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I am conducting research in the area of heritage planning and conservation. Heritage Impact Assessment(HIA) is necessary before any kind of change or development in the built environment around a heritage site within a defined regulated area to determine its impacts on the potential of heritage. In India, it has now become mandatory by the National Monument Authority (NMA) in case of any centrally protected monument. Visual Impact Assessment is a very important component of an HIA to asses any future impact on the overall landscape of the place around the heritage site. To be precise, according to NMA guidelines, it is required to check the skyline concerning the heritage site, any visual obstruction in views of the heritage site, shadow on the heritage site due to new development, and consideration from building design bye-laws.
Guideline for HIA by NMA can be found here: https://www.nma.gov.in/documents/20126/51838/HIA+Report.pdf
From the available example of HIA reports, I understood that experts are using 3D software, first to model the existing structures and then adding the proposed structure to generate the views in the form of images/renders to visualise the projected development. Sometimes, it is done by only drawing a section and marking the human eye angle. I am not sure how they are validating these views. From these images/renders only, one can not say very definitively whether these are accurate or not. Also, I am unsure about the view/camera point selection.
I have not been able to find any study on the assessment of the overall visual quality of the surrounding area due to new changes.
It would be great if you know of any study or documents or share some light on this.
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check the pdf. below.
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Speaking of TRICK,
I recommend reading the following attached paper
"EULER’S TRICK AND SECOND 2-DESCENT ", which demonstrates how it is possible to tackle higher-grade Diophantine problems with elementary techniques, such as those discovered by Leonhard Euler:
A method is based on an idea of Euler and seems to be related to unpublished work of Mordell.
In my two proofs of Fermat's Last Theorem I have done nothing but follow Euler's ideas and tricks.
The infinite descent is clearly a technique that renders Krasner's TRICK ineffective !!!
Enjoy the reading.
Andrea Ossicini, AL HASIB
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My Final version dt.July 7, 2022, published in a journal.
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Dear scholar, I hope all of you are doing well
One of the reviewers commented on my article.
The presence of structural breaks may render unreliable findings retrieved from the ARDL test. The authors are suggested to test for the possible structural breaks and augment it into ARDL model.
How can I respond to them?
OR
In the presence of structural break, there is any alternative econometrics technique that gives unbiased estimates other than ARDL?
If yes then name, please, and run the software package
Please help
Thanks
Ijaz Uddin
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Ijaz Uddin When a time series abruptly changes at a point in time, this is referred to as a structural break. This change might include a shift in the mean or a shift in the other parameters of the process that generates the series.
A structural break in economics can occur as a result of a war, a significant shift in government policy, or another similarly abrupt event.
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I would like to deflavinate my enzyme (MtCDH) to render it catalytically inactive. I have come across the publication from B. E. P. SWOBODA but I am not sure if it is working. Does anyone have experience with this?
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Hi, I have in mind that you may try incubation with high concentrations of potassium bromide. Good luck. joao
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Rendering CGVIEW image...
java -Xmx1500m -jar cgview\cgview.jar -f jpg -i C:\Users\hhh\Desktop\output\scratch\sequence.fasta.xml -o C:\Users\hhh\Desktop\output\sequence.fasta.jpg
Error occurred during initialization of VM
Could not reserve enough space for 1536000KB object heap
Done.
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I recently found a dissertation about lightmap compression: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:844146/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Are there other papers about this topic? Thanks.
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Saba A. Tuama Thanks for replying. I noticed that the lightmap solution in this article has a temporal axis. Does this mean their lightmaps aren't static over time, i.e., some sort of animation?
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I want the DEM rendering effect shown in the picture below, but the hillshade made in ArcGIS is not the one shown in the picture. May I ask if you have detailed production process and parameter setting, please let me know, thank you very much.
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Hey!
Sometimes very well results give applying not only transparent hillshade, but additionaly transparent slope map. If You make such compilation - the effects may surprise you sometimes, see below :-)
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Preferably SVG or EPS.
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I have the same trouble, because I work with pymol a lot and the quality doesn´t fit most of the journals requirements...
do you know if there is any other program that after rendering the pdb structure in any of other formats (like the 3d ones) that can convert it into SVG?
Thank you
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Google's Bilateral Guided Upsampling (2016) proposed an idea that upsampling could be guided by a reference image to maintain high-frequency information like edges. This reminds me of G-buffers in real-time rendering.
Does state-of-the-art super-resolution algorithms in real-time renderings, such as Nvidia's DLSS and AMD's FSR, use a similar idea? How do they exploit G-buffers to aid the upsampling?
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How can make a large render before light at 3d model using Z brush ?
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I would like to meet researchers, developers who are currently or previously worked on foveated, aka. gaze contingent rendering. Although, foveated rendering could be the next big thing in rendering community, still there is an active community missing in this domain. Probably we can all jointly build a developer community if reddit/slack/discord.
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I have created a reddit community on foveated rendering. please join: (1) foveated_rendering (reddit.com)
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We, as authors, are expected to follow certain ethical codes laid down by journals. For instance, authors can not submit the same article in more than one journal.
On the other hand, there are hardly any ethics for journals and editors. Journals rarely make the first decision within the ‘average’ first decision period mentioned in the journal's guidelines. Similarly, some manuscripts remain under review for more than a year at times, and journals reject an article after keeping it under review for such long times. By the time such decision is made, the article already loses its relevance.
I want to stress that a line of ethics shall be drawn for journals and editors as well.
1. There must be a maximum time limit for making the first decision and also for review. Two weeks are enough for making the first decision; the editor must go through the article and make the first decision in this period (If an article has some worth, send it to review else desk reject it). For peer reviews, I understand that getting peer reviews is a timely process, but there still must be an upper limit.
2. I have experienced that revisions are often sent to new reviewers who suggest additional new changes and sometimes recommend rejection also. Revisions should be sent to original reviewers, and in case original reviewers are not available, then the editor must make the decision on the basis of revisions recommended by the original reviewers and the changes made by the authors.
