Science topic

Recycling - Science topic

The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
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There is a debate of what's going to happen to those "obsolete" solar panels that will be discharged in the next ten years.
My first observation is: we know that there is a great potential in second hand panels because most of them can still produce electricity. This is more evident in third world countries where there is enough space to compensate for that loss in efficiency.
Second observation: even if the panels efficiency is 10% is still tempered glass with a frame which can be used for shading of open areas and could replace at a quarter of the price other materials such us policarbonate, acrilic or even thick non tempered glass !
Imagine you could cover your roof or porch with this "useless" solar panels and have a great picnic area, have playground for your children or even a green house where you can grow your veggies.
For me, the possibilities are end less.
What am I not seeing here? Is it possible that the logistics prices will out run the economic benefits? How about the environmental and social benefits?
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Dear Martin Espinoza:
At the first, and as you know we can say
the following:
The energy industry has been experiencing a radical change and the gradual shift towards renewable energy sourcing is more than evident. Nevertheless, not all that looks sustainable stays that way upon the end of its life cycle. At least that is the most common worry regarding photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. They are a sustainable source of energy, dependant only on solar radiation, and capable of delivering electricity to our homes.
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Recycling Process:
An ideal recycling system would recover as much material from solar panels as possible. There are different methods to recycle solar panels, which can include some or all of the following three steps:
Removal of the frame and junction box;
Separation of the glass and the silicon wafer through thermal, mechanical or chemical processes; and/or
Separation and purification of the silicon cells and specialty metals (e.g., silver, tin, lead, copper) through chemical and electrical techniques.
The industry is new and still growing, with researchers examining how to commercialize recycling to economically recover most of the components of a solar panel. Elements of this recycling process can be found in the United States, but it is not yet happening on a large scale.
Recycling is already established in the glass, metals, and electronics industries, which can accommodate solar panels and other solar power system components. These processes typically involve crushing, shredding, and milling, usually after removal of the frame and junction box. In these processes, glass, aluminum, and copper may be recovered and the other materials, including the silicon solar cells, may be incinerated.
Thin film cadmium-telluride panels, which represent a smaller part of the solar market, undergo a different recycling process. At least one U.S. manufacturer runs dedicated recycling facilities for thin film panels which recover the semiconductor material (cadmium and tellerium) in addition to glass and copper.
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Solar Panel Reuse:
Another way to keep solar panels out of landfills is through panel reuse, either by direct reuse or after refurbishment. When reused, solar panels get a second life generating clean energy at a different location. The secondary market has not yet gained traction in the United States, and regulatory considerations include electrical grid interconnection regulations, and fire, building, and electrical codes that must be examined when planning for solar panel reuse. However, there are many beneficial ways solar panels could be reused in situations where they aren’t connected to the electrical grid, including electric bike or vehicle charging stations, or other remote locations.
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Also take a look at:
I hope it will be helpful ...
Best wishes ....
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We are working on recycled PP for blow or other applications. We would like to reduced the MFI of this material from 20 to 12 or lower. Pl suggest.
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For such significative changes in MFI, the best is to use active rheology modificators. As an example, I'm attaching a table of MFI modification results for PP with different percentages of MAP rheology modification additive.
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What kind of plastics cannot be recycled? and what makes them non-recyclable?
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Not all plastics are recyclable.
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There are several concerns about physical, mechanical and chemical properties for a concrete surface (with CDW recycled aggregates) in a coastal line. I wonder if there are any experiences developed about it and results.
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Read my paper on Recycled Concrete Aggregate Leachate: A Literature Review. Look for citations to Clark et al. 2013.
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Is the PH value higher in recycled aggregate or natural gravel, what is the explanation for this please?
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Where did the natural gravel come from? because pH is closely related to the source.
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I need to know the complete calculation how much mol percentage of palladium is left after recycling my catalyst do that I can understand how much metal has leached from the prepared catslyst
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ICP AES gives the concent of Pd in the catalyst, which is a absolute content value. (0.658-0.358)/0.658*100% of Pd was leaching.
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We are looking for a suitable sorbent to remove phosphorus (relatively low concentration of ca. 1 mg/L PO4-P) from lightly brackish water with around 6 PSU (Practical Salinity Unit, ca. 10 mS/cm), which can subsequently be reused as soil conditioner / fertilizer. So far we considering sorbents such as coated/modified biochar, calcareous materials or even recycled material such as crushed concrete according to various literature. However, we were wondering whether there is a sorbent which is specifically suitable for such a lightly brackish water.
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I´m interested in the water usage of C&D recycling plants in relation to the capacity (water [m³]/waste [t].), following a "dry" treatment process to produce recycled aggregates. I´m assuming most water is used for cooling/irrigation for dust reduction. Thank you for any hints towards helpful information.
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Hi,
it depends for what the water is used for. Here are some options:
- Density separation (swim-sink) to remove light fractions (wood, etc.)
- Wet sieving to remove fines
- Washing (log washer) to remove fines (more sophisticated)
For washing, you can assume 1-2 m³/t. However, note that most plants don't have an outlet, but only a water inlet. The water is circulated, few amounts are leaving the plant by evaporation, the product, and the filter cake from the washing. These few amounts are substituted with fresh water.
I realized that there is few good literature on wet CD waste treatment plants, so we are currently working on a paper describing the sampling of a wet CD waste treatment plant in Austria. Hope to publish it until the end of the year. A shorter version should be available in the proceeding of Sardinia 2021 (Blasenbauer et al.)
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Hi everyone, i'm a student and a user of Simapro. In my actual study i need to modify an existing process on simapro. The particular process i have in input is chromium steel 18/8, but i need to define that the 70% of the composition of that material comes form recycled steel. Can someone help me please?
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Thanks Jeremy for the advice, I'll absolutly try this method in my study.
