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Questions related to Regional Economics
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I would like to build ranking, which will reflect regional innovational and digital potential. My initial idea is to run regression analysis and see, which factors are significantly related to the gross regional product. After that I would like to choose only significant factors and used them as a data for building up my own ranking. I know, that there are a lot of different ways on how to build ranking, how to normalize values of the variables and etc. and it is not the question, which i would like to ask.
My question is: can i somehow use regression analysis in order to determine weights of the factors in total ranking, which i would like to build? For example, i build regression of explanatory variable on gross regional product and, using/transforming coefficients estimates from it determine that factor x1 has weight 0.2 out of the 1 in total rating, x2 has weight 0.6 out of one in total rating and x3 has weight 0.2 out of 1 in total rating.
It is clear that i can not compare coefficients estimates between each other, except for the case of standartized coefficients or when regressors has the same scale and meaning. However, i am not sure whether it is correct way, since i have not found any good supporting literature in order to justify this intuition.
I will appreciate any help)
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The most important thing is that you have the relevant and accurate data.
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Usually we use the two terms interchangeably in our articles but whether is there any technical difference between them?
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I guess the difference is in the words implication Vs recommendation. Implication is the outcome result following your analysis, while recomendation is what you proposed or your choice of outcome to follow.
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I would like to research the role of innovation subsidies (for both public research and private R&D resarch) on regional economic growth. Firstly, I would like to show how subsidies affect innovation activity in regions and then, hypotesize innovation activity & regional growth relationship. What could be the best econometric methodology and model for both phases of the research?
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What future for industrial districts? We will discuss it at ERSA2020 in Bozen next August. Would you like to participate with a presentation? Submit an abstract! Here all information about the conference https://ersa.eventsair.com/60…/call-for-abstracts-and-papers #districts #industry4.0 #economicdevelopment #clusters #industry #industrialdevelopment #localdevelopment #papers #specialsession #urbanrurallinkages #sustainabledevelopment #paper #research #economics
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Peter F. Colwell Dear professor, your are right. A definition of industrial district is essential. This session would be a sort of starting point for the discussion. For this reason, it focuses on two pillars, the first is precisely methodological and wants to investigate the methods for the definition of districts. The second is structural because it wants to investigate the resilience of post-economic crisis districts. Thanks for your suggestions, they are very useful.
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Dear all,
I am Valentina Cattivelli, a senior researcher at Eurac Research (Bolzano, IT) and I am a guest editor at Sustainability (IF 2.5).
With this, I would like to invite you to submit a paper within a special issue "Social farming for Social innovation and viability in rural areas". This special issue will contribute to the current debate on the green care movement, presenting some innovative solutions and business models to apply social farming as an innovative diversification strategy. The Issue will focus on the impact that social farming activities directly or indirectly have on the social-ecological transformation when fostering environmental knowledge building as well as well-being in and with nature. At the same time, it will evidence how social farming strengthens social capital in rural areas through the dissemination of culture and traditions in agriculture, the provision of social services, and the integration of people at risk of isolation. Additionally, the Issue will present applicable governance and legal framework strategies from their countries that provide legal certainty, regulate the quality of services, and ensure financial viability. Finally, it will investigate how social farming contributes to shifting agricultural activities from purely primary production towards service delivery. This extension of multifunctional farming enables new income opportunities to avoid farm abandonment and to counteract the typical phenomenon of de-growth, which rural areas are dealing with: demographic and agro-structural changes, brain drain, unemployment, vacant houses, or lacking services of general interest. If interested, please get in touch with me.
There is the opportunity to have a reduced fee (under certain conditions).
Thank you
Best regards
#socialfarming #socialagriculture #social #sustainability #research #socialinnovation #urbangardens #innovation #callforpaper #papers #italy #europe #agriculture #regionalstudies
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Dear Valentina Cattivelli , A pleasure to greet you, I commented that three weeks ago I sent you an email, with a potential summary for the special edition that you address in the sustainability magazine.
The address to which the contribution is sent is: valentina.cattivelli@eurac.edu, I consider that it is wrong since I have not received any response, whether we obtained a reduced rate or not.
The email I sent you is mheredia@uea.edu.ec
I look forward to your comments.
Regards,
Marco
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My proposal for a PhD project is to examine the concept of a 'shared coalition' for a self-organised regional agency / entity that seeks to lead entrepreneurial activity within a regional economic development agenda/context with a focus on regional entrepreneurial ecosystems literature/theory.
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Thank you that has been insightful. I am in Australia.
Carl
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I am looking for ideas and suggestions on how to picture (by photography, drawing, painting or what else comes to mind …) the rural-urban-nexus as it aims at a holistic, integrated and sustainable development of regions by strengthening the urban-rural relations.