There may be other points also that fellow Research Gate members may highlight.
In my opinion, until journals do not follow such ethics, I do not see any harm in sending the same manuscript for consideration to multiple journals. A very delayed rejection decision renders the manuscript useless. Why should authors be hard done by? The journals and editors do have some ethics to follow too.
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Yes that is standard practice. All references should be cited properly as well.
For a good article research question the key attributes are:
(i) Being specific
(ii) Being originality and
(iii) having general relevance to the wider scientific community.
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We are trying to run experiments with the Biolog EcoPlates to characterize microbial communities from nose swabs and other body sites. After incubation (both with and without shaking) we notice color formation in some of the wells, however the color is concentrated on the side of the well, rendering the measurement inaccurate. We have also noticed before the incubation that the substrate seems to adhere to the side of the wells in the plate, and pipetting does not help. Support from Biolog did not notice anything strange with this particular batch of plates we are using, so I am wondering if I am missing some basic technique here? Has anyone had similar issues?
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Dear All,
Could anyone help me with 3D analysis in software ICY? I cannot render all cells which are in my z stack in 2 channels, it shows only part of blue channel, but green one, in which cells of interest are, is not able to be fully rendered from tiff z stack. Could anyone guide me, how to perform full render in 3D and perform analysis?
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It will not work in the first attempt, you can try to do more attempts, I think that will work as just like most people does. If you not then let me know.
Kind Regards
Qamar Ul Islam
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How to work properly in the development of an integral like the Abel Plana defined on this image:
I am interested in to have a set of steps for attacking the problem of developing the integral and to determine a criterion of convergence for any complex value s, I mean, when the integral could have some specifical behavior at, for example, s=1/2 + i t where I am interested in to study it.
I am interested in the proper evaluation of that integral only with formal steps into complex analysis.
The Abel PLana formula appears also on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abel%E2%80%93Plana_formula
Best regards
Carlos López
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Carlos, There is a wealth of information about the Riemann Zeta function. It started out as the Dirichlet series which converged and was holomorphic for abs(z)>1. However, through the process of analytic continuation the Zeta function could be defined as a meromorphic function on the entire complex plane, holomorphic on C-{1} with a simple pole at z=1.
Often times when one extends a convergent series representation to homomorphically to a larger region which is done to generate the Zeta function one finds the function is no longer single valued.
For example when considers the simple sqrt(z), then runs into the problem that it is multivalued and hence cannot be extended homomorphically to C. This gave rise to the concept of a Riemann surface, covering spaces, branch points and branch cut so to address this issue which can often arise in analytic continuation. http://www1.spms.ntu.edu.sg/~ydchong/teaching/07_branch_cuts.pdf
The Zeta function when extended to the p-adic number field, however is not single valued and has branch points.
There are many books at all levels on the zeta function. It is one of the most important special functions of mathematics and foundational to analytic number theory. Just go an Amazon and search on Riemann Zeta function in Books and see what pops up.
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Adequate and effective social infrastructure is very much necessary for the economic growth of the country.According to Sullivan:
“Social infrastructure refers to those factors which render the human resources of a nation suitable for productive work.”
A developing country is drastically different in terms of how its labour laws are regulated, how its citizens are educated, and how their health is handled. What are the unique ways to create and develop,and sustain social infrastructure in a country (particularly developing).
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How can that be done considering that unemployment is usually very high in developing counties and taxation is usually weak?
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Hello!
I am currently analyzing data regarding the validation of a greek translation of the anxiety sensitivity index 3. I have a sample of around 200. Can I transform my variables (e.g. log or Z-scores) to approach normality, or does this render the convergent and discriminant evidence meaningless?
Thank you!
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Rhianon Allen wrote: "...most parametric analyses assume normality."
Normality of what, though? There is much confusion about this!
Better textbooks clarify that for OLS models (including t-tests and ANOVA), it is the errors (i.e., deviation of actual values from fitted values using the true, population regression expression) that are assumed to be normally distributed. But sadly, not many books point out that normality of the errors is a sufficient condition, but not a necessary condition.
The necessary condition is that the sampling distributions of the parameter estimates (i.e., the constant & the regression coefficients) be approximately* normal. As was implied above, if the errors are normally distributed, the sampling distributions of the parameter estimates will also be normal. But the latter sampling distributions approach normality as n increases, even if the error distribution is not normal. If you need published references to support what I've said here, see the textbooks by Wooldridge (2021) and Vittinghoff et al (2012) that are mentioned in the slides I have attached.
* Approximate normality is the best one can hope for when working with real world data. See the famous statement by George Box that I have attached below. The implication is that the t- and F-tests for OLS models are really approximate tests when one is using real world data, and the question is not whether we have exact normality or not, but whether the approximation is good enough to make the model "useful" (to borrow a word from another famous statement by Box!).
HTH.
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Hello,
nowadays, more and more foveated rendering is based on eye-tracker directed gaze points known as dynamic foveated rendering. Although no more fixed foveated rendering is catching the attention of scholars' interest, I need some previous work to see how and what were the methods working on this display centered fixed foveated rendering.
I could not find enough research papers from google scholar, would appreciate if you could suggest me some works on fixed foveated rendering.
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Without a gaze point, all kind of foveated rendering is a static foveated rendering. Some past documents, e.g. Oculus developers previously work implicitly subdivided the image space into different regions with different sampling rates. But such literature is really rare nowadays. More and more techniques are used where gaze-point is the main parameter for good foveated rendering.
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- non Fourier heat conduction equation which's also known as hyperbolic heat equation, is in the form of :
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You should use a general form of PDE physic to define the governing equation.
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I have created NDVI of the sentinel-2a image and rendered correctly using plot() command in R. However, when I tried to export it using writeRaster() command, it just saved black and white image. Why?
Note that such black and white image, If I load using raster() function, gets rendered accurately in Rstudio.
Can anyone helps me out?
Thanks in advance.
