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Where can I find alagebrium I want to use it in my research ?
And astaxanthin also and is it expensive?
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Hello.
Take alagebrium for example, you can search it on google scholar (or others) and get some articles about it. I picked up one as below.
Am J Transl Res. 2019; 11(3): 1569–1580.; PMCID: PMC6456531
In this article, they mentioned that "......AGEs inhibitor ALT-711 (20 μg/mL; MedChemExpress, China) was added......". So you can turn to "MedChemExpress" to see if the price and distance are ideal or not. If not, turn to other papers.
It has to be mentioned that, you can go to https://scifinder.cas.org/scifinder. Using substance identifier will easily lead you to what you want, though I had not bought through this way.
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I have had a few lively discussions with colleagues on the appropriate application of the following terms, as they relate to the use of laboratory rats and mice: habituation, acclimation, adaptation, and acclimatization.
When the rats are brought into my research lab, in order to "get used to" everything from the transport from the animal care facility, sounds, sights, odors, etc., is this called habituation?
Preclinical researchers are "on notice" to improve the reproducibility and validity of our data, with the ultimate goal of translatability to clinical discoveries. How can this be accomplished if we cannot even agree on terminology?
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To me, when thinking about those words and their common uses, I have them divided up in my head a certain way. Your mileage may vary, but here's how I use them.
Acclimation and acclimatization are the same thing-- getting used to life at a different place than the animal producer. I like acclimation better as acclimatization just seems....extra.
Habituation is getting used to something happening--animals are habituated to restraint, they are habituated to a behavioral testing apparatus.
And finally, adaptation is a longer-term event occurring at the species level to permanent changes--the rats are adapted to living at altitude; the mice have adapted to desert life.
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I'm currently testing ketamine as an anti-depressant in female ovariectomized rats. Am curious what size field would be ideal to test the effects of ketamine 24h or 1 week after administration.
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Hi Colin,
We used a 60x60x30 cm white wooden box, with four 4 cm holes. As Caroline mentioned, you might want to use an elevated plus maze for measuring anxiety (recording time spent in closed areas). Measurements for the plus maze are 50x10 cm on each side, and the two opposite side closed areas have a 40 cm height. Maze is elevated by 50 cm.
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How can I prepare a pellet high fat diet for rodents that keeps a firm consistency?
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If you want to determine feed intake, then pellets are to be preferred. Also then the animals can not select individual feed ingredients.
You can calculate fat content from ingredient composition or determine it chemically.
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Recently, my RA and graduate student performed facial vein (sub-mandibular) bleeding in immunized mice (both BALB/c and A.J), several mice died after bleeding. We have changed from lancet to needle but still have mice died after bleeding. The confusing thing was, for several mice, only a tiny amount of blood was obtained so it was impossible due to blood loss. Anyone has the similar experiences so could give us some advice or explanation for the cause of death?
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I have tried facial vein blood collection last Sunday, with 5mm blood collection needle. For mice of 4-5weeks years-old,6-7 drops equal 150-300ul ,then press the wound for 20s. Till now,every thing is ok~
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I am trying to administer a hormone daily to a rat for up to 6 months without causing the rats any unneeded stress.
My current options:
- Daily subcutaneous injections.
- Implanted osmotic pumps.
- Daily force feed using gavage.
- Daily syringe feeding .
- Some type of treat containing hormone??? (please let me know if you know of something like this)
Essentially aside from some form of a treat containing the hormone I am not a fan of the 4 other options.
Daily injections would be time consuming for a large sample, and would be inherently stressful to the rats.
Osmotic pumps would require routine changing over the course of the experiment, meaning that the rats would be going into minor surgery every 2-3 weeks.
Daily force feed would be inherently stressful on the rats, and according to the literature on using gavage, can cause throat ruptures, and becoming increasingly difficult over time.
Syringe feeding is the most viable option of all those aside from feeding them some form of capsule or pellet containing the hormone, but would still be quite time consuming to do daily.
Any recommendations or advice on how to proceed here is very welcome. Please help.
