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The most venerable professors and research scholars
Your critical comments, valuable opinions, scientific facts and thoughts, and supportive discussion on how can structural grammar and IC analysis be justified in the recent pedagogical and enhancement trends in EIP for EFL adult learners.
I shall be thankful sincerely for your kind participation.
Best,
Dr. Meenakshi
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In my opinion, it will depend on to what extent the language learner would like to view how the language works. I would say that if we opt to view language from the perspective of medium/tool in conveying messages or communication; incorporating structural grammar and IC analysis are beneficial to use the grammar correctly within the exact communication function to deliver the correct message by the encoder to the decoder.
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Please make references to code breaking, text participating, text using and text critiquing activities
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Dear community,
I am looking for a short measure of reading ability in the context of an online experiment.
I decided to implement a sentence verification task and I was wondering if there are any item collections available open-source (in English).
Any tips would be appreciated, thank you so much!
-Aki
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Hello Aki, I do agree with Michal Místecký. I can also recommend the Lextutor platform (https://www.lextutor.ca/) and the Sketch Engine open corpora (https://app.sketchengine.eu/#open). You can also access the Leeds (http://corpus.leeds.ac.uk/internet.html), although its sytanx is not the most user-friendly. Good luck!
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I would like to investigate the impact writing clarity and plain language have on understanding technical documents.
Therefore, I would like to know:
1- whether writing clarity ensures readability.
2- whether writing in plain language ensures reading comprehension.
3- whether text design makes the reading process better.
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Absolutely! Writing clarity definitely enhances readability and comprehension. It also makes the process pleasurable. Just to note, that while "plain language" may help, it is not the only factor to deliver clarity. Effective structural organisation of ideas, logical development of content, variation of syntax and sentence length, etc. all contribute to delivering writing clarity. Different writing genres require different considerations.
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Hi all,
I am looking for suggestions for text sources to be used in reading comprehension experiments. Specifically, I need access to text that I can present to human participants in several different conditions, where I will measure how long they spend reading the text and I would like to also test their comprehension. In short, I need some texts and some established comprehension questions for those text.
Ideally the text source would be normed on things like word frequency, number of words per passage, and reading difficulty.
This will be in adult participants, ranging from high school through graduate educational backgrounds.
Thanks in advance for any advice!
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Dear Robert,
I understand you are looking for "normed" texts, by which I understand that the texts have been calibrated for a certain level. My question is: do you have a framework of reference in mind for the calibration? CEFR?
I know that this website offers texts at different levels, but I'm not sure how they calibrated the texts: https://www.newsinlevels.com/
I also know of another website that analyzes texts with the CEFR in mind (English Vocabulray Profile to be precise): https://textinspector.com/help/lexis-evp/
The following article might also be useful:
I hope this helps.
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The data is a pre test post test from Phil-IRI english passage reading comprehension test. The passage from the pre-test and post-test is not the same but the difficulty is the same. We we're told to use Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, but I'm not really sure if it is the best tool to use for it. Thank you.
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It sounds like the percent correct on the test would be your outcome variable, so you could compare the pre- and post-test scores with a paired comparison t-Test (which is the parametric equivalent of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test).
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I mean can I keep the same format but at least change the test topic with a different topic of nearly the same level of difficulty since the test will measure reading comprehension.
In the pre-test post-test experiment design, both tests should be identical (same questions). Is it possible to have a pre-test and post-test which are assisting the same concepts but using different topics?
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Hi Foudil, It makes complete sense you wouldn't like to give the same reading pre and post because then your participants would read it twice. So similar reading passages make sense. To be your best experiment, you'd probably like to counter-balance. Half your participants get each of the readings before the experiment and then everybody gets the opposite of their original reading afterward. When you analyze your data counter-balancing condition can be a variable so you'll find out if your reading passages are equally difficult. Hope your study goes well! -Maddie
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Could you please recommend a valid and reliable questionnaire for middle school learners to know their reading comprehension problems?
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Please clarify. Do you want to know the reading comprehension level viz a viz standardized tests or do you want middle school students to evaluate themselves, like Marsh's academic self-concept (ASC) for language arts?
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Dear readers,
This is the link to a short study I did and published in the Newsletter Structural Learning.
It explains why the Think Aloud Protocol a good way to assess Reading Comprehension Strategies. What do you think?
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Really great job, thanks for your effort.
It is true that this protocol is one of best strategies for assessing reading comprehension; Because when the reader thinks aloud, and himself and others hear his ideas and imaginations, he reveals the degree of his understanding of what is being read accurately..
But the important question here: What practices should the teacher do to improve the abilities of his students to Aloud thining?.
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Hello everyone,
what do you think-why do difficult text lead to greater overconfidence than less difficult texts?
What could be the reason that students reading a difficult text first and afterwards the less difficult one reduce their overconfidence as answer to a instruction for being able to use text to solve problems, while students reading texts in the reverse order didn‘t reduce their overconfidence?
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As Michael W. Marek mentioned, learners are not good at accurately monitoring their learning. The monitoring accuracy depends hugely upon the types of metacognitive cues (better predictive or less predictive cues) while they monitor their learning. The literature says that good performers usually underestimate their learning (less confident) and poor performers tend to overestimate.
Jennifer Knellesen, considering your question, the overestimation (or overconfidence) for the difficult text made them cautious and when they go to the less difficult text, they preferred to underestimate. They realize that the types of cues they considered to monitor their learning for the first text were probably less predictive. The opposite case happens when they first read the less difficult text. The pattern of cue utilization by the learners is a complex process. Those who use cues specific to situation model comprehension are observed to be better predictors of their learning. The following article might help you.
