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Rehabilitation Robotics - Science topic

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The world of bionic prosthesis has undertaken a strong development in the past decade.
However knee prostheses struggle to find a technological solution capable of surpassing the consolidated results of products around from more than 20 years.
Several papers seem to suggest that transfemoral amputees prefer the utilization of micro-controlled semi-active knee prostheses, e.g. C-Leg or Genium, instead of the fully powered alternatives.
Different research groups tried to address this by developing novel knee prosthesis architectures ranging from the fully powered to the fully passive ones. Nonetheless, it still appears unclear which path might be the best to follow. On one side the fully powered knee prostheses typically guarantee high performance in terms of active torque, max power and max speed, but are also bulky, heavy and noisy. On the other hand, partially active/semi-active knee prostheses usually combine passive components (e.g. dampers) to take care of most of the tasks and small actuators to provide assistance in low-torque low-power situations.
Where do you think we are going? What are the best alternatives and solutions?
I was curious and interested to collect your opinions and discuss about them.
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The great majority of above knee amputees have advanced peripheral vascular disease or diabetes. A much smaller population is due to birth defects or trauma. Patients with progressive systemic diseases are the least likely to continue prosthetic use. When progressive systemic disease patients are involved it has been my experience that light weight, simplicity in all aspects, and security are the primary prerequisites. Often the use of a manual locking knee, rigid frame/ flexible wall construction, silicone locking liner with lanyard, and flexible keel foot have been most successful for this group. Advantages of this componentry are easy adaptation by the patient with minimal therapy training and greatest security. Reduced anxiety and security against falls, light weight, and simplicity are key factors.
There is an interesting discussion at https://opedge.com/Articles/ViewArticle/2012-12_02
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Hello,
I am willing to submit my manuscript in JNER of Biomed central journal. Regarding adding figures in latex file, in the authors guidelines , it says that the figures should be added separately under a FIGURE section at the END of the tex file. I have a doubt regarding the following instruction - " Each figure of a manuscript should be submitted as a single file that fits on a single page in portrait format." Does it mean that the pdflatex generated should contain just one figure per page? Anyone, if you have any prior experience on submitting to JNER, could you guide me in this regard.
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Hello Vijaykumar Rajasekaran How to cite the figures) I do it with \ cite? Thanks for the help
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I am looking for the link lengths and joint diameters of DLR hand but not able to find any article specifically mentioning them. If anyone has any information please can you refer me the article.
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Elcin Huseyn Thank You very much sir. But the papers didnot provide specific value of the link length and joint diameters of DLR hand. I could only get the link lengths from the DLR hand website : "https://www.dlr.de/rm-neu/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-3802/" but could not find details of joint diameters.
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For people with central nervous system disorders, how much joint assistance or individual's effort is required for joint movement to restore motor function or better motor learning? What factor that defines The optimum assistance for reorganization of CNS is? Please tell me the papers or information on these.
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Hi Kenichi,
if the joint is assisted, the individual is learning to move the joint in an manner that does not activate the sensory and motor systems necessary for normal movement. The individual may learn to move in an assisted manner, but the carry over to normal movement will still require additional training.  As for restoring normal movement, we anticipate roughly 4000 repetitions, however the joint movements are task specific, therefore the carry over to similar movements may require additional training. 
Monica Rivera 
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When selecting the actuation system, focus is only given to the required torque but in order not to restrict the normal motion of the body (in particular of able subjects) the normal angular speed has also to be respected. This is also mentioned in this paper:
Cenciarini, Massimo, and Aaron M. Dollar. "Biomechanical considerations in the design of lower limb exoskeletons." 2011 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics. IEEE, 2011.
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I think it depends on the application of the exoskeleton. For example, most of rehabilitation and power augmentation exoskeletons are using torque control. Some paraplegic exoskeleton suits may mix of using torque and trajectory tracking control, however, some of them their speeds are slower than the able-human. However, I believe the maximum required speed are important when selecting the actuator. The actuator selection is based on the peak torque, continuous torque, maximum speed, the trajectory (speed) and load profile with respect to the time as these parameters important in actuator selections including reduction ratio, gearboxes, etc. Also, the trajectory and load profiles are important in estimating the power losses and efficiency of the system as each actuator system has optimal operating conditions.
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I am looking for a BWS harness for children compatible with Vicon on the treadmill. 
if you are using any BWS harness now which doesn't disturb the hip marker, would you recommend me it, please?