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Paul Griesberger Thank you so much for your reply! In QGIS also, it was the same as in R. However, I fixed the problem now. For this, I loaded the raster output in the QGIS and added pseudocolor. It worked perfectly now.
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Over the past decades, ecosystem and climate change modeling have made great advances. However, as indicated by the uncomfortably large deviations between predicted climate change and today's observed effects, there is obviously a lot of room for improvement. Today it is accepted that global warming, and a series of derived effects, are ocurring at much faster rates than predicted even with the most sophisticated models just 10 years ago. Similar discrepancies exist for ecosystem models which try to predict production or the development of pest and disease populations. In the end, the complexities of non-linear behavior and multiple synergistic effects may render such complex systems impossible to model within the limits of acceptable accuracy. If models only hold under extensive lists of unrealistic assumptions (such as linear and additive effects vs non-linear synergistic effects), then their value for deriving practical recommendations must be questioned. So: what are the limits to (meaningful) modeling? I would warmly welcome pointers towards a readable account of this issue.
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Limits are insufficient data to parameterise models and that we cannot predict the future :)
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I am working on tumor induction in experimental rats and needed 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine to induced tumor in the lab. animals. Please I need help from anyone who can render help.
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Chen Jingwen ,Thank you so much
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I have a licensed copy of PyMol (ver 2.3.1) and I am looking to 'replicate' a protein/bilayer i.e., in VMD you select "Periodic" and select from a number of x, y and z options. This, in turn, copies the unit cell along that vector.
Is there a feature similar to this in PyMol? I'm struggling to find one.
Thanks
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To fill a specified number of unit cells rather than just generating the symmetry mates within a defined distance, use "supercell" .https://pymolwiki.org/index.php/Supercell
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I am trying to build an ephys rig with multiple amplifiers and use the WinWCP Whole Cell Electrophysiology Analysis Program to acquire the signals. In order to do so, I was planning to use a National Instruments PCIe-6353 analog to digital converter rendering 16 channels. I have previously tried the PCIe-6351 board with this software and it worked perfectly but I was wondering if there could be any compatibility issues with the PCIe-6353. Any suggestions will be greatly welcomed!!!
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Hi everyone, thanks for your feedback! As Javier Zorrilla de San Martin suggested, I have contacted John Dempster. He was extremelly kind and offered different solutions. Basically, he said I should be able to fully operate up to 4 amplifiers due to the limit of 4 analog outputs in these NI cards. In order to connect more amplifiers, one of the 4 outputs should be routed to the extra amplifier stimulus inputs. He also offered to upgrade WinWCP to enable the support of more than 4 amplifiers, which is the current default.
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We were recently informed that the STEMdiff™ Astrocyte maturation and differentiation kits are discontinued.
We have multiple projects running in parallel relaying on these kits.
are there any similar kits out there?
I am worried that switching will completely skew the results and will render our previous data useless for publication as different kits have different components.
Thanks,
Oded
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Hi, we are facing the same problems :-(
so far I found nothing similar
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What is commonly done to render the enzyme inactive, ie, a mutation in the ATP binding domain, etc...
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If you just want to inhibit the activity of the enzyme, the easiest way would be to add EDTA in excess of the Mg2+ concentration in the reaction.
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HI,
I am fascinated by this video made by James Stains from USC.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eql5c4m_N68 It is a brain tractography from diffusion data, but he is able to show the tracts stemming, which is impossible with all softwares I konw (tracvis, MRItrix, DSI studio...). It is clearly an animation made with some modeling tools liks Blender or 3Dstudio.
How do yuo think are the steps?
Do you generate VTK and then open them on Blender? Or what?
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The quality of video is not enough to say something about rendering technique. Based on the video description it was "created by scientific animator Jim Stanis" and "shows selected pathways in the atlas they created". It can be based on VTK as well as on own rendering framework. As for me, simple line primitives were used for tracks visualization, from totally transparent to opaque for new ROI appearing and with some transparency for old ones. Surely, VTK usage can simplify this workflow.
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i want to know about mesh data structures like half edge, winged edge,and octree is only suitable for rendering or it can be suitable for analyzing
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you can analyze it in Matlab tool and also write c++ code to measure and perform all analysis
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Actually, for every text to be translated there is a kind of translation that's very suitable for that text. For example, scientific texts should be semantically translated because the accuracy of meaning in such a case is of top priority.Literary Texts, on the other hand, can be communicatively managed. In other words, the meaning in this case is not of top priority but it goes hand in hand with the form which is very important too.
It could be added that political discourse is characterized by a lot of playing on words' meanings. In other words, politicians, in most situations, try to use certain words and expressions with opposite meanings. Such being the case, the pragmatic approach should be depended on when it comes to rendering political discourse.
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Translated into what?
And how?
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Hi,
I am interested in rendering 2 volume files on one brain, similar to the way you can add a volume file in BrainNet. However, BrainNet doesn't allow you to input 2 volume files. Do you know of any other software or toolbox (preferably Matlab based) that allows one to input 2 volume files?
I have MRIcron, but the resulting images are not as nice as BrainNet's. Are there any imaging resources that can take 2 volume files on a "pretty" brain?
Thank you.
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The Lead-DBS 3D viewer can render any number of volumes (and it’s in Matlab). Menu “Add Objects” > “Add ROI”
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In this age 21st century all kinds of skills, simple or sophisticated, need to be continuously updated and developed or else they will go obsolete, and that may render many people jobless, discouraged and poor.
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Providing training courses for skills development at all specialized is a very important strategy to resolve the problems of (Unemployment discouragement, and reduction of poverty) in developing countries.
This strategy gave the unemployment discouragement the hope to do the work they loved, by taking a real practical lessons on his specialty.
this strategic can also active as a good one to reduce poverty by: ( Poverty alleviation, and Lifting People out of poverty, Poverty Prevention).
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I am conducting a study to explore the quality of mental health care services rendered by the public heath facilities with the aim of developing a progress monitoring tool to improve the services offered.