Prinz, A., Golke, S., & Wittwer, J. (2020). To what extent do situation-model-approach interventions improve relative metacomprehension accuracy? Meta-analytic insights. Educational Psychology Review, 1-33.
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Hi everyone! I'm currently designing a study to compare EEG brain activity (specifically, connectivity) during online (hypertext) and traditional fixed/linear text reading. I have the following questions: 1) what would be the ideal EEG measure to describe and compare connectivity between conditions? 2) what would be the best way to control for sensorimotor activity differences between conditions (motor activity related to browsing and link selection, navigation-related eye-movements, multimedia sensory load).
If anyone has experience with this or similar experiments, I would be extremely helpful for any hints, suggestions or advice you may provide.
Thanks in advance!
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Kindly see also the following link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-62154-0
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I am studying case study right now
I have a student who has got no international background got the Grade Equivalent of 3.5 (his test performance is comparable to the reading ability of an American average third-grader after the fifth month of the school year) recently. The test report is attached.
And I plan to do a case study on him. Reasons are as follow:
a.The case study is where the researcher takes an in-depth look at a specific situation (Mertens, 2020). Since the student never went to any international school, nor have any family member who is from abroad, but he got such splendid reading ability. I really want to take an in-depth look at his study.
b. Stake (2005) discusses collecting the following types of information for a case study: (a) information about the nature of the case, (b) background or historical information regarding the case, (c) the physical setting for the case, (d) other contexts related to the case, which may include things like the political context, (e) other cases related to this one, and (f) talking to relevant people to learn about this case. I am his teacher and very close to his family. Collecting data would be convenient.
c.Case study research is an investigative approach that can get a new and deeper understanding of a complex phenomenon (Mertens, 2020). Through a case study on this student, I could get some useful learning experience and share it with those who have children learning English. And that will be a great help.
I plan to collect data, such as interviews with his parents, observation in English reading class, his reading records, his test and quiz records. But I don't think those are enough. What else should I collect?
Please correct me if you spot anything wrong.
I’m eager to receive your reply.
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Good morning
Stake, R. E. (2013). Multiple case study analysis. Guilford Press.
It is a qualitative study, so your recollected data may be with deep interviews.
Also, you need software to code the answers.
Atals.ti is a good one.
In order to do the guion you have to follow your objectives.
You will find attachment one of my cases, I hope it helps you.
Best regards
Ph.D. Ingrid del Valle García Carreño
Carreño, I. D. V. G. (2021). Distributed leadership in educational organizations in Madrid: case study. Revista Ibero-Americana de Estudos em Educação, 189-209.
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I would like to know what strategies should be used to improve reading comprehension in students? I'll apreciate any helps, thanks.
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Reading difficulty appears in many forms and range from inadequate vocabulary building to medical conditions like dyslexia ,ADHD ,ADD. Through observations and by checking child`s work ,cognition tests ,and particularly language evaluvation teacher and parent can identify reading difficulty.The child shows no interest in reading , not able to answer simple questions , he steers clear opportunities for reading ,shows difficulty in communication
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Good day, everyone!
I'm doing a research on Personality Traits, Reading Habit, and Writing Achievement. My data were collected using Likert-scale questionnaires (for personality traits and reading habit) and a writing test. My purpose is to find the correlation between personality traits and reading habit, personality traits and writing, and reading habit and writing.
Does anyone know what kind of statistical analysis I should use? Thank you, have a nice day!
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Siti Khairunnisa, for people to be able to help you effectively, I think you need to provide information about how you were measuring personality and reading habits. For example, did you use multi-item scales for each of those variables, and, if so, were there subscales on those scales?
Also, what did scores on the writing test look like? Were they pass/fail, or percentages, or what?
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As an inexperienced teacher in the field of online teaching, I have the fear of unconsciously ignoring one of the skills while focusing on not ignoring the other!
Therefore, I wish to make use of your experiences with distance learning/teaching in the field of integrating the four skills-listening, speaking, reading, and writing- in the language course.
Note: the context of teaching is Algeria, hence, some limitations exist concerning the availability of internet and computers.
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Online or distance teaching has its implications on learners. One of the direct consequences of distance learning is the type of educational platform an institution adopts and uses. Features of these platforms determine which skill is prevalent and more rapid in use. I have found interactive oral skills to be most affected followed by writing and then reading. Students listen most of the time while attending online classes with less willingness/chances to interact verbally.
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I'm trying to find the contribution of (1) genre awareness & (2) reading habits to (3) reading comprehension . The data of genre awareness & reading comprehension are in the form of test scores (1-100). The data of reading habits are 1-4 (1: never, 2: rarely, 3: sometimes, 4: often) which show how often people show good reading habits. What statistical analysis do I have to use? Please kindly help.
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Examine the distributional characteristics of your variables first. If they are all approximately normally distributed then you can use a multiple regression. If one or more of the variables are not normally distributed, you can see if a transformation will yield a normal distribution. Note that some of the tests we use to test for normality are very/overly sensitive to variations from normality; therefore, I suggest that you supplement them with visual inspection of your data distribution. If any of the variables are not even close to a normal distribution, return here to ask for further advice.
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Hello,
This can be a silly question to ask, but my main field is not in reading comprehension. While I try my best to phrase my question, it can sound a bit awkward. Thank you for your understanding.
