Science topics: Religious Studies
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I'm starting a discussion on a topic that has bothered me for some time. Many missiological research pieces, especially doctoral dissertations, use qualitative research methods. Mission scholars collect rare and precious data related to missions from various cultural settings around the world. We mostly do a good job of collecting, organizing, and perhaps summarizing the data, but it seems to me that when it comes to data analysis, we often fall flat. Our analyses tend to remain at descriptive level, often not going beyond mere descriptions and summaries. It is rare to find missiological qualitative inquiries that reach a more conceptual, interpretive stage of data analysis. There seem to be a variety of reasons for these, but I wonder if the curriculum and structure of PhD and DMiss programs are the primary reasons for the lack of depth in analysis?
I would welcome your inputs on the issue, the cause, and solutions, or your outright disagreement with my argument as well! Thanks!
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Dear Dr. Peter Taehoon Lee;
What you have mentioned is closer to the correct one. The problem is not in the research method for postgraduate students and not in the curricula. The problem is that modern technologies are not used in the best way.
All The Best
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Hi,
I am preparing an inventory of the archaeological monuments that meet with the following three criteria:
1. It should be a piece of sacred architecture, which is equipped with an inner shrine (naos, garbhagriha, sanctum sanctorum) that is square in shape.
2. Should be prior to c. 460 CE (based on primary evidence / other scientific factors)
3. Region: West Asia, South Asia
Please ignore the query if you are not too sure of the dating.
Thank you in advance!
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The answer is on the same site
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What are some good sources on the connection between religion and environment?
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Try to read some scientific sources of Islam through reading of Quran and Prophet words you can realize about your subject.
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Is it reason, intelligence, superior nature, rights, or something else?
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I’m a student of philosophy and religious studies. I’m also someone who practices mindfulness techniques to deal with stress and the effects of some permanent physical injuries. I’ve been impressed by how mindfulness has improved my life, and I’m interested in learning more about its history, how it works, and how it affects others. As part of a research project, I’m asking mindfulness practitioners some basic questions about their relationship with mindfulness to better understand how people use, understand, and benefit from their practice.
If you’re interested in participating, please complete my short survey and feel free to pass it along to others. It only takes about 3 minutes since it consists of just 3 demographics questions and 4 questions about mindfulness. It is 100% anonymous and will not ask for any contact information. The survey closes at 5PM EST on April 2nd, 2021.
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This is really interesting, important and good questions for researchers consumption.
Keep it up !
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Dear All,
We are a team of researchers working on a meta-analysis of studies that link religious belief with several emotions. The emotions that we are particularly interested are gratitude, awe, elevation, reverence (self-transcendent emotions), and also negative emotions such as guilt and shame.
We are very keen on sourcing published/unpublished articles/thesis that have explored the relation between religious belief and practices and how they influence these emotions.
Any academic who has conducted research on this topic and are willing to have their study details and results included in this meta-analysis are kindly requested to send us the article via the below e-mail. We will be very much willing to include the study in our paper if it meets the criteria. All studies will be duly referenced in the meta-analysis.
Please contact:
Thank you very much!
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Why or why not?
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Am in line with Aparna Sathya Murthy
Pim Janse brought an important 'gap' into the discussion, if we move from the micro-level or personal action to the macro-evel of political decisions.
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Is it necessary to accept the idea of God established by a given religion to believe in the existence of God? Does belief in the existence of God inevitably involve the adoption of an ethical system characteristic of a religion? If not, what ethics should you apply to know what God considers good and what bad? Can one who believes in his/her God create his/her ethical system? What would be the sources of such ethics?
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Certainly it is. We must not confuse faith in God with faith in his priests.
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Why does your choice appeal to you?
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Which approach to climate change could help: technological innovation, institutional change, or individual repentance
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Cameron Younis
34 Warwick Street Liverpool Hope University:
Liverpool Dept. Of Education L8 6TQ Taggart Avenue
Mobile: 07402189794 Liverpool L16 9JD
Email: 10110907@hope.ac.uk Tel: 0151 291 3635
RESEARCH INTERESTS
My current research centres on supplementary schools in slum, religious education, interfaith relations and marginalisation within educational system
EDUCATION
2017 Masters in Theology
Liverpool Hope University
Dissertation Title: “Saint Thomas Aquinas’ perspective on Islam in light of his book Summa Contra Gentiles - How does Aquinas’ scholarship on faith and reason help build modern inter-religious relations with Muslims?”
2001-2004 BSc. (Hons) Accounting and Finance (2:2)
University of Bradford- School of Management
2009-2010 Certificate of Teaching in Life-long Learning
City & Guilds-Blackburne House Liverpool
1996-1998 Full-Time Foundation Scheme (Trainee Accountant)
The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Pakistan
1995 Sixth Form Mathematics (B), Physics (A). English (B),
Chemistry (B), Social Studies(C)
Telecom Boys Public School Pakistan
RESEARCH EXPERIENCE
· Since November 2015, March 2016 and June 2017, I was part of the Near Neighbours Catalyst Program promoting community cohesion, interfaith awareness and Religious Literacy about faith communities in the UK particularly in Yorkshire and Northwest working with Faithful Neighbours Bradford and Touchstone Bradford.
· In 2006 and 2007, I worked as a Research Assistant organising annual conferences on economic and educational development in the Middle East for Emirates Centre for Strategic Studies and Research UAE.
· In 1997, I worked as an Intern with Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Germany for the promotion of social, cultural and educational rights of disadvantaged communities in Pakistan.
TEACHING/ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERIENCE
· I have ESOL teaching experience where I used to teach English as a foreign language to young refugees at Asylum Link Merseyside through partnership with Blackburn House FE College.
· I am a Trustee/Treasurer of Hope Heritage Trust an Anglican evangelical charity helping immigrants and refugees find educational opportunities and support within local churches and communities.
· Church Urban Fund has granted funding to Hope Heritage Trust to further develop its outreach. The focus of Hope Heritage Trust is to improve educational achievement among 13-20 year old BAME youth.
· I have organized inter-religious meetings in Diocese of Blackburn for the Muslim and Christian youth.
· I have been active member of Hope Chaplaincy as volunteer under Rev. Phillip Anderson and Marie-Therese Lacey.