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The useful theory is death-anxiety related to all mental disorders. There are lots of scales measuring this already. Contact the authors to this paper. They may be on RG:
Clin Psychol Rev. 2014 Nov;34(7):580-93. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.09.002. Epub 2014 Sep 22.
Death anxiety and its role in psychopathology: reviewing the status of a transdiagnostic construct.
Iverach L1, Menzies RG2, Menzies RE3.
Author information
Abstract
Death anxiety is considered to be a basic fear underlying the development and maintenance of numerous psychological conditions. Treatment of transdiagnostic constructs, such as death anxiety, may increase treatment efficacy across a range of disorders. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to: (1) examine the role of Terror Management Theory (TMT) and Experimental Existential Psychology in understanding death anxiety as a transdiagnostic construct, (2) outline inventories used to evaluate the presence and severity of death anxiety, (3) review research evidence pertaining to the assessment and treatment of death anxiety in both non-clinical and clinical populations, and (4) discuss clinical implications and future research directions. Numerous inventories have been developed to evaluate the presence and severity of death anxiety, and research has provided compelling evidence that death anxiety is a significant issue, both theoretically and clinically. In particular, death anxiety appears to be a basic fear at the core of a range of mental disorders, including hypochondriasis, panic disorder, and anxiety and depressive disorders. Large-scale, controlled studies to determine the efficacy of well-established psychological therapies in the treatment of death anxiety as a transdiagnostic construct are warranted.
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I have a phantom_omni haptic and want to render a deformable shape for this i define a plane of vertexes and when curser collide to shape, vertexes near the collision point moved down and it more or less deform. but the question is , this method is too slow and force feed back and rendering frequency come down , so what method do you suggest me to solve this problem?
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Use some graphics tricks to improve the graphics and haptics rendering rate. For example, you can a dense mesh nearer to the tool, and other places sparse mesh will do. The trick depends on your application.
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Given the longer and longer wait time to give the first decision to accept or not a paper (by the editors), I would like to ask you :
As a reviewer, how long do you usually take to examine a paper? And what is your acceptance or refusal rate to review a paper (not the rate of reject or accept its publication). Thank you.
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I'm frequently asked by the editor to complete my reviews in 4 or 6 weeks. However, I don't take that long because the actual reviewing process doesn't take anywhere near that long. I like to clear my desk of all tasks as soon as they come in, so I'm usually done with my reviews in about a week. But, I don't think this speeds up the process much because the other 2-3 reviewers take much longer, and then the editor takes some time to make a decision.
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I need detailed information about ACQUIRE Algorithm used for graphical target detection, which is a solution for the line of sight problem.
Here is the basic algorithm.
FBA (Framebuffer Based ACQUIRE) Algorithm
1. Move camera to agent's eye point
2. Render frame
3. Set target agent to false color (e.g. pure red)
4. Render frame again
5. Segment natural color frame into the figure and its surrounding pixels, the ground
6. Compute figure and ground brightness values
7. Compute detection probability via ACQUIRE
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you can use different Matlab image processing algorithm to do your work. graphical target direction you can simulate your problem with Matlab problem and design your algorithm in this regard
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For not normally distributed data, I used Kruskal-Wallis test to investigate the statistical significance between different variables. I performed an exercise with three different intensities (different weights w1, w2, w3), then with one weight at three different speeds (s1, s2, s3). The readings were observed from 3 different points(p1, p2, p3).
I opted for statistical significance among p1, p2, p3 at (w1 and w2 and w3) and at (s1 and s2 and s3). then i opted statistical significance among w1, w2, w3 for p1 and p2 and p3. then i opted statistical significance among s1, s2, s3 for p1 and p2 and p3. So, there are 36 independent Kruskal-Wallis tests.
After that, Mann-Whitney test was performed for pairs (post hoc analysis).
I got comment on the test that, "the piecemeal statistical approach, consisting of a very large number of comparisons made between dependent variables during different conditions, without corrections for multiple testing, renders it probable that “significant” results may well be due to chance."
Can someone please suggest where I am wrong, and how and where to adjust the p value?
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You need information on multiple comparisons methods. See thr link:
Best, David Booth
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I am currently working on a research proposal about ancient auralizations and I am surprised to find very little actual audio renderings. Whilst I am sure many researchers have them, it seems that it very rarely gets published onto websites and other research platforms. Can anybody point me to either their private websites/collections or public online platforms where I might find this data? Thank you in advance.
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Also many thanks for the link, Guilherme Campos!
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I am currently analyzing the following panel data set with STATA on a daily base:
  • N = 324 companies
  • T = 252 trading days
  • 6 social media variables from Facebook and Twitter data (e.g., answer times, number of posts and replies)
  • 2 financial performance variables from CRSP data (abnormal return, idiosyncratic risk)
I tried both fixed effects estimation (xtreg fe) and panel vector autoregression (pvar) but neither of the approaches yields satisfying results. I also tried the Arellano-Bond approach (xtabond) but was not quite sure about the endogenous and predetermined regressors. Varying these yielded very few significant results.I also varied the operationalization of the social media and financial variables and looked at sub-samples (e.g., single industries, particular time frames, Facebook vs. Twitter sample) etc.
Apparently, for large T panels, the bias apparent for fixed effects estimation - the rationale for dynamic panel analysis - declines with time and eventually becomes insignificant, thus rendering a consistent fixed effects estimator. In comparison with other studies, I would assume that my T is rather large, thus a fixed effects estimation might be more sensible than a panel vector autoregression.
Any thoughts on this topic?