The development of cities, peri-urban and rural areas is functionally closely intertwined. The new funding measure “Stadt-Land-Plus (Urban-Rural-Plus)” of the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) facilitates research to implement an efficient resource-saving land management on a regional level while safeguarding the interests of cities, peri-urban and rural areas.
However, meeting this target is challenged by a lack of knowledge about the interaction of urban-rural relations and the sustainability of regions, in particular with regard to material flows and establishing a regional circular economy as well as with regard to institutions and processes to improve balancing the interests between urban, peri-urban and rural areas and actors.
Any recommendation on how to put such a complex topic into a photo or illustration would be highly appreciated.
The BMBF funding measure “Stadt-Land-Plus” is part of the “Flagship Initiative ‘City of the Future’” under the third BMBF framework programme “Research for Sustainable Development – FONA³“. https://www.fona.de/en/stadt-land-plus-21638.html
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Dear all,
Thank you for the thoughts and inspirational ideas. Our challenge is to illustrate everything on a single picture that is both technically and emotionally speaking for itself, i.e. the rural-urban specificity is pictured in a correct and clear way, which is easily understood - and the photo addresses a personal level of communication by demonstrating a behaviour or state that is a day-to-day situation and that could be "you and me" - in other words, it is a topic that everybody should be concerned about. - Our approach for the moment is to think of situations (e.g. cycling for leissure or with fresh fruits from a farmers' market; waiting for a bus; harvesting; walking; ...), in which a pair or small group of persons interacts and where the background is indicating the rural-urban links in addition to the persons (who's clothing and accessoires can aslo indicate a rural or urban background - according to stereotypes [that are questionned]). For the background, we intend to use drone imaging to get a suitable deep perspective into the countryside/urban skyline. I will keep you updated and will be posting the outcome. If you had further thoughts or suggestions, please add them.
Thank you!
Best
Stephan
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The economic literature shows a growing interest on investigating the regional economic performance as a result of changes in macroeconomic policy i.e. monetary and fiscal. The contributions are grounded primarily on VAR models and hence provide empirical insights. The motivation behind rests in the recognition that a better and deeper knowledge about the regional effects may help design a more accurate macro policy. Initial investigations highlight the heterogeneous responses but more research is needed to put at work not only new empirical methodologies but also theoretical economic models.
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The study includes a three-dimensions; regional entrepreneurial opportunities, peri-urban economic development and outward migration to peri-urban areas. 
please, I am looking to know the indicators of regional entrepreneurial opportunities. 
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Where do the patent lawyers live? In the US, the live in the Washington, D.C. area, in Silicon valley, and in Rochester, MI. Why do you suppose?
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I am looking at the literature and seems poor on this aspect. Has anybody ever noticed / studied / developed a work on how a specific energy technology (or even an innovation) gets adopted by neighboring countries demonstrating a specific sequence of adoption stages?
I would highly appreciate any thoughts, sources, papers etc.
Thank you in advance.  
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Thank you very much Hamit !!
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The "border effect" literature contrast interregional-intranational trade versus interregional-international trade, through a dummy variable in a gravity model.
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I am especially interested in the process of regional structural change there as to textile and clothing industry and the consquences this had for the city's economic situation.
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Thank you very much. Zhat sounds really helpful! Kind regards
Rüdiger
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My dependent variable is the area of the construct land, and the rate of increase will decrease by the area increasing. I think as the proportion of construct land increase the city will control the land use. Each city has different administration area, so it may be not properly to use the logarithmic transformation. This may have the Marginal efficiency problem.
PS: Very appreciate for some related papers!
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Let's start at the very beginning. You need to be testing an hypothesis. So where do you get an hypothesis? Find several published papers that deal primarily with a particular hypothesis. These papers may differ with respect to their conclusions. Why do they differ? Well, the data may differ or the form of their model may differ. It sounds to me like you are looking toward cross-sectional data, so it may be that you are doing this for different cities in a country. Perhaps others have looked at other countries. It is possible that in other countries there are different proportions of undeveloped land within cities . . . perhaps there are different regulatory climates or something like that. So maybe the proportion of land area that is developed could be a function of the rigor of the regulatory climate. This would require you to have a proportion on the left hand side of the estimating equation. This would be a limited dependent variable. As a result, you might consider first converting the variable to the odds of being developed (divide the proportion developed by the proportion undeveloped) and then take the log of that. So the bottom line is that you might very well be well-advised to use a log transformation.
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I'm looking for recent studies (or literature review) on the relationship (cross-country, individual country or regional analysis) between human capital (education, lifelong learning) and the distribution of income, starting from the pioneering work of Mincer (1958). In particular, I'd be interested in studies on regions or areas of a country. Thank you all
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Thanks for the references!