· I have helped organise Student Christian Movement Liberation Theology Conference at University of Sunderland under Rev. Chris Howson.
· I helped organise London conference of Church Mission Society Asia Forum with Interfaith Assistant to Archbishop of Canterbury Rev. Rana Khan.
· In June 2017 was invited to Lambeth Palace by Archbishop of Canterbury’s team at the graduation ceremony of Saint Anselm’s youth community.
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
Postgraduate Intern Research Officer
Liverpool Hope University (Department of Education & Disability Studies)
Since January 2018
· Assisting Faculty members in researching funding opportunities in accordance with their interest and current research projects.
Accountant Lei Dat & Baig Solicitors Liverpool
April 2012- Dec 2017
· Managing the accounts department of a busy solicitor’s firm in Liverpool.
Admin and Case Worker
Refugee Action Liverpool
October 2008- April 2012
· Face to face meeting with asylum and refugee service users
· Staff and client payments and banking withdrawals
· Destitution issues and first point of contact for newly arrived immigration cases
· Liaising with UKBA, Housing Providers and NASS on issues
· Refugee Integration and Employment Service(RIES) co-ordination
· Reporting to Area Manager Liverpool
Accounts Assistant
Intel Computer Clubhouse SWICN Dublin
Sept 2007 – Feb 2008
· Carried out general ledger functions, including account analysis, bank reconciliation.
· Income and Expenditure financial statements,
· Meeting financial and funding deadlines.
· Demonstrating strong analytical and problem-solving skills
Chief Accountant
Golden City Real Estate Abu Dhabi UAE
Feb 2006–June 2007
Headed financial management including development of monthly/quarterly financial statements, financial forecasts and budgets, bank reconciliation and cash management. Directed all financial management policy making and integrating new applications. Reporting directly to the CEO and Board of Directors.
· Managing the accounts of group of Construction and Real Estate companies
· Managing portfolio of properties on behalf of European expat clients in Abu Dhabi UAE
· Annual income of AED 21 million (approx. 4 million pounds sterling)
Administrator-Local Cultural Interpreter
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Belgium
Oct 2005-Feb 2006
· In the aftermath of a major earthquake in Pakistan in 2005, I lived and travelled in North of Pakistan alongside teams of European doctors and volunteers who came to Pakistan as part of relief mission.
Education Consultant (self-employed)
British Council Islamabad
Sept 1998-May 2001
· Worked as an Educational Visa Consultant on behalf of British Council for University of North London, Sheffield Hallam University and University of Hertfordshire. I also managed British universities’ overseas partnership with Inter College Larnaca, Republic Of Cyprus.
HEALTH DISCLOSURE:
I suffer from Post-Polio Paralysis on the left side of the body which affects my mobility and normal working conditions. Despite ill-health and a number of accidents in recent years I have continued my pursuit of research and education.
REFERENCES
Dr David Lundie
SENIOR LECTURER IN EDUCATION
Department of Education Studies
Extension: 0151 291 3783
Faculty: Education
Rev Dr Daniel Jeyaraj
PROF WORLD CHRISTIANITY/DIR. ANDREW WALLS CENTRE
Department: Theology, Philosophy and Religious Studies
Extension: 0151 291 3761
Faculty: Arts and Humanities
Email:jeyarad@hope.ac.uk �� >zJ��
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Estimados colegas
Quiero compartir con Uds. la disposición de una traducción completa de la Suma Contra los Gentiles de Santo Tomás de Aquino que puede interesarles a los hispano hablantes.
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COVID-19 is already accentuating interesting religious phenomena. Churches closing, beliefs regarding healing, trust in science are the kinds of issues we might ask regarding the relationship between religion and COVID-19. I'd be glad for your suggestions of the topics, questions, themes, and issues sociologists of religion should be anticipating. What are the most productive social scientific research questions to ask? What might social scientists anticipate? What data can we take advantage of that already exists? and What data should social scientists look to collect?
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I'll be interested to see how quickly congregations resume public gatherings and to what extent they are offering aid to those in need.
And I'll be interested to see how the crisis seems to influence overall levels of religious belief, practice and identity.
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In a recent years, Many scholars and philosophers start advocating that consciousness exists outside the brain.
  1. Stuart Hameroff - Orchestrated objective reduction
  2. Neil Theise
  3. Dean Radin
  4. Robert Spira
  5. And various others
Does Non-local consciousness exist or it is an emergent property of physical process inside the brain?
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Please take a look at this useful RG link.
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I am interested in doing Post Doctorate on religious tolerance in any university of USA through Fulbright scholarship. Can someone please suggest names of three universities offering post doctoral degrees in Islamic/Religious studies or any related discipline?
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is there any related to islamic finance/economics?
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Among the features considered as a hallmark of the researcher is impartiality (objectivity, neutrality). Many scholars have got clearly defined political views or are followers of a religion. Does this not interfere with the study of politics in their own country or their religion/denomination? Is it possible to reconcile one's views with objectivity in the study of these areas? Can, for example, an American researcher, a Republican, objectively analyze the political program of the Democratic Party, and vice versa? Can, for example, the Protestant objectively examine the principles of their denomination?
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I think a similar question of bias could be asked about scholars who study the politics of countries and case studies outside their own. Would they be bringing unique perspectives to the issues they're researching or would they be imposing a framework that may not account for all the subtle nuances of a particular country or case? As has been iterated above, I think being able to address one's own biases when conducting research would be a good step towards producing quality works of scholarship
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Why or why not?
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Is human language adequate to describe Harry Potter? :)
Of course, it is. Which other language can be used to describe the characters of fiction, written by humans for humans?
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Dear all, would anyone be aware of established journals dedicated to gender and development that are not ideologically committed to a west-centric feminist understanding of gender hierarchies? These tend to pressume western metaphysics of gender, and are not willing or able to engage with alternative understandings of gender from the ground. Thank you.
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Dear Ms. Romina Istratii,
I think it could be a scientific journal
Archives of Sexual Behavior. Publisher: Springer US.
Description: Archives of Sexual Behavior the official publication of the International Academy of Sex Research has emerged as the leading scholarly publication in the area of human sexuality. The Journal reports the latest research trends in the science of human sexual behavior bringing together high-quality submissions from such diverse fields as psychology psychiatry biology ethology endocrinology and sociology.