Thanks,
Sarah
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Interesting project! A few thoughts:
  • 1. did you test for the level of bias in the lagged dependent variable in fixed effects? You can estimate the dynamic panel with xtivreg (simpler than xtabond for this purpose), using the second lag of the dependent variable to instrument for the first lag. (tutorial if helpful: https://youtu.be/wqwDcY9pq5I ). You are correct about the consistency of the estimates at large samples, so T=250 should yield consistent results)
  • 2. did you consider the Hausman-Taylor estimator, wherein the fixed effects transformation is applied only to those variables most likely highly correlated with the time-invariant error? This can significantly improve efficiency. (again, tutorial if helpful: https://youtu.be/Rp4HhDIcMZo)
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I am planning to measure pressure and temperature variations in and around a metal vapour deposition chamber. The substrate is a steel strip, and I wanted to experimentally measure pressure and temperature variations, as you introduce the metal vapour in the chamber. I would aim to put these gauges in different locations of the vacuum chamber. I have been advised that because of the metallic vapour being introduced in the system, the gauge gets contaminated by the vapour and renders the gauges useless. Does anyone have any suggestions of pressure gauges that may work?
This is being undertaken as a form of validation for a computational simulation of a similar scenario.
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If you simply put your gauge head behind a screen in order to prevent it from being directly hit by metal vapour from the source you should be able to gain reasonable pressure readings.
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Using 3D meshes, how to automatically render 2D multi-view data from different view points while preserving the texture on the rendered 2D images ?
Any hints will be highly appreciated.
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Thank you so much all.
Alvin Satria Nugraha I did something similar to what you suggested. I rotated the object itself by different angles and captured the frontal scene of the rotated object.
I used python and Mesh library to render 3D textured objects https://github.com/MPI-IS/mesh
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Is it possible for yeast to express a KanR bacterial selectable marker from a plasmid? I am trying to knock out a gene in S. cerevisiae using a geneticin/G418 resistance cassette. The deletion renders the cells very sick so I first transformed them with a backup URA plasmid. The backup plasmid has a KanR cassette for selection in bacteria. However, I am getting a lawn of growth on my G418 plates after the knockout transformation (yeast + backup plasmid + KO cassette). Is it possible that my yeast are expressing the KanR cassette from the bacterial promoter somehow (maybe some kind of crossover with my KO cassette)?
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Hi there,
Bacterial KanR cassette is functional in yeast and therefore promotes resistance to geneticin. You should avoid this selection marker on your plasmid.
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I'm a media historian and theorist without extensive technical expertise, looking to better understand how digital photogrammetry functions to support current work in VR (for example in Google Earth VR). I can find sources about how image data is captured. I'd like to find more information about how the data is then dynamically used by the VR engine to render an interactive/navigable environment that remains immersive across multiple scales. I'd appreciate any recommendations, advice, or possible conversations. Thank you! -Brooke
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Thank you Martin, Florent and especially Reuben for these very helpful suggestions.
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Dear all,
I'm looking for a good 3D render which includes the cerebellum to display clusters (NIFTI files). Any recommendation?
Thank you for your help,
Cheers,
Dan
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The render is super nice!
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Local government in South Africa is entrenched in the Constitution as a sphere of government as opposed to a tier. However, the financial and poor leadership related challenges encountered by municipalities render them ineffective in the delivery of basic services to residents.
The inability to render services necessitate the administrative and financial intervention by National Government at a wider scale and not as an exception to a few municipality.
In this context, can municipalities be considered a sphere of government with executive authority, and how can they ensure that services are rendered in an inclusive and sustainable manner that promotes the human rights of local residents.
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I agree with Cam that the people always make the difference and that electing and even appointing good leaders is a challenge. I think the law can help by improving transparency for example requiring open meetings, and access to government records and documents. Laws can also minimize the degree to which nepotism and cronyism are used to filled government positions. Finally the citizens must be actively involved in the functions of government and this may be best accomplished through educating the members of society to become actively engaged and responsible civic citizens.
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In the process of generating Computer Images
the input is a model 2D,3D and the final output is a 2D digital image
is rendering before illumination? or illumination before rendring ? or the order does not matter?
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You will find your answer and much more in any basic source about the graphic pipeline:
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I am interested to calculate the change in environmental impacts when changing from open dumping of slaughterhouse waste to a rendering process.
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The IPCC protocol for estimating waste emission inventories is probably the most straightforward tool. Note, the IPCC protocol only inventories methane as GHG emissions, not carbon dioxide. It does this because the carbon is biogenic and is not thought to contribute to global climate change. Fossil-carbon sources do contribute to global climate change.
The process identifies the amount of carbon that will turn to methane in an open dumpsite. Instead of a first-order decay model, we will simply use a mass balance, meaning all of the GHG emissions occur in the year the waste is placed. Slaughterhouse was may degrade very quickly so this could be a reasonable assumption.
It uses a few parameters.
DOC - degradable organic carbon (the amount of carbon that will biodegrade).
DOCf - the fraction of carbon that will anaerobically degrade (that will form the methane).
F - the fraction of methane in anaerobic gas
MCF - the methane correction factor, to account for some aerobic decomposition that will occur
Borjesson et al. (2009) actually did most of the work for you here. They estimated slaughterhouse waste as part of their emissions inventory.
DOC of industrial waste (mostly slaughterhouse) = 0.12 tonnes C/tonne waste
DOCf = 0.7 (higher than the IPCC default to account for the fact that slaughterhouse waste is likely protein and fat-rich, meaning very biodegradable and has a higher methane yield than cellulosic wastes such as paper.
F = 0.5
MCF = 0.5 (This number I am assuming because open dumping means there is quite a bit of aerobic degradation.) Look at the IPCC guidelines in the link above. You could assume a slightly higher number, such as 0.6.
DOC * DOCf *F * MCF *16/12 (CH4/C ratio) = 0.12 * 0.7 * 0.5 * 0.5 *16/12 = 0.028 t CH4/t waste disposed.
Divide that number by 0.714 and multiply by 1000 (unit conversion) to get 39.2 m3 CH4/t waste.
Alternately, take the 0.028 t CH4/t waste and multiply by the CO2 factor that you would like to use (21, 28, etc. depending on the timescale) to determine tonnes of CO2 generated per tonnes of waste disposed.
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Hi,
im looking for a nitrate test that can reliably and accurately quantify Nitrate in media-solutions. It is also important that it is robust and does not get interference from other media components. (Especially Chloride as the chloride concentration does change significantly during the experiment due to pH regulation which renders my current test-kit suboptimal!)