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Introduction.
A. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) will “provide financing to any entity or enterprise operating in the territory of a AIIB’s member, as well as to international or regional agencies or entities concerned with economic development of the Asia region.”
The AIIB’s strategic goals are:
1. sustainable infrastructure development
2. cross country connectivity
3. catalyzing private finance .
 
B. “One Belt – One Road” (OBOR) Project is within frames of the AIIB’s mission. Therefore the investments outside Asia could also be financed by AIIB, especially railway tracks, logistic centres alongside the OBOR’s paths, general cross-continental road infrastructure.
C. I take as assumption necessity of cooperation between EU and South-East Asia region in long-term perspective (increasing PPP, number of inhabitants, regional advanced technology investments, alternative in market diversification strategy, FDI opportunities as a base for TNC expansion).
D. This is a fact that Chinese FDI placed in EU are focused on:
1. exploration of various industries know-how
2. advantages of access to the European resources within domestic market (EU market)
3. and advantages of gained specialization within a value chain.
Questions:
1. Do European companies perceive OBOR as opportunity for their development? If yes, in what categories:
a/ expansion through FDI’s,
b/ participation in foreign investment projects?
2. Where geographically could they expend? Which sectors are preferred?
3. Do the strategies of companies development very between various EU countries? Different expectations of advanced technologies countries and those where lower labour cost factor is their main competitive advantage?
4. How GDP structure impacts on interests in the OBOR development within EU? Are export orientated countries (e.g. produced in Germany goods and exported, have a significant share in German GDP) more interested in cross-country connectivity improvements, than countries utilizing this paths mainly for import?
5. Does the train road change a lot in the course of maritime cargo well-being? Could one notice other determinants refocusing the transportation means towards inland areas?
6. And finally, are the AIIB’s funds expected by EU countries as co-financial means of such infrastructure projects on the territory of EU (Poland, Slovakia, Hungry, Czech Republic, Austria, Germany or even further towards West)?
Kind regards,
Karol
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Dear Karol,
thank you for your interest in the FIW project as well as your interesting and detailed questions regarding our policy brief on the “One Belt – One Road” (OBOR) strategy.
Our policy brief approached the analysis of OBOR from an international trade perspective. To answer your question, a firm-level survey would be necessary. The results might, however, be sobering: Even if European companies would like to engage in infrastructure investment projects, we think that the probability of large-scale employment effects is pretty low given the excess capacities that China has to reduce, particularly in the construction sector. From a political point of few, the direct participation in infrastructure investments would be most desirable, as it would go along with direct employment effects.
Regarding sectors, it really depends on the expertise in the country. In the case of Austria, we do have special expertise in tunnel construction and cable cars, which we could bring in directly in foreign investment projects. We could also be attractive for cooperation in the field of research or as a ‘gateway’ for trade with Southeastern and Eastern Europe, given the long lasting trade relationships and geographical proximity. Other countries for sure are competing for projects in the fields of construction of power plants, railways, harbour infrastructure and telecommunication networks.
Geographically, I would argue that a strong focus will be given to the Western Balkans, given the Chinese investments in Greek harbours. But regarding the economic and political turbulences in Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan, I do not dare to speculate on whether European firms are eager to invest in countries along the “one belt” land route.
If we look at the current plans of the ‘new sild road’, it appears that in Europe countries with low labour costs will be recipients of investments, whereas countries with a comparative advantage in technologies compete in strategies how they can actively participate in these investments. Whether FDI destination countries can profit from employment effects is questionable – again: due to the Chinese excess capacities. Although Eastern European countries do have a cost advantage over Western European countries, they probably don’t in comparison with Chinese labour.
In general, I can follow your argument, that there should be a difference in the perception of transport infrastructure investments, whether an EU country is a net exporter or net importer. My counter-question is: Is this question valid for ‘the factory of the world’? As you have already mentioned, it is more or less only Germany, that in the EU (also sometimes Scandinavian countries and the BENELUX states) that run surpluses. So one might want to distinguish the effect for Germany (the greatest net-exporter) and the rest of the EU.
I think your argument is, that net exporters appreciate better trading routes, whereas net-importers fear these developments. For OBOR this might not be true, as particularly low income countries and net importers are targeted by investments, stimulating the economies.
New train connections will for sure impact maritime transport, e.g. potentially shifting cargo from the Netherlands or Italy to Greece, with further on land transport to Eastern and Western Europe via rail.
Projects of the AIIB which have already been approved do not target European countries. Also in the future, AIIB investments will not focus on investments in Europe, but the presence of many European countries within the AIIB signatories might allow for more inclusive projects (involving EU members’ firms and expertise).