According to the theories of reading comprehension, there are three levels of reading comprehension: literal, inferential, and critical. Literal comprehension means understanding what the text exactly says or describes, and inferential comprehension means deriving the meanings that are not explictly stated in the text, i.e. "reading between the lines".
Is strong literal comprehension a must in order for an individual to make a good inferential comprehension? That is, does an individual need to have a solid grasp on vast literal details of a text for he or she to be able to "read between the lines"? Is it possible for an individual to do a good job in doing the tasks that requires inferential comprehension while he or she performs relatively worse in the tasks that mainly involves literal comprehension?
Thank you,
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Doung Dara Blaine Tomkins Thank you for your insights, I appreciate your time.
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Hello,
Is the level of cognitive flexibility positively correlated to the level of reading comprehension (greater cognitive flexibility brings higher level of reading comprehension)? If there is a paper that talks about this topic, could you please give me some examples of those papers?
Thank you,
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the oboist is right. the level of reading comprehension is correlated positively to the level of cognitive flexibility.
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What do you think are the most well-known useful drama techniques for teaching reading? Any suggestions?
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Performance
Reader in role
Television and film
Teacher in role
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Hello,
How are the 3 levels of reading comprehension (literal, inferential, and critical) reflected in grade-level English Language Arts (ELA) curriculum?
In particular, normally, is literal reading comprehension more emphasized in the ELA curriculum of lower grade levels while inferential and critical comprehension are emphasized in the ELA curriculum for mid to upper grade levels?
or if not, are all three levels of reading comprehension emphasized in ELA curriculum of all grade levels?
Thank you,
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Reading is the process of knowing a complex of symbols and letters intended to convey the meaning, so it is preferable to develop the effectiveness of differentiated education
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My main field is not Linguistics/reading comprehension so what I am asking might sound a bit silly or not make a lot of sense. My question could certainly be better-phrased.
Is there a theory in reading comprehension that says something like: "The simple reading questions are best answered via simple text analyses, whereas more difficult reading questions are best answered with more complex text analyses"?
I think this intuitively makes sense, since for example, if a person over-analyzes (over-thinks through) the simple reading questions from Grade 1 classes, such a practice can introduce unnecessary complications in deriving the correct answer for the questions.
PS: I guess by saying "elementary (easy/simple) reading questions" vs. "advanced (difficult) reading questions", I am referring more to their readability/difficulty as depicted in the English classes of different grade levels. For example, the reading questions of the Kindergarten/Grade 1 classes are considered much easier than the ``advanced'' reading questions that are from college-level English classes.
PPS: I think I need to be more precise on what I mean by ``simple text analysis'' and ``complex text analysis''. When school teachers try to teach students on how to analyze texts, they refer to the theory like the "three levels of reading" (literal, inferential, critical). In this context, ``simple text analysis'' would be the analyses that focus on literal comprehension whereas ``complex text analysis'' would be the analyses that focus on critical comprehension.
Thank you, :S
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Yo pienso que eso depende de factores como la edad de los niños, el estilo de aprendizaje que tenga y la metodología que el docente use para enseñar a comprender textos. En los niños pequeños un ejemplo aprender mucho de manera visual pero hay niños que son auditivos, además que la repetición de la palabra, frase o texto es fuente misma de la comprensión; es decir si tu metodología es que todos los días al ingresar al salón le vas a leer un texto ellos a la semana ya te sabrán recitar el texto mediante sus palabras y te da Indice de la compresión de el texto.
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I am looking for options on 'reading comprehension assessment' tools, for grade 4 learners that are appropriate for use in divesified contexts, in respect of ethnicity, language, literacy skills, nationality, race, etc.
Thank you.
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With total learning we can do this.
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In a study with 250 short texts we calculated a number of readability scores. It is quite easy to find information to interpret the values for the classical indeces like the Flesch indeces.
But it is more complicated to find information about norms or the interpretation of those values.
Where can we find this information?
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Interested
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Hello,
I ran MANCOVA with 2 DV (two measures of text integration) and one IDV (condition: with or without questions). I entered reading comprehension skill as a continuous predictor variable (entered as a covariate), and it came out significant. I wanted to see whether reading comprehension interacts with condition, so I grouped reading comprehension to two groups (low\average-high) and again ran MANOVA. This time, I had 2 DV (two measures of text integration) and 2 IDV (condition and comprehension level). This time, reading comprehension had no main effect or interaction. I am trying to understand what is the contribution of reading comprehension skill to the DV and what does the difference in significance mean...
Scatter plot was not useful as my DV has 4 levels.
Thank you!
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Good question
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What is a structure of reading comprehension skills? Can we measure them any way?
In the primary school reading comprehension skills are developing so teachers need to measure them. In 21st century we can use computerised instruments. How do you think, is there any difference between measuring reading comprehension skill with computerised instruments and without it?
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The state of thought processes and the ability to understand the connections between words in the text are of fundamental importance for reading comprehension. In reality, to measure comprehension, we must be able to evaluate verbal thinking.
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I'd like to establish the link between the usage of monolingual and bilingual (physical, virtual, online) dictionnaries with (literal, inferential, critical) reading comprehension of French as a foreign language. How can I support this hypothesis?
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It is not my specialty good lcuk
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What are your thoughts about this idea ... "improvement in Reading Comprehension Sills leads to decrease in students' perceived costs (means saving more time and getting better results) and that'll make them more motivated intrinsically (based on Expectancy-Value Theory)"?
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Good Evening,
The results of the PISA 2018 test were published at the end of 2019 on the OECD website (https://www.oecd.org/pisa/data/2018database/).
Among the available data are
I’m questioning about scales computing.
However, in the codebook, I don't see any items related to the "Reading proficiency" scale. Certainly, there are the "CR590Q" items that correspond to a "Reading fluency"... but I don't think that's enough to compute the "Reading proficiency" scale. For example, items identified as "Rapa Nui" also seem to include items about reading.
In short, no matter how hard I look, I can't find information. Do you have any idea where to find the information explaining that item x + item y +... = Reading proficiency Score?
Thank you in advance for your help, best regards,
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I got an answer from a Government of Canada psychometrician who explained the difficulty of calculating the score. It is recommended to use the SPSS, SAS and R packages available on the OECD website.
« The scaling of the proficiency scores is done by the International contractor Education Testing Services (ETS), as a result the syntax is not made available to the National Project Managers.
You will be able to find the information on data analysis and relevant SPSS, SAS or R macros and packages on the OECD website here (https://www.oecd.org/pisa/data/httpoecdorgpisadatabase-instructions.htm) »
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Hello everyone, I would really like to get your expert input on this inquiry I am exploring. Please give your feedback. I am a grade three teacher with a student whose reading and comprehension  skills are way below his grade level. He however has access to a tablet and is really into this bit of technology. My question therefore is how can I use technology such as a tablet to help improve the reading level and comprehension skill of a student who is below grade level? 
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I agree with answer of Dr. Marie Dontfraid .
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I read some great books but I feel like I forget most of what I have came across in those books just few weeks after that. So I'm wondering if I'm reading in the wrong way.
I would really appreciate your feedback and your personal experience on this
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I do not read the whole book; I read the chapters or the parts that I currently need. Then I read a second, third and fourth books at the same time, in the same way. I might return to any one of them as needed. But the approach enables me to read more books, with specific purposes, not just for reading.
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In my work I would like to study the effect of item format on psychometric characteristics of the items in reading comprehension assesment.
At the moment, feedback concerning the theme of my research is required: is it, in your opinion, relevant; is it an interesting problem?
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Yes. For comparison you might look at the "cognitive aspects of survey methodology" (CASM) work. It aims to understand how aspects of survey items can affect responses.
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We are interested in implementing an intervention program which aims to improve reading skills amongst children in secondary schools. We want to investigate whether the program improves the children’s reading skills (both for advanced and less advanced readers), and whether there is a significant difference in effect size when comparing advanced readers to less advanced readers.
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One group non randomised
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I want to study the effects of reading on a computer screen on graduate students' reading comprehension.
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C K Gomathy Thank you for the link
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We are doing a research about students´reading comprehension in a colombian bilingual university and we need a reliable test to apply it in order to measure their comprehension level.
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Dear Kirsty,
Our research focus in describing the level of reading comprehension of EFL students in a colombian university. We don´t have yet the license for using standardized tests, that´s why we are attempting to design our own test to assess the students' reading comprehension. We are thankful for your help. Your suggestions light our way to create a method.
We will show you our test as soon as we finish it.
Kind regards,
Sindy
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In a program that was designed for ELLs and had great results by now, the PI wants to include the native English speakers in order to have them also benefit from this program. What standardized measures could be used for reading (with all its subskills) for both ELLs and native E-speakers so the results of those could be compared and analyzed as of which group had more benefits?
Thank you in advance.
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KET and  PET and IELTS for upper intermediate learners
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Any suggestions on bibliography pertaining to the use of the Bachman and Palmer framework for relevant task characteristics for a comparative analysis of test and textbook reading comprehension tasks?
I have already found some studies in Asian contexts on linking EFL tests to classroom syllabi, but I need to find more.
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Matthieu Peignot thank you for your response
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I am working a project that investigate the cognitive factors on reading comprehension process for second and third grade studenst. Hovewer, I couldn't decide how to measure working memory perfomance related to reading comprehension.
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Dear Mustafa, the idea of ​​your project is interesting and up to date. Cases of poor reading comprehension are more and more common in children with dyslexia. They are part of the heterogeneous neuropsychological symptoms in these cases. Keep in mind that working verbal memory is one of the factors to understand, but it is not basic - you can remember everything but you can not understand it. You can use a graded memory assessment system - from understanding phrases with literal and transcendent meaning (allegories), understanding the syntax of grammar constructions of isolated extended sentences to understanding the read text. It is best to use the classic way of checking the memory is a repetition of the reading, but for this purpose you need to design quantitative evaluation criteria yourself.
Another option is to check the memory of a material that is independent of the read text - learn 10 words (Luria`s test) and compare results with reading.
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Limited research performed indicate that the student's reading skills including analytical analysis and comprehension of decrease as they progress in the years of study. In the past the students were subjected to a generic reading programme only in their first year.
Any contributions on how to improve their reading skills and experiments performed on Financial auditing.
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The modern method is to use image learning and segmentation lessons into sections and then merge
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I want to make sure:
‏Who is the owner of a top-down model? ‏
‏Is the owner of the bottom-up model?
‏Who is the owner of the interactive model?
They are Goodman and kintsch?
‏Thanks in advance
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We would like to know the most important points we check in a reading comprehension test.
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Begin with the Topic and the Scope. The topic should be obvious within the first 1-2 sentences of the passage. ...
The Tone is either Neutral or Strong/Complex. ...
Go back to the passage for Detail questions. ...
Write down the Purpose as soon as you finish reading. ...
Inferences are based on Implications.
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In my current study I would like to evaluate the role morphological knowledge in different levels of reading comprehension (Kintsch & Rawson, 2005).
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This many not be what you are looking for, but here is a process my colleagues and I use to analyze critical thinking in writing. Maybe there is some element you can use.
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I'm currently undertaking research leading to the implementation of a digital/ software program to help promoting contextual vocabulary as well as reading comprehension skills. That's why, I would like to know more of your ideas, suggestions and thoughts about the topic.
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I think that the best way to improve the usage of those resources is trying to create some kind of competition-related prizes (eg: badges, medals). If you perceive that your class is competitive you can decide about scores between grades (some of them are not so competitive and play only by scores could not be interesting).
The aim is to identify where lies the trade-off between challenge and stimulation to avoid that their willingness to participate fell down.
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I am looking to study whether an accountability measure for reading proficiency would show in teased results if students were able to select from a variety of text passages on standardized assessment based on their interest. The hypothesis is that having 5–10 passages with the same complexity would allow students to better access their BK Shen reading and give a truer reflection of reading comprehension skill and not reflect the cultural bias of current tests.
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Please visit the following link
Best Regards Aaryn Schmuhl
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I would like to know who have studied about reading comprehension in college´s students recently, specially in second languages.
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En argentina, Paula Carlino.
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Hello,
I have administered a post-test for evaluating reading comprehension of an experimental group of EST learners.
The student have been asked to give (1) the meaning, (2) the equivalent in French, and finally (3) the Arabic equivalent of some technical terms chosen from the text they have been offered.
So, how should I put weights to these three response components so that the whole mark reflects their real comprehension of the text?
Thank you in advance.
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@ David Morse
Thank you so much, I just had the separate scores and wanted to know which of them represents better the students degree of comprehension of the text. But, I think that, as you have mentioned, that this is likely to be arbitrary.
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If we design a multiple-choice reading comprehension test with the purpose of assessing given cognitive skills in learners, how can we ensure its reliability and validity?
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Dear  El Hassan
The measures of reliability, validity, and feasibility were applied and studied in the papers (which are available with me):
1. Validity and Reliability of Students and Academic Staff’s Surveys to Improve Higher Education. Educational Alternatives, Journal of International Scientific Publications, 2016,Vol.14, pp. 242-263 .
2. Statistical characteristics of performance indicators. Int. J. of Quality and Innovation. 2014, Vol.2, No.3-4, pp. 385-309.
3. Quantitative and qualitative indicators to assess the performance of higher education institutions. Int. J. of Information and Decision sciences, 2014, Vol.6, No. 4, pp.369-392.
Regards,
Zuhair
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Dear
I have an outcome (dependent) variable (scores received from a multiple-choice test/computerized reading comprehension test), and two predictors (independent variables) (the data received from two Likert-Scale questionnaires/Computer Familiarity Scale and Attitudes towards Computer Scale were transformed to continuous scales). I'm trying to probe the directionality of the effects i.e the effect of two independent variables on the dependent one. Moreover, the correlation among the variables should be assessed based on the results of coefficients determination (R2). I came to the solid conclusion that the Multiple Linear Regression may be the best statistical test to examine my research hypotheses. What’s your idea? is it the most appropriate test to run based on the aforementioned data? If yes, which assumptions should be met for running Multiple Linear Regression statistical test? Somebody says that the results of just two Normality and Durbin-Watson (absen of autocorrelation) are to be reported, and this is the accepted procedure for statisticians. But it seems that those two are not enough, and totally, 8 main assumptions should be met in this case, and the most important ones are .........
1. Linear relationship 2. Multivariate normality 3. No or little multicollinearity 4. No auto-correlation 5. Homoscedasticity.
Would you please inform me if I am required to meet all the assumptions for running Multiple Linear Regression test? or Not?
It is worth mentioning that I'm supposed to report the most appropriate, accurate and subtle results of statistical procedure in order to get the positive judgment of austere reviewers!
Thanks in advance
Warm Regards
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From your description, linear regression could be a useful tool. It is not really a test, but it has some tests associated with it. You are correct that there are a number of assumptions associated with linear regression, but whether you need to satisfy all of them depends on how you plan to use linear regression. A quick review these assumptions is as follows. More information (and software to carry out the various tests) can be found at www.real-statistics.com.
1. Linearity – You have two independent variables and so you should create two scatter charts: (1) independent variable 1 with the dependent variable and (2) independent variable 2 with the dependent variable. The data on each of these plots should align reasonably well with a straight line (i.e. match the linear trendline in Excel)
2. Normality – The residuals (the y data values minus the y values predicted by the regression model) should be normally distributed. You can check this by using the Shapiro-Wilk test (or QQ plots, etc.)
3. Other assumptions about the residuals – The residuals should be randomly distributed with mean close to zero. You can test this graphically or by using Cook’s D (or other similar tests)
4. No Multicollinearity – You won’t be able to get a linear regression model if there is exact multicollinearity. You can remove multicollinearity by removing one (possibly more) of the variables that is causing multicollinearity. Exact multicollinearity is not common with real data, but you can have a high level of multicollinearity (especially if you have a lot of independent variables). You can detect the possibility of high multicollinearity if the VIF values for some of the variables are high. The problem with high multicollinearity is that the standard errors of the regression coefficients will be high and so the predictions from the linear regression model won’t be very precise. You can reduce the impact of multicollinearity by using Ridge regression or some other similar method.
5. Homoscedasticity (homogeneity of variances) – When you graph the residuals against any of the independent variables, you should see a random pattern. If the resulting scatter chart looks like a line, a regular curve or any other pattern that isn’t random, then you have the possibility of violating this assumption. You can also use the Breusch-Pagan test. You can address violations of this requirement by using a transformation of the data or a correction to the standard errors of the regression coefficients (what are called robust standard errors).
6.No Autocorrelation – You can use Durbin-Watson to detect first-order autocorrelation. This test won’t detect other forms of autocorrelation. The Breusch-Godfrey test can be useful in this case. Autocorrelation tends to be an issue with time series data since the data in one period (year, month, etc.) tends to be correlated with the data in the previous period (first-order autocorrelation) or possibly an earlier period (p-order autocorrelation). Autocorrelation can be addressed using techniques such as Newey-West standard errors.
7. The sample size should be larger than the number of independent variables (otherwise the regression model won’t be defined — k linear equations in more than k unknowns).
Unless assumption 7 is violated you will be able to build a linear regression model, but you may not be able to gain some of the advantages of the model if some of these other assumptions are not met. Normality and Durbin-Watson (actually Autocorrelation is the assumption) are not the only assumptions that are important. In fact, for large samples it tends to be less critical to check for normality since the Central Limit Theorem will kick in).
Charles
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All learners/ students need to improve their level of comprehend any given text, and without appropraite methods is impossible to succeed in reading task.
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Hi Zeneb,
Comprehension is the ultimate final product of reading -- there is no other reason for it than to derive meaning/understanding from the text. Rather than focusing on a code-based approach using decoding from the visual to the auditory, one should use strategies that enhance the reader's ability to use her/his background knowledge when reading. Since reading comprehension comes from juxtapositioning one's background knowledge of the world and of language (referred to as using "cueing systems") with the in-coming visual text to "weave a web of meaning" (J. Emig's quote), then you should use stratgies to do this.
Ellin Oliver Keene's book "To Understand: new Horizons in reading comprehension" as well as Keene & Zimmermann's " Mosaic of Thought: The power of comprehension strategy instruction (2nd edition)" is also good.
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In line with the previous question, I would also like to know if there have been teachers/ researchers in the field of reading comprehension and adolescent literacy who have tried the Critical Elements of Strategies Instruction (CESI) Model as the framework for helping adolescent struggling readers' comprehension and metacognitive awareness. How does CESI Model help teachers and students in their goal to improve reading comprehension for older students like 11th or 12th graders?
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Take a look at the work of Helma van Lierop-Debrauwer (https://tilburguniversity.academia.edu/HelmavanLierop)
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Lets use the term "adorn" to additions to articles done by students: Highlighting, writing margin notes, questions, comments, connecting with lines, drawing arrows, doodling - Anything used in the digesting process that wasn't on the page before ;)
For a small research I'm doing, I'm looking for previous work on the subject. How adorning varies, and what are the factors affecting how it's done, it's effect on understanding, etc.
So...
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Students are supposed to annotate printed material and today to annotate PDFs. Sadly this is often not taught. I have an unpublished draft paper on the topic "The teaching of annotating".
I taught undergraduates a minimal set of symbols:
  • ? if something is not understood,
  • ! if something is surprising.
  • Candle or light bulb if something was learned.
  • Double quotes if the student might want to quote the sentence.
  • Single quotes if it was possibly to be paraphrased (with alterations shown).
  • Underlining for important text.
  • Marginal notes for ideas triggered by the reading.
  • Coloured highlights to code themes.
Of course, this practice has now mainly transferred to electronic media, where an annotation report* can automatically extract just the annotatations for revision or write-up time.
My E-textbook** suggests 10 letter codes M1 to M10 to be used consistently to note creative Modifications to the text. It also suggests ten letter codes R1 to R10 to be used consistently to indicate the Resolves of the student.
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i want to run a mindfulness program in an elementary school in order to improve students reading comprehension. i am not sure that if it is effective or not.
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I fear that you are asking something of mindfulness that it was never designed to do. Mindfulness was a bit of a craze a while back, but there's no evidence to suggest that it would help with reading. You are better off looking at proven educational methods such as Debra suggests.
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Hello,
Perhaps an unusual question, but is anyone familiar with any questionnaires used to measure reading comprehension (visually presented word to meaning match) for 4 year olds?
Thank you.
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Not sure. But I would be interested in information like time needed for four year old to read out words, phrases, and sentences by length, type, and difficulty.
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Is there another online survey to check the reading comprehension?
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Thank you Sir for giving me different sources of Online Survey but I want to know about the specific one Online Survey of Anderson (2003) Will have to follow specific rules to use OSORS (Online Survey of reading Strategies) to check the response of Online readers and Can we do modification in already designed survey according to our need?
Regards
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Research related topic about reading comprehension need reference as well
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Nosheen, Do you have any evidence to suggest that the online and offline reading of a text would be different?
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As you might know, I am working on a PhD-thesis concerning the question whether words come across differently when they are sung instead of spoken or written. As part of that project I have created a small survey called: How do we handle song lyrics? Do we even hear them?
I would be grateful if you would help me to find respondents. Either by completing the survey yourself, of by sharing the link with other people.
Completing the survey will ask about 10 minutes of your time. This is the link: https://survey.hum.uu.nl/index.php?sid=18519&lang=en.
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 @Arne Matthias: I do not know what you mean with 'my current question', so it is very difficult to answer it.
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Do you know any tool that measures reading comprehension in secondary school students?
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Hi, Maria.
You could try some subscales of the standarized Test-A (Panteliadou&Antoniou, 2008), which is appropriate for assessing students till the third class of high school.
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Are there metacognative reading activities to improve reading comprehension of ESL learners?
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I am researching in metacognitive reading strategies students of Reading and Writing Workshop( at my university) employ while reading. One of my main problems is to understand the relationship among cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies and reading strategies.
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Metacognition means "thinking about how we think."  So I think metacognition is relevant to figuring out what study strategies work for each of us, as individuals.
For example, what is the best strategy for ME when I am reading and find a word I do not know.  Should I stop and look it up?  Keep reading and depend on my ability to understand the word from the context?  
I think that analyzing these things and using them as a strategy does represent use of metacognition. 
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Reason being, some common phrases which may not be accredited to only one author, for instance " The majority of respondents reported that" is also taken to be similarity. How does one go about this? In my manuscript, even the references (some, not all) are considered to be plagiarism! This seems a bit odd and perplexing to figure out. Whoever has been through this same predicament, kindly provide guidance and assistance. Thank you
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30%
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EyeTribe is a limited tool in the measurement accuracy of the saccadic movements. Consider only the fixations and the saccadic amplitude will be enough to make inferences from the data?
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Muchas gracias, José Luis. Revisaré el artículo adjunto.
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15 - sample size
7 - Reading comprehension tests
           2- individual tests
           5 - group tests
each group tests with shuffled samples.
How to correlate and find out the significance? when group size differs?
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I was intrigued by your question. Since the issue of learning English is quite important I wanted to help to the extent possible. But the question was not clear. So I looked up the abstract of your paper. There is no progress. Can you state in simple terms (forget statistical jargon) the question you are trying to answer? Also, in your abstract you mention a t test but you do not state what hypothesis you are checking. Can you clarify that? There is some skewness in your scores and you seemed to see much meaning in that. I am not so sure.
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Hi Peter,
      Are there any implications or current research about training for reading comprehension as related to workplace readiness in people with TBI? Thank you for sending me the other article a while ago!
Best,
Sara
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Glad you are appreciative!
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I want to predict reading times by the conditional probabilities of bi- and trigrams (for bigrams: how likely is word n to occur if word n-1 is given). Do I have to log-transform these conditional probabilities? See the attached figure for non-transformed probabilities on the left and transformed probabilities on the right. I am using lmer-models (R package lme4) to predict the reading times.
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You should test your data for normality. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3693611/
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I reviewed the existing literature about the effects of portfolio and I noticed that it has positive effect on reading comprehension and writing. Do you think that reflection on a paper can have positive effect on speaking and communication skills or no?
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Hi Sharam, the attachment will only answer partly to your question but point out some other benefits of (e)Portfolios.
Mozelius, P. (2013). Learning by Building–the Lunarstorm Generation Constructing Their own ePortfolios. In 12th European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL 2013), 30-31 October 2013, Sophia Antipolis, France (pp. 319-322). Academic Conferences and Publishing International.
Kind regards,
/Peter
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How can the two seemingly opposed approaches to literature reception inform and constrain each other usefully? For example, what can responses to the Experiencing Questionnaire (Kuiken et al., 2012, SSOL) tell an fMRI study on poetry reception (e.g., O'Sullivan et al., 2015, CORTEX) or vice versa? Which models and methods must be developed to drive potential cross-fertilization? 
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"Phenomenological" approaches need to be considered in two ways. The first potential contribution  is methodological, i.e., the use of empirical phenomenological methods to examine experiential accounts of reading events. The neurophenomenological group (following Varela, represented by Petitmengin) provides one methodological option, but I am (as might be expected) partial to the more systematic procedures we have developed  (cf. Kuiken & Miall, 2001). The second potential contribution of phenomenological approaches to "literature reception" is conceptual. The dominant cognitivist theory of text comprehension is rather lopsided: it emphasizes an inference-driven quest for explanation. In contrast, the phenomenologically oriented theoretical account emphasizes an expression-centered quest for explication. (Both, perhaps, involve the "extraction" of meaning in some sense.) The aesthetic outcomes of expression-centered explication is where something like the Experiencing Questionnaire can contribute. For an example of that approach see the draft Chapter entitled (at the moment) "Forms of Absorption that Facilitate the Aesthetic and Explanatory Effects of Literary Reading." Linking either of the preceding phenomenologically guided efforts to neuroscience paradigms is the challenge. I am confident there are ways to do so, but that calls for careful consideration of specific neuroscience paradigms, too. That is where the real "work" of cross-fertilization might actually occur.
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Is text simplification, through the cogent implementation of intelligent algorithms seeking main ideas and supporting details, useful when attempting to accelerate current levels of reading comprehension among English speakers, and English learners?
In which scholarly research organizations, might this type of question be explored fully?
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Esteban, I'm not sure what you mean exactly by "text simplification," but if you mean reducing the readability level of the text, the answer is no.  Such simplification actually hinders comprehension.  There appear to be two factors that have a significant effect on reading comprehension.  One is working memory disfunction associated with slow reading speed.  The other, related, factor is lack of vocabulary.  Instruction that increases vocabulary and reading speed, as well as instruction designed to enhance WM will provide benefits. 
These issues are addressed in education and psychology research, some of which is supported by the International Reading Association.
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I'm planning a study with students in Year 4 in Australia and I need a good pre-post test that can be administered to a group; unfortunately most of the tests previously used in Australia research are now defunct, so I'm looking for other options. Thanks in advance!
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Hi Margaret,
Hope the attached article will enlighten you on a sample test.
regards
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Hello everyone, I am a little confused about the effectiveness of working memory training and its effect on L2 reading comprehension. I need to know is there a significant effect or not, and is there any research in this area. Thanks in advance
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Question and answer relationship (QAR) is a comprehension strategy which was created by Raphael and colleagues to help students understand and realize that the answers that they seek are related to the type of questions that is asked during and after reading a text.
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The framework for QAR comprehension strategy is to provide improvement for students’ learning.  However, some of the students’ may not be able to link questions to the information in the text. Therefore, students’ should be taught how to locate answers to the questions. QAR framework is a strategy for students’ comprehension skills.
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Hello,
I have designed a piece of Interactive Fiction (IF) for my General Maritme English class. It is loosely based around the NCIS TV series. It is a "whodunnit", which the learners must solve, thus solving the reading comprehension exercise. The issue is : it takes about a hundred hours of work to create a story which the learners solve in under three hours. (the tool I used was ADRIFT 4.0).
Does anyone know of an easy-to-use tool to create IF... possibly faster?
Thank you for your answers.
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from where can i buy or get this scale please?
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Researchers usually create these as they depend on the group being assessed. They are often, but not always, based on a 4 level scale of fluency 1 being single word reading skills and 4 a more fluent comprehension of groups of words within sentences. Sorry not to be more help but you could look at other reading scales, whihch are easily available on the web or from examining bodies, and adapt one to your particular needs.
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i am a PhD student  my thesis about mental imagery strategies and its relation on reading comprehension and meta- comprehension..cant find the latest instrument to measure meta- comprehension,and i need the latest studies or articles talking about mental imagery strategies .thank u.
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Thank you  Dr.feras for your reply, my thesis in arabic,and i searched about meta comprehension scale and a comprehension scale..there is just one for metacomprehension..an old one.. by  DeWayne Moorea, Karen Zabruckyb 1997.could you help me please?!
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I am interested in helping first-year college students and ESL students become better academic readers. 
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Harshvardhan,
Thank you. It's amazing to find someone to help from Panjab University. Thank you again. I will check the sources you suggest.
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Examining the impact of exposing first and second graders to online reading in order to enhance their reading comprehension and prepare them for expository writing required in the fourth grades
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I have to recruit high school-aged participants according to their reading ability as better and weaker readers. These participants will be submitted to experiments to verify to which extent they are able to integrate implicit pictorial information and verbal information found in cartoons.
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Another option is the TOSREC (Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension).  It is quick and easy to give. 
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These research based programs need to be applicable to special needs students ages 3 to 9 years old. They should be able assist me in my teaching practice in helping special needs student excel academically. 
And would also appreciate sources to locate additional secondary data to support the effectiveness.
Thanks
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Check out the What Works Clearinghouse of the IES:
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I am conducting an eye-tracking study into reading in high-functioning autism and I need to match the autistic and neurotypical participants for vocabulary level. I have been thinking about using Paul Nation's Vocabulary Size Test for receptive vocabulary (Nation, I.S.P. and Beglar, D., 2007), but as far as I could find, it has only been validated on 46 English-speaking people (details about their age have not been provided). I would appreciate any suggestions on what other test batteries would be suitable to measure vocabulary size in English-speaking adults (free to use, if possible) and where I could find them, as well as any opinions on the above mentioned test by Nation (you can have a look at the attached file for more information about the test). Thank you!
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I don't know of any such tests that are both well constructed and free to use. After all, it costs a lot in professional time & resources to develop and standardize a test! But if you are after receptive vocabulary (how many words the person understands), then your best bet might be the Peabody Picture-Vocabulary Test. If you prefer to measure expressive vocabulary, there is a "twin" instrument, the Expressive Vocabulary Test. I would lean toward the PPVT in a study of autistic people, so as to reduce problems with memory retrieval or cooperation. Both of these measures have been normed on large, nationally representative samples. They are widely used clinically and in research, and either one can usually be administered in 15 minutes or so. Another option would be the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV), which would be even quicker to administer but has fewer items (therefore somewhat lower reliability) and requires the person to actually define the word.
If you want to use a written test suitable for group administration, you might consider the Shipley IOL scale (now the Shipley 2): just use the vocabulary portion! Or you could use the Vocabulary subtest of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test the same way.
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I am going to study the characteristics of eye-movements of good and poor Persian readers while reading English and Persian texts.
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Hi Pouran, 
You can watch if the students eyes are tracking their words as they're pointing to the words when they're reading. I'm wondering about the age group you're referring to?. If the children are very young it might not necessarily mean they're having reading difficulties. Also since you're teaching them two languages at the same time, are you noticing that they're reading better in one language than the other? which language are the children getting more exposure in? Assuming that the exposure is the same if a child has a true reading difficulty such as a learning disability like dyslexia, he or she would have struggle regardless of the language. 
Also remember that some children struggling with reading may not necessarily have reading issues it could be vision, attention etc. Best wishes