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Hi Jesse,
I am from the manufacturer of iPRECIO pumps. I am very late but I thought I would still share. Our pumps will infuse up to 6 months at 1ul/hour. See www.iprecio.com . You can even program the pump to infuse intermittently or to try to simulate the hormonal cycle.
Some references for the choices you mentioned.
Good luck and feel free to contact if you have more questions.
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I am looking to model different ages (in humans) using a rat model. Does anyone have any papers which describe the developmental markers in brains of rats and humans?
Example) How many months old would a rat have to be to reflect the development of a 12 year old brain in humans?
Thank you.
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Hello!
I found this article that relates rat age to human's:
Hope it answers your question properly.
Best wishes for your research!
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Currently iam working on preclinical drug interaction studies.
Can anybody suggest the criteria of blood with drawal intervals in rats for drug interaction studies. Many literature showing withdrawing of blood at 0,1,2,4,6,8 and 12 hours interval through retroorbital pluxes. Is it possible to with draw with these intervals from retroorbital pluxes in rats. Please provide your valuable suggestions. Thanking you
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Dear Pradeepkumar.
If you or someone you work with is familiar with pharmacokinetic modelling, you may wish to look into a practice called optimal design. This approach uses certain statistical properties to derive (amongst other possible variables to optimise for) the sampling times at which the maximum amount of information may be retrieved. Especially in studies where the information density may not be easily determined rationally such as interaction studies, this approach may significantly improve the chances of study success. Although it requires investing some time and effort, and some a-priori expected or established model, in my experience it is worth it.
For further reading I suggest the article "Optimal Design of Pharmacokinetic Studies" by Leon Aarons and Kayode Ogungbenro, 2010.
Good luck on your study
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Assuming a 400-500g male rat.
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Good Question
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I've found several works done in rats but it's being hard to find an acute dose of corticosterone for IP administration in mice.
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I believe the acute toxicity of corticosterone in mice is not very high i.e. if you dose only once. So probably the choice of dose is more dependent on what you would like to achieve rather than any limitation by toxicity. Dose ranges in rats should be too far off the ones in mice, maybe those for mice being even a little higher.
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I am performing a neuropharmacological study on mice which involves namely Open field test, Hole cross test (HCT),  Thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time test,  Elevated plus-maze (EPM test)
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The protocols for carrying out similar studies and comparing the data obtained in different laboratories have been developed. Dosages for different substances are chosen, respectively, single, double ...
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Hello,
We recently got an IACUC protocol for tail vein administration. I am currently the only person at the company with prior experience in animal studies. I have been trained in injection/bleeding techniques. However, it is been several years since I have performed tail vein injections. My previous experience was with albino mice where the veins were easily located. Does anyone have a recommendation for a dye that could be used on easily identify if the vein was hit. I believe I have heard of using Evan's blue or food coloring but wanted to get opinions. I know I will have to dilate the veins using heat, and will require lots of practice.
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Try methylene blue. Do not exceed 100-120 µl for adılt mice, and 10 µl for neonates  
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Dear Scientists, 
Currently we planned a new project which is involving few surgical techniques. Steriotaxic sugery in mice and introducing alzet pump to mice brains as well. 
I've seen different versions of the device:
1. David Kopf Instruments and
2. Animal Stereotaxic Instrument Stereotaxic Instrument with Atlas Integration in Computer
What do you think, which device might be easier to handle with high level of correct injection of the target sol. into the ventricular system and the hippocampus as well. 
Do you know if there is any European Institute that give a detailed course and a certificate for that as well?
Best Regards, 
Mohamed Ahmed 
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Kopf instrument is best device for stereotaxic surgery in Mice
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Hi!
I'm fine-tuning icv injection technique in mice, but I'm experiencing some problems with anesthesia. From what I've read, many authors use isoflurane. Still, I am interested in finding a long-lasting anesthetic (or a mixture) that can be administered ip, and that further allows the total recovery of the animal.
Could anyone shed new light on?
Thank you very much!
Fiona
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Thank you all! 
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Hello, I want to induce DT2 in rats. I read a lot of articles on this subject and I understood that the dosage of STZ and the time between STZ and NA administration is very important; In almost all articles that I read I found that the proper dose of NA is between 90-140 mg/kg. Masiello P. (1998) who developed this model has used 230 mg/kg NA. What is the reason for such a large difference in dosages between the two? PS: STZ dosage is similar in all cases 40-65 mg/kg"  Thank you very much
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Our research team has dealt with this protocol for years. Pilot experiments are needed in order to find the proper combination dosage of STZ and NA, since different results are obtained from lab to lab. Don't be so sure that the achieved diabetes will be the type 2. Also,mind that STZ is photo(light)-sensitive and must be administered freshly after its preparation. Very long fasting  of the animals doesn't help. Not all the animals will be rendered diabetic. In my opinion models combining high-fat diet and (a) low dose(s) of STZ are more appropriate for the study of type 2 diabetes. To my mind, the model you are asking about will easily turn the animals into type 1 diabetes.
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I am searching for bladder cancer animal model without need of use nude mice/rats.
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look over Modeling bladder cancer in mice: opportunities and challenges - NCBI - National Institutes of Health
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How much dextrose should I use if I need to induce high-blood sugar in mice for a diabetes study? What dosage/concentration and kind are suggested? Also, should the mice be kept "plugged" into the dextrose source at all times?
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Normal rodent islets have tremendous capacity to compensate for hyperglycemia when infused with glucose. Achieving a high blood glucose by infusing glucose solution, comparable to severe hyperglycemia caused by streptozotocin treatment for near complete destruction of beta cells, is almost impossible. 
Ages ago, in case of normal rats (~150gm), I infused 50% glucose at a flow rate of 2ml/hr - within 2 days rats were able to compensate sufficiently that raising blood glucose over 200mg/dl wasn't easy and getting to >400mg/dl was impossible.
Both STZ and Alloxan can be purchased from Sigma Aldrich.
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I need to feed the rat with powder high fat diet. We used to mix the powder high fat diet with coconut oil and make the powder diet into small balls. But, the rats are not eating these balls properly as compare with pellet. Is there any simple method for intragastric administration of powdered materials to rats?
Thanking you in advance for your valuable suggestions.
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One of the best ways to ensure that the rats consume the high fat powder is to incorporate it into the pellet feed. Adjustments can be made in the relative composition of the pellet to make the high fat powder an integral part.I know from experience that coconut-oil based food may not appeal to rats. In the alternative, consider using vegetable oil; either way, remember to make corrections for the added calories. All the best.
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how collect saliva in rats
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Please check the following link and attachment.
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I am trying to design a high fat diet for SD rats for a hyperlipidemia study. Please suggest me whether Pork Lard fat directly obtained from the store be directly used along with a modified Chow diet powdered for this study. Or should it be rendered. Also please someone provide me any acceptable nutritional value for the pork unrendered lard. 
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Thanks John
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I've noticed that in some maternal separation papers, it is specified whether rat pups are cross fostered at birth, while in others it is not mentioned. Is cross fostering important when examining early life stressors in later life behaviours? If it is, can anyone provide me with some tips for successful cross-fostering?
Thanks! 
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I learned from Harry Broadhurst that cross-fostering was vital for the studies of classical genetics such as development of the Maudsley reactive and non-reactive rats. The main disadvantage was the amount of time and grant money needed to do the extra work. Although I did not engage in genetic studies myself the cross-fostering control was also important for studies of manipulations of maternal history by prenatal exposure to drugs. It was at that point that I realised that countless numbers of studies refer to strain differences in rats without cross-fostering controls and cannot therefore be interpreted as establishing genetic effects. Most people don't seem aware of that. It seems to cast doubt on many studies of genetically manipulated animals (e.g. knock-outs and knock-ins) where cross-fostering appears to be very rarely done. Do the others who have responded to you question agree? If I am right then it is a matter that deserves a public airing.
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Vajrai
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Hi- If you are going to monitor sanitation of animal house, you can do that according to below methods:
monitoring by using Luminometers (it highly recommended)
Swab Method
RODAC Plate Method
Agar Sausage Method
The Petrifilm Plate Method
all the best
mehran
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Please someone help me out with the per day calorie consumption for Male, Sprague dawley rats. It would be really helpful if any particular equation on calorie requirement could be shared by someone.
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Dear Anmol, 
In order to calculate the caloric (energy) intake you need to know the energy provided by the rat chow (feed) which your using, e.g. 3020 kcal/kg, (it can be easily available from your laboratory animal chow (feed) supplier. 
After getting this value you have to measure the daily food intake of the individual SD rats.
Caloric Intake(Kcal/g/day) = Daily food intake (gm) * total energy food of (kcal/kg)/1000
From caloric intake you can calculate the Feed Efficiency Ratio
Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER) = Mean Body Weight Gain / Caloric intake
For more insights refer my publication by clicking this link http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1SoS26FNx9S22D
Hope you understand.
Best luck.
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Any advice, tips and tricks on how to best perform the surgery and how to set up this model would be greately appreciated.
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You can find the answer in the following research :
Y. Li, J.-G. Wang, Y.-P. Li, Z.-F. Lin, A MODIFIED RAT MODEL FOR CANNULATION AND COLLECTION OF THORACIC DUCT LYMPH. Lymphology 44 (2011) 82-88
You can also contact :
 Zhao-fen Lin, PhD, Professor, Emergency Department
Changzheng Hospital Second Military Medical University
No. 415 Fengyang Road- Shanghai 200003, China
Tel: +8613601605100
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Were doing experiments with rats (Long-Evans) where we anesthesize them with Urethane and then make a craniotomy. Today it happened that the rat suddenly 'blowed-up' (its back rose and it lookes like his lungs filled completely with air), stiffened and died within a couple of minutes. Does anyone know how this could have happened? 
We did not encounter this with the other rats we used, neither does anyone in the institute have a good explanation for this. 
Thanks in advance,
Olivier 
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"As far as I know, urethane should preferably be adopted in non-recovery procedures,"
This is 100% true, but urethane as "non-recovery" anesthetic usually works relatively safely. However, I made more than 1000 craniotomy on rats, and independently  on the anesthetics, unexpected  deaths always occured. In my lab, the case was usually something pulmonary problem.  My preferable drug was always Hypnorm, as operational anesthetic. Subcutaneous injection was the best route of the administration.  
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After almost a month of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS), both of my control rats (no stress) and stress-model rats exhibit low serum corticosterone concentration. Surprisingly, the level of ACTH in stress-model rats were significantly higher compared to control rats. Is it a common observation? Because most CUMS literature i found report high corticosterone level in their stressed rats.
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Elevated ACTH but low CORT is sometimes seen in rodent models of post-traumatic stress disorder (only in males though, are you using males? There are significant sex differences in the HPA axis response to stress). Diminished CORT release in response to stress could be due to a sensitization (or increase in number) of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the pituitary, and if all GR are saturated with ligand, no more suppression of ACTH can occur so that's where you can get high ACTH and low CORT. Due to this, the adrenal glands can become insensitive to ACTH--you can quantify ACTH receptors or just give them an ACTH injection and measure their CORT response to see.
I use the single prolonged stress paradigm (a PTSD model), which is a single exposure to 2.5 hours of intense stress. These stressed rats show a 50% increase in glucorcorticoid receptor expression in the PVN of the hypothalamus and exaggerated negative feedback of the HPA axis which drives their CORT levels down. As you pointed out though, CUMS doesn't usually result in this phenotype. It sounds like maybe something was different between your experiments, but it's hard to tell what (light cycle, handling, housing?)
If you want to explore further what's going on in your rats I suggest looking at the dexamathasone suppression test to measure HPA negative feedback (see attached paper). It would also be helpful to quantify glucocorticoid receptor expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary. Baseline CORT levels can vary a lot between individuals, so I take a baseline blood sample and expose them to a mild stress (30 minutes  in a restraint tube), take another blood sample at 30 minutes, and then look at the CORT released. Good luck!
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What is the best method to obtain blood samples for laboratory analysis in alive rats ?
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Dear dr , the best method to blood collection in rat is tail vein puncture with insuline syringe but should be veterinarian have experiance do that
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I am training some rats on a simple discrimination task, but 4/10 animals are spending up to 40 seconds at the hopper after receiving a reinforcer, licking and occassionally biting. Their weight is a little high but not excessive. What could be the cause?
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I think Apomorphine can induce such licking behaviour.
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I was wondering if there are any experimental differences when applying treatment or constructing models (mania model specifically) using these different strains. Of course all strains differs in their behavior and response to treatments but I am looking here for significant variations and whether there are experiments that are done on one strain that is better than the other.
Thanks a lot
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You might as well ask whether there are differences between between Wistar rats as offered by different breeders or between colonies housed at different universities or research institutes in the world. Yes there are huge differences. And if you order the "same" Wistar rats over the years at the same commercial breeding company, you might get different animals, at least from a behavioural perspective (van der Staay, 1997). Van der Staay also showed huge differences between various outbred rat lines in the size of the consequences of an arterial occlusion.   
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I know that physiological changes occur in the brain parenchyma following cannulation and probe insertion that could affect quality of both neurotransmitter or metabolite recovery or delivery. The maximum amount of time I have seen in the literature was 30 days in the pineal gland in a microdialysis study. Accessory question: would you suggest I run any control tests during the microdialysis experiments to ensure microdialysis is optimally performed? Obviously, aside from measuring the concentration of molecule of interest and preferably without having to sacrifice any rats in the midst of the experiment.
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Depending on how well the implant is fixed on the skull (screws, how dry the skull was during surgery) you may have the implant stable for over a month. But of course, you are right, astrogliosis and the resulting glial scar is an issue. However, how this will affect neurotransmitter level is probably more dependent on how often you insert the probe into the cannula as this will extend beyond the tip and will disrupt additional ´fresh´ (or less fresh after multiple insertions) tissue. In practice I therefore kept the probe overnight in the cannula before measurements and kept at least a week of recovery in between measurements. Finally, I would not recommend over 4 measurements. You may check effects of repeated insertions on neurotransmitter levels by comparing the baseline throughout multiple measurement-days. 
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Im trying to research with enriched environment conditions, and i want to know if someone knows if its any standarized protocol about it.
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I think it is difficult to find a "standard" for enrichment of rats. In general at best the distinction between exercise (running wheel) and "enrichment is made. But often these also applied together. In a study(http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0011943) we showed that both forms of enrichment( with and without running wheel) have anxiolytic properties however, there are some studies that show differences between exercise and enrichment (for example : http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/18/9/605.short
Regards,
Erik
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It happened after week of induction
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Acute alcohol poisoning, would be my diagnosis....Yellowish fluid in the stomach would be indicative of bile reflux from the duodenum... White fluid would be chyme that got obstructed.. much like a human who is too drunk, bile may build up in the stomach as a acute toxicity response and an anti-peristaltic response of the duodenum in attempt to rid the body of the toxin (i.e. alcohol); but, rats cannot vomit, so the the fluid builds up and the rat will suffer a toxic acute response, based on too much alcohol and stomach contents.. As the duodenum was in reflux mode, it was effectively obstructed so the stomach contents stayed there, not being able to be expelled though vomiting. Alcohol is also well absorbed through the stomach mucosa, so it may be the case your rat died simply of an alcohol overdose associated with acute toxicity from bile and ingested food toxins. As it happened only in one rat may not be surprising; Each individual animal is different, and it is difficult to either monitor exactly the alcohol intake, the food/other intake, the background health status or the susceptibility to alcohol poisoning in each individual.
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I have 2mM stock solution of a compound dissolved in DMSO and I have to give a final dose of 0.5mM to rats weighing 200 gram for my invivo study. How it will be calculated? one of my senior is saying that the final working volume will be the total blood volume of the animal. Please guide me.
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I agree with the previous answer, except if the volume for the needed active amount of drug exceeds 2ML/kg, which is the maximum volume a rat can receive in a single injection/administration (either ip, sc, iv, or po). This is, at least, according to Swiss regulations which are based on European ones. 
If the volume is not a problem then just inject the fix amount corresponding to the 0.5mM you aim at. The real dose/Kg will depend on the weight of each animal, but maybe that's no a variable of your study...
Good luck,
Daniela
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What is the normal range of adiponectin in rat sera in ng/ml and to what value it will increase  in different diseases cases as  its estimation has specific linearity and if the method is specific to special concentration is there  a need to estimate its concentration in each group  separately using specific dilution
Thanks for consideration 
Regards 
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Dear Dr Thoria
I always measure such parameters in my rats "control. However, there is a paper that mentioned that normal serum adinopectin level in control group of rats is 109.15 ± 95.40
Attached please find this paper and you can contact the authors for further support or information.
Sincerely yours
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I have been using 600 ul ketamine and 300 ul xylasine for 350 gr male wistar rats. But recently, they have not been going into anesthesia. I tried different doses, opened new medicines and whenever I give them anesthesia I handle them gently, let them to habituate to me and to room. After injection I keep rats in a quiet room preventing bright light exposure. However, it tooks nearly 4- 5 hours for them to go into deep anesthesia. What could be possible causes for this outcome? Thank you already. Have a nice day. 
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Hi Elcin,
I agree with the precautions proposed by Ignacio.  For the recipe of K : X  cocktail, what I do usually to make as stock solution is simple: I make 50mg/ml ketamine make a 10ml solution, take only 8.8ml of it aside. then make 20mg/ml Xylazine solution (10 ml stock solution) then add 1.2 of the Xylazine solution to the 8.8 ml Ketamine you prepared earlier, the result is 10 ml of cocktail: the working formula for rats ( i.p. injection, and/or i.m. , male or female does not matter):take according to body weight. 2 ul of the cocktail for each gram body weight:
example: rat weighing 210 gms will be given:
210 x 2 = 420ul (0.42 ml) of the cocktail to be injected i.p, or i.m.
230 gm rat (male or female) 230 x 2 = 460 ul (0.46 ml) and so on
350 gm x 2 = 700 ul ie 0.7 ml
the animal should be under anesthesia after 3- 5 minutes and absence of reflexes should last 45 -50 minutes.
one last thing: for storing the cocktail if you have a preservative like benzethonium chloride 0.01% ( or any other ) that's fine, but if you don't, pls make sure you store it at 2-8°C, for not more than a week, otherwise the cocktail will produce inconsistent results.
hope this is helpful, best wishes and good luck.
What is a solvent for Ketamine and Xylazine? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_a_solvent_for_Ketamine_and_Xylazine [accessed Jun 30, 2015].
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the protocol with the autosampler is straightforward, but the problem we are facing: is how to do the OGTT in the dark cycle without stressing the rats with the oral gavage to push down the glucose down the rat's throat? it takes away all the advantage of having the stress free set up of the autosampler. any suggestions?
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Apologies, allow me please to clarify the dilemma I am in, when we did OGTT on rats, ( after tedious habitation and handling, we introduced the dosage of glucose load through feeding tube orally, which by itself entails a certain degree of stress to the animal, as some of the blood samples collected are so soon: 15 and 30 min. given the fact that all animals where subjected to the same conditions, one would contemplate that this variable will have an insignificant effect on the results. But, rats are nocturnal creatures, i/e. their most biologically active behavior takes place during the dark cycle ( eating, drinking, playing etc...)  we tried to maximize the minimum stressing conditions in the testing, exploiting the fact they are fasted overnight, by just presenting the glucose load in their drinking bottle. the result where the animals they drink the glucose but not to the correct volume which allows us to be consistent with our  results.
The blood collection is achieved by jugular vein access ( 3 days recovery period after surgery) and the help of the Culex®NxT ABC automated blood sampler. so it is done completely without any interference by the examiner.
The question remains, how to do the oral dosing of the glucose load without stressing the animals?
Thank you again for your interest in helping with this question.
Ghanim.
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It is a delicate membrane, usually lost if the eye was opened
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Hi Nagwa,
yes, you are absolutely correct, it is a very delicate tissue, and the procedure is very delicate as well.