Best wishes,
Julia
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I am studying strategic management process and performance of 6 companies in two countries. Three companies in country A and three companies in country B. I want to know if it necessary or compulsory to control for age, firm size and location
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If we want to investigate true nature of cause and effect relationship between strategic management process (IV and) and firm performance (DV) then it is necessary to control the other variable that can have possible effect on dependent variables. 
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Regional identity, for the purposes of the hereby research it can be adopted, with a degree of simplification, that it is the sense of identification with a certain fragment of space which is perceived as part of ourselves.
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In general terms, the place-based identity is hard to be addessed at regional level.
Regardin the design aspects, may I suggest the following paper?
Carmona, Matthew. "The place-shaping continuum: A theory of urban design process." Journal of Urban Design 19.1 (2014): 2-36.
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There are many growth models and they focus on economic output. However, we know that development has some other aspects. I am trying to build a multi-dimensional approach including both social and economic variebles. I constructed a regional devleopment index and I want to use it as "socio-economic output of regions" and construct a model for development which includes the role of public policy. I just wonder if someone encounters a theoretical model for multi-dimensional socio-economic development.
I will be really glad if you could direct me to correct references.
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Dear Cihan Kizil, I suggest you the following article: ttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/263543604_Desarrollo_local_competitividad_y_apertura_economica_en_Tamaulipas
It proposes a regional (municipal) development (socioeconomic) index and deals with some other interesting aspects of economic development at the territorial level.
Best regards!
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The question is, how to prove / estimate, on what characterisitcs do have impact large, medium, small and micro companies. Supposing large companies would  have impact on unemployment and GDP I could use these two + average wage. Do you have some other ideas? Problem is the data availability (data from Czech Statistical Office). What methods would you use? How to eliminate (minimize) the influence of others factors? Is the only way of solution using appropriate statistical methods? What about qualitative explanation? What about the time delay?
Do you know some articles dealing with this, i.e. impact of companies according to their size, exluding / minimizing other factors?
Thank you very much!
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Radka,
If your ultimate goals is to be able to assess the overall level of those systemically stable elements of a business's activities which have enduring 'local impact'and at the same time recognise that business activities are not events occurring at a point in time but are processes of which time is an attribute of each of the effects of each of its actions, then you have immediately placed your work outside of the CGE orthodoxy of mainstream economic analysis,  Not an uncommon place to be for most development economists when they become focussed on delivering real results for real communities rather than marketable policy recommendations for PR and political rhetoric purposes of central governments.
In the former case your route should take you into the methods, tools and concepts of the evolutionary and institutional approaches within economics.  It should encompass all the behavioural, organisational and legislative institutions whose operation flows through time and create an institutional landscape characteristic of the context of each target community, and of those more remote communities whose landscapes' characteristics are themselves determinant factors in the conduct of the local operations of those firms whose ownership and control is influenced by the norms and values embedded in them and which differ from those of the local target's institutional context (as described by its local institutional landscape).
It sounds complex but, when you have visualised it, the idea is quite simple.  With that idea you have a framework inside of which you able to more easily conceive of those factors which you seek and to design the measurement methodologies which are appropriate to their nature.  Overall assessment of what will be a profile of disparate metric types might best be approached by another 'landscaping' approach. This time based upon a 'radar diagram' representation may be rather than the multi-dimensioanl 'surface analogue' by which institutional landscapes might be compared and assessed.
This part of a such a methodology might equip you in seeing how business size might be correlated with the systemic exportation through transfer payments and profit attribution of labour value to the detriment of local goals for long-term development, stability and the social cohesion which changes in income disparities tend to damage.
This approach might also provide the framework within which might be studied the effect of re-purposing and redirecting of local labour into directly creating and evolving local institutions that are conducive to the sustained development, support and maintenance of local social, physical and organisational infrastructure that are conducive to raising the efficiency and effectiveness of the local community in producing and increasing value which feed directly into the 'well-being value' experienced as a lifetime flow for each individual and their households.
The same methodology, applied to the current institutional landscape, and the firms operating within it would identify those behavioural and policy institutions, operating upon and within the local community, whose main function are, in practice, to facilitate the 'export'  to more central, and hence remote, communities value produced by local labour through their local economic activities.
Given the characterisation and detailed understanding of these two states it would create a locally relevant contextual framework of the present and future institutional landscapes and suggest the policy paths, whose evolution and implementation would lead to the evolutionary diminution and, perhaps, abandonment of those institutions of the present which are antagonist to the desired development goal.  Similarly, those policy paths would include elements which lead to the creation and enhancement of those institutions which are then being seen as promoting the local development goals.