If anyone had some experiences with nitrate tests during algea cultivation and can recommend a method I would be grateful!
Best wishes,
Matthias Koch
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Thank you very much for your detailed and helpful answer! This does indeed give some more insight and might just be what I need. Concentrations below 0,05 mg/L are not of to much concern as you correctly pointed out...!
Thanks again!
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Professor Reuven Tsur proposes a cognitive-fossils approach in his 2017 book. It offers convincing explanations in understanding some poetic conventions which influence-hunting approach fails to render a satisfactory one. That's amazing! But does this approach have a power to help readers realize their unique meaning construction while reading literary works?
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(I am writing an article on how to render intellectual capital economically viable)
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Here you have it. Good luck!
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I am about to launch some immunofluorescent staining experiments on cells that were cultured on transwell membranes, and I have seen different protocols for the staining:
1. membranes are released from the transwell apparatus before fixation and antibody incubation;
2. fixation and antibody incubation protocols are done in intact transwell systems, and membrane is released just before mounting.
Which protocol renders better results according to your experience? The second one seems easier to perform and with lower rate of cell loss during staining.
Thanks in advance.
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we normally use PFA 3% followed by 0.1 % Triton x-100 as the first approach. Then, if we see no AB binding we try with methanol or similar..
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Digitally Reconstructed Radiograph (or DRR) that is created from a computed tomography (or CT) data set. This image would contain the same treatment plan information, but the patient image is reconstructed from the CT image data using a physics model.
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There is a lot of hue and cry that Rice-Wheat cultivation in North India over last 60 years has alrrady depleted rechargeable ground water.Since canal water is not ample and decreasing due to lesser rainfall over last couple of years,can we imagine this practice will render land barren .
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Still expecting some good replies.
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Is there any specific Correlation between these two?
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The intrinsic spectrally resolved sensitivity (ISRS) by itself is not a metric like CRI. It is an analysis method developed by Lin et al. to identify wavelength regions that lead to large changes in CRI when spectral energy in those regions is removed from the spectral distribution of the light source being evaluated. They found that removing energy near 444, 480, 564 and 622 nm seemed to result in the largest fluctuations in CRI. More info in the paper by Lin et al. at:
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I am pursuing my PhD and preparing the material for a white light source. I am getting the PL results as required for a white light, but not able to calculate the CRI(Color rendering Index).
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There are several ways of calculating CRI Ra. You can perform calculations by hand, using spreadsheets or computer programs (e.g. Matlab, Phython).
If you alrready measured the spectral power distribution of the light source, and have them in tabular form, you can simply insert them in a spreadsheet which performs CRI calculations. For example, there is one available on the net: bramley.auld.me.uk/406/Calculating%20CRI-CAM02UCS-v2.xls You can plug in your light source spectrum and it gives you the CRI Ra, as well as CRI special colour rendering index for 14 samples, light source CCT and CRI-CAM02UCS.
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I just use the standard SPSS function to render cluster analysis and think / hope there are better ways to graph cluster analysis results.
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A different approach is to begin by running Multi-Dimensional Scaling on the same data, and determining whether the fit (stress) will accept a 2 dimensional solution. If so, you can map the clusters onto the MDS.
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With the LEDs having a high CRI values like 90+, is it possible for the Human eye to detect the change?
What is the criteria for this change?
What are the variations of the CRI vs other lighting parameters?
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To answer the question, "With the LEDs having a high CRI values like 90+, is it possible for the Human eye to detect the change?", my preferred reference is:
van Trigt, C. 1997. "Color Rendering, a Reassessment," Color Research & Application 24(3):197-206
wherein the author states, "... when the CIE method was recommended, a number of weaknesses were known to the principal author. Accordingly, only a difference of some five points in the index was considered meaningful. Unfortunately, this provisio was often not kept in mind in practice."
Remember that the CIE metric was developed two decades before the development of tricolor phosphor fluorescent lamps in the early 1980s, when even the best fluorescent lamps had CRI Ra values in the low 70s. With the introduction of white light LEDs in the early 2000s, it became painfully obvious that the CRI metric could not predict color rendering or color preference. We spent almost a decade with CIE Technical Committees TC-162 (which identified the problem) and TC-169 (which failed to agree on a better metric. The IES Color Committee introduced its TM-30 metric a few years ago, and CIE TC-229 recently introduced an almost identical metric. The IES Color Committee is preparing to release a slightly modified TM-30 color rendering metric that will make it compatible with the CIE metric for a truly international standard.
Regardless, the CIE General Colour Rendering Index Ra (to give it its proper name) will undoubtedly survive in the trade literature for decades to come. Given that any light source with a CRI of less than 80 is unacceptable and that increments of less than 5 points are meaningless, we have:
< 80 Unacceptable
80 - 85 Bad
86 - 90 Acceptable
91 - 95 Good
96 - 100 Excellent
unless, of course, the color rendering index is high but the color rendering is still visually terrible.
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I want to use cell lysate for an geranylgeranylation assay with the endogenous GGTase I enzyme as the source of enzyme with added dansyl peptide and GGPP.
I've tried sonication alone with just 100 mM HEPES, pH 7.5 and 150 mM salt with phosphatase and protease added.
I've also tried using a lysis using RIPA buffer and phosphatase and protease added as well.
The total protein in my assay is around 2 mg/mL. Could it be that my enzyme level is too low to detect activity on or my method of lysis is just rendering my protein inactive?
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Is your protein from prokaryotic or Eukaryotic expression systems? 2 mg/ml is the total protein. Did you detect your target protein by SDS-PAGE from the total cell lysate and the soluble fraction of the cell lysate? How was the thickness of the band corresponds to the size of your target protein compared with the bands of other contaminant proteins?