I hope I have been of some help.
Best in your research,
Andrija
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The issues in the conflict are longstanding. It seems next to impossible for either side, especially on the extreme, to even imagine a way that the conflict can be resolved. For the people of the region, it is one that must be addressed and one that the whole world watches.
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we can introduce some facts: the population in this land is divided 50% Palestinians and 50% Israeli. the question here is what Israeli leadership want and what Palestinian leadership can accept. The Israeli political elite said what they want last week in the nationality law; Israel for Jews, language is Hebrew, others are not allowed to be first class citizens. in this law, Israel includes West Bank and Jerusalem.
For Palestinians, they accept in two state solution on 1967 borders, it means Palestinian non- militarized state in West Bank and Gaza. Also, Palestinians accept one state -two nations solution. but it seems all suggestions will not end the Israeli colonial project as it relies on ideological ground.
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I'm interested in a variety of religious perspectives.
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So Virgil Matthews may be you are "soulless"?
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In view of modern science, I realize that Adam could not have been the first human being. But was there still a historical Adam who served as the first theologically significant human being (i.e., the first one to represent the human race before God)? Or is Adam a purely literary character?
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Interesting
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To put it in philosophical terms, is there a feasible world where a libertarian free human has absolute power but does not become totally corrupt?
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Yes absolute power corrupt absolutely. In most developing countries of the world, some considered to be liberators leading the campaign against colonial masters later become dictators. Why? Because they enjoyed full support of their people and see that as a reason to continue in power for so long and got intoxicated power. So your state is not an over exaggerated one.
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I'm interested in both personal better/worse and societal better/worse.
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If humans focused on what was going well, they would perhaps feel more content inside, but I can't help thinking of lemmings. That's what we would be. Just happily follow that leader, right over a cliff. Or at best, content with what you have makes one stagnant.
By focusing more on what is wrong is how we improve everything, constantly.
I think it is fair to say, the only reason living conditions for mankind keep getting better, overall, is because humans are never happy with the status quo. Yes, for every improvement we soon discover we are paying a price. But then we solve those problems. In the meantime, we are living better than we were before.
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I'm also wondering how you differentiate the two concepts.
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Many of the notorious criminals are definitely intelligent. They use their intelligence to conduct crimes.
You can not expect any wisdom from such people.
So, intelligence can be used towards positive side to get wisdom and at the negative side to perform crime.
Thus, as such intelligence has no value if it is not used to get wisdom.
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Why or why not?
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As we have all seen too many times, it is about the money and power that is linked to the money. Unfortunately few companies place the welfare of their employees above the bottom line of profit/loss. It is also so well known that employees will be one of the things impacted by down-sizing or automation.
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Why or why not?
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So many of these answers seem to take an interpretation of the question that allows trivial negative answers. Let’s be a little more generous in the interpretation of the question and see if we can have some reasons and arguments instead. I will take the question to mean “Assume we could simulate the neuronal network and the state of that network of a particular human being at a specific moment in their life. Would that network exhibit consciousness?” This is rather like asking “if a person losses all sensory inputs would they be conscious?” but focusing on only what happens in their neurones.
If consciousness arises only from the interactions between neurones, then the newer must be ‘yes’. If the answer is ‘no’ then there must be other factors that in determining consciousness.
Note I am ruling out answers based on ‘we can’t (yet) create such a simulation’, ‘it wouldn’t be efficient’ etc. That is covered by the ‘if’ part of the question. In fact I am ruling out questions about how exactly the simulation is achieved. Personally, I also rule out arguments of the form ‘it wouldn’t be human consciousness by definition’ as just being attempts avoid any discussion of just what is meant by consciousness whilst preserving some notion that human beings are in some way unique in principle.
So, if the answer is ‘no’, for what reason? The best reason I have seen so far in this discussion is that consciousness involves more of the body than just the neurones. Although I would like to see an argument as to why I should think this e.g. an experiment which suggests that the self awareness of the conscious mind involves some other organ than the brain.
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This is a key question in epistemology.
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First some questions to the title of your question:
[1] What do you exactly mean by <what appears>?
[2] What do you exactly mean by <truth>?
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Why or why not?
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Hello,
As Oscar Wild writes in his novel, " An ideal husband", “Morality is simply the attitude we adopt towards people we personally dislike.” Being an attitude , therefore, people are free to choose between morality and immorality. However, by becoming immoral, such people choose to close the doors of joy, hope, and happiness to themselves. The reason is that moralists find beautiful meanings in beautiful things. All worldly sins and abhorred models of behavior such as stealing from others and killing others are violations of moral values. By being immoral, people pave the way for their doom and stop their ascend to kind of cultivation cherished and valued by human beings in general. Moral people are the elect to whom light sides of life inspire hope and happiness.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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A sacrament is typically understood as a channel or link to the divine or as a visible sign of an invisible grace.
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The wedding rituals, Vivaha.
Intent to have a child ritual, Garbhadhana.
Quickening the fetus rite, Pumsavana.
Parting hair and baby shower, Simantonnayana.
Childbirth ceremony, Jatakarman.
Naming the baby ritual, Namakarana.
Baby's first outing, Nishkramana etc. etc.
Hindu Samskaras (Sacraments)
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What do you think is the best response that the hedonist can give to the problem? Is this response adequate?
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Interesting question and looking forward to read answers and I go with Ayad.
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Why or why wouldn't you find the psychological egoist's explanation plausible?
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An egoist will look and treat an altruist wrong. Egoist and altruist , if not diametrically opposite personalities, are completely in different spectrum of behaviors and therefore their value systems and truth to them are completely different.
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Why or why not?
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The fact is that society considers " immoral " if you behave contrary to the human nature.
Morality needs sanction of the society in which you live. When majority groups in the community prohibit certain acts because they are contrary to the human nature, such acts become immoral in the eyes of community and even in the eyes of law.
Morality is following ethical path in the direction of natural law. Positive or natural justice is administered by man.Natural law is also termed as divine law or Law of Reasons. If you behave contrary to the 'morality' "'good reasons"' don't exist to prove your own case. The conventional law is any rule or system of rules agreed upon by persons for the regulation of their conduct towards each other
It is always immoral to behave contrary to human nature.
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If so, give an example in which you think this is the case. If not, explain why not.