Moral and ethical integrity, of global international force and validity, can be embedded within the target developmental institutional landscape for each locality.  This can be done by integrating into the desired institutional landscape those elements which are consistent with that set of institutional elements, that as a set are regarded as necessary and sufficient, for that institutional proto-landscape which is deemed to describe and define the conditions essential for any society or community capable of durably, resiliently and sustainably conducting its life in strict accordance with the aggregate agreed wisdom of humanity as expressed through the normative declarations of those statutory international bodies we have established since 1948 and which are now evolving out of their infantile stage into some form of co-responsibility and credibility.
The same methodology of landscape building applied to the current body of pronouncements as a whole would perhaps be very instructive and salutary for us all to consider.  It would be expected to identify those elements in what has already been said and agreed which are in fact antagonistic to the overall goals and perhaps serve various local interests and have no place in the setting of a holistically relevant, universally applicable vision of a humanitarian future by which humanity may not only survive and evolve but in which every lifetime lived can also take pleasure in doing so.
Radko,  The approach you choose to take now cannot employ a methodology that is not yet in existence.  However, the birth of that methodology can be facilitated by researchers such as yourself developing, in the course of their own work small elements and tools, and employing specific conceptual frameworks, in argument, which are consistent with its ideas.
Human behaviour has and continues to evolve.  Societal development, at the social and the economic levels, is one of continual evolution and these elements are completely intertwined and are characterised by flows, and flows within flows.  Some order is imposed upon that river flowing through time by degradable and modifiable conduits of different strength, diameter and length... they are our institutions.  The river has many tributaries.. the isolated communities in our history. But, we can now see that it will always be characterised as being a flow passing through a web of channels around many obstacles... these are our geographic and environmentally determined regions.  They lie in ever changing patterns as they present themselves and we pass them by... but always as one river.
This river of institutions and regions is itself comprised of molecules of water... each one of which is you and I, and every other person.  The river is us.  No molecule is any different from any other, and through the twists and turns as the river runs along its bed of time any molecule may end up in any channel, in any conduit and each remains a part of the whole, entitled to be in the liquid which is the water of the river.  End of metaphor...before I stretch it too far.
The point being that you cannot model the behaviour of any part of a river using a time series of statically calculated equilibria at each moment along the chosen axis of time and extrapolate and predict future states of equilibria beyond the present moment.  Using our metaphor, you know that there are conduits, ending, starting, flexing and cracking.  But you do not know which, where or when.  Just that they will.  The same goes for the obstacles up ahead, the channels opening up and those which are closing ahead of you, even dead-ends forming.  You know that they will occur and again do not know when,where and which.  
Any physicist would die laughing at you if tried to build such a model and would throw a tome or two describing basic fluid mechanics at you as he took his last gasping, hilarious breath.  You may be still alive.  But you are wrong and he was right!  At least, demonstrably more so than yourself.  Fluid mechanics may only hold a few useful tools, or even just concepts to help our thinking about ourselves.  But we can be quite sure that no living creature has or ever will be able to rationally arrive at any optimal solutions to most of life's problems in any useful way at the individual level, and so when aggregated their behaviour cannot be expected to be done in any accurately representational manner.
NP-hard problems make up most of life's decisions, we do not calculate solutions to them, nor could we for the most part.  We have evolved, and continue to evolve, other means to handle life's complexity.  Much of that methodology is now institutionalised in our newly acquired technologies and tools.
For more discussion of this I refer you back to what I mentioned many words earlier.   A seminal textbook, bringing together foundational and coherent argument, more suited to handling and studying the realities of life, its societies and its economic activities, in particular, is in the making here on RG.   Prof Shiowaza being one.  One might also delve into http://afee.net/
I expect I haven't been much help to you in producing you next paper, but it can sometimes be useful to take you eyes off the ground at your feet and gaze for a while at the horizon....  if only to check that your path is still set towards the sun and not away from it.  :-))
Robin
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An effective understanding of business clusters and business incubators is important. Regional economic growth / development and strategies are also salient. 
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The third generation of Science Park model; innovation district model
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I'm trying to raise a doctoral dissertation regarding the regional urban economy. and I'm looking lean on some empirically proven methodology that supports my proposal.
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I have conducted survey and fieldwork about awareness of and demand for Islamic loans in Norway and I am looking to expand the research. I am particularly interested in work in sociology or anthropology or religious studies. 
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Abdul, thank you. I do not really use LInkedin, and I was hoping to find groups here in RG.
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Primarily looking for research related to regional economic consequence due to marine port stoppage (e.g., labor dispute, etc.) for a long-term period (greater than 1 month). 
