renewable, ecological energy sources. In view of the above, the question becomes more and more relevant: Should the dimension and scope of ecological knowledge in contemporary education and schooling systems be increased in the context of the growing problems of the modern world?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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To add to Kenneth answer about food crops and biofuel. Using any food crop is a stupid idea when you think about the amount of people in this world who do not have access to food on a daily bases. We read about food shortages and yet, we still are using food crops for biofuel! The only way to address this is through education. In some institute of higher education ecological education is being address but only as an introduction. We need to expand this into full classes addressing ecology, and how ecology applies to improving nature and humans. It needs to cover energy efficiency and behavior as well as the importance of nature in our daily lives. If we continue on the current path we are setting ourselves up for dangerous conditions that will be more difficult to adjust to. It's going to be hard enough adapting to current condition . How are we going to adapt if we continue on the current path?
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Taking into account the increasing global problems related to the progressing environmental pollution, depletion of mineral resources and the greenhouse effect, the need to create and develop new, innovative RES technologies and clean green energy sources is gradually increasing.
In view of the above, the question is becoming more and more current: What sources of clean energy and RES technologies will dominate in the future?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Future energy generation technologies to take us all forward in perpetuity - must be those which deliver massive, enduring, clean, safe and low cost power for all peoples.
This technological challenge is in the hands of the world’s best and brightest scientists, physicists, engineers and researchers who quite rightly are focused clearly on reaching the pinnacle of energy generation possibilities known to science – nothing less is acceptable.
Fortunately the world of science already understands well the immutable laws of thermodynamics underpinning energy dense generation concepts, so we are well advanced on the subject. Importantly, we can all expect to see these very low footprint, versatile, and scalable modular generation technologies start to “pop up” and be put into service progressively and everywhere globally within 30 years for sure.
There are four imperatives that any energy technology suitable for future use must satisfy fully to qualify as a forward thinking and enduring new era technology.
(1) New age generation must be at the peak or near the peak of the energy density and generation scientific pyramid;
(2) New age generation must generate massive, clean, safe, low cost power cost effectively, and be of a modular, scalable, and easily reticulatable everywhere globally, form factor;
(3) New age generation must be one that provides low cost and abundant power for all peoples ad-infinitum, sufficient to power new age energy intensive industries much needed to elevate all peoples globally through new technological opportunities and incremental prosperity advancements for all;
(4) New age generation most importantly at the same time as achieving points 1 - 3 above, must eliminate greenhouse gasses GHG currently generated by fossil fuels generation in all forms to insignificant levels permanently and quickly, and consign climate change issues to posterity going forward.
So a better question is this: “Can We Generate 100% Of Our Energy from New Age Clean Generation Technologies by 2100 Eliminating Greenhouse Gasses at the same time?
Yes of course we can, as we must
Lawrence Coomber
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Every year new sources of clean energy and technologies are created. New, innovative technologies in the field of renewable energy are being created. The existing technologies of renewable energy sources have been successively improved in the direction of creating more and more economically efficient and energy-saving technological solutions. New patents and innovative technological solutions are being created. New types of materials used in new energy sources devices are being discovered. The main determinant of technological progress in this field should be the process of implementing the most energy-saving technologies on the industrial scale and promoted for industrial implementation and the transport sector should be sources of energy under RES that will emit the least harmful external effects to the planet Earth environment.
In view of the above, the current question is: Will man manage to create and develop on a mass scale in industry and energy innovative technologies of renewable energy sources, through which will stop the greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Humans already created technologies that can do what you hope, but humans have not created a financial system that responds in a timely fashion to future threats. In engineering terms, the financial system is a failure as a predictive mechanism, it can only respond to pain, i.e. It's a PID network with very weak I and D terms. So the short answer is humans will do nothing of consequence until they are dying in large numbers, that is the only thing that gets their attention. This is not a criticism, it is simply a statement of fact, and it is the same way most of the 'lower' mammals behave.
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Obviously, smart grid technology is growing fast. Its contribution to energy efficiency and sustainability is undeniable. I would like to see deep in to it, what it is like, what advantages and disadvantages it might have. Dear RG members and researchers, you are welcome to to provide any reasonable comment on the topic under question.
Samuel Lakew
University of Nottingham
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Smart grids are designed to:
1) Reduce the electricity demand load on the utility grid during daily peak demand periods.
2) Support renewable energy generation via distributed energy systems (DES) wind turbine farms, solar PV, concentrated solar power (CSP), and fuel cells stations.
3) Create independence of the utility grids in remote areas.
Accordingly, I'd say that market penetration by large-scale renewable energy systems relies on the presence of smart grids as well as distributed energy storage (DES) to offset the incompetency of renewable sources such as wind turbines, solar PV, CSP, etc.
Please feel free to download my lecture notes from the "Green Energy Systems" course that I developed and taught at Yale University. You can find these lecture notes and publications under my profile in ResearchGate.net.
Hope this helps answer your question and good luck.
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The commercially available PTC comes with 80 degree rim angle. what type of manufacturing advantage made the manufactures to restrict the PTC with such rim angle.
