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Reality - Science topic

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Epistemologically, scientific realism is (say, mainly) based on the idea that we generate theoretical entities to understand, describe, and discover a structure in the reality; these entities are unobservable, yet they are real, they exist independently from our research and our mind. In other words, these entities are not merely instruments to discover reality; they are real (see Alexander Wendt, for example among others). However, for critical realism (e.g., Roy Bhaskar) this point is not clear for me: Do theoretical entities we generate to understand the "structured reality" have their ontological-real existence independently from our mind? are they real, not merely instruments to understand reality?
thanks in advance
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Agora, entendi, adoro o tema Epistemologia, mas é uma Filosofia difícil como a lógica. Parabéns! Vá em frente!
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Smolin's ideas that physics deals too much with geometrical terms in its answers to questions and that even time is seen as a space dimension and not real have important repercussions.
It means that dynamics, in all its utility& successful description of the world, distorts in this description the view of the world to something that may even lead to unrealist perceptions & these like time being a mere label and its reality undermined
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Physics uses the best mathematical tools to develop theories to explain previous experimental data in a way that can be used to make predictions that can be falsified in future experiments. A theory is of little use if it cannot be tested and falsified. A physical theory than cannot be falsified is not science, it is metaphysics. The reason that any mathematical discipline appears in physical theories is simply it proves the tools in which to describe the theory in such a way it a) be used to make testable predictions that can be used to falsify the theory so it can be discarded or refined. Functional analysis - particularly Hilbert space theory is an extremely useful too in describing quantum theory. However, in and of itself it is incomplete for quantum field theory. Differential geometry is an important tool to describe general relativity theory and a merger of functional analysis and differential geometry provide powerful mathematical theories for the quest for a unified field theory. The current best candidate theory is string theory. Is it correct, only the experiments will determine that. The reality of physics can only be determined after the observation is made through the experiment.
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The prevailing view of physical reality is influenced by the mechanistic view (compatible with Newtonian physics). How new developments in quantum mechanics (experimental confirmation of quantum entanglement) are changing our description of physical reality?
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Nothing has really changed, apart from experimental apparatuses that are now capable of detecting a single spin and such. Founding fathers of math physics and logicians knew all along about entanglement and much more, they simply did not use that particular word, and called states, such as a triplet, strongly correlated.
Moreover. Leibniz published several papers on logic in physics, and how a mathematical description of physical phenomena is not quite (sometimes not al all) what physicists thought they were. In particular, he introduced 2 logical principles, called (following Simon Sanders) in modern logic literature the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) and the Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles (PII), that identify states physicists called "entangled" now days as weakly related (in the logical meaning of the term). Thus, Leibniz argued that within such weakly related conglomerates one could not identify individual particles without breaking that entity. If physicists knew a bit of math logic, many "paradoxes" of quantum theory would not be thought of as paradoxes. Thus, measuring 2 separate spins, ones forming a triplet, and then separated by a huge distance from one another, does not mean non-locality or an "infinite" speed of their interactions. It simply means that one measures a completely different system, which is not a triplet any more and has nothing to do with that original triplet. Once one "separates" the triplet by wishful thinking into 2 electrons, there are only 2 logical options remaining: measuring spin +1/2 or -1/2. So, once Alice measured, say +1/2, Bob (or whoever) would know without any measurements that he would have -1/2 (also, Yuri Volovich discussed this example from rigorous probability theory standpoint). This happens because, in the first place, inseparable entity (triplet) was split in 2 separate objects whose spins were assumed to be known as +1/2 and -1/2. Thus, the original entity (triplet) was broken, and completely different system (2 separated spins) measured. In physics terms, thinking along standard lines about this system (EPR "paradox"), one makes an implicit mistake of assigning an "infinitely" large speed of interaction between the two spins (because there is no other way to split the triplet, and still consider it as that triplet). There is no quantum non-locality in this sense (or paradoxes of that kind), or infinite speeds of interaction in quantum theory. Instead, there are logical mistakes of thinking about one system and measuring quite another, assigning the measured properties to the original system that does not exist any more. One cannot separate electrons in the triplet and keep thinking of them as still being the triplet.
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Scientist never doubts there are reasons the world behave as it does- the search for such reasons is the essence of scientific Discovery.
Realists believe that scientific statements, serving that purpose, are the truth statements about reality, a kind of orthodox stance. They deny experimental measumenrs are theory-ladden.
But others take scientific claims in a lighter light. They see inherent beliefs as weaknesses in the scientific Discovery process that intrrfere in our true realist aspirations. They see experiment al validation as a singly available persuation method for scientific claims and not as the unshaken reality test it is perceive or they keep the benefit of the doubt for such unconsciously twisted attitudutinal reasons as that
because we are material things that are criteria for reality are on its capacity to bring material changed (anthropocentric bias).
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Scientific hypotheses can play a role in supporting or strengthening an argument about the world. Scientific hypotheses are testable statements about the natural world that are proposed as explanations for a phenomenon. They are subjected to rigorous testing through experimentation and observation, and if a hypothesis is supported by the evidence, it can be considered a scientific theory.
Proven scientific hypotheses can provide strong evidence to support an argument about the world. They can also be used to make predictions about future observations and allow for further testing and validation. However, it is important to remember that scientific hypotheses and theories are always subject to revision or rejection if new evidence contradicts them.
It's important to note that scientific hypotheses and theories should not be confused with opinions or beliefs, which are not testable or falsifiable and thus can't be considered scientific. Scientific hypotheses and theories are based on evidence, and they are open to change, revision or rejection if new evidence contradicts them.
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In my current work on the theory of hyperbolic functions, I, as a completely extraneous observer of the turbulent debates relating to the subtlest intricacies of the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT), have drawn attention to the fact that hyperbolic functions are most used not in constructing bridges, aqueduct arches or describing complex cases of X-ray diffraction, but in those sections of the SRT that are related to the name of Professor Minkowski. Since my personal interest in SRT is essentially limited to the correct application of hyperbolic functions when describing moving physical realities, I would be grateful to the experts in the field of SRT for the most concise explanation of the deep essence of the theory of space-time patterns of surrounding me reality.
Naturally, my question in no way implies the translation into human language of the lecture of the Creator of the Theory, the honour of acquaintance with which in 1907 belongs to the academic/medical community of the city of Cologne and its surroundings. My level of development and my agreeableness have ensured that I not only managed to read independently the text underlying the concept of « Minkowski four-dimensional continuum », but also to formulate my question as follows:
Which of the options I propose is the most concise (i.e. non-emotional-linguistic) explanation of the essence of Minkowski’s theory:
1. The consequence of any relative movement of massive physical objects is that we are all bound to suffer the same fate as the dinosaurs and mammoths, i.e. extinction.
2. Understanding/describing the spatial movements of physical objects described by a^2-b^2=const type mathematical expression implies acquiring practical skills of constructing second-order curves called «hyperbolas».
3. All of us, including those who are in a state of careless ignorance, are compelled to exist in curved space.
4. Everything in our lives is relative, and only the interval between physical events is constant.
5. The products of the form ct (or zct), where c is the speed of light and z is some dimensionless mathematical quantity/number symbolizes not a segment of three-dimensional space, but a time interval (or time?) t between uniquely defined events.
6. The electromagnetic radiation generated by a moving massive object always propagates in a direction orthogonal to the velocity vector of the moving object.
Of course, I will be grateful for any adjustments to my options, or expert’s own formulations that have either eluded my attention or whose substance is far beyond my level of mathematical or general development.
Most respectfully
Sergey Sheludko
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Dear Azzam,
I was not talking about you. You know I have no problem to talk science with you. We were talking about some supporters of the theory of relativity, who don't accept the questioning of this theory. You know that.
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How is it that we can have two realities? in the Relativity of Simultaneity ; one in which an event E is already enveloped by a light ray, and one in which the same event is distant from the emission of the light ray, at the time the event E occurs.
What is at fault in the attached animations and spacetime diagrams ?
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Sorry for my comment, but that is a question for a psychiatrist.... rather then a physicist...
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Do you agree with me that academics and researchers should make their research real data from the reality of the situation and work, and bear the concern of humanity and the suffering of people in order to meet acceptance and the possibility of change for the better, God willing?
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No.
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Sad reality: The rapid decline of botanists
I just read an interesting article entitled "Botanists are disappearing – just when the world needs them most" https://theconversation.com/botanists-are-disappearing-just-when-the-world-needs-them-most-186849
Looking for opinions/suggestions from botanists/expert researchers:
1. What's the status of botanists in your country?
2. What efforts are being taken to overcome the declining trend?
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It is indeed a sad reality. We are also highlighting this issue in our 100 Plant Science Questions. Unfortunately, youngsters are neither considering classical plant science (Botany) as a lucrative profession nor funding agencies supporting classical research of the remaining plant scientists. To promote plant science, we need more job opportunities and possibilities for research funding. Although most Indian universities still run Botany or other plant science courses but somehow struggle to produce quality plant scientists (at least in my field of plant science, i.e. seed ecology of wild plants).
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When I teach analysis of interviews or observations, I guide the students to formulate categories separated from each other. Reality is always more vague and overlapping, so the construction is sometimes artificial. My question is whether in qualitative research one should strive for the categories to be disconnected from each other?
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Hi,
The answer is no! Categories are formed to abstract the findings! Moreover the final statement in qualitative research is backed by the main category. Othe categories illuminates other aspects while they are connected to the main category. Don't forget that some concepts could be classified under 2 or more categories!
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Type F ADR are due to failure of therapy like lack of efficacy of lithium, then, why there are called adverse when in reality there is no adversity related to it ?
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Hi,
Type F adverse drug reactions (F=Failure; lack of response) occur as a result of an unexpected failure of therapy.
The intention of the treatment is to obtain a positive response in the patient. The doctor uses the drug for a specific purpose and the goal is to obtain the highest possible benefit from the treatment for the patient. However, if there is no positive response to treatment, it may be an exacerbation of the disease. The process can change its clinical picture. The doctor cannot control the course of the disease. This not only means that there is no benefit to the patient. It also means an increased risk that the disease will move to another stage that will be even more difficult to treat/control. And, depending on the disease, it can be very dangerous/risky way. This is why lack of benefit (no effect) could be defined as adverse (unfavorable, disadvantageous, unprofitable). Lack of efficacy is one of the key elements of benefit-risk analysis (see reference below).
"...lack of expected efficacy (LEE) events should always be reported in the same way as for other adverse events"
"....lack of therapeutic efficacy should be reported within a 15-day time frame. If no seriousness criterion is available, it is acceptable to submit the ICSR within 15 days as non-serious"
Best regards
Tomasz
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Can a state create a metauniverse state? Today, the metaverse is a product of a corporation. It is designed to solve specific business tasks. Is a metauniverse country without physical borders but with most of the attributes of an analog state a reality?
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Yeah baby! It depends on your view of cyberspace, state-ship and sovereign individual rights. My view is that the physical independent states (i.e. China, USA, UK etc) have invested the resources to develop their own slices of cyberspace at a domain level. The 'metaverse' appears to be just slice of cyberspace within some state domain legal framework, owned by a corporate structure that is in turn owned by some sovereign individual/s. Likewise, any (rich) sovereign individual can go buy their own personal slice of domain(ated?) cyber space, build a webpage and make their own similar 'metaverse'.
I think then, that in order to equate cyberspace slices with physical state power, one would need to satisfy at least two ancient laws: 1) Golden rule [the one with the gold makes the rules] and 2) Kings law, aka might makes right law [the one with the power to defend their assets retains the rights over them]. Given the melt-down and tech-up of the post-2020 world, my wild prediction is that an AI space-based cyberspace entity could identify as 'ET status' (a new pronoun), and if ET could meet the two (golden and kings) laws mentioned above then it could survive/succeed in the ALIEN realm...with power beyond the reach of Earth states! Some might call it an 'ET metaverse'...or a Geo Orwellian Dictator (GOD). Others might call it SKYNET...or...a friggin' moon lazer beam...or THE DEATH STAR... tada! How do you like the taste of them apples? It’s coming to a screen in front of your face soon...get your popcorn ready :-)
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What do you consider lowest aspect of consciousness that is not significantly shared by other things?
What is its nature? Why do you think so?
Are there a few alternatives you consider quite plausible, or not? Many?
(This corresponds to Layer 1 in my own 4-Layer view of consciousness).
What do you consider lowest aspects of consciousness that are significantly shared by other things?
How much and where must you refer to the nature of (any actual) reality?
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The question of life and consciousness is diverse. So much so that one must be immune to quackery as well as crackpottery which the so called armchair philosophers keep on offering almost everywhere around forums like these.
The ones you enlisted are only a small chunk of "theories" (whatever that might be) for consciousness. Statistically, there's a lot of work being done on developing models that can iterate the data at hand and make interesting predictions which can be tested on. Logic does help the researcher make heads or tails of the models and figure out if it might be a candidate one to consider in further iterations. The trouble comes in when someone takes the model to be a law or a theorem, and then draws grand conclusions that don't have universal applicability. It just so happens that there's a lot of noise to sift through in ernest attempts to find these laws and theorems.
On the side of emergency modelling, ernest is not the mode in the sense that you're still doing something that more often than not falls short of proper formal test criteria. It'll be more interesting to model certain ideal types and look at what kinds of computational operations and processes can be done as a function of something you only know exist. As you can deduce from other posts, I too have looked into whether consensus gained from sites like cited belief, formal math and evolution will give you useful meanings to interpret and work with. You can find a reading list here:
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Hi, I'm going to apply a 360° Camera Ricoh THETA V model for fast survey and 3D photogrammetry in a research project of documentation of Built Heritage sites at the territorial scale.
Does anyone have some suggestions to improve results and quality of models? I have made till now a few tests on archaeological sites, processing the data with Agisoft Metashape software, but I'm not fully satisfied of the quality of the results (bad allignments, scarse dense clouds, rough meshes).
My questions regard:
- Which processing software can be the most suitable (in terms of semi-automatic presettings) for 3D photogrammetry from 360° photos (e.g., Metashape, Reality Capture, others)? Are there any particular settings to provide manually in this case? (above the setting of spherical cameras as source format)
- If someone has experience with Richo THETA cameras, which camera model can be the most suitable for 3D photogrammetry? Actually I'm testing a THETA V model, but I need to buy a new one, and I'm in doubt between Z1 and X models. Can someone suggest a review of these models for goals of digital documentation?
- For my research, also the geo-referencing of processed models, with GPS coordinates, is relevant. Considering the point above, which model can be suggested?
Thank you to all!
Best,
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Ciao Raffaella De Marco ! Regarding 360° 3D Photogrammetry I have done some experiences in urban canyons that may you can find interesting, especially for geometric features comparison with SLAM and TLS. I share here an article that may can contribute to the discussion:
- Question 1 -
Metashape is what you need. Indeed, from this type of camera, you will obtain panoramas. The last time I checked Reality Capture is not able to process natively this type of image (even if there are some API projects around this topic). In Agisoft you can set from the Options the type of camera (in this case, spherical) and you are ready to go. The results of the article above have been achieved with Agisoft.
- Question 2 -
About the Ricoh THETA V, I bought the Ricoh THETA SC2 for personal use and I find it very useful especially for low-cost urban projects. It has the same resolution and same ISO sensibility as the THETA V (but it is cheaper!). I would recommend the THETA X since for photogrammetry 'the more resolution the better' and the X one seems to have a resolution of 11.008×5504 while the Z1 6720x3360. The Z1 is designed especially for real estate business activities so you will pay more for some features that I doubt you will find useful on-site for SFM purposes.
- Question 3 -
That totally depends on the device in which you run the Richo THETA App since these 360 cameras do not include a GPS receiver. In an average smartphone today you have an accuracy of 1 meter (at most). In my experience, this georeferenced data is useful only for the visualization process or to establish in which area of a street or urban area you took the picture. This is because when you will process the images, Agisoft will take into account for its internal parameters the GPS position acquired with the photo. This can lead to very low performance in comparison with the same process without this data. For this need, I would recommend using (and testing before) a high-end smartphone and/or a device that can improve the GPS signal of the latter. In conclusion, if your need is to georeference 3D model obtained from 360 photogrammetry, you can use something like the Leica Zeno FLX100 that can offer enough accuracy for GIS/Territorial applications (2/3 cm) and it's very light to carry with you (and not so expensive for the performances you are buying). In this case, you will need several targets across the object of your work to georeference but it's totally worth it and way more efficient.
Hope you will find useful these suggestions! I have partners in Cyprus that used the Z1 for urban survey and modeling purposes after they have seen my workflow in the article I shared. However, there is a very wide literature that is emerging about this topic, I will follow with attention the updates of your question. Un forte abbraccio!
PS. I upload an image of an exterior scene processed with Metashape and the GOPRO360.
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There seem to be two different concepts: one is the recombinant frequency and then there's crossover frequency. These two seem to be used interchangeably whenever someone asks but I think these are two distinct concepts.
So for recombinant frequency, it is defined as the number of
(recombinant genotypes/total number of genotypes) * 100
and this frequency can never be higher than 50% because, at any one time, only 2 out of 4 chromatids are involved in crossing over, and if this happens in every meiosis, only up to 50% of gametes will contain the recombinant alleles.
But often, when people ask what about the crossing over frequency, people tend to also answer that this can never be higher than 50% and use the same explanation for the recombinant frequency to explain. But I think this is wrong. Imagine if we have 2 alleles at two ends of 1 chromosome, and a crossing over event always happens between these two alleles, then the crossing over frequency can be 100% of the time. Obviously, in reality, this could never happen because if two alleles are at the opposite ends of a chromosome, there bout to be cases where multiple crossing over events happen in between these two alleles, and some will result in these two alleles being brought back together, thus reducing the crossing over frequency. But in theory, it can be higher than 50%.
What do you think of this explanation? I'm trying to understand these concepts better.
Thank you
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What you said is recombinant frequency which i have explained. But what I ask is crossing over frequency.
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Hello. I have a question regarding the unconfined compression test for soil and my question is "what does this test actually represent in reality?". We notice during the test that the soil sample is not subjected to lateral pressure (Unconfined) and this does not exist in reality as the soil sample is surrounded by soil, which generates lateral pressure. So, what does unconfined pressure test represent and when do we need to perform it
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Unconfined Compression Test is used to assess the mechanical properties of rocks and fine-grained soils. it is commonly used to quickly determine a measure of the unconfined compressive strength of rocks or fine-grained soils (clays).The measured axial load and the axial and lateral deformation are used to derive the sample’s elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio.
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Can a person realize the truth? Hegel
Hegel holds self-consciousness and self-knowledge to be identical.
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A hard truth of reality: I can't magically put beer in my fridge merely by thinking that there is beer is my fridge.
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"Solving adaptive frequency ..., process hf3d: Port 1 supports an additional mode that is part of degenerate group with mode 3. Randomly bad results can occur when not including all modes in a degenerate group".
It's a rectangular waveguide with "a = b", which has a square section, fed by wave port excitation. Commonly, the first two modes should be TE10 and TE01. However, the plot of E field excited by 1:1 is similar to TE11, when the wave port excitation is set with 2 modes. Besides, warning as mentioned is shown. When the wave port excitation is set with 3 modes, the first two modes' E field results are correct, but the warning is still existing. When the wave port excitation is set with 4 modes, warning disappears, but again, E field results are (maybe) wrong as mentioned. So I wonder why this happened, is there anything wrong with my simulation process or anything I missed. I'm new in this field, thank you for giving suggestion.
P.S. My goal is to show TE10 and TE01 individually in this square-section rectangular waveguide with no warning as mentioned, thank you.
Besides, it would be lovely if anyone can introduce what type(s) of mode(s) is/are excited in this case in reality, TE10 or TE01 individually? Or both at the same time? Or others?
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Unfortunately, strange things can happen for symmetric structures, many degenerate modes exist which don't always work well with HFSS.
I might suggest perturbing the dimensions of your waveguide slightly, such that -- for example -- a = b*1.001. This will break the degeneracy, but the solved modes should still be roughly what you would expect to exist.
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Technology becomes fundamental for the modernization of productive systems, the area of ​​services, medicine, among many other important areas for society. For the professional to be prepared for modernizations, innovations, among other things, schools and education systems that are also capable of preparing him are needed. In a reality such as that of Brazil, where there are still schools without an adequate structure for what is considered conventional teaching, how can access to technological resources be made available? There is a lack of adequate classrooms, adequate teaching material, laboratories that, when they exist, do not include updated resources, not to mention libraries with little or no collection. How to implement a teaching plan that prepares the student for the job market based on the proposal of industry 4.0? What skills and competencies will be considered essential for this new market? Will schools be prepared for this? And the teachers, were they trained? Are you interested in this proposal for IoT, Machine Learning, among others? Will we have areas of society where automation and technological intelligence will not be paramount?
There are certainly several issues that somehow need a more critical look, as the future of some regions may depend on that.
Those of you who are reading my concern, how is the reality in your region?
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You have provided an excellent suggestions to improve schools, teachers and other facilities. I am not exaggerating if I say there are millions of schools suffer from very simple teaching equipment in many countries all over the world. Best wishes.
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What should researchers and scholars on researchgate platform do to improve the quality and the orginalty of researchgate's content.
In my view with so many enthusiam and support for this platform we can make our ambitions goal of narrowing the digital divide through knowledge sharing a reality.
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Research Gate is a great platform of knowledge sharing for researchers, its like social media for researchers, in order to take it to the next level some suggestions can be implemented;
a) If Research Gate can have a Content modeator, it would be easy to filter out spam, fake accounts, and other non-serious individuals.
b) If Research Gate can embed research tools like plagiarism checkers, spell checkers, auto language editors, translators etc, it will have a wider reach towards its target audience.
c) Can Research Gate Publish its own Research Journal so that researchers can have a cheaper and a quality alternative to paid Journals.
d) Research Gate can have a separate e-learning section where short-term -courses on various research software, academic writing, plagiarism, academic misconduct, and academic integrity can be taught so that many new researchers can be benefited from experienced researchers.
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Hello,
I am simulating response of the inflated airbag to the impacting body. I used CV attitude, but results was not satisfying although close to our laboratory test.
I decided to run it with CPM approach, but results are now far from reality. I need to precisely postprocess all the data regarding ventilation, pressure development inside the bag.
Nevertheless even though I set ASCII option and saving of ABSTAT an ABSTAT_CPM in the same way as in CV approach there are no saved data during simulation so I am not able to postprocess it.
Can anybody help me with this issue?
Thank you in advance
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Unfortunately, I can not answer your question as it is not pertinent to my articles and my scientific field of interest.
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Dear All,
I’m planning to conduct a traffic count in the coming days for selected route near my university in Budapest. Currently, I'm attempting to identify the rush hour time along the route. Accordingly, I'm trying to use an approach based on real time information other than the traditional method. Underneath, please see the steps I took so far and kindly share your helpful thoughts:-
  1. I checked the tomtom previous rush hours profiles (2021, 2020 and 2019) for Budapest, which suggests the overall city rush hour to occur on Monday between 7:00 to 8:00A.M.; however, this may not be the reality in the particular route I’m considering in 2022. Therefore, I checked the Traffic Stats function of the TomTom Portal, which offers very limited dates in 2021 for the trial version and information on the speed profile couldn’t help in identifying the rush hour in the route. Therefore, please kindly share your thoughts in identifying the rush hour a selected route?
  2. Aside from the traditional approach, if you can suggest any other reliable method on the subject, that would be greatly appreciated.
Thanks in advance!
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Dear Desta: I do apologize for my misunderstanding to your question, I just took another route . Regards.
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Gender representation in numerous school textbooks across diverse societies has been studied and discussed since the 1970s. A substantial number of these studies stated that gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is quite stubborn and practically a barrier in the way of gender inequality (Ullah & Haque, 2016). In particular, in textbooks of Social Studies, the construction of gender is solely stereotypical (Jabeen, Choudry, Omar, 2014). Hameed (2012) in his study on gendered based English textbooks found that in shaping up ideas of the children and for encouraging optimist gender roles in children, textbooks play a decisive role and can be a valuable tool. Further, Jabeen and Illyas (2012) emphasize that characters in (learning resources (textbooks) play a significant part in children. Characters influence children's choices concerning to what type of being they want to become (Jabeen & Illyas, 2012).
Unterhalter and North (2010) therefore argue that to achieve gender equality through education, the concerns of men and women would be considered as integral parts monitoring, designing, evaluating policies programs in all social, political, and socio-economical domains to provide equal benefit for men and women and to not perpetuate inequality. Emphasizing on efficiency approach of Gender and Development (GAD), Cornwall (2000) also mentioned that men as oppressors and women as a victim of gender inequalities is a simplification of reality. So, there is a need to view gender, not as a unilateral issue of women but it should also be considered in terms of power relations and powerlessness where men and women may be dis-empowered and vulnerable (as cited in Gender analysis framework of Leach, 2003, pp.10-11).
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There is need to relook at the true meaning of gender-neutral laws on sexual harassment which should aim at protecting both men and women against sexual harassment in work settings. An enabling environment for prompt reporting and quick redressal with an unbiased investigation and a well laid out counselling system to ensure safety, as well as emotional and mental support to the victims, are important preventive strategies. These measures may help address the problem of hesitancy &/or other reasons for non-reporting. It is also pertinent to offer the accused a fair opportunity to defend, as there may be instances of false allegations
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Dear colleagues,
We want to study the effect of water forces on a wall of a water tank.
I would like to know what is needed for the transition from a real structure to a model in the laboratory regarding dimensions and type of materials
How to transform the results back into reality ?
Cordially
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Dear Rachid,
You are welcome.
regards
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Is Time a reality or just an element of our toolkit to help us tackle e.g., causality?
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Hello, I am working on a Doctoral dissertation about the “Lessons learned from the implementation of extended reality in education and training”. Iam hoping to publish in the next 4 months - if you have any recommended articles/papers that you believe would be relevant, please let me know.
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Extended Reality (XR) in Virtual Laboratories: A Review of Challenges and Future Training Directions
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I wonder how realistic and practical are the routing attacks in RPL such as Blackhole, Sinkhole, Greyhole, Sybil etc. These attacks have been studied and solutions have been offered. But is there any known case where these attacks have actually been carried out in reality? Internet of Things devices are not like traditional computers where there are manned by a person, how can someone takes possession of such IoT devices and implement the RPL routing attacks?
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@Faisal A. Garba Till now there has been no real incident reported in this case. There are several reasons for this. One reason is the RPL is still in its development stage and not many organizations have deployment such networks. But as you know the benefits of using RPL it is going to be used in future at a very large scale and therefore security solutions for it need to be developed now. Another reason may be related to non-reporting of such cases.
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Dear Colleagues,
Please help us find a good fit for this study.
Title: Socio-economic performance of the Renewable Energy and Banking sectors during COVID-19 - empirical evidence.
Abstract: The world’s current situation is extremely exceptional. The COVID-19 global pandemic has changed the reality that all sectors of society live in. There is a need to stay isolated from others, take care of hygiene and health more than we were used to, and also be aware of the threat of being infected. This ‘new reality’ has forced the alteration in the way firms operate as well. In fact, the private sector, especially micro- and small-scale entrepreneurs have struggled with the situation caused by the pandemic in a relatively visible way. Undoubtedly, the pandemic changed the way firms operate, primarily by implementing remote working models as well as modifying their business models. These changes had a significant influence on the financial, economic as well as employees’ performance of the companies. In this study, we conduct comparative research on the companies representing renewable energy and banking industries by implementing qualitative semi-structured interviews. This cross-case analysis reveals insightful knowledge on the socio-economic performance of the investigated companies during the COVID-19 pandemic, by indicating major similarities and differences between cases from Finland and Poland. The analysis reveals that, on a general level, the influence of COVID-19 on the renewable energy industry has been noticeable, although not so strongly negative as was the case in the banking sector. The study also concludes that the pandemic has positively pushed the countries to implement more RET into their energy mixes, which has resulted in record-breaking statistics. The study provides numerous theoretical and managerial implications for the interest groups coming from the sectors taken into its scope.
Keywords:COVID-19; coronavirus, pandemic; renewable energy; energy economics; banking; organizational change; operations management; remote working; personnel well-being.
The rest of the paper can be confidentially shared with the interested fellow researchers.
Thank U very much in advance! OJ
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Dear Mr. Juszczyk!
I would check out the following journals:
2) Economic Change and Restructuring: https://www.springer.com/journal/10644
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Our belief system construct the absolute reality or relative reality in respect of culture.
Do cultural boundaries affect our thinking limitations? if yes then how ?
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Dear Vipul Kumar Thinking out of the box results in innovations. It allows you to get rewards outside of your reach. However, others may say: "Thinking outside the box’ is the wrong way to approach innovation; Think like there is no box".
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We introduce the concept of Proton-Seconds and see it lends itself to a method of solving problems across a large range of disciplines in the Natural Sciences. The underpinnings seem to be in 6-fold symmetry. This lends itself to a Universal Form. We find this presents the Periodic Table of the Elements as a squaring of the circle. It is rather abstract thinking, but just as the moment we define truth and as a result it reverses, I think we can treat problem solving this way: As Patterns…The idea is there is nothing we can say is the truth, but we can solve problems through pattern recognition. I would think this manner of problem solving through pattern recognition could be employed in developing deep learning machine intelligence and AI for its method of imitating human learning to gain knowledge.
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
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Okay Stay but I think in order for a pattern to exist a theme must recur, therefor it has a characteristic by which it abides, so that is a restriction or physics in a straight jacket as Feynmann calls it. I think it is much like improvising on a musical intsrument, you have to develop your ideas according to a rhythmic cycle. The proton-second is an abstract idea that can be applied to large amounts of particles over macroscopic time periods. Alas the timescale of a second is characteristic of the proton, in this paper it determines its radius.
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Inertia, by definition, is a concept of measuring the “change”, the resistance, in the “natural state” of a body in motion. Is it thus correct to suggest that the idea of a “natural state” is exactly what a theory of everything would entail, and thus would not include the idea of “inertia”, would not include the deliberate man-made “changing” of bodies in motion, bodies in motion that would ideally primarily yield to fundamental field forces? Is not “inertia” a man-made theoretical concept to highlight how we are able to “resist” bodies in motion, to change the natural course of mass, as a “disruptor” within an otherwise ideal “theory of everything” manifest as the natural state of reality? The big question is then, “can using the idea of inertia provide for a link between the most fundamental field forces of gravity and electromagnetism” in achieving a grand unified field force theory of time and space?
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My apologies for my untimeliness in replying to an answer of yours, as follows:
📷
Stephen Jarvis added a reply
July 26, 2019
"Yes, which makes the idea of "inertia" a broad-spectrum "manner" of examination, does it not? "Inertia" applies to anything, can apply to anything. It's a "manner" of examination. The "manner", that "manner" of inertia, is in question, as ultimately it represents an idea that challenges more fundamental properties of time and space "we" as humans are not naturally conscious of. We are conscious of push-pull, sure, and so we determine ideas of "work", "effort", and "force" in our own physical structuring within that reality we are trying to understand in such a manner, "yet"......there is more, is there not, more than "push-pull inertial logic to the explanation of time and space? There clearly is.
Inertia is a "concept" of "resistance" a body prescribes by our observation of that resistance we physically force ourselves to fumble through space and time with, "and then" construct theories further with that fumbling. "Yet" we are given hints on that journey with which we can be more intellectual "with" as opposed to physical, as per our approach to the primary axioms we are seeking to calculate.
Is inertia a "field force"? Seriously, no.
Does "inertia" exist between the fundamental field forces?
Seriously, no.
If it did, it would be its own field force separate to everything.
Yet, it was our start point in the middle ground of examining reality, was, and is, it not?
Inertia is like a natural flaw we have in being human....we strive, we work, we use force....yet that is a subjective reference of control. Reality exists, and here we are examining what exists from our inertial reference we seem to be applying to reality, to time and space. Its a natural thing for us to do, sure."
MY REPLY:
I have italicized phraseology to which I strongly object on the basis of the diction, that is, the use of the English language is objectionable. The generalized reason why this observation is being made is that the authorial voice you use conflates two different domains or systems of meaningful language: (2) scientific language, terminology, and expression; and (2) discursive English prose when applied to common situations in which nonscientific yet nonetheless important matters are being discussed.
One of the important and basic key words in the passage cited above which is also in the discussion question is "inertia." Although the cited passage occurred more than two years ago, and your perspectives may have changed since then, I would like simply to express my objection to the way little or no distinction is made between the word "inertia" is employed by Isaac Newton in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica and the ordinary dictionary meaning of the word "inertia," which is synonymous with a word such as "lethargy," implying an absence of movement ascribed to a living entity (human being, nonhuman animal). Quite obviously, Newton uses the word "inertia" with specific reference to physical bodies that belong to the cosmos of the solar system. His First Law calls attention to the fact that these planetary bodies are continuously in motion following their orbital paths around the sun because no competing body forces them to alter their accelerated movements, which are based on their respective masses. In contradistinction to this denotative meaning of the word "inertia" in Newton's Principia, the denotative meaning of the same word in ordinary discourse is, as the above cited excerpt from your reply asserts, has negative connotations, which may be regarded as "a natural flaw," in your words. In my view, it is a huge mistake to attempt to personify Newtonian inertial motion by drawing a false analogy with the familiar everyday usage.
Other examples of what I consider to be inappropriate diction could be adduced (please see italicized phrases in the above cited excerpt).
Thank you for your kind attention to these belated comments, but I did not know about this RG discussion thread question until just now.
Best wishes,
Nancy Ann Watanabe
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For example: How is the Full-Scale XRF sorter mechanism? Is it possible to use it to sort low-grade copper minerals?
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Dear Ali Behrad Vakylabad many thanks for posting this interesting technical question. As a synthetic inorganic chemist I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field of research. However, I can suggest to you the following potentially useful article which might help you in your analysis:
XRF – New Applications in Sensor-Based-Sorting Using X-ray Fluorescence
The paper is freely available as public full text (please see the attaced pdf file). Also please see this Open Access article:
Sensor-Based Ore Sorting Technology in Mining—Past, Present and Future
This article has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can easily download it as pdf file.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Think about it, science is supposed to be an open environment, one where if ideas are shown to be lacking or inappropriate or wrong, they are either improved or discarded. A system where if assumptions about reality turned out to be wrong, it will shift to catch up with the actual, now new reality leaving the previous reality/previous knowledge behind. That would be consistent with the thinking of Popper and Kuhn.
That was the expectation after the 1987 Brundtland commission said business as usual model has not worked as the assumptions on which it has been based were wrong, and that was the expectation after 2012 RIO + 20 when the UNCSD commission said to go green market, green growth and green economy was the shift to go….to internalize the wrong environmental externality assumption found in the business as usual model...
If that science expectation does not happen and invalid ideas and/or previous paradigm ideas are used to address the new reality, which by now everyone knows or should know is a reality not consistent with those previous ideas, is that still science or is this now an ideology?.
Which raises the question, at what point science, in general or economics in particular, becomes an ideology?
What do you think? Please express your view through answering this question.
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Dear Lucio Muñoz , let me bring in my simple point that economics is still not a science, but a profession, based on certain accounts and accounting methods of society. Even medicine is not a science, but more a science-based practice of empirical evidences via testing procedures. With respect to natural and exact science, I need to mention that the basic assumptions of biological evolution, physical thermodynamics and mathematical information theory are contradictory.
The ideological trap for scientific research and researchers is based on the financial decision: which research and researcher gets funded? Most scientific research is funded by government grants , companies doing research and development, and non-profit foundations; in a perfect world, money wouldn't matter — all scientific studies (regardless of funding source) would be completely objective.
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Great moments in science: Einstein discovers that time is actually money.
Gary Larson
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What are the differences between Mixed Reality and Extended Reality. I am trying to understand through some examples. Please help me on that.
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Extended reality or XR is just a term used to group all technologies that go between real and virtual worlds. The letter X is to be replaced with any of the letters: A, M or V which gives AR, MR, VR respectively.
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With metaverses, virtual worlds have become extended realities with “infinite possibilities” of creating virtual identities as our extended selves.
But what are these virtual identities, how are they generated, are they indeed limitless in their options and performances or do they rather exist within certain prescribed operational modes?
We organise a virtual roundtable on the topic. Please let me know if you would like to participate.
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Dear Christophe Bruchansky, this a very interesting discussion topic. I have experienced myself the power of the avatar in VR for personal goal-setting and the transformation of the self in the physical world. In the context of the Metaverse, I suggest the remarkable experiences and exciting research findings around identity in 3d multiuser virtual worlds and VR environments. Here are some indicative works for everyone's consideration.
Meadows, M. S. (2007). I, Avatar: The Culture and Consequences of Having a Second Life. Pearson Education.
Mystakidis, S. (2022). Metaverse. Encyclopedia, 2(1), 486–497. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010031
Article Metaverse
Yee, N., Bailenson, J. N., & Ducheneaut, N. (2009). The Proteus Effect: Implications of Transformed Digital Self-Representation on Online and Offline Behavior. Communication Research, 36(2), 285–312. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650208330254
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After creating assignments and quizzes for one of my undergrad courses, I found several of my course materials (e.g., assignments solutions, and midterm exams) on websites like Chegg and Course Hero. Although I have seen some instructors opening an investigation to know which student downloaded the materials, I'd prefer not to take that route. I wonder how other instructors are dealing with issues like this. Thanks!
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Patricia Cam , I considered myself good at solving this problem when I was a full professor of business/supply chain. I included a few of my published studies showing some of my assessment methods if case you are interested. It looks like you are testing your students with qualitative approaches, essays? My approach was to use mostly tests for 80-90% of the grade when possible. WHen I had to use qualitative approaches, such as student projects or reports, I would control the format, develop a grading rubric and share that with students to force them to use my preferred outline (that way I could find what they should be writing about and learning!). THen I always required my students to pick a unique personal topic, maybe a job situation, media topic, or whatever. The key is to have them POST that topic and tell them it MUST be unique from all students. It worked for me as I had smaller classes like 20-50 students so they used the ongoing post list to make sure their topic was unique. In one course Project Management I required students to post their project title and I pretending to be the sponsor had to approve before they could start their project (as to simulate the real business world). These strategies work well. A student posts their topic focus lets say in a few days or a week, then as they work on the assignment, lets say over 1-4 weeks, they cannot easily cut-paste what they find on the Internet (well unless they think proactively - if the Internet topic fits their topic - and most students dont). Actually many will still paraphrase what they read on the Internet rather than read their textbooks but I can accept that if they are learning - the bottom goal is are they really learning? I hope this helps>?? _-Ken
Che, F. N., Strang, K. D., & Vajjhala, N. R. (2021). Using experiential learning to improve student attitude and learning quality in software engineering education. International Journal of Innovative Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 2(1), 16-38. doi:10.4018/IJITLHE.20210101.oa20210102 https://www.igi-global.com/article/using-experiential-learning-to-improve-student-attitude-and-learning-quality-in-software-engineering-education/20273133
Strang, K. D., & Vajjhala, N. R. (2017). Student resistance to a mandatory learning management system in online supply chain courses. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 29(3), 49-67. doi:10.4018/JOEUC.2017070103 Retrieved from https://www.igi-global.com/article/student-resistance-to-a-mandatory-learning-management-system-in-online-supply-chain-courses/2017181676
Strang, K. D. (2013). Cooperative learning in graduate student projects: Comparing synchronous versus asynchronous collaboration. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 24(4), 447-464. http://www.editlib.org/j/JILR/v/424/n/444
Strang, K. D. (2011). How can discussion questions be effective in online MBA courses? International Journal of Information & Learning Technology in Campus-Wide Information Systems, 28(2), 80-92. doi:10.1108/10650741111117789
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Philosophy Question
It has been said that if the truth can destroy something, then that thing should be destroyed. Barring whether that's true or not, it brings up an interesting question. Can reality be destroyed by the truth? If so, then reality should be destroyed.
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Reality is the product of a worldview and there are several worldviews, hence there are several relative realities. Truth on the other hand is singular. In the face of truth, even an orthodox reality can seem to be as transient as the clouds.
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Mixed-method is an useful one to explore complex social phenomenon. However, contextual realities effect on its application and success. Let's share experiences and learn from each other.
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One of the biggest challenges in the practice of mixed methods research is integrating the qualitative and quantitative results. Even a well-structured team that includes experts in both qualitative and quantitative methods may still end up with separate sets of results that they cannot combine effectively. So, integration is an issue that requires careful planning right from the beginning of a project.
Fortunately, more and more students are taking explicit training in mixed methods research, so problems like I just described are obvious to someone who has taken a graduate-level course in mixed methods. Ultimately, I would like to see a future where graduate students structure their training on a spectrum that ranges from purely qualitative to purely quantitative, with mixed methods in the middle. So, one could be a largely qualitative researcher, but with an additional background in mixed methods, etc.
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We are planning to start a project on extended reality technology in an EFL environment. We are curious about other researchers' experiences/opinions about the issue.
Have you ever tried extended reality technology in an EFL environment?
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Immersing players in the action by putting a screen (a smartphone display or headgear) directly in front of their eyes (VR) is one example, as is placing game characters in real-world settings, as in the popular Pokémon Go game (AR). In the game industry, virtual reality is taking momentum.
Extended reality (XR) refers to any real-and-virtual mixed environments and human-machine interactions formed by computer technology and wearables, with the 'X' representing a variable for any current or future spatial computing technologies.
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By analyzing discourse, we consider both texts and contexts but we also take reality into consideration. Reality functions as a reference point and a product at the same time, interesting. In this sense, is discourse analysis 2 or 3 dimensional or more? If it has dimensions, what are they? Text, Context, (& Reality)?
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The question really would be “how to define reality”. Dimensions would have to be quantifiable and measurable otherwise it is hard to back up any kind of argument.
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Constructivist Research Approach
  • Constructivist approaches refer to an epistemological position in which knowledge is regarded as constructed. [Source: sciencedirect]
  • Constructivism accepts reality as a construct of human mind, therefore reality is perceived to be subjective. Moreover, this philosophical approach is closely associated with pragmatism and relativism. Constructivism philosophy is based on cognitive psychology. [Source: research-methodology]
  • In social constructivism, human interests are important for research purposes and knowledge is constructed through social interaction. Such knowledge is shared rather than an individual experience. According to constructivists, the reality is a subjective creation. There is no single reality. [Source: intgrty]
  • Constructivist Grounded Theory (CGT) is a research method that focuses on generating new theories through inductive analysis of the data gathered from participants rather than from pre-existing theoretical frameworks. In this qualitative research approach, the researcher seeks to understand a social phenomenon and construct theories through participants’ experiences, using iterative data collection and analysis. [Source: delvetool]
  • The Constructivist approach involves constructing hypotheses and theories from emerging data. Social scientists often apply CGT to understand and explore social processes and construct theories where no previous theories exist. [Source: delvetool]
Positivist Research Approach
  • Positivists prefer quantitative methods such as social surveys, structured questionnaires and official statistics because these have good reliability and representativeness. Positivists see society as shaping the individual and believe that ‘social facts’ shape individual action. [Source: revisesociology]
  • Positivism adheres to the view that only “factual” knowledge gained through observation (the senses), including measurement, is trustworthy. [Source: research-methodology]
  • Positivism refers to an evidence-based reality that can be mathematically interpreted. [Source: reprac]
  • Positivist philosophical approach is most closely associated with the observations and experiments, used for collection of numerical data. [Source: intechopen]
  • The positivist believed in empiricism – the idea that observation and measurement was the core of the scientific endeavor. [Source: conjointly]
  • Positivist approach to ensure the richness of information in quantitative results. [Source: ajap]
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I am not sure what kinds of comments you want, but I do disagree with your assertion that constructivism is similar to BOTH relativism and pragmatism. This claim makes it sound as if there should be some kind of indirect connection between relativism and pragmatism, but that is certainly not the case.
With regard to relativism, the key issue is whether you can maintain that individuals construct their own reality without somehow reaching the conclusion that everyone has their own unique reality, which is the heart of relativism.
With regard to pragmatism, the key issue is that pragmatists disengage from issues related to both ontology and epistemology. Instead of arguing about whether reality is objective or subjective, pragmatists are concerned with the consequences of acting one way or another.
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Lambert Academic Publishing is a scam. LAP is a company based in Mauritius and Eastern Europe that spams scholars who have published theses offering to republish them as books.
The naive and gullible agree, and after zero editing or reviewing (changes are even charged for!) LAP create a front cover using stock art and place the "book" online (on their own site and sister sites, and on Amazon) for sale at high prices with no indication that this work is an unedited thesis. The only sales will be to unwary libraries or hobbyists, but the author never sees a penny of those sales.
Then begins the next stage of the scam - the hard sell. Scholars are drawn in by the promise of royalties but these are a mirage. In reality, LAP presses authors to buy expensive copies of their own book! Not only do these authors risk being out-of-pocket, but they also risk damaging their reputation by publishing with LAP.
Matt Hodgkinson, Head of Research Integrity at Hindawi Publishing Corporation (2016-present)
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I think 'Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP)' is one of the vanity publishers. Do not fall into the trap. I mean do not publish your thesis or book via this publisher, it may bring trouble in your future scientific career.
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It is well known the theoretical applications of generalized open sets in topological spaces, for example we can by them define various forms of continuous maps, compact spaces, separation axioms, etc. My question is: what the practical (reality) applications of generalized open sets such as semi-open and pre-open sets?. 
Are these sets used to modeling some phenomena or problems?
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Agreed with J. G. von Brzeski
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I recently added a poster "P67 A Particular Case of MINOCA" to my profile. I can't enter the DOI because it is already present. In reality it is a poster of another author of the same 52nd ANMCO Congress. This is the https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suab064 in common that I can't add at my poster. How can I solve the problem ?
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DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/suab064 was given to a collection of poster abstracts (https://academic.oup.com/eurheartjsupp/article/23/Supplement_C/C49/6357815). This does not mean mean that each poster itself from that conference has the same DOI, and you should not add this DOI to your poster page in RG. It is not mandatory to have a DOI for each publication, you may just leave the field empty. If you would like to have a DOI anyway, see https://explore.researchgate.net/display/support/ResearchGate+DOIs and the following discussions:
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Sometimes it seems that adaptability or innovativeness is a merely psychological phenomena, but in reality the socio-economical environment also matters to develop or follow these features.
What is Your opinion about adaptability or innovativeness as a subject? In addition - how is it related to such social sciences as political science or public administration?
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Dear all, don't You think that all social sciences have their "say" on this question?
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Was Heisenberg a Third-Rate Natural Philosopher because he denied the reality of micro-objects that cannot be tracked by humans? Has this misled physics for 100+ years?
Surely, because we have created a whole civilization from the manipulations of electrons, especially digital electronics, then "LOOKING" at an object is NOT a requirement for existence.? Electrons interact with everything; so surely quite sufficient, eh?
Heisesenberg was educated in the Classical Philosophy of Aristotelian Classicism in the archaic German Education system. He failed to think for himself, substituting a Platonic idealist view of mathematics, as being superior to our imaginative/operational view of reality.
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Pity; just be careful near high edges.
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We usually notice a number of research works and tens of thousands of proxy research works for achieving a degree or something else like ornamental purpose around our developing society. Those are published and we congratulated them. Though we read or often not. If some of the findings and suggestion would materialize, we certainly get new looks of our surroundings. Are the findings of research weak enough or the system is blind?
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I want to model two volumes as shown in the graph(see file). One is a solid cylinder and the other is a solid block. In reality, the cylinder is inside the solid block, and the solid block had been rigged a hole first.
The aim is to model the pullout of the cylinder.
However, in ANSYS APDL there are two options to build the geometry
One method is just to create two solid volumes at the same time. Ignore the hole.
Another option is to create the block first, then dig a hole and then recreate the inside cylinder.
Please what is the difference between these two volume creating methods?
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Thanks for the answer. My results are based are based on the none hole case. Yes, I get warnings.
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In 19th century Physics, the notion of an all-pervading medium called aether was considered a necessity for distinguishing the concept of physical space from that of the coordinate space. However, some self-contradicting properties had to be ascribed to this aether. It was supposed to be an extremely thin medium to enable resistance free motion of solid bodies through it. At the same time it was required to be an elastic solid to enable the transverse EM wave propagation through it. This was essentially due to the fact that matter and aether medium were regarded as two separate, independent entities.
Now, there is a growing realization in scientific circles that matter and electromagnetic field, both appear to have a common origin in free space or vacuum. There is also a notion of vacuum energy and the phenomenon of creation, annihilation and transmutation of unstable elementary particles occurring in vacuum. As per the current viewpoint, free space or vacuum no longer represents 'nothingness' but is supposed to be the seat of, or supporter of, all ultra-microscopic phenomenon of nature. This entity representing the old free space or vacuum has now been assigned a modern name of 'quantum vacuum'. This reincarnation of poor old aether certainly looks much more sophisticated and acceptable.
In reality however, all these notions of physical space, empty space, free space, vacuum, aether and their modern reincarnation the quantum vacuum, all appear to mean the same entity – call it by any name. Hence, the physical space continuum, referred by any other name like vacuum or Quantum Vacuum or Ether will still have the same physical properties.
But what exactly are the physical properties of this Ether? Learned Researchers are requested to provide their respective viewpoints, their considered opinions regarding the detailed physical properties of Ether that enables the propagation of transverse EM waves through it and to store energy and support various fields in it?
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I like your explanation, you have provided a key point, I unquote "at the same time it was required to be an elastic solid" (whether is related to "Ether" or not, I cannot answer) but transversal photonic waves have spin = 1, so transversal elastic waves should also have spin = 1.
The problem of elastic wave polarization in the solid-state is still very young. Probably terahertz radiation will help to resolve this issue.
I guess the idea of Ether in physical sciences is older than the ideas of Spin.
Best Regards.
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Reality may increasingly hurt – #Genomic #targetedtherapy
Changes between 2006 and 2020
-eligibility from 5.13% to 13.60% *only*
-response from 2.73% to 7.04% *only*
The authors use in their discussion different paraphrasing: “the percentage of eligibility for and response to genome-targeted drugs increased 54% and 28%, respectively
which from the objective point of view is correct, but this implies a major improvement, although the reality of inefficiency is different
Some may state *the house of cards collapse of the breakthrough* ?
Otherwise today's basics of biotechnological power politics in created hypes of landmarks, breakthroughs, which might be seen in the accordance of the Latin epic poem, The Aeneid by Virgil:
parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos’ (I believe it at any rate)
References
Article Haslam et al. (2021) Ann Oncol 2021, DOI 10.1016/j.annonc.2021.04.003
The Aenedid from Virgil Vergil (19 BC), Aeneis, Liber sextus, Vers 847-853.
#medicine #health #medicalsciences #breakthroughs #landmarks #hallmark #hype #criticalthinking
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Dear Pr Brücher,
Thank you for sharing with us these useful informations.
Best regards,
Pr Hambaba
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This study aims to show the importance of fossil energy producing countries resorting more to renewable energies, taking into account the economic reality of these countries, where fossil energies, especially gas, are still of paramount importance.
In our study, we will focus on the optimal and possible energy mix for oil economics, specifically the status of the "gas" and "renewable energies" components.
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Indeed, your country energy mix could be structured having two important components: gas and solar energy. The country has important gas reserves and the sun is out most of the year.
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I have an experiment where I am subjecting 8 different samples to different experimental conditions, but then I need to compare the same variable (e.g. concentration) of every different sample against the standard value of the same control sample. ie If the 10 samples are A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and the control sample is Z, then I need to compare A vs Z, B vs Z, C vs Z etc.
I obviously have several repeats of each sample, including Z.
Since the repeats consist of normally distributed data points with similar variances, I intend to use the student unpaired t-test (2-tailed) to do this. Since Z is a common variable in all the comparisons, do I need to carry out some sort of pairwise correction such as Tukey or Bonferroni?
Bonferroni corrects by multiplying the p-value by the number of comparisons which would technically work out at 36 for 9 sets (8 experiments and one control). But in reality, I am not interested in every single combination (e.g. I am not interested in A vs B or B vs C etc), and am only interested in the comparisons against control, ie 8 comparisons to the same control.
Can I assume that no post-hoc correction is necessary here?
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Thanks to all. Dunnet's test is exactly what I need. And thanks David for the pdf attachment. It is very useful.
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Summary of an article published in Science Daily News on July 30, 2021 reads:
"An international research team has shown that using solar-panels to produce microbial protein -- which is rich not just in proteins but also in other nutrients -- is more sustainable, efficient and environmentally friendly than growing conventional crops. This method uses solar energy, land, nutrients, and carbon dioxide from the air."
Can this be a reality in good time - may before the 2050? Could this help us comfortably feed the world? Your thoughts are appreciated.
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It appeared in media recently. Electrochemical production of energy-rich substrate for the microbes is new area coming into limelight. But many aspects such as growth strategies for large scale cultivation and harvesting are to be ascertained from biosafety aspects. Acceptance by food regulatory authorities will need toxicity profile data. Another aspect relating to processing and value addition of the the protein-rich biomass to convert into palatable form, needs emphasis.
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Tell us how you perceive AI and its adoption.
AI- Future is here! Blurring the lines of reality and fiction.  A good 2 minute read on basics to help one start on their “pursuit of AI” Looking forward to the series @SandeepPandey Link to article:  https://lnkd.in/er-sWQK Link to post: https://lnkd.in/e7ANuJ7
Link to our paper on ROI computation for AI investments:
#AI #Artificialintelligence #transformation #datascience #RPA #ML #Deeplearning #machinelearning#future #enthusiasts
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Learning the hidden information in real time datasets related to economics and health. Both predicting and feature interpretation.
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Physical reality can be observed. At least part of the structure and behavior of physical reality is perceivable. Humans can communicate about these experiences. Curious humans want to comprehend these perceptions. Humans have designed linguistic tools to be able to communicate about the perceived structure and behavior of physical reality and with these tools, they have constructed structures and models of mechanisms that might explain the perceived structures and mechanisms that physical reality exposes. Some of these structures and models of mechanisms seem to be successful. People discuss the success of these approaches and call this activity exact science. Other humans discuss this activity and call themselves philosophers. Humans are interested in the structure and mechanisms of physical reality because this knowledge helps them survive as individuals and as communities. Part of the exact sciences is formed by mathematics. Mathematics contains structures and models of mechanisms that are not directly derived from perceptions of physical reality. These concepts are derived from abstract foundations. Examples are empty space and point-like objects. Scientists use these concepts to construct vector spaces, number systems, and coordinate systems. The scientists apply these higher-level concepts to construct a model of their living space. The philosophers will immediately indicate that it is impossible to prove that these models are correct. However, these models feature structure and behavior. If the structure and behavior of the models agree more with the perceived models and behavior, then there is a larger chance that the model fits reality. Since reality appears to be very complicated, little chance exists that good correspondence will ever end the dispute.
One of the aspects of the dispute concerns what the best inroad will be for comprehending most of the structure and the mechanisms of physical reality. That is the background of the posed question.
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The paper "Sticky Space Coverage" relies on the results of David Hilbert, John von Neumann, and Cantor. I consider them better and deeper-looking mathematicians than the EPR team. They all worked on set theory, vector spaces, and Hilbert spaces. Hilbert cooperated with Einstein on gravitation theory. The paper "The Standard Model of Elementary Fermions and the Hilbert Repository" ; https://vixra.org/abs/2106.0135 offers an explanation for the phenomenon of entanglement.
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To develop the reality of educating children in kindergarten, we need appropriate educational foundations and infrastructures, what are these ingredients?
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If you wish to develop the long-termed infrastructure for kindergartens, you may need to have an initial planning that covered the following aspects: aiming for smooth transition from kindergarten education to elementary education; providing the facilities for helping to develop children’s physical strength; improving facilities such that they strengthen the ties between schools, families and regions; making spaces for children fitness improvement; considering the promotion of special needs education; and also considering sustainability in terms of the environment.
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I am new to use these three methods in my thesis. My assignment is based on how i can use the three-dimensional model (material realities, subjective-experiential realities, and social-constructional realities). I am finding this hard if anyone can help me and give me some examples that how i can use this three model in my thesis topic to analyze it. I will be looking for replies. I also attached the pdf file of the three-dimensional methods of ontology.
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The short answer is: you cannot! The topic is a phenomenological one, i.e. you will have to take the footballers’ answers about their experieces on face value.
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Refugee crisis was a reality worldwide just a while before the COVID-19 pandemic. What are the current and upcoming effects of the pandemic in refugee crisis and human rights?
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Refugee populations are facing numerous challenges including lack of access to health services, loss of livelihoods, evictions and stigmatization are major. "Apart together survey" illustrates the everyday struggle and experience of refugees during the pandemic. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240017924
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Coming up with great business ideas may seem easy, but only a true entrepreneur capitalizes
on them to turn them into reality. Why are entrepreneurs considered an important agent of
change in this global economy?
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What an incredible and fruitful this discussion turn out to be. Much thanks and regards towards Stefan Lindstrom , Rubén Corvalán , Adam Sulich , Sachin Suknunan . And thank you Firuz Alimov for your different insights. I've not thought that way. Your POV was different which i appreciate. Also, thank you Stefan Lindstrom for TEDX video recommendation, i enjoyed it.
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Dear Friends,
I can bet that no one in the world today (particularly in the software industry) knows or has the right answers to two simple questions: (i) What a component is, and (ii) What is meant by CBE (Component-Based Engineering), in the reality and context of all other engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electronics, and aerospace engineering.
Learning the right answers to these two simple questions would have two huge benefits: (i) Inventing effective solutions for the notorious software crisis by eliminating infamous spaghetti code, and (ii) Proving Computer Science is a fake science (i.e. paradox), that opens the door to transforming Computer Science into a real science that can address not only problems that have stood unsolved for decades (e.g. human-like computer intelligence that can be achieved by gaining valid scientific knowledge about the functioning and anatomy of bio-neurons in bio-neural networks) but also problems of the future such as bio-cellular computing, which cannot be solved by fake scientists or practitioners of fake science.
If a problem requires acquiring valid scientific knowledge, it is impossible for fake scientists practicing fake science to acquire such valid scientific knowledge essential to solving the problem. To provide tangible proof, I invented effective solutions for the infamous software crisis by gaining and using valid scientific knowledge that can provide the right answers to these simple questions about components, where scientific knowledge implies knowledge that clearly falls under the realm of science and is acquired without violating the core principles and proven rules of the scientific method.
I have been requesting software researchers to find right answers to the simple questions for over a decade, and my request has been seen as heresy. Please see attached PDF.
Why does the software research community find it repugnant or heretical when requested to recognize the reality and truth objectively? I feel, any Scientist must be ashamed of himself if he feels such a request is repugnant or heretical and resort to snubbing and personal attacks.
Best Regards,
Raju Chiluvuri
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Dear Raju Chiluvuri,
Interesting considerations on past research, including a comparison of the research methodology carried out by Galileo and Kepler. That's right. In order for the development of science to achieve fully defined goals, this is research work, the interpretation of the results of the research and inference must be carried out objectively.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Reality is a social construction. A symbolic universe can be constructed by any individual but it is the effect of social influences that brings that universe to its full potential. A mutually acceptable construction is possible only because of the common foundation upon which the structure is based: DNA. DNA provides virtually identical symbolic objects for each subject and provides shared archetypes giving these objects fundamental meanings (Hunt, 1995, p.213). From there, the shared ability to manipulate symbols and use them for tools within a cooperative setting generates the reality, or realities, we all experience. As adults, we all forget we were not born with the reality we inhabit intact. We eventually reify that reality and use it as if it was absolute. Our success at the reification project, that takes much of our lives, is recognized socially as our competence.
Comments?
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Reality is the things in life that are commonly observed and verified to exist, things that are consistent and not random. Something that is perceived as real and is physically experienced by the senses.
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It is obvious that economic publications are becoming more and more quantitative that they seem detached from reality and lost economic sense. The advanced econometric models we use are sometimes difficult for other economists to comprehend. Is it not time to prioritize qualitative researches so we have a larger audience and our publications become more relevant?
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Depends on the research question and the target audience. While policy and social related issues are better handle using qualitative methodology it loses the generality and reliability of the findings to extend to other situations and context.
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This question and other puzzling thoughts are summarized in a recently posted assay “Inconvenient issues in sciences”.
I attempt to answer some of the questions in recent papers but realize that I have barely touched on a much deeper problem. I am wondering if there is an appetite for this kind of thinking.
Alek Zubelewicz
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Hi Alek -- I am not sure what you mean by "discovered", but I think Niels Bohr often pondered similar questions. Here is a quote that I have thought about often:
"It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we say about Nature."
Also, Heisenberg:
“What we observe is not nature in itself but nature exposed to our method of questioning.”
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After the elections and the first days, the hard tasks of the government begin to face reality. What are the key features needed to be successful?
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Government is created in human affairs to rationally distribute resources, which practically means, distribution of power. The question of power is subjective to a specific society. Therefore, the qualities of good government will be subjective to that society.
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Hello everyone!
If you take the output current equation of a solar cell in open circuit condition, you get:
R_sh = V_oc/(I_ph - I_0*(exp(V_oc/V_T)-1));
where
R_sh is the shunt-resistor
V_oc is the open-circuit voltage
I_ph is the photo-current
I_0 is the saturation current
V_T is the thermal voltage
Given that V_T and I_0 depend on the ambient temperature, does that mean that the shunt resistance is also temperature-dependent?
And what is the physical significance of the series and shunt resistors?
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welcome!
The shunt resistance of the solar cell stems from very small shorts across the pn junction of the solar cell. The shunt resistance depends on temperature according to its physical construction. One can not interpret its temperature dependence from the equation which you brought but rather from its construction. This is what I want to stress in my comment. It can increase with the temperature if the short is from bulk material. It can also decrease with the temperature if it is from a leakage current across the surface of the cell.
Both the shunt and the series resistances Rsh and Rs consumes energy from the generated photovoltaic energy. Therefor they reduce the conversion efficacy CE of the solar cell.
As Rsh decreases CE decreases and as Rs increases CE decreases.
The ideal condition is achieved by making Rsh=infinity and Rs =0.
For more information please refer to the book chapter in the link:
Best wishes
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I am working on paper title Covid 19 Myths vs Realities I request you to please help in filling up the google form
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I argue that both aid and conditionality are IPGs primarily based on Morrissey et al. (n.d., 4-5), because the benefits of these IPGs are available in all countries. Moreover, in principle, every state of the world can get benefit from these IPGs, if it desires and finally, both provide utility to every recipient, whether it is a Benthamic pain or pleasure. Critics may argue that aid and conditionality are not always available and provide a similar benefit to all who desire them. Although in reality, it is the shared nature of all IPGs, including the purer IPGs, the disease protection, not in principle. Also, the donors' willingness to provide these IPGs is to make the utility of the benefits of these IPGs, available to all recipients, which reflects Easterly's "cartel of good intentions" (Easterly 2002). Similarly, considering the Susturt Network report (2002) and Bodnsky’s (2012) idea, aid and conditionality are non-rival and non-excludable IPGs, where the benefit of these products are available to everybody whether someone produces it or not.
Moreover, considering Stiglitz’s explanation of Global Public Goods (GPGs) and the instances he presented, like economic coordination, environment, knowledge, international security and humanitarian assistance (Stiglitz 1999, F579), I think both the aid and conditionality are the GPGs.
This is a draft explanation. I welcome all of you to comment on my explanation and give guidelines to improve the idea.
References
Bodansky, Daniel. 2012. "What's in a concept? Global Public Goods, International Law, and Legitimacy." The European Journal of International Law, 23 (3) 651-668.
Easterly, William. 2002. "The cartel of good intentions: The problem of bureaucracy in foreign aid." The Journal of Policy Reform, 5(4) 223-250.
Morrissey Oliver, Dirk Willem te Velde and Adrian Hewitt. n.d. "Defining International Public Goods: Conceptual Issues." Overseas Development Institute.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 1999. "The World bank at the Millennium." The Economic Journal, 109 (459)577-597
Trade, Societies, and Sustainable Development, Susturt Network. 2002. " Global Public Goods: Policy Brief paper." Montpellier (France): SUSTRA seminar on "Global Public Goods and Trade", May 13-14.
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I argue that both aid and conditionality are IPGs, because the benefits of these IPGs are available in all countries. Moreover, in principle, every state of the world can get benefit from these IPGs, if it desires and finally, both provide utility to every recipient, whether it is a Benthamic pain or pleasure. Critics may argue that aid and conditionality are not always available and provide a similar benefit to all who desire them. Although in reality, it is the shared nature of all IPGs, including the purer IPGs, the disease protection, not in principle. Also, the donors' willingness to provide these IPGs is to make the utility of the benefits of these IPGs, available to all recipients, which reflects Easterly's "cartel of good intentions" (Easterly 2002). Similarly, considering the Susturt Network report (2002) and Bodnsky’s (2012) idea, aid and conditionality are non-rival and non-excludable IPGs, where the benefit of these products are available to everybody whether someone produces it or not.
Moreover, considering Stiglitz’s explanation of Global Public Goods (GPGs) and the instances he presented, like economic coordination, environment, knowledge, international security and humanitarian assistance (Stiglitz 1999, F579), I think both the aid and conditionality are the GPGs.
This is a draft explanation. I welcome all of you to comment on my explanation and give guidelines to improve the idea.
References
Bodansky, Daniel. 2012. "What's in a concept? Global Public Goods, International Law, and Legitimacy." The European Journal of International Law, 23 (3) 651-668.
Easterly, William. 2002. "The cartel of good intentions: The problem of bureaucracy in foreign aid." The Journal of Policy Reform, 5(4) 223-250.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 1999. "The World bank at the Millennium." The Economic Journal, 109 (459)577-597
Trade, Societies, and Sustainable Development, Susturt Network. 2002. " Global Public Goods: Policy Brief paper." Montpellier (France): SUSTRA seminar on "Global Public Goods and Trade", May 13-14.
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Hello there,
I am writing my Methodology part for my Master Thesis about how Political Communicators made sense of themselves and of the Covid-19 crisis during Italian Regional Elections.
I am using qualitative methods (individual semi-structured interviews) and in my Methodology chapter I briefly discuss about Mead theory with these words:
"both interviewing (Meretoja, 2014) and sensemaking (Laroche 1995; Lant 2002; Weick 1993) are theorised as enactment of actions to exchange symbols, giving the possibility to explore human experience also as a symbolic interaction. Here “the world cannot be known as such but is brought about by acting upon it. It does not lie there ready to be interpreted, but has to be made sense of” (Hernes & Maitlis, 2010, p. 31). In this way, knowledge is understood to be originated from subjective interpretations of reality, which in the literature is referred as the social construction of reality (Berger & Luckmann, 1967). Nevertheless, those subjective interpretations are mediated through the use of shared symbolic schemas of knowledge, such as the language. Those interpretations are better understood as intersubjective, because underlining its shared nature will overcomes the limit of a mere subjective reality. Symbolic interactionism is the most suitable paradigm for the present research, because its “emphasis is on individual sense making, expressed through its detailed development of the role of the self in the construction of reality” (Prasad, 2018, p. 19). Indeed, in our case the focus of the research is both on how political communicators made sense of their professional role, as well as how this could have influenced the interpretation of the Covid-19 context. It was Mead (1977), one of the most influential philosopher of the phenomenological pragmatism, who contributed to the diffusion and development of symbolic interactionism, conceiving that people in order to make sense of a situation decide which role to enact, thus projecting already some of the possible circumstances. According to Mead (1977), people interpret a situation by staging different roles which correspond to the expectations of the context. So roles and identity are an adaptation to the context, because “humans have the capacity to resolve blocks to ongoing activity by internally manipulating symbols to review and choose among potential solutions” (Stryker, 2008, p. 17). Therefore, the role that one takes, is due by the context and vice versa, where the roles are enabled by communication, and communication depends on the interactive and exchange of meanings, which is “constantly being modified through a series of individual interpretations” (Prasad, 2018, p. 21) among the engaged parts. To this extent, the perceived and the enacted roles are behavioural and cognitive symbols exchanged inside and outside individuals, which generate new knowledge to people. Therefore, using the Symbolic Interactionism as a Paradigm, as also PR and Sensemaking theorized, means to focus on those multiple identities, roles, meanings and contexts as phenomena of negotiation. Indeed, multiple realities exist, and through interviews the researcher has the function of let them emerge and observe how interviewees self-identify and perceive their role in the narrated events. I argue that the use of interviews can provide a window over those meanings generated in those contexts, because it allows to reproduce and to grasp a situated knowledge by a person as well as the contextual believes in relation to other social actors."
Do you think those words are accurate and correct about Mead works on roles enactment?
Thank you in advance :D
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Alan McManus In the social sciences, I don't see a "dismissal" of ontology and epistemology. Instead, I still find a lack of critical thinking about classical notions of ontology and epistemology, and all too often an ingrained acceptance that this the only way to think about the philosophy of knowledge.
What makes it worse is a one-to-one identification of positivism (i.e., realism) with quantitative research and constructivism (i.e., idealism) with qualitative research.
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Is it possible to compare the transformation of the traditional teachers to the digital reality with immigration? Is this transformation a real immigration? What do you think?
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For me also...but.....
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Ho feasible is it to provide feedback on voice emotion in real-time and are there systems that can do it?
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Yes !, through Paralinguistics, one of the varieties of Non-Verbal Communication, which through tone, pauses, inflections of the voice, speed or slowness of speech, etc. allows it perfectly.
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It has been said that the IS-LM has limitations that makes it difficult to relate to reality.
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It is used in teaching macroecomics because it has a framework that incorporates the foundations of the principles of economics. Demand and supply tools are applied to macro aggregates like Agg Demand and Agg Supply, money, investment, govt expenditure, exports and imports with the prices (interest rates, exchange rates and inflation). Concepts of equilibrium and disequilibrium are also displayed.
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For more than 50 years practitioners have been asking this question; probably the most common.
It is believed that there is an answer, not from the technical point of view, since it is assumed that all methods are mathematically correct, (although I doubt about this.....), and thus, there is no method better than another.