If you have good expression level for your protein, you can use any of the lysis buffers that:
1. do not contain buffer additives inhibiting the activity of your enzyme
2. have a pH range and ionic strength not affecting the stability and activity of your target enzyme
3. do not contain detergents denaturing the enzyme/or affecting the activity of the enzyme
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I need to render a few ITO glass slide hydrophobic and I was wondering what is the best way to proceed? I have done a few research on it online and most of them suggest silanization but I am worried it might affect the transparency of the slide and most of them didn't have a precise protocol. Would anyone know where I can find a protocol to make ITO hydrophobic? Thank you in advance!
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Hi Wang,
Please read this article below. You may try conjugate polyelectrolyte as well.
Polyelectrolytes: Multi-Charged Conjugated Polyelectrolytes as a Versatile Work Function Modifier for Organic Electronic Devices (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2014)
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I am rendering a panoramic image using an omni-directional stereo system, e.g. Facebook Surround 360, with optical flow.
When I am stacking the optical flow fields horizontally
and visualize them with e.g. color-coding of middlebury or normalized vertical disparity, it is clearly visible that image is synthesized of 14 vertical stripes, 14 because it is number of cameras set in an equitorial way
Should visualization of the optical flow field look like a consistent image or is it correct that it looks like for example the data i have uploaded?
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" Why is there purple and bluish-green patches non-overlapping !!!! " can you specify where exactly are you referring to?
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I am planning to use a cryopump in a physical vapor deposition system to evaporate metals with high vapor pressure. I am particularly concerned with the metal vapor finding its way to the active adsorption surfaces in the cryopump and rendering it ineffective over time.
I would guess some of these concerns could be addressed by proper design so that the vacuum port is away from the line of sight of the evaporator. Operationally, I was considering getting the system to its baseline vacuum and shutting it off completely from the vacuum system. The hope is, since the system would be leak tight, I can perform the evaporation very quickly before the vacuum may deteriorate.Thus the cryopump would not be exposed to the metal vapor.
This is purely a  physical (thermal) vapor deposition and none of the reactants are gases.
Does anyone have ideas to almost eliminate this potential problem?
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I have some more input abut the design - the cryopump is not in the line of sight and not exposed to the vapor flux which has a cosine ^2 distribution. Further, there is a shielding plate which minimizes metal vapor deposition near the vacuum connector leading to the cryopump. It seems the design has addressed some of my concerns.
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I need it for my research. 
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Thank you so much for your answer. 
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I'm doing research in PBRT and trying to carry out experiments with a lambertian sphere (small size, almost diffuse, near 100% reflectance). I searched the Internet and found no where to get such a sphere. Can anyone tell me where to buy one?
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I belive the standard approach is to paint a sphere with lambertian paint, which you can buy.
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I am interested in a program to display pictures of DNA quadruplex from nucleotide sequences. Can anyone indicates a software to me?
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Check out YASARA tool.
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I am able to calculate the CIE coordinates from the PL data ,now I want to calculate the CRI.Is there any relation between the CIE coordinate and CRI?
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Yes, you can. In my book (El color y su medición, Americalee, Buenos Aires, 1978) there is a chapter (VI) paragraph VI.10 in whoch I treated this problem usin the CIE transformation into u,v coordinates the X,Y, Z   for 8 color samples.
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If the rendering speed is faster, that means that the object uses less polygon and other parameters. This results in a low pixel produced. On the other hand, if the rendering speed is slower, that means that the object has more polygons and has a high pixel, hence resulting in a low rendering speed.
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Rendering speed computation depends by many variables among which:
- the rendering algorithm adopted to render every single image;
- the implementation of the rendering algorithm;
 - the pc which does the rendering;
In the link below you can find more information about the 3D rendering process.
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I am trying to reduce GPU load by introducing calculations similar to what is done for a pixel repeat mode in display modes (1440x576p).
Is this already achieved phenomenon so that I can look into this.
This would help rendering low level graphics implementation efficiently.
Would be helpful to know what calculations goes in for a pixel repeat mode(display) or atleast does it look to be a viable solution
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I advice you to take a look at our article published a few months ago in ACM Transactions on Graphics:
M. Delbracio, P. Musé, A. Buades, J. Chauvier, N. Phelps; J.-M. Morel. Boosting Monte Carlo rendering by distribution-driven filtering, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 33(1), Article 8, 2014.
The method is amazingly simple compared to the quality of its performance. You can find an implementation here:
"Accelerating Monte Carlo renderers by Ray Histogram Fusion, Image Processing Online, 5: 55-72, 2015". 
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First by fractals i mean fractals which will produce by iterating a formula on polar coordinate, like where we'll make Mandelbrot fractal.
I was always wondered how to guess what a formula is going to look like as it calculate, or how can we know what is the fractal formula of an image.
Its unlikely for me to find a way, but how can we get nearer to guess them?
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I speak about fractals one can meat in infinite double (or many dimensional sequences) over finite sets (alphabets), without bounding the number of letters of the alphabet. They are just functions f : An --> A and they start with initial conditions, like first infinite column and first infinite row given. The recurrence looks like a(m,n) = f(a(m-1,n),a(m,n-1)) for the easiest example. Those sequences sometimes produce fractals, sometimes don't (like also by S. Wolfram). However, these sequences (already the form given here) interprets all Turing Machines. Well, by the Theorem of Rice, it is already undecidable if such an arbitrary sequence produces some fractal or (contrary) kind of chaos. It is also undecidable if it produces one particular fractal, we already know that one of them has produced, or also if it produces a set that can be projected on a particular  (feasible) fractal by reducing the colors. Maybe this is not an answer to exactly the question you have put, but I think that it gives a hint about what can happen there. 
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We have been facing this problem for couple of years. We have changed DPT mountant but the problem persists. The slides we have prepared in the past are good even after one and a half decades. We follow the same paraffin embedding technique now but the slides does not last long (a few months).