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You might find the case of the seamen's strike on Canada's Great Lakes during 1947 of interest. The government declared a state of emergency and established a special administrative structure to keep shipping in operation.
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I need to critically discuss the basis on which Germany, Sweden and France are similar to each other and different from the US and Japan. Which theoretical framework shall I use? In fact, I need to understand the importance of using the framework too. Please guide. And suggest, any reading material too.
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I believe that the person asking the question should be more specific in what he or she is seeking to measure. For example, do you want to compare the European countries (which ones?), Japan, and the United States on, say, economic performance, political governance, economic freedom, income inequality, levels of human development, educational attainment, management of diversity, receptivity to refugees/migrants, civil and political rights, etc.? 
You may want to look at existing comparative studies of these countries, such as those undertaken by Transparency International (corruption perceptions); The Fraser Institute, Vancouver, Canada & The Cato Institute, Washington, D.C.  (economic freedom); Freedom House, New York (civil and political rights); World Bank (Worldwide Governance Indicators); and so on. By consulting the documents published by these organizations, you can determine the methodology that they use.
I would be able to suggest a theoretical framework for analysis if you were more specific. 
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Distances from employment centres?
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There is a paper about urban centrality by Rafael Pereira Moraes et al. at
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Does exists any dynamic stochastic model applied to any state of the U.S. or of any other country? It would be more interesting if the state in question were big enough in relation to its country.
The closest that I found was models for countries within the Euro zone, but without trade connections with countries outside this zone.
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Probably not, because data on imports and exports from one US state to another US state, if exists, is probably unusable.
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I am willing to explore an empirical study on shadow economy in Nepal. Nepal currently experiencing double obstructions: one from the 'Madhesh based parties through road strikes; another from the Indian unofficial blockade. As a consequences the supply is heavily dropped and the price take-off. Now, there is substantial growth of 'shadow economy' in Nepal. However, Government of Nepal has intervened the growing 'shadow economy' but the actions are not enough to stop the new growing rom environment for 'shadow economy' as there is consistent demands from overwhelming public specially goods are fuels and energy like petrol and cooking gas. 
In order to explore the growing market failure, I am willing to know how to measure the market inefficiencies and how to measure 'shadow economy'? 
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There is a voluminous literature on how to measure the shadow economy, alternatively known as the informal, hidden, underground, cash-in-hand, etc economy. Basically, one can either use indirect measurement methods that use proxy indicators or direct measurement methods that are based on surveys of participation. 
Your question, however, asks about the impacts of the shadow economy, which is a different question to measuring it. The shadow economy has different impacts on different stakeholder groups. These include formal businesses, shadow enterprises, formal workers, shadow workers, shadow economy customers, governments, economies and societies. There is a large literature on the impacts of the shadow economy on each of these different stakeholders.
Have a look at my ResearchGate page for numerous publications which examine not only how to measure the shadow economy but also its impacts on different stakeholder groups. 
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I want to show the impact of socio-economic variables (eight) on Child Sex Ratio using census data of 2001 and 2011 on seven municipal towns.
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You seem to have more variable than observations. No chance to get any kind of useful insight from this. For any numerical variable and any level of a categorical variable (and each considered interaction) you should have at least 5-10, better more than 30 observations. Given that all your eight socio-economic variables are continuous (or dichotomous) and that you do not analyze any interactions between them, you need at least about 80 observations, better about 240 or more!
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What are some of the alternative ways (other than federal funding) states can pursue to fund public services such as transportation planning, paying for police and fire services and improving education? Usually those services are funded by a combination of state tax income and federal funding. How can tax-free states generate alternative income to pay for such services?
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Don't know how much longer, if there are any nation, that can remain tax free (zero incidence of tax for the populace?). But there are certainly things governments can do to rid themselves from tax addiction. Re-nationalizing lucrative industries often changes the existing structure of rents if contracts can be renegotiated, innovative incentives can be re-engineered with the relevant stakeholders . Thereby increasing the economic efficiency of these industries and paving the way for even less tax reliance and increased public revenues to finance public projects and services. A case in point is Bolivia, where policy episodes alternating between nationalization and privatization in the hydrocarbons sector has yielded interesting policy lessons.
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There is a number of central government expenditure which the implementation is done in province scope such as capital expenditure, I would like to analyze the implications of the central government spending on regional economic growth and poverty.
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We must not forget that one of the most important challenges is represented by strong and often increasing regional disparities in growth and development. Many governments have spent a great deal on trying to reduce such disparities and occasionally there has been some success, such as the situation in France in the 1960s to 1980s.