Which one is better based on your experience, Maine Anti-Gravity systems or BonMed harness?
Thank you in advance!
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Hi,
Maybe you can try with the harness made by Biodex for their Offset BWS System
See link below:
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I am working on design and analysis of a 4 DOF upper limb exoskeleton manipulator. At the moment I have finished the design of it and carried out manipulability measures.
Now I want to find out what is the manipulability measure of a human upper limb (mainly forearm part only), so I can compare with my design. Also, I would like to know if such a comparison would give a valid result?
Do you know of any kinematic models for human upper limbs (forearm)?
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For forearm and hand analysis I would take a look at the freely avaiable Stanford's VA Upper Limb Model and Upper Extremity Dynamic Model (Simtk OpenSim):
and related papers:
- Holzbaur KR, Murray WM, Delp SL.: A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control. Ann Biomed Eng. 2005; 33(6):829-40.
- Saul KR, Hu X, Goehler CM, Daly M, Vidt ME, Velisar A, Murray WM. Benchmarking of dynamic simulation predictions in two software platforms using an upper limb musculoskeletal model. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2015; 18(13):1445-58.
Good luck!
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I work on a research of exoskeleton robot to generate human-like motion. In my research, I focused to identify the ways to improve the physical human robot interaction (pHRI), specially giving attention to its kinematic side. What are the important measures that we can use to identify the performance of pHRI? Is it necessary to take the effect of dynamics into account, in exoskeleton robot?
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I would like to suggest adding an EMG sensor on the human skin in order to increase transparency. We can now use dry electrode such as those one: http://www.orbitalresearch.com/Medical/dry-electrodes-need.html.
You should also try some accelerometers/gyro/magneto (6DOF to 9DOF) such as those from AnalogDevice ADXL335 or STM.
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We are working on an assistive robotic system for elderly. We need to know maximum weight that a human chest can bare. It would be grateful if I get links to associated literature.
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Hi all,
This type of data can be found in automotive injury type publications. I cannot remember his name but there was an american engineer who used to hit himself in the chest with hammers etc at the start of this research, I think it was for General motors. However, automotive standards and test centres have this info to hand, eg MIRA in the UK, as do companies such as volvo (who pioneered seat belts)....no need to redesign the wheel just look out this type of data. Also a good data search for automobile trauma will supply the info you need.
The last obvious point of call is CPR data, this data will be given somewhere too.
Good hunting.
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The term 'comfort' is very important in the case of rehabilitation robots since the human interacts closely with the robot. How do we define comfort from a kinematics point of view in rehabilitation robots (exoskeleton robots)?
I think that the manipulability of the kinematic chain gives a good measure of comfort - in other words, a high manipulability index gives good manipulation, which in turn gives better comfort. I would like to know others viewpoints about defining comfort in kinematic terms. Also any good references are welcome.
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To say a robot is comfortable or not, it is better to define this from a task-perspective. Different tasks will require different arm configurations. So I think "task wrench" may also be useful for you.
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There are reports of new generation orthosis designed to improve the gait of people who have difficulty in walking. It seems that these devices are not powered by external batteries, but are purely mechanical and provides assistance by storing and releasing kinetic energy generated during walking. Any one has experience in the use of such devices? What are its clinical outcomes?
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Kickstart is one of the devices in the segment. There are few others also going through clinical evaluations
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I am working on a robot model which is 4 dof. I did the modeling and now want to find out some performance parameters for it. One of them is manipulability. I found one measurement which was based on the Yoshikawa index. So I want to know how to apply that to the robot? I want to get a Matlab plot about variation of manipulability over the workspace. Can anyone explain the process for this evaluation?
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You need the Jacobian matrix of the robot / then compute its determinant (MATLAB code : det(J) if J is the Jacobian matrix)
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What do you think about using EMGs to not only qualify but also quantify motion activity and capabilities? What about using them as "sensors for closed loop control"?
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EMG is dominant for motor control related tasks, e.g., prosthetic manipulation, however EMG is very noise, besides there are more practical issues, EMG-based technology cannot overcome.
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Thermal, electrostatic, electromagnetic?
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I found also this interesting article...Comparison of Energy Harvesting Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks
But still I cannot come out with a suitable and promising solution...
Is anybody practically using one of these technology in his/her design?