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Dear Dr Mir:
The reasons for the vacuole accumulation during storage may be due to the ff:
1. Incomplete dehydration- check the quality and assay of the alcohol. The alcohol may be contaminated with water especially after weeks of use. The use of ascending grades entails the use of ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL (I prefer 3 changes) prior to Clearing using xylene. If you have issues with high atmospheric moisture, I suggest you air dry the stained sections thoroughly and completely using a hot air dryer or oven, before clearing with xylene, then mounting wit resinous medium.
2. Type of mounting medium- in our university hospital, we use ENTALLAN or EUKITT. This has a high refractive index, is fast drying, and completely is miscible wit xylene, benzene and toluene. I do not have experience using DPX.
3. Dilution of mounting medium- the recommended dilution is 1:3 (e.g. 1 part EUKITT diluted with 2 parts xylene) prior to mounting. Using too much xylene renders the resinous medium too thin. As the xylene evaporates, this leaves air spaces under the coverslip.
4. Cover-slipping technique - I suggest adopting the  "San Diego" technique of mounting the coverslip or doing the "reverse mounting technique". These technique is based on the principle of even spreading of the medium by capillary action using adequately diluted mounting media.
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I'm looking for data exchange formats that can used to import lens description into my raytracing application. E.g. for light sources there is IES oder EULUMDAT, for 3D models there is stl, stp and many more. Is there something similar for optical lenses or lens systems?
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Both CodeV and Zemax can export IGES, STEP, and SAT files which can then be imported into TracePro or a CAD modelling package such as Inventor. In non-sequential mode Zemax can also import STEP, IGES, SAT, and STL files. TracePro can also import a variety of formats. When transferring data to and from Zemax, TracePro, and Inventor I usually use SAT format.
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Which render method is best for mac?
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Use the following command in the VMD console:
render Tachyon scene.dat "/Users/username/tachyon_MACOSXX86 -aasamples 12 %s -format TGA -res 1024 1024 -o %s.tga"
The '-res 1024 1024' is the resolution flag that you are interested in.
On a mac, your tachyon binary (/Users/username/tachyon_MACOSXX86 in the example, with 'username' indicating your respective username on the machine) will at first be hidden in the VMD application folder. Open the folder by rightclicking on the application icon, select 'Show Package Contents', go to Contents/vmd/. In that folder you will find the tachyon binary 'tachyon_MACOSXX86' (maybe having a different name on your system). Copy the binary to your home folder: /Users/username/. Then you will be able to use the upper command. You can otherwise just use the path to the binary in the VMD application package but beware of blanks in the filename path.
Internally, the high resolution image generation then works as a two-step process:
1) the vmd internal render command writes a scene.dat file
2) this file is then postprocessed by the external tachyon binary to generate the high resolution image you desire.
Unless you select an other destination, the generated image will be located in your home folder /Users/username/
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Hi, 
I would be very appreciated if someone can send a diagram of depth buffer when rendering using the simple isosurface ray tracing method.
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You could start by looking through these results for something relevant:
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I have gypsum samples which I suspect have  received heat treatment. Hence, the rate constants rendered in literature at room temperature may not apply to my samples. I need to come up with a more accurate value for my particular system.
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Isothermal microcalorimetry is an excellent tool for studying reaction rates of gypsum and related materials. See link below the following quote:
"IMC is widely used for studying the rates of formation of a variety of materials by various processes. It is best suited to study processes which occur slowly—i.e. over hours or days. A prime example is the study of hydration and setting reactions of calcium mineral cement formulations. One paper provides an overview (Gawlicki, et al. 2010)[12] and another describes a simple approach (Evju 2003).[13] Other studies focus on insights into cement hydration provided by IMC combined with IR spectroscopy (Ylmen et al. 2010)[14] and on using IMC to study the influence of compositional variables on cement hydration and setting times (Xu et al. 2011).[15]
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For a 3D data rendering, I used the VMD modeling software to visualize the POPC lipid membrane and water molecules, which are covering the surfaces of two lipid leaflets.
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There is another example of the lipid membrane rendering.
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In computer graphics and computer vision, depth profiles are oftentimes viewed as either plain depth maps (i.e. an image where the Intensity is proportional to the depth value) or as "shaded" and/or "rendered" images of that depth profile.
The question is now, what exactly do the terms "shaded" and "rendered" mean? And where are they different from one another?
My opinion is:
Shading -> only Lambertian / diffuse reflectance behavior, i.e. I~n*l
Rendering -> more complex reflection effects, like specularities, interreflections, subsurface scattering, etc.
That would mean that "shaded" surfaces are a subset/special case of "rendered" surfaces.
Do you agree/disagree?
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Hello Steffen,
I'd define shading as a subprocess of the rendering process. As I understand these terms, rendering is the whole process starting with the vector transformations and ending after the rasterization of geometric data. Shading would be the part of that process where lighting information is involved during the rasterization process. That is, where the final color is changed by the different lights (ambient, diffuse, specular, emissive, radiosity, etc.), regardless of the shading model used (e.g., Blinn-Phong, Cook-Torrance, Lambert...). I agree shaded surfaces are an special case of rendered surfaces, but as you can see, in my opinion, for a different reason.
Note these are subjective definitions though. Anyways, hope they helped you view the terms from a different perspective.
Best regards!
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In Monte-Carlo based rendering algorithms, the final image is composed of the average value of all samples taken through each pixel. In the "classic" formulation for most algorithms (Path Tracing, Photon Mapping, MTL, etc.) I've always seen that a fixed number or rays is sampled through each pixel. However, I have the impression that clever strategies can be devised to sample a different number of rays per pixel, such that more "troublesome" pixels (which take longer to converge the real average color) receive more samples. My first idea would be to shoot a number of rays proportional to the estimated pixel variance. Is there anyone working on this subject, that can point me to a state of the art survey about such techniques?
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Hi, not sure if these are quite what you are looking for but "Towards Interactive Global Illumination Effects via Sequential Monte Carlo Adaptation" (see http://www.cs.utah.edu/~vpegorar/research/2008_IRT/) might be helpful. Also the approach by Cline "Table-driven Adaptive Importance Sampling" does something very similar to what you are looking for. Hope it helps!