However, we keep seeing in country after country the disparities either being maintained or even increasing. I think that one of the main reasons has to do with the indirect and unforeseen consequences of government spending in major urban and metropolitan centers.  One can understand quite easily why governments spend large sums of money in these urban settings ... there are always difficulties to be resolved such as inadequate infrastructure (e.g. highway infrastructure in many large Western cities and metropolitan centers) or helping alleviate poverty (very understandable), but some of this spending simply makes such large urban centers even more attractive leading to increased migration from regions undergoing economic difficulties towards these larger cities and metropolitan centers. It's like a vicious circle and government just does not seem to understand this, and the difference between resolving short term problems and at the same time reinforcing larger scale (in terms of geographic consequences on regional growth and development) problems.
Chris Bryant
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Regional integration models and Central America regional integration
References recommendations
Relationship between regional integration models and development
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Thanks so much Monica for recommendation! I think Bulmer-Thomas work is very good but I'm also looking for works that analyze current regionalism and the regional integration focus on central american case. If know any other work please let me know.
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By production I refer to the activities generate by higher education institutions like graduates or research outputs. 
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Dear Soriel,
1. I would like to bring an  "out of the box" answer, to your question about regional human capital production. In the first view the answer of Hasan Mohsin, above is correct and seems adequate. Looking about Human Capital Stock and its determinants of production is generally oriented to the indicators he highlighted above. But these indicators usually highlighting economic growth through "advanced formal education and scientific research",  fall short to explain the realities of human capital accumulation in local areas and regional economies and their specific economic growth. As we can observe easily in many countries, economic growth may vary between regions. Those disparities between regions cannot be explained even by capital accumulation disparities only or human capital production in the classical terms. There is much more to put in Human Capital than education & science.
2 . For Regional Economic Growth, Please be careful about selecting these traditional determinants of growth like education graduates or researchers numbers or pure academic papers in peer reviewed journals. A lot of literature about the "Terza Italia" in the 80's, for example, has alredy signalled that education and formal R&D budgets are not all the secret of the game in Human Capital accumulation, nor the differentials of growth. These indicators have to be balanced, by an "efficiency index" in knowledge acquisition and use. The way you think what knowledge is and the way you use it, make an awesome difference.
3. Despite decennials of general education, Knowledge efficient use and effectiveness in some countries is very low. This is empirically clear in the Mena ( middle east and arab countries). Countries. Investment in Education does not correlate automatically or richly with economic growth. That makes a large growth difference.
4. It is not only a matter of education quality or budgets, strictly speaking. It's more deeply due to a cultural biaises about what is knowledge for. For example in most islamic countries Knowledge "El ilm", is still confused with sacred knowledge expertise. In the same time, practical and efficient knowledge and expertise is not respected as it should be.  Look also to the ideological differences between France, or latin south europe countries, like Spain or Italy, which favor theoritical knowledge and The American Attitude toward more practical efficient knowledge. For example, there can be a paradox of regions highly regarding knowledge through their education budgets, but despising practical innovation or change. There may be also great differences of perceptions and cultural keening between regions and places about entrepreneurship spirit and risk taking, as well as entrepreneurial solidarity. So we can see, that cultural or ideological orientations about what is authorative knowledge or highly regarded style of knowledge, in a region or a country, or a group of countries, make the difference, albeit the same dotations for modern higher education or research ( for example : a percentage of a whole national or regional budget). Money and Academias are not enough, for explaining economic real growth rates. Social Capital is a key player. Look at the paper of KWON " Nations of Entrepreneurs, a social capital perspective".attached.
5. You should also consider that innovation and competitiveness, which are considered as main conducers to growth, do not only stem from formal R&D. Read for example the excellent and pragmatic works like those of Oliver SOM and allis books : " Innovation without R&D", "Low Tech industries Competitivenes"", etc for a country like Germany..As well as the works & books  by Hartmut Hirsch- Kriensen. In one of Hartmut Hirsch Kriensen, you have 2 excellent critical papers, one from Benoit GODIN "the moral economy of technology indicators", and the other from Hariolf Grupp " Critical Comments on The Moral economy of technology Indicators".
4. In spite of all these warnings "out of the box" and politically incorrect" I do Hope you, Dear Soriel, an interesting and creative research
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Does it form with high multiplier effects in some countries (regions) than others?
does location matter?
does tourism follow an evolutionary path or do we need more focused policies?
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Not only does it have a core-periphery structure to it, it seems to be related to a "circuit" structure. Perhaps a relic of the Grand Tours of the past? This observation is based on cities and their roles as gateways into other tourism regions
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I would like to be informed about the related literature
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by looking at regional and local budget data.  might start with tax sharing at the regional and local levls
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Transportation corridors are becoming key road maps for economic development in developing countries. I would wish to engage this topic and find out whether its the most sustainable developmental approach for regional integration. 