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Good day dear Dr Kirk and dear Dr Aparna
The terms of true beliefs, values, principles, and assumptions are sometimes used as if they all mean the same thing – the underlying truths on which we base our dealings with the world.  In fact, although they are all “truths” to some extent, they are different in meaning and substance. Although we realize how similar they are, we’ll try to consider each of the three.  Understanding the difference can help us sort out when we’re operating on facts or well-examined experience, when we’re applying moral or ethical rules or judgments, and when we’re responding to emotion or bias or unexamined “knowledge” that may not be accurate.
Values are our guidelines for living and behavior. Each of us has a set of deeply held beliefs about how the world should be. For some people, that set of beliefs is largely dictated by a religion, a culture, a peer group, or the society at large.  For others, it has been arrived at through careful thought and reflection on experience, and is unique. For most of us, it is probably a combination of the two. Values often concern the core issues of our lives: personal relationships, morality, gender and social roles, race, social class, and the organization of society, to name just a few.
In fact I myself strongly believe in :
having true beliefs sometimes make my life go better, even if it doesn't make me any happier!
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Why might someone believe that it is? What challenges does such a view face?
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From the very beginning of the society religion has played very important part in upholding of the morality. It is the group behavior and therefore it has remarkable influence on the society to behave morally.
The pillars on which the LAW is founded are natural justice and positive morality.
Positive morality is rules of conduct approved by public opinion of any community. They are the rules maintained and enforced in that community.
Thus there is a necessity to have Community with some principles based on morality which emerges from religious beliefs.
Aristotle has said that universal law consists of those unwritten rules which are recognized among the group of people- the society. Such groups and morality principles are all on account of religion- people are afraid of almighty God and to earn credit from him they are motivated to be moral. They have the fear that they will be otherwise driven out.
Natural law which is observed equally in all nations is established on divine prudence is changeable by the tacit consent of people.
When no law was existing, Common law was in force. What is right and what is wrong was based on the belief that if you do right God will be pleased else He will punish you. Thus the origin of morality is found in the religious communities.
I therefore feel religion is necessary in order to motivate people to behave morally.
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Please explain the rationale for your view.
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There is no one answer to this question. Specific uses must be considered, since a scientific find that cures a horrible disease does not carry the same moral weight as things like testing makeup brands on animals. Further, the moral weights given to animal rights vs. scientific discovery differ by moral universe. In the ethics of more biocentric religions, such as Buddhism, one often finds moral dismay regarding the uses of animals in science, like one sees in the work of the current Dalai Lama. The rights of animals not to suffer outweigh considerations of human benefit. Within religious universes that tend more toward anthropocentric outlooks, such as with ethics stemming from the Abrahamic religions, harming animals in science for human benefit remains more tolerated and pursued. Of course, things are not neat and tidy regarding this, since one still may find a Buddhist who supports experimentation on animals and a Christian who does not. You might check out Tom Regan's classic work, <Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science>, and the work that he, Jeff Masson, Lisa Kemmerer, and others have done since. You might also look into the essays found in <A Communion of Subjects>.
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Why or why not?
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Killing for mercy is difficult to differentiate from murder; for killing is synonymous with taking life or homicidal. The difference could be if there is an authentic intention to take the life of a fellow who suffers and for mercy it ends this suffering.
On the other hand, in murder, an intention to harm is inferred, to deliberately kill with a perverse intention; where whoever is killed is not suffering and could suffer at the time of the murder.
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Why or why not?
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Hello,
Unlike consequentialist theories which maintain that the moral rightness or wrongness of an act is entirely a function of its consequences , a non-consequentialist theory of value judges the rightness or wrongness of an action based on properties intrinsic to the action, not on its consequences. Considering your question, I think I am not an act non-consequentialist. Siding with the utilitarian stance, I believe that our life experiences should guarantee human utility (i.e., happiness). I always tend to assess my moral decisions and actions based the consequences they evoke. Therefore, if the consequences are good, then I consider the action is right , and if they are bad , then the act is totally impermissible.
Best regards,
R. Bira
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Originally published more than fifty years ago, The Courage to Be has become a classic of twentieth-century religious and philosophical thought. The great Christian existentialist thinker Paul Tillich describes the dilemma of modern humanity and points a way to the conquest of the problem of anxiety. So how do you personally conquer this problem?
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Breathe in, Breathe out, Move on
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Why do you think such links exist?
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Psychology is the result of close observation of many individuals at various mental states, usually those who have a disease or a condition. Hence it can be faulty, though most of the times, it is not. Since each human has some disease in him/her. True religion is close observation of the individual self itself and then progressing above by self cleansing through sadhana/meditation. Book religion is true only for those with open eyes, else it is a poison, coz 'the reading I' becomes the character of the book read
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Passages such as the following make it sound like the Prophet Muhammad thought the Christian Trinity was comprised of God, Mary, and their offspring Jesus:
God will say: ‘Jesus Son of Mary, did you ever say to mankind: “Worship me and my mother as gods besides God?”’
‘Glory be to you,’ he will answer, ‘I could never have claimed what I have no right to.’ (5.117)
The Creator of the heavens and the earth—how should he have a son, seeing that He has no consort, and He created all things? (6.102)
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Muhammad did not blaspheme when he asked these questions, because he was not a Christian; but many theologians and historians of religions have affirmed that there is a relationship between the beliefs of Muslims and Christians, although Islam appeared approximately 600 years after the birth of Jesus of Nazareth.
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Some aspects of morality are indeed legislated. So how do you determine which aspects are legislatable and which are not?
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Perhaps this question is related to yesterday's question regarding theology and philosophy? Moral obligations are frequently, but not always, based on a religious moral code. Whereas legal obligations are based on a secular "moral code," which certainly draws from religious beliefs, but is a distillation of these, and is allowed to evolve over time.
How to determine which rules are legislatable? I think maybe a short answer is, rules that reasonable people (hopefully in Congress) can agree benefit society as whole, are legislatable. Rules that depend on nothing more than faith in the precision of an ancient religious text, not so much. So, something like, "first, show me the clear benefit, then we might legislate."