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It is restricted because of the manufacturing process. If you go for a lower rim angle it is harder to make the shape - presumably they press it from flat sheet. That is why you can make cylindrical concentrators with almost any rim angle, but parabolic ones are harder.
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will we be able to complete the transition, or will transition be a forever process?
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Maybe we should remember some of the tech predictions of the past:
1) "When the Paris Exhibition [of 1878] closes, electric light will close with it and no more will be heard of it." -- Oxford professor Erasmus Wilson.
2) "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers."
Thomas Watson, president of IBM, 1943
3) "Nuclear-powered vacuum cleaners will probably be a reality in 10 years." - Alex Lewyt, president of vacuum cleaner company Lewyt Corp., in the New York Times in 1955.
4) "With over fifteen types of foreign cars already on sale here, the Japanese auto industry isn't likely to carve out a big share of the market for itself." -- Business Week, 1968.
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I find a free software for layout and optimization of heliostat fields of central receiver systems.
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Take a look at SolarPILOT. It is free and open source.
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If I have Aluminum fins L shape and copper fins with 5 mm thickness , how I can paste it on the rear surface of the PV panel to cooling it by natural convection ?
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Dear Duaa,
Welcome,
Adding to Tony, you can connect fins to the back of the solar panel by using thermal conducting adhesive materials. There are many vendors for such materials one of them Henkel, is given in the attached link:https://www.woronko-glue.com/sg_obrazki_/00002478_normg_001.pdf
Best wishes
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Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be converted to electricity.Wind turbines have been used as a source of renewable energy for generating electricity in certain countries without others. What are the most important factors limiting the installation and use of wind turbines to generate electricity in a particular area?
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The climate conditions in that area, in particular the average value of wind speed, and the ecological considerations like the migration of birds. Also we should not forget the economical justifications to construct such a plant, in other words how much cost one-kilowatt per hour from this plant comparing with that produced from fossil-fueled plants.
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Climate Change is among the most pressing issues facing human society today. Eventhough the science of climate change is complex, many studies have shown that the burning of fossil fuels is a major contributor. To reduce or mitigate the effects of climate change and create a sustainable society, sustainable development demands that we must move towards a low-carbon society. One sustainable energy technology that has emerged as a potential solution in addition to renewable energy, is carbon capture and storage (CCS). If you are not familiar with CCS, the video below by ZEP can give you an insight. 
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, we are unlikely to meet our climate targets ( such as the Paris climate target) without CCS. The International Energy Agency's reports also show that renewable energy technologies cannot do it alone. CCS is an important part of the portfolio of low-carbon options we need to move our society into a sustainable direction in the short, medium and long-term. What is the problem? Whilst some are thinking CCS is a good solution, others think it is a bad idea. For example, Greenpeace tagged CCS as a scam. Do you think is a scam? I'd like to hear your opinion. Is carbon capture and storage a good idea or not? Give reasons for your opinion.
P.S
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There are uncertainties around the viability of CCS, since CCS requires energy and thus reduces the efficiency of the plants where it is used. CCS cannot be used on all emission sources, e.g. vehicles. The stored CO2 could potentially leak. CCS is not solving the cause of the problem, but rather deal with the consequences. This is not the optimal solution, but could be needed if we are not able to reduce the emissions fast enough by targeting the root causes.
Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) is where the captured CO2 is used instead of being stored, e.g. to produce fuels. This could perhaps be a better way forward than CCS, since the CO2 is exploited and it avoids some of the challenges of CCS, e.g. leakages from storages. CCS or CCU combined with biomass could provide net reduction of CO2 from the atmosphere.
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How to Derive Coefficients of the plynomial Eq. via interpolation calculations of hourly measured values of Net Power over Measured solar Data in Excel ?
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Hello Haseeb Shah
Consider that the data [x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7] are in columns A2:A8
and the data [y1 x2 y3 y4 y5 y6 y7] are in columns B2:B8
and we wish to fit the quartic polynomial y = a*x^4+ b*x^3 +c*x^2 +d*x + e
to the two data sets
The command to obtain the coefficients a, b, c, d, e is
LINEST(B2:B8,A2:A8^{1,2,3, 4},TRUE,FALSE)
To determine coefficients of a a pentic plonomial we should write ^{1,2, 3, 4, 5} instead
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Kindly help me get some of the negative environmental effects of renewable energy technology narrowed down to solar and wind.
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if you take life cycle analysis into account green energies could have environmental impacts and the exact type and intensity of environmental impacts varies depending on the specific technology used, the geographic location, and a number of other factors.
i recommend you to check it out in link below
Regards
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Actually I am designing a photovoltaic cell in simulink , but while implementing the output current equation in simulink, I am not getting enough of idea how to model that trancedental output current equation mathematically or physically because it is recursive in nature.
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I am trying (1- Grid Import/Load Consumed)*100
the other way could be Load consumed - grid Import that would be battery consumed. so i could then draw a graph between grid import and consumed from battery. Please clarify.
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I need to conduct LCA study of renewable energy technologies. Thus I want to know about the necessary steps and specific background literature for it.
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You will find some articles and book chapters that present LCA, and LCOE of wind, and solar-PV energy systems.