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milk, baby formula has an expiration date beyond which it is unfit for human consumption. Manufacturers, who must discard millions of pounds of outdated formula annually
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Yes, harnessing that as an ingredient in formulation of animal fed is possible. You only have to follow the principles of feed formulation including purpose, nutrient requirement of animal, inclusion rates, among others. Very importantly you need to ensure the quality and safety of the that ingredient before its use.
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The demand for metals in the coming decades is expected to be booming due to the revolution occurring in the car industry and energy supply toward greener options. This phenomenon has led to a dilemma of how we should supply the metal required for this transition and achieve zero carbon emission targets. So my question is should we focus on mining new primary sources or pay attention to retrieving metals from generated solid wastes? What can be the proportion of each strategy in supplying metals? What's your opinion?
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One day in the future mother earth will be depleted of primary resources. This is a fact that you can not deny. The immediate question of when a primary resource of metal will deplete depends on several factors like changes in demand for metal with the world exploring its novel applications or meeting the demands of the growing population. After the depletion of primary resources generated solid waste will be the only source of metals. So recycling metals from secondary resources like e-waste will contribute to the increasing demand for metals partly in present (till the primary resources are depleted) and completely in future.
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I am preparing polymeric blends from recyclable materials. What are the characterization techniques that should be used and how to prepare the samples (IR, DRX, SEM, TEM, etc)? Could you suggest technical sources and papers/books?
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Thank your for your answer! I'm going to read te papers.
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--- For all the Cities / Towns along the Rivers in India, the task of establishing the Sewerage Network alongwith Sewage Treatment Plant might not be a feasible option immediately at this point of time. So if all the Waste Outfalls / Drainage Channels leading to the River can be initiated as a points of Bioremediation ( onsite treatment option ), then it may eventually provide the scope for its' reuse or recycle for different meaningful purposes. Finally, as a whole the the pollutants loads to the Rivers might get reduced / minimised.
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Treatment of wastewater onsite is a biggest issue as well as space and scope in developing countries
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I need to find a proper method to prepare sample solution by digestion for Pt-Pd-Rh elements from spent automotive catalysts. Any suggestion except application of microwave-assisted digestion would help me.
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Dear colleague,
I am sending the following decomposition procedure which we used in the analysis of catalyst samples [1]:
1 g of the catalyst samples was weighed in a 50 ml beaker. 15 ml of
freshly prepared mixture of acids (5 ml conc. HNO3+15 ml conc. HCl)
was added to the sample and the beaker was covered with a watch
glass. The sample was left to stand for 1 h at room temperature in
order to prevent vigorous reactions. After that, the sample was heated
for 6 h on a water bath and allowed to cool down slowly to room
temperature. The content of the beaker was transferred quantitatively
into a 100 ml volumetric flask and filled up to the mark with redistillated
water. The undissolved material (γ-alumina+silicates)
has settled down and the supernatant solution was subjected to
analysis by ICP-AES. The volume of the solid residue is less than 0.4% of
the final volume.
Please, see Ref.[1]
REFERENCES
[1] P. Petrova, S. Velichkov, N. Velitchkova, I. Havezov, N. Daskalova “Problems, possibilities and limitations of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in samples with different matrix composition”, Spectrochimica Acta Part B 65 (2010) 130–136, doi:10.1016/j.sab.2009.12.005
With kind regards, N.Daskalova
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Hello! I have a problem with a reformer kinetic implemented in Aspen Plus. I have a PFR reactor that need to be closed with a recycle. In this recycle there is a very small amount of H2 that invalidate the kinetic and gives me error, this is because in the reaction rate expression, some terms are divided for the partial pressure of H2, and therefor being so small, is like dive everything for zero and that is causing problem in the converge.
Is anyone of you familiar with such problem? There is a way to "eliminate" a component from a stream is present below a certain amount?
Thank you
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Thank you very much for your answer. I am still not practical with Aspen Plus since I focused for a lot of time on Aspen Hysys, I will try to insert the design specification you suggest. I am working at 15bar and 950°C, the molar fraction of hydrogen that i would eliminate is 10^-7.
I will reach you out is any help is needed.
Thank you and wish you the best
Asya
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Hello everyone,
I’m currently searching statistical data about the use of plastic in food packaging and the waste derived from it, but I don’t find first hand updated information about it. Could you recommend me any publication, website or institution where I can obtain information?
Thank you for your attention
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We know that, thermosetting plastic is a kind of unrecyclable material. It's melting point is estimated to be around 6000 degree C but starts to degrade at a temperature above 250-350 degree C. On other side of story a huge industry is already there remolding/recycling the thermo plastics. In such senerio taking thermosets as a sand and thermoplastic as cement, can we make a mixture of thermosets and thermo plastics with more durability like a concrete formed by mixture of sand and cement? What might be the challenges on this process? Is this way feasible? Is there any other better idea for recycle of thermosetting plastic?
I am 1st year 1st semester student of civil engineering. Hope to get your respond......!
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It's not a bad idea actually, It would be something like filler (thermoset dust) reinforced thermoplastic composite. However, the whole intention of developing composites is to get the optimal system that has derived the best properties from each constituent material. In the case of thermoset, it might have high specific strength/modulus but I am not sure if that could be translated when reinforced with a different material system especially thermoplastic as host matrix. I have seen literature where small amounts of up to (5-10 %) thermoplastic polymer are added to thermoset systems primarily to improve useful properties like impact resistance or fracture toughness.
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I am working in the waste tires recycling area so, I am wondering if the problem of sand moving as a result of wind (which causes various obstructions for drivers) can be reduced by using waste tire rubber or other material. I would like to know is that possible? Is there anyone who has any idea about that?
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Your solution is very appropiate,is althougth interesting
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Example:
1. You use Material 1 in Biology and after using it, you recycle it in Chemistry to come up with Material 2.
2. You use Material 1 in Biology and then its product is used in Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science.
3. Or any related activities that make use of similar or related ideas.
If you can share also your related studies, I highly appreciate it. Thanks!
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I used 1 material in biology lab and recycle it that's used it in Field work
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Good morning, I am trying to understand whether pharmaceutical glass (Type I, II, and III) can be recycled in the US. Specifically my questions are as follows:
Glass (Type I, II, and III glass (used in pharmaceutical vials etc).
  • Can these be recycled?
  • If the caps are plastic, should they be separated or kept on?
  • If the glass is coated on the outside with PE or PVC, can it still be recycled?
  • Are there any limitations on recycling the container if it held a hazardous material?
Any guidance or related links/documents would be helpful!
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Quite honestly, I have worked with recycling initiatives of small towns in the US. I learned that recycling even the regular glass from municipal solid waste (e.g. beer bottles) is challenging for recycling industries. In other terms, many recycling facilities only focus on plastic and aluminum recycling, the glass being unacceptable in the recycling streams. Hence, in my opinion, the potentially contaminated glass waste streams, such as those from pharmaceutical applications may not be feasible to recycle industrially. Moreover, it comes out of a medical facility, then it will be subjected to completely different regulations and might need to be autoclaved/ incinerated.
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Using electricity, a new method offers the possibility of recycling CO2 while also performing a notoriously difficult reaction, producing compounds potentially useful for drug development.
Scientists at the Institute for Chemical Reaction Design and Discovery (ICReDD) in Hokkaido University have developed a method that has the potential to help recycle waste CO2 while also producing molecules useful for drug development.
They demonstrate that a wide variety of substrates that exhibit highly negative reduction potentials can very efficiently undergo this unprecedented dearomative addition of two CO2 molecules.
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I don't have full access to but I would wonder how the waste CO2 was scavenged and what process generated the CO2. If the dearomative dicarboxylation needs a high purity, pressurized source of CO2 in large quantity, a CO2 emissions scavenging system may not be able to produce that without the input of additional materials and power that could have a larger carbon footprint than would be recycled into the dicarboxylated product. One should look at the all of the CO2e inputs and outputs to determine if the system is recycling CO2e to the net benefit of the climate. That includes the source of electricity for powering the electrodes.
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Diverse organic resources like crop residues, dairy generated manures and byproducts from agro-industries are available for recycling in agriculture. It is known that these organic sources provide plant nutrients, improve soil properties and help mitigate climate change. So efficient organic recycling with the diverse organic resources is very important from agricultural production and climate change mitigation point of view. But to get real benefits from this, how to upscale the recycling at farm, village, regional and country level?
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Over dependence on chemical fertilisers and pesticides andnon-judicious use of synthetic agrochemicals is posing serious threatto ecological balance. Enormous amount of organic wastes are generated from plant, animals and industrial activities in day to day life. A considerable part of which remains unutilized and are either burnt or dumped nearby sites that create pollution, harbours pathogen for diseases and causes severe problem of disposal. The recycling of organic waste through composting is viewed as a sustainable approach for waste management as it provides a valuable source of organic matter for enhancing soil organic matter content that is being deteriorated due to various anthropogenic activities, and it is recognized as a reliable approach for improving different soil properties. Considering growing deficiency of plant nutrients in crop field, higher cost of synthetic fertilizers and poor efficiency of chemical fertilizers, the organic wastes recycling for plant nutrient supply is becoming more essential for replenishment of plant nutrients, sustaining soil health, reducing the pollution problem and creating employment opportunities. Cycling organic waste through vermicomposting an organic cast obtained from the ingested biomass by earthworm.
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I tested my compressive strength samples at 3, 7, 28, 56,91, 182, and 360 days for standard concrete and recycled aggregates concrete. Up to 56 days, standard concrete samples behave better than recycled, but at later ages, especially 182 and 360 days, recycled aggregate concrete is better in strength increment.
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Thank you, Eng. Shuraik Kader for discussion
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Dear all,
As we all know that the rate of using display technologies has been soaring up with each passing day. The need for glass materials for display devices such as smartphones, touch screens, or the like emerges as indispensable. In this sense, what are their rate of recycling and/or reusing for fostering the circular economy model, as well as towards carbon neutrality aims? Can anyone help to realize the facts in terms of statistical data?
Many thanks in advance for your kind contributions.
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in general two to three times
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Catalytic depolymerization of polyolefins is a promising chemical recycling strategy to create value-added products from waste plastics, which are accumulating in landfills and the natural environment at unsustainable rates. Consequently, what is the cheapest way for the chemical recycling of polypropylene (PP) and what will be the product or products? All posts are welcome. Thanks for your kind interaction.
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Dear all, chemical Recycling of Plastics is showing continuous progress. Please have a look at the following attached free access documents. My Regards
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How many times actually we can recycle the solar panels? Is the recycled one cost less? Does using the recycled one affect its energy absorption efficiency?
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The commertial pv construction of the modules is all solid sate such that the solar cells are firmly bonded to the gals superstrate. Accordingly, one can not repair them. Only when their get inoperative they recycles by crushing then together and converting them to powder that can be used in building materials.
I tried to find a solution to this problem by introducing a repairable modules. But nobody payed attention to them.
I would like that you follow these types of modules in the links:
Best wishes
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I want to isolate Plasma membrane, ER from cultured cancer cells for lipidomics. Would like to discuss the protocol for the same and your experience, any suggestions welcome!
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Hello all,
What are the possible polymers that can sustitute commercial polypropylene? Such substitutes should be "chemically recyclable", that is, depolymerizable into monomers and the monomers are repolymerizable. Examples and relevant publications are needed!
Thank you.
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Dear Olawale Sanusi, there are many approaches followed for such a goal. Please check the following documents. My Regards
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I am looking for articles or case studies that quantify how long and by what method an education and outreach campaign persists long-term. I am looking for environmental campaigns but would take input from the health sector too. For example, if a recycling program provides multiple targeted education and outreach "touches" to get households to recycle a particular commodity or keep a particular contaminate out, how long would one expect that the change would last before needing to go back into the community and message again as a reminder? Any research with not only short-term evaluation results but an analysis showing "long-term" change using targeted outreach for an environmental action would be welcome.
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Life long--Please see the attachment, where the researchers are going in deep forest to aware the people about the medicinal plants
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I work for FL Fish and Wildlife Commission and have 50+ old Wild turkey non-rechargeable VHF and GPS transmitters that no longer work. Does one know what options I have for disposing or recycling them?
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We are going through the same issue. We have decades worth of old, unrefurbishable VHF collars. I contacted the companies and generally, they are Lithium Chloride batteries. We discharge them fully and send them to our HAZMAT contractor for incineration because the batteries are encased in resin and are not easy to remove.
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During the DC casting process of aluminum alloys, the use of bone ash, which contains Ca, is widely used and in many cases overly used and thus creates the potential for significant Ca contamination when recycling the scrap over and over. What effect will this have to the oxide generation on the surface of the as-cast product?
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In this project we need to compare the environmental impact of two valorization routes for a shielding antistatic bag: incineration with energy recovery and chemical “destructuration” in formic acid followed by mechanical recycling of the different layers.
We already identified that the anti-static bag was made of 2 layers (one of PE, one of PET (there is an aluminium layer that is out of our scope in that case)).
Once we have our flow sheets for the two valorization routes, does someone can help us with the quantification of our inputs/outputs? Are we supposed to check on SimaPro or with some scientific literature?
Then, we'll be able to compare the environmental impacts of the new valorization/recycling processes with the incineration process based on a life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis
Thank you :)
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In general dentistry metal waste materials are discarded as biomedical waste and handled with other biomedical waste materials,is there any special way of discarding or recycling the metals?
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What are the examples of eco-innovations that can significantly reduce the scale of environmental pollution and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow down the faster global warming process?
Currently, the problem of growing garbage with unsorted waste is ignored in many countries, but because in the future the negative aspects of the problem of environmental pollution, including plastic, will grow, so in the future other countries will also try to solve this problem.
The problem of environmental pollution with plastic waste is one of the key global problems. This problem should be solved in all countries, and above all those that "generate" the most. The European Union has already undertaken specific measures in this direction, eg by introducing legal regulations under which plastic will be withdrawn from packaging by 2021 and replaced with biodegradable materials such as vegetable origin. However, these regulations concern only European Union countries.
Similarly with other aspects of environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, some large global economies are currently ignoring growing problems. But such an approach must be quickly changed, because there is little time to implement pro-ecological reforms, primarily in terms of reducing environmental pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
As regards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to reform the energy sector in such a way as to switch from the production of electricity based on the classic energy based on the combustion of minerals to technologies based on the development of renewable energy sources. In addition, it is also important to develop electromobility in the automotive industry and other types of transport.
The global warming process is progressing faster, the scale of the negative effects of climatic disasters and weather anomalies, which are a consequence of the ever-faster global warming process, is increasing. There is little time left, according to climatologists only max. over a dozen years to implement the necessary ecological reforms and innovations, including in the area of energy development based on renewable energy sources, to stop or even significantly slow down the ever-faster global warming process.
In addition, one of the main types of eco-innovations includes innovative technologies for building zero-energy houses and residential buildings. The special design and materials used ensure low energy consumption and closure of the energy cycle in a cycle in which household power plants generating heat and electricity based on renewable energy sources are an integral part, primarily through the use of photovoltaic panels and wind farms.
As part of the implementation of the necessary pro-ecological reforms, it is also necessary to develop eco-innovations that will improve the automation of waste segregation and recycling processes. In addition, it is also important to create innovative technologies for the creation of new biodegradable materials that will replace plastic in packaging.
A good solution is the use of packaging made of biodegradable materials of origin, eg vegetable, on the basis of raw materials in the form of crops. These types of packaging could be consumed after their use, such as plates and cutlery made of rice or other cereals, or could be processed into compost for animal feed or for fertilizing arable land, or for incineration in a specially built incineration plant.
In connection with the above, the increasingly common application of ecological innovations, which are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to limit, slow down the faster global warming process, will also contribute to increasing the scale of sustainable green economic development realized according to the green economy concept.
These processes of implementation of ecological innovations and implementation of pro-ecological reforms should be conducted in all countries, and to the largest extent in developed and developing countries, industrialized countries, including the largest economies in the world, which are the largest emitters of greenhouse gases and producers of garbage and non-degradable waste, toxic or hardly degradable.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What are the examples of eco-innovations that can significantly reduce the scale of environmental pollution and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow down the faster global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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On 1.11.2021, Earth, which is very important for the future of our planet, began at the UN Climate Summit COP26 in Glasgow, Scotland. A little earlier, i.e. during the G20 summit preceding the Glasgow summit, the target of reducing CO2 emissions was set so that in the current 21st century the temperature increase would only reach 1.5 degrees C. Based on scientific research and predictive models, it is estimated that 2.7 degrees Celsius, the temperature of the atmosphere will increase, even if all the previous Paris decisions and the previous COP climate summits are implemented, it is too much. It is necessary to urgently create further ecological innovations and capture CO2 from the atmosphere so that the increase in the temperature of the atmosphere at the end of this century stops at 1.5 degrees C. Until now, the temperature of the atmosphere has increased by 1.1 degrees Celsius compared to the pre-industrial era. It is necessary to urgently create and implement new pro-environmental innovations and ecological technologies, thanks to which the green transformation of the energy sector will be fully accomplished during the present decade of the 1920s. Only in this way will the increase in the temperature of the atmosphere along the current path of growth, estimated at around 2.7 degrees C at the end of the 21st century, be significantly reduced and we will avoid the climatic Armageddon at the end of this century.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I am looking for literature discussing about the recycling system of battery grade NMP.
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Dear Dr Farid,
It is my pleasure. Thanks a lot for your time and consideration. As you mentioned, I try to get suitable literature from the cross-link approach.
Best regard
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In spite of constantly improved waste segregation systems and recycling, the problem of growing garbage dumps on which waste is not biodegradable and polluting is still growing.
In view of the above, will replacing all plastic packaging with their biodegradable substitutes solve the problem of rubbish?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Yes
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The CO2 used in supercritical extractions can be recycled?
If yes, for how long can we use the same CO2?
If no, do we despose the same amount used in the beginning? Does it have the same chemical and physical structure?
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Dear Guilherme, Yes it is! But you need intelligent engineering and detailed productivity evaluations. Under certain constellations, it is the most productive technology. See https://chromatographyshop.com/instruments-tools/pic-solution-sfc-sfe-systems/
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With the increasing demand, the consumption of metallic materials is increasing. But the primary sources of these materials (ores) are limited. So, there is an urgent need for an efficient recycling technique to meet the increasing demand. There are mainly two techniques, powder metallurgy and casting, used for recycling metallic materials. Which is the better technique, powder metallurgy or casting?
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Just came across this question. Slightly unrelated but aligned to re-cycling in the foundry environment.
Please see my paper on recycling waste foundry sand:
The paper also looks at alternative methods of recycling waste foundry sand.
Hope this might be of some use to your overall topic.
Best Regards
Martin
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I am urgently looking for information on the amount [t] of waste from used photovoltaic panels and lithium batteries at the level of Poland, the EU and the world from 2019 with projections until 2050.
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i know about ash,,recycling concrete,,bottom ash. rice hick ash ....any thing else..?.. 
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We know that producing the cement causes harmful effects on environment. So any waste material which show pozzolanic behavior can be used as a replacement of cement viz. waste from paper industry show pozzolanic behavior.
Regards
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Since it is well known that PET waste is an important environmental issue, which is the most common use of PET waste in your country?
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Hi,
I would need to prepare a review on wastewater treatment and recycling solutions for treatment of water from wash downs of aircraft and parts. Since it is not my typical area of expertise I would appreciate if you can help me with some links or your experiences. Do you know some airports and way they treat wastewater from planes and parts washing? Thanks a lot.
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Have a look at Guernsey Airport, it was upgraded around 2013 by a company I worked for. Part of the design included considering residue from the fire-fighting chemicals that were occasionally washed down the drainage system during tests etc... So there should be some information about washing down air-frames.
The same companies involved have portfolios around the same time for other locations in the world. Quite a few were island projects with combined military and commercial airfields that involved dealing with WWTP projects tied into the site.
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Water efficiency in built-up environment: Any study on the use of sustainable drainage techniques to clean up/recycle household & industrial wastewater?
Household wastewater (grey water - with or without wastewater from kitchen sink & black water)
Industrial wastewater (please specify)
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Does anyone know the answer to this question: Can Black holes be a recycling process of old stellar material to produce a new one?
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So the idea that I've proposed in my question we recently confirmed:
First detection of light from behind a black hole https://phys.org/news/2021-07-black-hole.html via @physorg_com
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Life Cycle Analysis is considering ideal situations of recycling, etc. For example when using EcoInvent database in simaPro, I can't see how to get real-life scenarios of landfills. Anyone who had already worked on LCA of real-life landfills / discharge in Developing Countries ?
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Of course yes. They are available for many aspects like, Municipal waste water, economic performance, Zero Liquid discharge and others. This is a common practice.
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I have residue of solid silica and I want amorphous nano-silica in 4-6 hours? Which technique or process will be more efficient to bring down the size of silica below 100nm in 4-6 hours?
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The normal route to nanosized SiO2 is via flame pyrolysis of SiCl4. So, first convert your SiO2 to SiCl4 as per the attached patent and then flame pyrolyze as per the attached paper. Alternatively order fumed silica (e.g. Aerosil from Degussa) - probably the cheapest route.
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I am looking for a partner for starting a new innovative project in area of sorting and recycling plastic waste.
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I recommend you to read my published paper
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There seems to be interest in circular economy thinking of the type production-consumption-externality such as produce-use-recycle or firm-consumer-pollution cost, which means this thinking is still business as usual thinking, but with a plus.
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The Brundtland commission (1987) wanted us to go beyond business as usual to properly address the environmental crisis, which Rio plus 20 conference (UNCSD 2012) took to be to shift to green economy thinking, which would lead us to think that by this time end of 2019 those heavily involved in RIO + 20 2012 should have by now a sound and accepted idea of circular green market economy thinking....But that seems not to be the case.. .and curiosity in my mind is why not?
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It looks to me that academic attention since 2012 has been misplaced and given to a non-green circular process, which raises the question posted above: Circular economy thinking vrs circular green economy thinking, which type of thinking should be now the priority, if not the rule in the face of the environmental crisis?
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What do you think? I am interested in the views/ideas of the participants not on views/ideas of third parties.
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Wish an excellent new year to all!
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Green Circular Economy.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Renewable energy sources?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Renewable energy sources.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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A very hot question today. Thanks to the colleague Chinaza Godswill Awuchi for the interesting information in this area. I fully support him.
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In hot mix recycling, "organic rejuvenators" require lower dosages than "petroleum rejuvenators" to decrease the Performance Grade temperature (PG Temp.) of the hot recycled blend.
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It's a very good question. I do not have the answer. But what I have seen is that anyway the structural response would be greater with the oil-based rejuvenators. This article shows some results that we arrived at in a study:
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Dear All Researchers and Engineers,
We are organizing an International Symposium on Construction Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Technologies (CREST) during 10-12 March, 2020. On behalf of the chairman Prof. Hemanta Hazarika, we would like to invite all those interested in participating in the event. Please send your abstracts and papers, which will be published by Springer.
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Hi dear Divyesh.
Today, the growing need of society for buildings and housing, the need to use new building systems and materials to increase the speed of construction, lightening, increase useful life and earthquake resistance of buildings has become more and more. In this regard, upgrading the scientific and professional level of the engineering community and familiarity with new systems and building materials in order to apply these systems, is inevitable. Solving problems such as long construction time, low useful life or high cost of construction of buildings in the housing sector requires the provision of solutions for practical use of new building systems and new building materials to reduce weight, reduce construction time, more durability and ultimately reduce costs. Is run. These measures are considered essential for sustainable development. Also, in the long run, these efforts will reduce the waste of construction materials and consequently meet environmental needs, optimize construction, increase housing production and achieve optimal operating conditions. On the other hand, such developments will lead to the expansion of infrastructure investments in the housing sector, especially by the private sector, which will help governments achieve their housing goals.
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In india many rural people are creating jugad using some garbage and recyclable waste saving so much of natural and man made resources।The people making such rural tecno products must be rewarded as they help us to save lots of energy fuel human labour and natural resources।
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Excellent, I agree with you
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In my opinion, such factors as effective waste segregation, recycling, reduction of plastic packaging, development of renewable energy sources, electromobility in motorization, afforestation, architectural ecological innovations, etc. are one of the most important factors to enable real implementation of sustainable pro-ecological development based on a new, green economy.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: What are the key determinants of the implementation of sustainable pro-ecological development according to the concept of green economy?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion
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Dear Aref Wazwaz,
That's right. The key determinants of the development of pro-environmental activities, the implementation of sustainable development goals, and the pro-ecological transformation of the economy are multifaceted and relate to various spheres of human activity and the development of civilization.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I need help in knowing the economic feasibility of waste recycling projects, especially in developing countries where unemployment rates are high. This is on the one hand, and on the other hand, how does waste recycling contribute to achieving environmental sustainability.
All contributions and responses are accepted from you with appreciation
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I have found the following attachment very interesting, hope it would be useful for you too dear Dr Zeinab !
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In 2017 more than 11.4 million tons of solid glass waste was produced.Since the last 3 decades glasses have been used in many construction elements mainly in GFRC. While using the glass, the glasses cant be directly used in the construction process and first it needs to be molded into shapes and size and nature as required. While adding chemicals to the glass or while melting the glass to give different shape and sizes what further effect will it carry? Is it possible to complete eradicate the solid glass waste either by recycling or by using it as a construction material? And also can glasses replace the aggregates or sand?
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You may see the below-given article for your question.
With warm regards.
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In the case of water splitting the water oxidation (OER) is the bottleneck for the process and because of the harsh conditions of the WO reaction, molecular catalysts with high TOFs are not stable in the matrix and quickly decompose. On the other hand heterogeneous catalysts are more stable but they often do not have high TOF quantities. Now what is your opinion about the future catalyst type? Will the ideal catalysts fabricated by turning the molecular catalysts to heterogeneous catalysts ( by loading the molecular catalysts on the solid surfaces ) or it will be from the single atom heterogeneous catalyst type?
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Dear Sina Safavi thank you for initiating this interesting RG discussion. Although we are inorganic chemists, I'm not an expert in this field. However, I agree with Yurii V Geletii in that there is no such thing as a true catalyst. In this context I suggest that you have a look at the following relevant article which has been published Open Access. It is stated there that future catalysts should be "low-cost and earth-abundant":
Earth-Abundant Electrocatalysts for Water Splitting: Current and Future Directions
(see attached pdf file)
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Plastic is now integral part of our life. Plastic industry is growing with a lot many Environmental problems.
We have various options and technologies but each one has its own merits and demerits.
1. Is it possible to ban plastic? The answer may be a big No.
2. We may ban a particular type of plastic? If yes, what type of plastic could be banned?
3. Reduce it use? But the problem will be there again.
4. Recycling is one good option but not cost effective.
5. Biodegradable plastic is one attractive alternative but not practical or may be very expensive?
In such situations what may be recommended?
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Most plastics are not biodegradable (they do not rot like food, paper, or agricultural product). So, plastics can hang around in the environment for hundreds of years. The thermochemical conversion process ( such as gasification, pyrolysis, incineration, torrefaction, etc.) can be an excellent option to convert this waste into energy. Among these processes, pyrolysis is a suitable one in terms of low cost and small size equipment volume.
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Will waste segregation, recycling and ecological innovations solve one of the biggest civilization problems of the 21st century, which are rapidly growing landfills?
The problem of garbage appeared in the history of the development of civilization relatively late, because only in the nineteenth century, when the first industrial wastes, including petroleum plastics, began to appear.
Previously, it was dominated by the almost complete biodegradation of waste and the recycling of secondary raw materials.
The problem of growing waste heaps and landfills of unsorted municipal waste gradually grew in the 20th century with the development of industry.
The development of the industry was not burdened with almost any costs of environmental protection, cleaning up degraded environment, recovery of recyclable materials from waste.
Proecological concepts of industrial development, waste segregation and recycling have emerged and are practiced on a larger scale mainly in developed, richer countries, because these countries usually produce the most waste but also have financial resources for pro-ecological activities, waste segregation and recycling.
Technological, ecological and material innovations should help in the future to reduce the growing landfills of unsorted municipal waste.
One of the key problems of growing garbage dumps is still plastic, which is not subject to rapid biodegradation.
One of the solutions introduced in some countries is, for example, replacing plastic cutlery and plates in cutlery restaurants and dishes made of rice, bran or other types of cereals.
In addition, the complete elimination of plastic bags used to pack different products on paper or other organic biodegradable materials.
Gradually more and more restrictive solutions will appear. A lot of pro-ecological actions in this matter have been inspired by the above-national rock in the European Union.
But this is just the beginning of this process. The question arises whether the emerging new technological solutions, including ecological innovations, will solve this growing problem?
Will this problem be solved only when pro-ecologic activity begins to be a profit-making activity and not one that needs to be paid for?
But even if the next new technological solutions in the field of substituting plastics with other biodegradable materials, the innovations of ecological innovations that improve the recycling and reclamation of fugitive environments, would gradually solve the problem of growing landfills of unsorted landfills, will a man in this technological progress manage this problem? solve in the XXI century?
Will there be enough time for that? In addition, in poor countries, slowly growing for many years, this will be a serious problem.
These countries are illegally transported un-sorted, unprotected, often very toxic wastes.
In recent years, organized criminal groups have been involved in the practice of smuggling toxic, unprotected waste from rich, highly developed countries covered by restrictions of expensive segregation and neutralization process, securing, proper storage of toxic, non-recultivated waste to poorer countries, not subjected to such high restrictions or in which environmental protection and internal security systems do not work well.
In addition, there is a growing problem of sinking this type of waste in the seas and oceans. This process generates a rapidly progressing process of pollution of sea water and fauna and flora living in the seas and oceans.
In view of the above, the current question remains: Will waste segregation, recycling and ecological innovations solve one of the biggest civilization problems of the 21st century, which are rapidly growing landfills?
Please reply,
I invite you to the discussion,
Please reply,
I invite everyone to the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz
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Highly developed countries should help in the transfer of pro-ecological technologies to poorer countries.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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WoodC.A.R. will establish the needed knowledge base on the mechanical properties, the grading, the processing, the integration and the recycling of numerous wood species and wood composites in vehicle design. What is your opinion about the potential of wood in automotive engineering?
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Dear Ulrich Müller many thanks for your interesting technical question which is still of great current interest. In this context please have a look e.g. at the following relevant research article:
Wood as a Technical Material for Structural Vehicle Components
This paper is freely available as public full text on RG.
Some time ago we also published an article in this area which is shown below. With 128 citations (counted on RG) it is one of our highly cited research papers:
Lignin – an alternative precursor for sustainable and cost-effective automotive carbon fiber
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looking for suggestions or ideas to collect unmelted powder safely from the work table after finishing the job in the laser-based additive manufacturing process (LMD).
also, analysis methods to analyze the quality of the powder collected from the worktable.
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Dear Mehar,
The possibility of recycling the metal powder used in powder bed fusion is tricky. Because it depends on the material and the sputtering particles' size generated due to the interaction of laser beam with the powder. The Aluminum powder can be recycled because the sputtering particles are large enough to be excluded after seiving. Please check the following article for more details about recycling of the Aluminum powder.
Hope that helps!
Best regards
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Despite green market thinking being here formally since 2012 Rio +20 conference finding a definition of a true green market is hard to find even in major publications dealing with green growth and green economies…the term green market a kind of disappeared as we moved towards an environmentally friendly world after 2012, and because it was left unattended in development and economic thinking circles this has led since then to confusion and misused of the term.
Many forms of environmentally friendly markets are called green markets, when they are not. For example, a Google search of what is a green market leads to the following definition in Wikipedia:
--The term "green market" refers to the fact that the resold goods are put back into productive use, which is the most environmentally friendly use of used or discontinued products--
But that is a definition of one type of environmentally friendly market, but that is not the definition of a green market. And this lead to the questions, what is a green market? What is not a green market?. Please feel free to comment, what do you think a green market is and/or what it is not; and why?
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In my modest opinion, green markets are markets where products and services that are less harmful to the environment or derived from the sustainable use of natural resources are traded. They are specialized in the use of goods and services that promote the sustainable use and conservation of natural resources. These markets Colombia has great potential due to its large amount of resources that can be used in a sustainable way and the possibilities of environmental improvement in different sectors.
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How to properly dispose of cigarette butts and ash in the garbage?
I risk poisoning all safe household garbage with dangerous nicotine. In addition, the cigarette butts are very small and light and can be scattered from the landfill by the wind. My city doesn't have a program for recycling cigarette waste, but how can I safely throw cigarettes in the general trash? I've seen the advice on the internet to pack this garbage in a separate dense bag. But I need expert confirmation.
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Maya Yauseyeva there are few experts who are turning cigarette butts into useful products please do coordinate them from your city
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report of environmental and civil engineering of the materials of the building
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This compilation of scientific contributions will assist you in your research. Below I leave a list of the titles of each one of them. I want to emphasize that I agree with the answers of Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman and Kien Vu .
  • A novel artificial intelligent approach: comparison of machine learning tools and algorithms based on optimization DEA Malmquist productivity index for eco-efficiency evaluation
  • BIM-LCA integration for the environmental impact assessment of the urbanization process
  • New perspectives for the green economy in Sicily
  • Environmental impact assessment of galvanized sheet production: a case study in Shandong Province, China
  • Development and deployment of integrated air pollution control, CO2 capture and product utilization via a high-gravity process: comprehensive performance evaluation
  • Rice straw and flax fiber particleboards as a product of agriculturalwaste: An evaluation of technical properties
  • Technical and environmental study of calcium carbonate looping versus oxy-fuel options for low CO2 emission cement plants
  • International Conference on Buildings and Environment, EnviBUILD 2013
  • Thermo-ecological evaluation of nuclear power plant within the whole life cycle
  • Sustainability indicators for education buildings. case study
  • The environmental impact and risk assessment of CO2 capture, transport and storage - An evaluation of the knowledge base
  • The environmental based selection of building materials in office building
  • Process of selection of building materials towards sustainable development
  • A model of carbon capture and storage with demonstration of global warming potential and fossil fuel resource use efficiency
  • Eco-efficiency evaluation of the eco-industrial cluster
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Can anyone suggest me journals with the impact factor between 1-2, for a paper that deals with metal enrichment of e-waste by crushing and air classification? Where enrichment are justified by sink-float and acid-dissolution tests.
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You can search the journal by visiting the site:
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The commercial graphite is purchased from the market. And the recycled graphite is simply and mechanically recycled from the copper foil of a spent lithium-ion battery. There is no leaching process or any other purity removal process on it. Does anyone could help to analyze the Raman spectra and XRD pattern of these two materials?
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Usually one compares the position and intensity of the D (~1350cm-1) and G (~1570cm-1) bands. The intensity ratio I(D)/I(G), typically measured by height of the peaks, is correlated with the degree of crystallinity. The D band is associated with defects of the graphite lattice. Both a perfect graphite crystal and a purely amorphous carbon show no D band. The G band on the other hand is associated with ring vibrations in the graphite lattice.
From what I see, I would say that the commercial graphite has a much higher degree of crystallinity and less defects.
I hope that helps ;)
Check out: Ferrari, A. C., & Robertson, J. (2000). Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon. Physical review B, 61(20), 14095.
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I have tried to find out some review articles on recycling and/or reusing pharmaceutical glass containers. Is there anyone who can help with this search?
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Your shared file seems very beneficial. Many thanks for your kind suggestion.
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The commercial graphite is purchased from the market. And the recycled graphite is simply and mechanically recycled from the copper foil of a spent lithium-ion battery. There is no leaching or any other purity removal process on it. Does anyone could help to analyze these two spectra?
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Hi Zhao Hua Li The raman of your commercial graphite powder tells you that most of the carbon atoms present in the powder are arranged in layer-by-layer configuration (i.e. the G-band at ~1550 cm-1 is dominating). Moreover, in each of the interlayers; the carbon atoms (in your commercial graphite powder) are also forming hexagonal rings (i.e. the 2D band at ~2800 cm-1 is clearly present). However, some small defects in the atomic orientation are also present (i.e. D band at ~1450 cm-1 is also present).
I hope now you can use the above explanation to analyze your "recycled graphite powder". You may note that the D-band has appeared also most equivalent to the G-band (i.e. the intensity ratios of D and G band is almost 0.8-0.9) which means that there are alot of defects in the layer-by-layer orientation of the carbon atoms. The disorientation has also damaged the hexagonal rings (i.e. the 2D band is very shallow).
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I suspect a similar question would be 'How long is a piece of string?
Is toilet paper a western phenomenon only?
Given the apparent lack of toilet paper in supermarkets, it seems pertinent (or impertinent) to ask how long a roll (of given number of sheets; ply etc) would last an 'ordinary' family or person.
Can both sides be used? Can the material be recycled?
What alternatives to toilet paper are there?
What leaves would you avoid (e.g. poison ivy)?
Is there a database for toilet paper usage?
How much can be hoarded before it overwhelms a family?
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According to a study by the industry association for personal care and detergents, every German consumes an average of 46 rolls of toilet paper per year - and thus causes 11.5 kilograms of CO2 emissions. Toilet paper has only been around in Germany for around 100 years. ... 3651 rolls of toilet paper are used by the average German in the course of his life.
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This is a question that keeps popping up in the textile and apparel industry. My understanding is that when heat is added, iterations of the polymer are degraded. I'd argue that there is a lot of potential in harvesting and recycling plastic waste, however given our current recycling system and techniques, we are far from achieving circularity or "closing the loop" via recycling plastic.
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Dear Winnie May Chan,
At present (February 2021), only a few or a dozen or so percent on a global scale. Plastic waste (depending on the type of polymers and other plastics) is recycled. In addition, most of the processing of recycled plastics and the creation of new granular plastic raw materials used to make certain types of plastic products rely on the ground recycled raw material being mixed with about 10 times the corresponding new raw material of the specified plastic. Then specific dyes are added and in injection molding factories producing various plastic products these products are created. Unfortunately, the structure (microparticle, molecular, etc.) of the recycled material changes. Therefore, plastics are not recycled multiple times. When the amount of recycled raw material in the mixture of granulated raw materials from e.g. from the new production of plastics, then the quality of the raw material mixture changes its characteristics and physical properties. In such a situation, the number of types of products that can be made of a raw material mixture with an increased content of recycled plastics is correspondingly smaller. A certain type of raw material mixture can usually only be made once to produce certain types of products with a certain, high level of quality, such as clothing products, materials used in furniture, floor coverings, etc. Each subsequent recycling of the same plastic material usually reduces the properties of physical raw material and limits the possibility of producing various types of plastic products. Recycling processes reduce the number of types of products that can be made from recycled material. In order for this scope to be wide-ranging or not to use the recycled raw material at all in any manufacturing processes for the production of specific plastic products, the amount of recycled raw material in mixtures of recycled raw materials and new raw materials is relatively small. Therefore, at the moment, in terms of the currently dominant technological processes, the possibilities for the development of recycling are significantly limited. In addition, the level of efficiency in the development of recycling is also determined by the efficiency of waste segregation processes into different fractions. Unfortunately, there is still much room for improvement in this regard as well. In view of the above, the scale of development of waste segregation and recycling techniques has to be significantly improved, because the current state is insufficient to be considered an important factor in building a sustainable, green circular economy.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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In most developing countries like Nigeria, low to medium-income earners consume packaged water coming from sachet water. Sachet water is made from LDPE. I am looking at each packaging holistically from LCA, ease of recycling to how much useful products can be recovered from it through recycling.
However, what I find is that the papers on these are rather focused on other things than what I would like to know. For example, while there are several papers on pyrolysis of LDPE, most are focused on the viability of the process and characterising or quantifying the yield. None compares their endproducts gotten from PET or HDPE with LDPE and so on, to highlight the importance of one alternative over the other. So I would appreciate if someone can outline some of the issues associated with each or point me to some resources to get clear guidance on the advantages and pitfalls of each beyond the fact that LDPEs get stuck to machines during recycling.
Ultimately I will like to bring clarity to a question like should the Government ban a product like sachet water because it qualifies as a single-use plastic and is made of LDPE which has the lowest value when recycled compared to alternatives like HDPE or PET?
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I recommend separate analysis for all three plastic products (LDPE, HDPE and PET) in the EoL stage.
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Dear colleges,
I am kindly asking for the information about what kind of solution is implemented to recycle diapers in your country / community?
We are looking for project partners in finding sustainable and ecologic solution.
Thank you a lot.
Kind Regards
Robertina
Recycling
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as a user, in my experience the best is to use cloth dipers. This way waste is reduced, and it can be composted.