Take, for instance, tithing and holy days of obligation. The secular laws do not make such practices either necessary or "moral," because they have been replaced with secular laws, independent of any religion. Tithing was replaced with "paying your taxes," and holy days of obligation were replaced with government holidays. So, reasonable people determined that the religious practices had merit, but without having to be tied to any religious rigor. For instance, taxes vary, depending on circumstances, regardless of what ancient religious texts might have prescribed. for tithing
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If so, how? If not, why not?
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Zoroastrianism either began in the 1200s BCE or the 500s BCE. Although I realize that Israelite religion began in the 1800s BCE, various doctrines of Judaism, such as general resurrection, messiah, and Satan as a cosmic villain, seem to make their first appearance in Hebrew literature after Zoroastrianism began. So I'm not asking about the origin of Judaism, but about those aspects of Judaism that seemingly did not exist in the time of Abraham or Moses and which are shared by Zoroastrians and Jews.
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How is your answer compatible with the perfection of God?
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Dear Kirk,
Jesus is consubstantial with God, the Father. Jesus suffered according to the Bible. Thus, God may suffer.
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It's easy to make an argument that particular claims recorded in a scripture are factually true (one just needs to use the standard historical criteria of authenticity). But a writing containing truth, even if it is completely error-free, isn't necessarily divinely inspired. So is it possible to successfully argue for divine inspiration? If so, how?
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I notice when discussing the Bible, etc, as divinely inspired the good parts only are selected for proof and reverence. In fact do they not also contain immense violence? Massacres and genocides? Are these too divine and approved of and adherred to events?
2:23 And he went up from thence unto Bethel: and as he was going up by the way, there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up, thou bald head; go up, thou bald head.2:24 And he turned back, and looked on them, and cursed them in the name of the LORD. And there came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare forty and two children of them.
Few children torn apart in the name of YHWH-doesn't matter maybe?
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Why or why not?
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They will not agree, because they are not instruments
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Why might someone think that moral claims don't fall into either category?
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Philadelphia,, PA
Dear MacGregor & readers,
I would say that conceptual truths are those we are most inclined to be conservative about in the process of revising (or possibly revising) theory. Empirical claims are more easily surrendered in the face of contrary evidence, and contrary empirical evidence will typically be more obviously relevant. Still, supposed conceptual truths have been overturned on empirical grounds. Consider Einstein and the concept of absolute simultaneity.
Much the same strictures can also be applied to ethical discourse. For example, we tend to be more conservative about general principles, say, "Ought implies can," --that someone is obligated to do so-and-so implies that the person is able to do so-and so. This contrasts with particular judgments more obviously relevant to matters of fact, say, "It is wrong to create great quantities of smoke and soot in manufacturing processes." Many would certainly agree with this now, though I think it might have been rejected in the early 19th-century at the start of the industrial revolution.
H.G. Callaway
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Do you find their explanation of such phenomena compelling?
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Such situations are bizarre. I am following to learn more though. All forms of sacrifices to save the many of the human family may not necessarily be stupid. Military persons are groomed to prioritize the lives of citizens though. To die for others, its a courageous, selfless and humanly attitude. However, this should be done when that is there is no alternative to save every life!
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Why or why not?
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In my culture animals can not be related to people. If we say we miss a dog which has died, people do not understand that very well. Especially when we are talking about the death of other people.
So, for us, animals are creatures of low importance. But I can not see an animal suffering and I can not kill any kind of life on purpose. Not even a cockroach, absolutely. I do not accept any invitation for the time I walk my dogs. This is their time, not mine anymore.
Vilemar Magalhães
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If intrinsic, then Scripture is the Word of God no matter whether anyone reads it or responds to it. If instrumental, then Scripture becomes the Word of God when God chooses to use it to generate an encounter with himself.
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Dear Kirk, I think the differentiation makes no sense. All scriptures finally are "Gods Word" in "Human words", because there is no "Divine Language" or if there is such thing, to understand it we have to translate it into human language. To differentiate an instrumental from an intrinsic makes no sense, because all forms of communications finally want to come from a sender to an receiver with the end that the receiver understands something, if not, it is a senseless communication, and than even the question if it exists or not, if it is possible or not, is irrelevant. So talking about Gods Word always implies a sense and therefore never can be intrinsic. The other term "instrumental" or "funcional" is for me a missleading conception, because does not appreaciate sufficiently the human nature with it's liberty. We should conceive revelations more in dialogic model or structure.
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I am interested in Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre and I would like to know more information regarding this order in medieval Poland.
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Many thanks. I am sure that all proposed books will be helpful for me. Best VJ
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What does it mean to be a "steward"?
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Kirk, it really doesn't matter. In geological time, our existance is just one tiny flash, and then its gone. While we live, we fuss around with all manner of trivialities, including ownership of property, and all manner of other "brownian motion," that is here and gone, and then soon forgotten. Our property and ourselves soon decomposed, back to the original elements.
I think that if one must put everything in a religious context, the only sensible way to think about life on earth is as a test of character. Ownership of property is just one of the many aspects of that test.
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Why or why not?
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Adriana Santos-Caballero has very wisely answered.
In the broad interest of protection of environment, I feel we should support the divestment.
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Individual liberty would guarantee persons the right to have as many children as they wanted, while environmental protection might limit the number of children persons could have in order to prevent such results of overpopulation as food shortages and depletion of other vital resources.
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Having individual rights, people can create safety community. Everyone has right to create better condition for themselves. It can help the community to be safety and to be a better condition. On the other side when the people don't have rights to do as they wish, they many find the solution in wrong ways by harming others and it could create worse condition in community.
I believe individual rights are more important than national safety, because without individual rights, our national safety is meaningless Paraphrasing Benjamin Franklin, those who would give up safety for liberty deserve neither safety nor liberty. I believe that a nation without individual rights is not a free nation, and on its face is not a safe nation to begin with. Therefore, I believe that the rights of the individual take precedence over national safety.
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Why or why not?
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The counterexample being, profound religious faith can also lead to not grappling with the world's problems, on the principle that God will provide the solutions. Not pretending to make any sort of scholarly argument here, I am merely stating something that I have observed, on more than just a few occasions.
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Should nonhuman species and ecosystems be loved as neighbors, or are neighbors exclusively human beings?
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The concept “love” can refer to different types of relationships. We use it when talking about our family, friends, romantic partners, pets, god(s), pieces of art, ideas, etc. and refer to love as if it happens to us, like a feeling, or as an action or behavior that we conduct, like an emotion or special deed, or even as a type of relationship that is had between two things. No matter what manifestation that love takes on or how it is described, the phenomenon that occurs is always the same. Of course we express love in different ways with different objects, but the process for giving our mothers and fathers, kids , pets, plants and flowers and everything else a special importance is the phenomenon of love . I only and simply mention that love is a way of responding to an object through a process of appraising it for its subjective, intrinsic value and then bestowing the experience of that appraisal back onto the object as an extrinsic quality whereby the object becomes valuable and irreplaceably important.
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Why or why not?
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There is no rigid connection between religion and morality. If people proceed only from the fact of their belonging to a certain religion, then it will be very difficult or impossible to resolve moral contradictions. Fortunately, in everyday life, people often proceed from their instinct of self-preservation and common sense, and not from their religious affiliations, when they solve moral issues in practice.
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Why or why not?
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Who is the arbiter of whether a law is unjust or not? There are inescapable grey zones. If civil disobedience enters the culture, it will soon be hijacked by every interest group and every disgruntled citizen towards their own ends.
History is replete with ghastly laws (such as laws mandating torture), which in the end were born from and the reflection of immature, coarse societies. The proper answer is not civil disobedience, but a culture of respect for both the law and the people - something that History shows cannot be improvised overnight but is the culmination of a long maturing process.
Perhaps the only way is to quickly build both a culture and an economy which obviate the possibility of unjust laws being passed.
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Why or why not?
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This happens all the time, and the problem is your definition of "correct." The most obvious example being, of course, religiously-motivated terrorism. And religiously-motivated mutilation. Or how about arranged marriages? Many people find these practices to be morally correct. That's the problem.
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The Christian tradition has always emphasized prudence, courage, temperance, justice (the four classical virtues), faith, hope, and love (the three theological virtues).
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Justice...the fair and equal treatment of all the things in nature and the respect for their legal right of existence is the most powerful virtue to motivate humans in protecting the very environment that pivots our life sustainance.
Dickson Adom
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Why or why not? If so, who are some of these exemplars?
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1.In Sanskrit Text : You first obey the rules and religions, then try to teach others.
2.In Arabic Story : Sultan Haru al Rashid was not giving advise to a child to eat lesser amount of sugar even after repeated request from a poor mother for six months. Afterwards he gave the advice. He explained that he himself took six months to bring down the quantity of sugar in his daily meals after trying for six months. He gave advice after attaining the qualification only.
3. In English (Proverb): Charity begins at home.
Nothing more to say.
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Why or why not?
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No, not in the least. I think of government like a big condominium association. It's not in the least some sort of father figure. That would be pathetic. Government is people wanting to make sure that what the majority prefers is honored, even while leaving others as free as possible to do their own thing.
People are government. We don't want our neighborhood trashed, so we establish certain basic rules that the vast majority want.
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Why or why not?
Some philosophers maintain that science is morally neutral, while other philosophers maintain that science produces morality.
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Absolutely! I just finished opining that an occasional glass of wine is actually beneficial, as opposed to drinking alcohol being considered "a sin." And the reason for making such a bold statement is scientific evidence. As in the link attached here.
I would argue that nothing that provides health benefits can be considered "immoral." Abuse of anything, on the other hand, is detrimental to health, so a culture may be justified in making such activity "immoral" in their code of ethics.
Plenty of references in the New Testament of "non-sinful" wine consumption, and science can explain why. And no, gimme a break, that wasn't grape juice!
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Tough question. It's similar to asking why should we explore space, when there are so many problem to solve on earth. I think the general answer to all such questions is that we need to do more than one thing at a time.
If we only concentrated on solving the immediate problem, we would still be living in caves.
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Prima facie, the assertion seems self-refuting, for if none of our concepts apply to God, then even the concept of ineffability does not apply to God. However, the assertion of divine ineffability is often made by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. I'd love to hear your thoughts!
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I suppose it depends how we define ineffable. My inclination is to say that something ineffable cannot be completely described, not to preclude imperfect and incomplete attempts. And this leads to big problems, in practice.
Anything that is (said to be) beyond our comprehension cannot help but be ineffable. Any omniscient, omnipotent, eternal being is certainly not something that we can comprehend or describe completely. Isn't that why there are as many different ideas of what God is as there are humans on earth?
And this is easy enough to demonstrate. Cheap shot, no doubt, but we can see a whole spectrum of acts committed in God's name, from the sublime to the unspeakably atrocious. Common sense might suggest what makes sense and what makes no sense, but not much more than common sense. People like to make claims about what is the "true" God, or the "true" teachings of any particular religion. Don't these claims always come across sounding self-serving? We simply state that "truth" lies where we want it to lie, we use it to "justify" our thoughts and actions, but our claim is no more valid than the next person's. Not when it comes to religion.
The best we can do is to observe the results. Some are positive, leading to a more peaceful coexistence, and too many are negative, leading to atrocities. (Our perception of) God's ineffability is problematic. Clearly.
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Hi,
Another important point was the attention of the liberation theologians, who stand by the poor and the marginalized, and support every weak person who can not defend himself. But before discussing this point we must first answer a very important question: Who are the poor? The Bible includes a set of words describing poverty, derived from six major Hebrew roots that are more than 200 times, and John Stott has classified it into a tripartite division. [28]
First, from the economic point of view, there are the destitute poor who are deprived of the basic necessities of life.
Second: From a social point of view, there are the oppressed, the oppressed, the victims of human injustice.
Thirdly: From the spiritual point of view, there are the humble, the humble, who acknowledge their helplessness and look to God alone, seeking salvation.
The image of God is presented to us in every case that comes to them and to their cause, a commitment of its nature, "He lives the poor from the dust. He brings the poor from the dustbin to sit with the honorable "(1 Samuel 2: 8). But by looking at the principles of liberation theology above, his attention was focused on the poor, the first and second categories (the destitute and the oppressed), and no mention of the third category. This was due to the difficult economic and social conditions of Latin American society in particular and the marginalized In the world in general ... So the question arises here: Does the Bible speak about the category of the destitute and the oppressed ?? And what is the role of believers from them ??
Under the law, the people of God were commanded not to cut their hearts or to hold their hands from giving their poor brother or poor sister, but to spend generously on those who were unable to support themselves by taking them to their homes and feeding them free of charge. : 7, 14: 29; not 25: 35, 26: 12) [29]. And the farmers, when they were harvested, should not reap the corners of their fields, nor return to pick up fallen or forgotten beams, for the corners of the field, and the droppings, and the fallen fruit should be left to the poor, the stranger, the widow and the orphan (Exodus 23:10; 19:13; Deuteronomy 24:14). The law of Moses emphasized justice that is far from favoritism in the courts, especially for the poor and helpless. Wisdom is as clear as the books of the law in its demand for justice for the weak. Psalm 82 orders the judges: "Judge the poor and the orphan. Do justice to the poor and the miserable "(Psalm 82: 3), and in (31: 9)" Open your mouth. Judge justice and protect the poor and the needy "[31].
In the New Testament, we see that Jesus himself followed this tradition of caring for the poor and applied it in practice. He made friends with those in need and fed the hungry. He ordered his disciples to sell their possessions and offer charity to the poor, and if they made a feast they should call the poor, paralyzed, In a position that allows them to call them in return, as his disciples promised that when they feed the hungry and drink nudity, welcome homeless people and visit the sick, they offer all these services to Him (Luke 12: 33,14,12). Jesus gave up the riches of heaven (2: 7) and was born in a poor house. When Joseph and Mary came to the temple, they sacrificed a pair of yamam, the offering of the poor in the Law (Luke 2:24). In his public service as a traveling messenger, Jesus did not have a home. He once said, "Foxes have an ocher and birds of the sky have idols; but the Son of man has no place to rest his head" (Matthew 8:20).
But this does not mean that Christianity is an invitation to poverty, and that all Christians must be poor and destitute. For example, in the New Testament Joseph, who is from Ramah, who mentions when he was rich and was a disciple of Jesus (Matthew 27: 57) After Jesus' death, and buried him in his own tomb. The balanced view of the Bible teaches that he warns the rich of love of money because they are the root of all evils (1 Timothy 6:10), noting that Paul used the term "love of money" rather than "money" itself; money itself is not evil, but love at the expense of love Others are the ones who create evils. Thus, we find the book of the Acts of the Apostles, which tells us about the relations between the faithful in the First Church, especially as he describes the physical dealings he explains to us, saying, "No one said that there was anything of his own money; they had everything in common" (Acts 4:32) "There was no one in need of them, for all those who owned fields or houses were selling them, and they came at the price of sales, and put them at the feet of the Apostles, was distributed to each one as it has Yag "(Acts 4: 34-35).
The balanced view of the relationship between the poor and the rich in the Bible shows us that the origin of the Lord's call to serve the poor, the needy, and the Aryan is the testimony and proclamation of the person of Christ to these people, but at a practical level; Christ is given to people by the act of love, for love is able to transfer Christ from heart to heart. [34] The giving in Christianity is not based on moral motives or on social motives. This is a misguidance. Giving and serving the poor in Christianity is an act of faith in Christ, and they are explained only in the limits of the divine. The Church serves Christ in the people of these people, the idols and the homeless.
Christianity, in essence, believes that man, whether rich or poor, is in need of the salvation of Christ; for all human beings are sinners before God: "Everyone has sinned and lack the glory of God" (Romans 3:23). And Christ
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William Lane Craig argues that, without God, moral values would only be subjective, and there would be no ultimate moral accountability.
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This is a type 4 question. In order to underpin objective moral values and duties, god would have to exist objectively. However, gods only exist as beliefs. Hence, there is nothing objective about the moral values that are based upon the supposed wishes of a god whose existence is in principle unprovable.
To state that anything is a proven reality is incomplete: a thing can be a proven reality to a particular person, but this does not give it objective existence. Pre-Newtonian gravity was a proven reality to everyone (objects tended to move towards their natural resting place), but this did not mean that this notion of gravity had an objective existence, or even that it was proven by the fact that objects fell downwards.
And now, back to research…
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Islam and Judaism are unitarian monotheisms, holding that the one God contains a single center of self-consciousness (i.e., person). Christianity is a trinitarian monotheism, holding that the one God contains three centers of self-consciousness (i.e., persons). I'd love to hear Muslim, Jewish, and Christian views on this!
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I believe that in order to answer this question we should consider the symbolic elements that make up Christianity. The Most Holy Trinity is a clear representation of the unifications that Catholicism had to make in order to incorporate pagan religions into the "orthodox doctrine". Sun worship, for example, coincides with the birth of Jesus. The representation of the trinity is a very interesting topic to address. Particularly the version I like the most is this one
Formulation of the Trinity is attributed to the Gnostic teacher Valentinus (lived c.100 – c.160), who according to the fourth century theologian Marcellus of Ancyra, was “the first to devise the notion of three subsistent entities (hypostases), in a work that he entitled On the Three Natures.” The highly allegorical exegesis of the Valentinian school inclined it to interpret the relevant scriptural passages as affirming a Divinity that, in some manner, is threefold. The Valentinian Gospel of Philip, which dates to approximately the time of Tertullian, upholds the Trinitarian formula. Whatever his influence on the later fully formed doctrine may have been, however, Valentinus's school is rejected as heretical by orthodox Christians.
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Tillich wrote: "Adoration performed for the sake of man's self-glorification is self-defeating. It never reaches God" (Systematic Theology, 3:191).
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Tillich (1886-1965) belonged to the group of so-called Religious Socialists before he left Germany with the beginning Nazi-era; he emigrated to New York. I read in a note of a book about Tillich that he "was a human being of immense wisdom." But interesting: Wisdom didn't hinder Tillich sometimes to have a very narrow relation to the female sex, and such things which happened and are today discussed in the "me-to-debate" many women could have tell in his time about the famous man- so the theological rumor.
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Why do you find that element persuasive?
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The Christian mystical experience wins my vote. Mystics from all traditions seem to share a common experience, even as we describe it differently due, at least in part, to cultural differences. I personally can both agree with and disagree with the concept of total unity. My personal choice is to describe the full mystical state as one where barriers between one's self and the rest of reality are not maintained, but rather eliminated. One continues to be an individual, but also is sharing fully and openly with the balance of creation, no secrets, nothing hidden, no fears or anything to protect, just total openness.
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One could argue that any ideological spiritual pathway is suspicious of those whose religious beliefs and practices are unlike their own, intolerant of "the other," and does not account for new ways of understanding reality. Do you agree or disagree?
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Dear Dr. Emad
His Majesty, God created man and created him in the best calendar an mind and was close to him i mean to make the mind of human and instinct, which makes him different from the angels and animals and make love in the heart of the human But evil intervened in the delusion of human where the entry of hatred between humans and thank you.
Regards
Dr. Malik
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Among the possibilities I can think of are personal transformation and social transformation. I'd love to hear your thoughts!
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Life-giving? How about elimination of hunger, poverty, and pollution first. The touchy-feely existential stuff is life-enhancing not life-giving.
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I'm interested in both Christian and Buddhist perspectives.
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Similar to Jesus 
2500 year old Buddhist Precepts in today's language
1.  Show loving kindness
2.  Develop Generosity
3.  Cultivate Contentment
4.  Be Honest-don't lie- have integrity
5.  Be more aware- be mindful...
6.  Assess the negative and how it affects work etc. 
7.  How we treat others can be affected by our mood
8.  The law of an abundant universe actively sends out positive energy even during difficult circumstances.
 Luke says, "The kingdom of God is within."   The Buddhists’ say, "We are all lit up from within as if from a sacred source." [LamSuryaDas, pg. 15]. 
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On the one hand, it seems that Confucianism is essentially an ethical way of life and a way of ordering society. On the other hand, it seems that Confucianism is an authentic spiritual pathway.
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Confucius held Government was through the ruler's perspective with religious ceremonies to fulfill moral duties.  The Mandate of Heaven (Analects) bound dynasties in a supernatural community and was reinforced by Confucius.  For example, an angry God could impose natural disasters such as flooding or earthquakes. Confucianism is also a moral philosophy and integrated into Chinese politics.  There is a religious element to Confucianism and strong philosophical tone of good conduct, obedience, personal behaviors, elders, ancestors, etc.  
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What are the advantages of defining the divine anthropomorphically? What are the risks of defining the divine anthropomorphically?
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TEJ, yes I agree with your comment.
However, is the question as presented about only the last few thousand years in the 2 million years of evolution of religion? If so, the questioner needs to explain why only the short-chronology is being used. What's the justification for that? What about all the rest of the religions of the world? Not a few with no anthropomorphic god? Especially Nilo-Saharan Africa where the focus is on a personal and cosmic life-force rather than any personification. To get an even bigger picture of what the 'divine' might mean, see my papers on a Trans-species Definition of Religion and The Case for Chimpanzee Religion.
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The present question can be viewed in two parts, namely, the influence which religion has on the outcome of an election and the bearing which it has on the economic progression made by a country. Asking so because as per some recent studies, atheism has been associated with economic progression in some of the developed nations. Moreover, it was brought to the limelight that in countries like USA, people are increasing shunning religious beliefs thus highlighting that indeed religion and economy could very well be two sides of the coin or are they? This needs to be viewed for such countries like India, one of the most religious countries (more than 90% of the population believes in it) as well as China, one of the least religious nations (almost 70% of the population doesn't believe in any religion).
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I would agree with most of the comments above, but include the examples of Sri Lanka and Indonesia. In the 2015 election, violence erupted between two hardline Buddhist groups, the BBS and the JHU, who split their support between Rajapaksa and Sirisena. Nationalist groups make up a small percentage of the electorate, but did have an impact on a rather surprise result. In Indonesia, the recent gubernatorial election highlighted religious differences between the incumbent ethnic Chinese Christian and his Muslim challenger.
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On the one hand, Taoism may be too inherently passive about government intervention in preserving security, developing the economy, and meeting the needs for health and education. On the other hand, Taoism is eager to collaborate with others in ecological concerns and encourage ways of achieving justice and peace.
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Individual's generally live in communities. If you transform the nature of the parts this will affect the nature of the whole.
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salaam
dear respected brothers and sisters I am interested in self similar patterns in religious texts. please inform my about any work that may have already been done in this field. I am especially interested in the Qur'an. thank you...
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The only piece I know of on this topic is Istvan Czachesz, "God in the Fractals: Recursiveness as a Key to Religious Behavior," Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 24 (2012): 3-28. You can find the article at http://www.religionandcognition.com/publications/czachesz_fractals.pdf?i=1.
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1. The Angkor wat temple is a vaishnavite temple
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It evinces Indian influence to a tremendous extent. The depiction of Vishnu arises from the first half of the twelfth century, while the syncretic effects of Hinduism came in the second half of the twelfth century.
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One tip is to look at the work done by Kitchen and Lawrence in their 3 volume (2011) edition of ANE covenants, particularly volume 3 that compares the textual structure across different periods and genres.
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Great! Thanks
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Antinatalism is a philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth, standing in opposition to natalism. there are interesting correlations between Antinatalism/natalism feminism/masculinism and Islamophobia. what studies have been done to clarify these functions of multigenerational mass psychology? in what country's are the negative effects of antinatlaist  most strongly felt? in what ways have natalist views been suppressed? what information can be found in big data to reveal the connection between Antinatalism feminism and Islamophobia?
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 dear respected researchers, 
Reproductive freedom is often confused with the right to engage in the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy. other issues related to this include the right to use of Contraceptive methods such as Hormonal methods,  Barrier methods,  IUDs, contraceptive implants, and abstinence. the right not to engage in Reproduction is an important function of a health society. 
"The superior power of population cannot be checked without producing misery or vice." Thomas Robert Malthus. 
Antinatalism, or anti-natalism, is a philosophical stance that assigns a negative value to birth.
the practice of Islam assigns a positive value to birth.
"And certainly did We create man from an extract of clay. Then We placed him as a sperm-drop in a firm lodging. Then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, and We made the clot into a lump [of flesh], and We made [from] the lump, bones, and We covered the bones with flesh; then We developed him into another creation. So blessed is Allah, the best of creators." SAHIH INTERNATIONAL translation Qur'an
it is not beneficial to force a woman to engage in reproduction, nor would it be appropriate to bar a man from seeking to engage in reproduction.
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The extent of use of religious teachings in human resource management in Muslim countries.
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Will you please elaborate a little bit what are the Islamic principles of h