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There is a long history of the study of interdependence between transport and development. On the one hand transport points with initial favorable advantages can be drivers of growing economic activity. The development of the system after that is likely to be guided by the goal of linking the areas with the greatest development. (See Taaffe/Morrill/Gould for an idealized typical sequence of development.) I have thought a good deal about this problem and there are more nuanced and elaborate ideas at the heart of your question. On the other hand, a lot of this thinking has a bias towards growth and "more is better." This idea is not without its problematic aspects.
Building a transport corridor and expecting that development will automatically follow is probably not going to be the way it works. Much more likely is that the transport corridor linking places CAN possibly become the nexus of a set of advantages in terms of accessibility that will lead to further positive feedback (also known as “circular and cumulative causation”). One of my favorite versions of this is the work of Friedman and in some ways Hirschman where the complex concepts of spread and back wash and spillovers point to the idea that a transport advantage can lead to more positive effects (in terms of further locations and clusters). Now, one of the surest ways to have a growth corridor is to have a link that connects large nodes which themselves are active points of production and consumption. Friedman I think coined the idea that growth is focused on corridors linking places that are a highly interactive. In some ways the push into the ex-urbs beyond the circumferential highways that ring US cities occur along roads leading to other centers. One can also see the effect of attempting to “bundle” and market regional economic access as an asset as in say the areas of North and South Carolina in the US.
I am leaving aside for others the more critical issue of whether a corridor with concentrated growth and development can actually have some negative consequences for the indigenous forms of crop production and economic land use in developing regions.
Thanks for the provocative question, and I look forward to other replies
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Variations in development of any region are dictates of the available resources and the levels of their development, thus presenting regions as developed, developing, and under-developed regions. The main goal of regional planning as a field of study is to promote regional development.
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If the utmost goal is 'regional development', then when do we say a region is developed. Are we equating urbanization with development?
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Regional economic analysis
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An important topic of regional analysis.
The word DISPARITY implies lack of equality between people or things; dissimilarity.
Indicators of development, occuring in the region of study,  should be used. All / most developmental indicators have different units, so they should 1st be brought on an equal level / unit for measurement.
Disparity can then be measured by using the following popular methods:
i) Composite Index;  ii) Range;  iii) Coefficient of Variation;  iv) Gini Coefficient;  
v) Theil's T Statistic;           vi) Range Ratio. 
I have used first four methods individually and in combination, for calculating spatio-temporal dissimilarity; the results thus obtained are near to reality.
After calculation, the results must be mapped cartographically, ie., a chorochromatic map should be plotted. The map drawn gives an idea about the actual location patterns of dissimilarities within micro, meso and or macro areal units.
Hope this information satisfies you.     
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I would like it has a strong profile in econometrics and applied analysis.
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At our University of Luxembourg we offer a Master in Geography and Spatial Planning and are closely collaborating with the Economics Department. Our prof Geoffrey Caruso has a strong background on spatial econometrics. 
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There are different attempts to measure well-being on the national and international level (OECD Better Life Index, Human Development Index, Database of Happiness Research etc.). Are there similar studies on the regional level? We are trying to do such research for Salzburg and wonder if there are some examples.
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I know a German study called "Quality of life in the regions: an exploratory spatial data analysis for West German labor markets" by Karsten Rusche:
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What about open source GIS?
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A good survey of the field of historical GIS is Ian Gregory and Paul Ell's book _Historical GIS_.
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In a regression I am using the following dependent variable: [(investments_2012-investments_2011)/turnover_2011].
Should I denominate this variable "the share of investment in turnover" or "the share of investment on turnover" or "the share of investment with respect to turnover" or ...?
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The way I see it, the most natural logic of your measure is 'change in investments as a share of turnover'. One thing that is not obvious is why you take the difference in investments before performing the division. Your rationale for the additional step may better inform the designation of the variable.
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I am interested in looking at the policies of small governments concerning population change. For example, how does a county manage an aging population or decrease in labor? Some of the counties in Midwest America are continuing to lose young labor especially in rural areas. What can those counties do to reinvent themselves and replenish the population?
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I recommend
Theorie generale de la population / A. Sauvy. - Paris, 1963.
Kapellari E. Europa 2001. Nadzieje, do świadczenia, wyzwania / E. Kapellari // Moralny
fundament Europy czyli o cywikizacj ężycia ; Mat. sympozjumu “O solidarność rodziny narodów Europy”, 13-14 maja, 2001 r. – Lublin, 2002. – S. 157–168.
journal articles:
Jacques Véron La Théorie générale de la population est-elle toujours une théorie générale de la population? (http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/pop_0032-4663_1992_num_47_6_3925)
little information of public importance: