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Publications related to Relay (10,000)
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On February 19, 1945, a top officer in the British CID (Criminal Investigation Department in the mandatory Palestine police force) in Jerusalem relayed information to the MI5 (British security service) headquarters in London from a source "reliable but sensitive, with close ties with the Jewish Agency" on decisions reached at a secret meeting of it...
Article
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Signal conversion plays an important role in many applications such as communication, sensing, and imaging. Realizing signal conversion between optical and microwave frequencies is a crucial step to construct hybrid communication systems that combine both optical and microwave wireless technologies to achieve better features, which are highly desir...
Article
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Wireless technologies can be used to track and observe freely moving animals. InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow for underwater optical wireless communication due to the small water attenuation in the blue-green spectrum region. GaN-based quantum well diodes can also harvest and detect light. Here, we report a monolithic GaN optoelectroni...
Article
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For the distance protection applied in converter-interfaced renewable energy systems, various AC fault ride-through strategies of converter-interfaced sources will cause a large phase difference between the operating current of the distance relay and the fault current, resulting in the mal-operation of the distance relay. To overcome this issue, th...
Article
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Fault current magnitude in a microgrid depends upon its mode of operation, namely, grid-connected mode or islanded mode. Depending on the type of fault in a given mode, separate protection schemes are generally employed. With the change in microgrid operating mode, the protection scheme needs to be modified which is uneconomical and time inefficien...
Article
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Synaptic abnormalities are a cardinal feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that are known to arise as the disease progresses. A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological alterations to neuronal circuits and synapses may provide a mechanistic link between amyloid β (Aβ) and tau pathology and thus may serve as an obligatory relay of the cogn...
Article
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In this paper, an intelligent method for fault detection and classification for a microgrid (MG) was proposed. The idea was based on the combination of three computational tools: signal processing using the maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform (MODWPT), parameter optimization by the augmented Lagrangian particle swarm optimization (ALP...
Article
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The problem of securely reconnecting active distribution networks (ADNs) – e.g. microgrids – to their upstream grids at the point of common coupling (PCC) has been extensively discussed by the existing literature. The latter is commonly referred to as resynchronization and has to be done with care in order to avoid large transient current flows res...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic saw a massive investment into collaborative research projects with a focus on producing data to support public health decisions. We relay our direct experience of four projects funded under the Horizon2020 programme, namely ReCoDID, ORCHESTRA, unCoVer and SYNCHROS. The projects provide insight into the complexities of sharing...
Article
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Massive Internet of Things (IoT) systems are one of the main drivers of new wireless standards. It’s necessary that IoT devices cost as little as possible, and to minimize energy consumption. In this paper, new solutions for an extended battery life of IoT devices are proposed. The new signal processing schemes, for massive IoT uplink communication...
Article
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The ability to move and hover has made rotary‐wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) suitable platforms to act as flying communications relays (FCRs), aiming at providing on‐demand, temporary wireless connectivity when there is no network infrastructure available or a need to reinforce the capacity of existing networks. However, since UAVs rely on th...
Article
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The technological progression in the area of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has made it possible to design various sensing modules operating for detecting the multitudinous physical attributes of a patient's body. However, the limited battery of these sensing devices has restricted the scope for WBAN. Hence, it is imperative to design an energy...
Article
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The injection or absorption of reactive power by the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) may lead to the misoperation of protective relays and single-phase-tripping systems that operate based on impedance measurement. Also, high-frequency harmonic components caused by switching the internal circuitry of a STATCOM lead to unintended tripping of...
Article
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The surface–atmosphere turbulent exchange fluxes are experimentally determined using the eddy-covariance method. Their estimation using profiles of the variables of interest is a less costly alternative, although restricted to certain ranges of stability and assumed to hold for relatively flat and homogeneous terrain. It relays usually on the presc...
Article
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In the era of the Internet of Things (IoT), the volume of data is increasing immensely causing rapid growth in network data communication and data congestion. Computational offloading thus becomes a crucial and imperative action in terms of delay-sensitive task completion and data processing for the resource constraint end-users. Nowadays fog compu...
Article
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To solve the impact of the integration of distributed generations on distribution network protection, current differential protection is introduced into the active distribution networks. Using fault data self-synchronization algorithm to construct current differential protection can reduce the cost of protection and communication, but the unsynchro...
Article
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This paper presents economic planning of synchronous distributed generations (SDGs) constrained to protection and operation indices in the distribution network. The proposed scheme has a two‐stage formulation. In the first stage, optimal protection coordination (OPC) is modelled in the first phase in a network without SDGs. This phase considers the...
Article
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The concept of trust is not new in philosophy; it has been used in different times and epoch, first as transactional virtue in The Republic of Plato and multilateral virtue in Aristotle's Habituation Ethics as essential commodity in the formulation of friendship as brotherhood. In John Dewey's Democracy and Education, trust is the value that indivi...
Article
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In today's technologically advancing era, everyone is busy doing their work, no one likes to waste time going to the switchboards turning various tool on or off. Automation is the ability to program and plan a list of events for the tools on the network. With the increase in the usage of power and the human population, there is a vital need to cons...
Preprint
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Venus is known for its extreme surface temperature and its sulfuric acid clouds. But the cloud layers on Venus have similar temperature and pressure conditions to those on the surface of Earth and are conjectured to be a possible habitat for microscopic life forms. We propose a mission concept to explore the clouds of Venus for up to 30 days to eva...
Article
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Mobile edge computing has been developed as a promising technology to extend diverse services to the edge of the Internet of Things system. Motivated by the high flexibility and controllability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), a multi‐UAVs‐assisted mobile edge computing system is studied to reduce the total consumption of time and energy of term...
Article
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This article proposes a fault detection and location strategy based on cognitive edge computing to harvest the benefits of cognitive edge computing and address the special needs of active distribution networks (ADNs). In the proposed strategy, an ADN smart gateway is used to compile data in a central repository where it will be processed and analyz...
Technical Report
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The electromechanical energy conversion takes place through the medium of a magnetic field. The magnetic field is used as a coupling medium between electrical and mechanical systems. It is because the energy storing capacity of a magnetic field is very high. Therefore, an electromechanical energy converter has three main parts (Mechanical system, C...
Article
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To make the network more reliable and to address energy imbalance issues the cooperative selection of dynamic relay beamforming and energy balanced operation is proposed. Statistic Autonomous Beamforming (SAB) selection of nodes includes picking dynamic relay’s that is used to transmit data. SAB requires very low feedback load, and this strategy is...
Article
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Enhancement of network performance is a big challenge today for the emerging technology based on IEEE 802.16. Wireless technology is an alternate solution to wired technology. Network availability all the way is an important challenge in day‐to‐day life. Due to the huge population, the availability of the network is again a big challenge. Also, it...
Article
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Phenylephrine (PE) is a canonical α 1 -adrenoceptor-selective agonist. However, unexpected effects of PE have been observed in preclinical and clinical studies, that cannot be easily explained by its actions on α 1 -adrenoceptors. The probability of the involvement of α 2 - and β-adrenoceptors in the effect of PE has been raised. In addition, our e...
Article
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Technological advancements in the area of the Internet of Things have fostered the development of multi‐hop architectures pertaining to applications seeking large network areas. However, while exploiting such applications, the sensor devices being used are made to communicate through multi‐hop routing techniques, burdening the relay nodes. Hence, i...
Article
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This paper introduces an enhancement of the protection and operation of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It uses the solid-state transformers to connect the residential A.C. and D.C. microgrids to the distribution system and fault isolation devices for faulty line isolation. In this paper, a current diff...
Article
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Body to body networks (BBNs) are a kind of large-scaled sensor network that are composed of several wireless body area networks (WBANs) in the distributed structure, and in recent decades, BBNs have played a key role in medical, aerospace, and military applications. Compared with the traditional WBANs, BBNs have larger scales and longer transmissio...
Article
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Wireless communication among vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) entities is secured through cryptography, which is used for authentication as well as to ensure the overall security of messages in this environment. Authentication protocols play a significant role and are therefore required to be free of vulnerabilities that allow entity impersonation,...
Article
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This work reports a design of SMART IRRIGATION system. This project uses ESP32 Wi-Fi module which connects the system to the internet. The system monitors moisture level of the field using soil moisture sensor. Based on the information received from soil moisture sensor, ESP32 module controls relays and solenoid valves for supplying water to the fi...
Article
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The microcontroller sends signal to eight relay circuit which drives the various motors to grip the object and place it in the specified location. Based upon the colour detected, to the specified location, releases the object and comes back to the original potion.-To develop a color based sorting system that allows us to sort similarly shaped but d...
Conference Paper
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We consider Internet of Things (IoT) sensors deployed inside an area to be monitored. Not all the sensors are connected via single-hop to the depot that requires the data. Inversely, a multi-hop implementation can bring the network connectivity at risk because the sensors closer to the depot consume more energy when relaying the aggregated data. Th...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to utilize the system that can control home appliances and monitor electricity using a smartphone remotely. This system is designed using RS232(Relays), Arduino and GSM module. The electrical appliances are controlled by sending a text message from any mobile located in any part provided it has a GSM connectivity. Findi...
Conference Paper
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Cognitive relay network is an integrated technique that combines the cognitive radio network (CRN) with wireless relay technology. A range of challenges faces this combination and some of these are proposed in this paper. In this paper, the power allocation, subcarrier allocation, and relay selection are proposed as a problem formulation for OFDM b...
Presentation
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A simple hybrid relay, which can supply resistive or inductive AC-loads, such as heater, industry squirrel-cage motors, etc. The hybrid relay consists of a couple of switches placed in parallel to drive a single load to an alternative network. The proposed hybrid relay makes the optimized timing of the switching of all relays and makes the full dia...
Article
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Fast and reliable short fault detection is one of the key technologies in the development of DC multi‐microgrids (MMG). In order to improve the speed and reliability of DC relay protection, especially to solve the problem of protection failure in high impedance short‐circuit, a fault criterion based on the gradient of the branch admittance differen...
Article
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The hierarchical structure of the data center network is more and more unsuitable for increasing east-west traffic from virtual machines. Reconfigurable circuit switching is utilized to reduce regional hotspots, which causes the problem of routing oscillation. We propose a stratospheric network of the data center, which combines virtual circuit swi...
Preprint
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{Robust transceiver design against unresolvable system uncertainties is of crucial importance for reliable communication. We consider a MIMO multi-hop system, where the source, the relay, and the destination are equipped with multiple antennas. Further, an intelligent reconfigurable surface (IRS) is established to cancel the RSI as much as possible...
Article
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The short-term prediction of a person’s trajectory during normal walking becomes necessary in many environments shared by humans and robots. Physics-based approaches based on Newton’s laws of motion seem best suited for short-term predictions, but the intrinsic properties of human walking conflict with the foundations of the basic kinematical model...
Conference Paper
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The basic function of a shipboard electric power systems is to supply all consumers, both essential and non-essential, with electrical energy, as economically as possible and with an acceptable degree of quality. A shipboard electrical power system comprises three principal subsystems: generation (naval power plant-island mode plant), distribution...
Chapter
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This article is about the emergency distance education (EDE) and the influence on the working conditions of the sign language interpreter (SLI) to transmit scientific education. The study was established on document review, studies of expertise in the area and own experiences as SLI in graduating school. Resulting from the examination of research m...
Article
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In this paper, a new histogram-based approach for digital image steganography is introduced. It stems from the idea of utilizing the near maximum values in the image histogram distribution. Conceptually, depending on whether a brightness value with the highest number of occurrence (called as maximum histogram—MH) in the histogram is even or odd, pa...
Article
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular these days. One among the major technological developments of today are UAVs or drones. The coordination and coverage capabilities of large clusters of UAVs, or their cooperative capabilities for such goals as terrain mapping, make them of particular interest. This paper explores the...
Preprint
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This letter characterizes the contact angle distribution based on the condition that the relay low earth orbit (LEO) satellite is in the communication range of both the ground transmitter and the ground receiver. As one of the core distributions in stochastic geometry-based routing analysis, the analytical expression of the \ac{CDF} of the conditio...
Article
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This paper presents a novel energy-efficient Radio Frequency (RF) Energy Harvesting (EH) scheme for secrecy performance in Internet of Things (IoT) network using cooperative communication approach under dissimilar faded channel environments. We have combined the concept of Destination Based Jamming (DBJ) with power beacon aided EH in our model. Thi...
Article
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Physiological blood flow induces the secretion of vasoactive compounds, notably nitric oxide, and promotes endothelial cell elongation and reorientation parallel to the direction of applied shear. How shear is sensed and relayed to intracellular effectors is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that an apical spectrin network is essential...
Article
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This paper measures end-to-end (e2e) throughput of power beacon-assisted multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relaying scheme adopting non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and transmit antenna selection (TAS)/selection combining (SC). Particularly, TAS/SC and NOMA are adopted at each hop to relay different data of a source to multiple destinations. M...
Article
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The application of dynamic phasors (DPs) in overhead line protection was investigated. Equations to estimate the fault loop inductance and resistance were derived using the principles of DPs. A systematic amplitude comparator‐based line distance protection scheme was developed using the equations derived to estimate the fault loop inductance and re...
Article
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High Impedance Fault (HIF) is a problematic fault of feeders which its fault current is lower as compared to normal current in power system. Likewise, due to magnitude of impedance engaged in fault area and behavior of fault current is specific and not the same as the usual fault current profile which cannot be identified by standard relays. The HI...
Article
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High-impedance faults (HIFs) exhibit low current amplitude and highly diverse characteristics, which make them difficult to be detected by conventional overcurrent relays. Various machine learning (ML) techniques have been proposed to detect and classify HIFs; however, these approaches are not reliable in presence of diverse HIF and non-HIF conditi...
Article
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The safe and reliable operation of a distribution network (DN) is closely related to the development of national economy and the improvement of people's living standards. At present, the design principle of a distribution network is still based on a primary system and primary equipment, without considering the relay protection on the secondary side...
Article
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In this paper, a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) assisted downlink non‐orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) network is considered, where a base station communicates with a pair of users with the assistance of a RIS. The performance of RIS‐assisted downlink NOMA networks is investigated by exploiting the coherent phase shifting design. In part...
Article
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Polypropylene non-woven material with fibres surface modified with methyltrimetoxysilane(MTMS)-based aerogel structure exhibits increased affinity to oil and highly developed collector area, which translates to enhanced oil mist filtration performance, crucial in automotive, commercial and home appliances. This article indicates the filtration impr...
Article
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This paper proposes a novel multi‐phase coordinated direct and user‐assisted transmission (MP‐CDUAT) strategy for a non‐orthogonal multiple access system consisting of a base station (BS), K near users (NUs) and a far user (FU). In the first phase, the BS directly serves an opportunistically scheduled NU. For the rest phases, an NU scheduling schem...
Article
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We propose an embedded synthetic relay transport protein (RTP) approach for communication between the external environment (blood vessels) and internal targeted nanonet-works (cells/tissues) within the intra-body network. In fact, we designed a bioengineered relay protein-based facilitated diffusing to be an alternative protein in the case of biolo...