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According to Mr Radwan Alkhatib (2015) "Development of an alternative fuel from waste of used tires by pyrolysis" paper, he stated
"For example if it still contains more hydrogen, that means the pyrolysis process is not completed and needs either more time of reaction or to raise up the temperature[12]. "
(1) How to define "more hydrogen"?
(2) Reference [12] for the above statement refers to "Gartzen Lopez, Martin Olazar, Roberto Aguado, Javier Bilbao's Continuous Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires In A Conical Spouted Bed Reactor"
However, i failed to realise which sentence he referred to.
(3) Is there any other paper(s) making/ having similar statement/ findings?
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Having more H_2 in Char is related to characteristic of fuel, not pyrolysis.
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how to increase the melting point for biomass material such as agricultural waste 
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Anyone who works with biomass (cellulose) conversion knows any commercial beta-glucosidase that can be used instead of Novozym 188 (cellobiase from A. niger)?
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A huge amount of infrared energy is sent back from Earth's surface into space. We're talk about 100,000 Terawatt here. There are some ideas on how to harness this vast source of renewable energy, which is also available at night - avoiding the disadvantages of photovoltaic mechanisms. What are your thoughts? Can it be done?
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We know renewable are intermittent. But as the LCOE Levelized Cost of Electricity are calculated depending on all costs and working hours (energy produced) for once. i.e This price is going to be the same (in case of wind and solar) for the lifestime of the project. I am very eager to know what kinda minor dynamics does the change in weather impacts the prices in a day ahead or a hour ahead market.
As we know we have strong forecasting systems now a days (offshore) and the production forecasting is somehow near to the actual produced energy. But what if the forecast says the production is way too less and the wind company wants to sell the electricity at a higher price?? I hope I have given a clear picture of the scenario. 
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Can we build a 90% efficiency wireless power transformers using state of art materials?
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Dear Researchers
especially from south Asian countries need comments on this question?
what are the actualities why the biomass resources cant employed to produce power/energy/electricity
in my point of view adequate initial fiance, no training of farmers, lack of demonstration, no centralized approach, reliability misconceptions, legal framework, the absence of commercial services network, in some countries R & D and science and Technology development gap
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The issues is the same everywhere, the low energy density of biomass. The problem looks smaller in developed countries due to the highly developed road, railway, and sea shipping systems.
Decentralization and improving energy density could help to reach out these valuable sustainable resources.
Please find one of my paper enclosed (optimization of torrefaction from economic, social and environmental perspectives):
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The parabolic trough solar collector consists of a parabolic reflector to concentrate the solar rays at its focal line, where the receiver system is located. The receiver system includes an absorber copper tube. The heat transfer fluid inside the copper absorber tube. Copper tube received solar radiation directly from the sun and indirectly from the reflector. How we can simulate solar radiation on the copper tube for parabolic trough solar collector using ANSYS Fluent?
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Want to know the trends that what actually going on around the world and what are the opportunity available for solar technology in the smart grid? what are the issues of integration of solar into smart grid ? what affects the power quality in the smart grid?
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In critical industries their power backup generators are power with Diesel fuel. Diesel fuel is at times in short supply and often becomes contaminated. New fuels are required to run these generators that power back up systems to critical industries such as hospitals and data centers. As a nation, we need chemists and chemical engineers to come forward with new technologies producing sustainable fuels to augment or replace the use of gasoline/Diesel fuel consumption.
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See article Offshore Hydroelectric Plant a techno economic analysis of a renewable energy source which appeared in Elesevier Journal Renewable and sustainable Energy Reviews 34 2014
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I would like to know the opinions of professionals about the production of second generation biofuels and to find out if Jatropha is one of the second generation feedstocks.
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With the price volatility in the energy world market it is interesting the risk in energy supply, specially in the non oil producing countries. So, for preparing a Doctoral Thesis, I am interesting in some details or proceedings for energy security index calculation, like the needed data, criteria, limitations and so on.
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Can you suggest a sustainable hydropower model in terms technique, biodiversity, and climate change?
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Energy storage is applied to make renewable energy generation dispatchable but trying to know other low-sides of renewable energy.
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Do you think that the theory of hybrid system ‘Hybrid automation, Petri Nets, switched system …etc’ can be applied to hybrid renewable energy such as ‘Photovoltaic and wind energy’. If yes, would you mind suggesting some research publications in this area?
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Solar Home System (SHS) is the economical and most feasible for poor villagers in rural areas. However, the villagers can use very limited power from SHS.
PV Hybrid Mini/Micro Grid can supply more power (kW) than SHS and it can supply for the whole day. But, there may be challenges for management, maintenance and financial issues.
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For villages, the SHS may be the best solution of the lack of electricity distribution subsystem(s). The nature of the housing, activity, land topological constraints are the main reasons of the mentioned recommendation. For better utilisation of the solar energy, the thermal loads can be partially or totally supplied from simple solar thermal systems, while the essential electic loads are to be supplied from the solar-PV. Energy saving, and energy efficiency awareness programs may be also adopted for maximisation of the usefulness of the enegy utilisation.