I usually do it under surgical microscope (3D Stereo) with ultrafine microinstruments ( CASTROVIEJO Corneal scissor Angled to side blunt tips, and KRAMER Fixation forceps to get a good atraumatic hold of the eyeball, and CASTROVIEJO straight forceps without teeth to peel off the vitreous body away ) all under the seal of sterile normal saline, if you do not have the proper microsurgical instruments, and proper skills and training, the dissection will not be a successful as you desire.
I looked up an animation for you, I believe it is very descriptive.
best wishes
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Immediately after injection there is mobility impairment stretching and waist pinching.  This reaction lasts for about 45 seconds and then the animal regains normal posture and behaviour. 
Dosage is 500mg/kg/bw single Ip 
95% Pure hydroxyurea in DDH2O
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Hi Marnie
I think you dose is too much decrease the amount, while if you need this such dose as experimental model, I prefer to prepare a mixture of it with Xylazin because it make rats more relax when you are doing experiment
Thanks
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we have IVC system in our department, but facing the difficulty in handling rats and maintenance, as it can accommodate only 2 rats per cage. please anwser this question so that if not necessary we can buy normal rat cages where 5 rats/cage can be kept. it inturn help to reduce the work load.
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Alex, it would depend on their immune status and your experiments. Are they likely to come to harm if housed in normal cages? Would their housing in normal cages cause harm to other animals in the facility?
As Ryan mentioned there will be differences in the animal behaviour based on housing. I wouldn't change the housing in the middle of an experiment. Depending on the nature of your experiment, you may have to repeat earlier experiments if you change the housing.
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I need to collect 700 micro-liters of blood from anesthetized rat. I tried to collect from ventral tail artery. But, I was not successful. Please give me tips to know about better choice of blood collection from unanesthetized rat.
Thanking you in advance for  your kind replies.
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This article contains lots of information about techinques for blood sampling, including recommended collection volumes and how these vary with frequency of collection. Our vets recommended this paper when we needed to collect repeated, fairly large samples over an extended period. Hope that it helps. 
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I've been reading articles, but none of them explains how the cage was tilted, only how much they were tilted (30 or 45 degrees). Should I put one of the smaller sides of the cage up or one of the bigger sides? The animals are housed individually in each cage.
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If you are stressing the rat for a long period of time and food and water is still given freely,you will need to tilt the cage on its  small side.This will allow the rat to drink and eat normally.Our lab we found that the tilting of the cage when we are using mice,is not much of a stressor .But since rats are more sensitive,it may work.
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Specifically, why does the female rat need this evaluation? 
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A 'timed pregnant' rat is one in which the day of conception is known, generally because a male breeder is put in with the female at the time at which she is sexually receptive and a sperm plug is then detected. This can be important particularly in cases when embryos are being examined, so that their exact age can be determined. In addition, since pregnancy in rats is lasts between 21 and 23 days, it can allow researchers using birthed offspring to plan their experiments accurately.
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I want to use methanol or ethanol extract in rat, which route of administration will be better either I.P or oral?
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Tail vein injection is another alternative. Search "tail vein injection" and you will find considerable information. I became interested in tail vein injections with respect to taste aversion learning. Humans experience vascular taste in that injection of a dilute saccharin solution into the vascular system produces a taste of saccharin in a few seconds when the blood containing saccharin reaches the tongue. Rats apparently experience a comparable taste sensation because tail vein saccharin injection followed by a nausea producing procedure results in a conditioned taste aversion without the rats ever having orally ingested a saccharin taste. 
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I implanted multichannel electrodes in rat and wants to visualize the configuration of Implanted electrode. If I do slicing of the brain, I have to explant the electrode moreover the shape (configuration of the electrode will not visualised).
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You can try to use the Clarity technique. If I understood your aim, I think it can work.
These are two useful links you can look at.
Regards
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We have a pellet maker in our animal house at college. Which raw materials can we use for making pellet for Laboratory rats?
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Below is the composition of our pellets for rats. However we do not prepare this ourselves, but buy it from a commercial producer.
Crude Protein : 23 % Crude Fat : 3.0% Crude Fiber : 7.0% Acid Insoluble Ash 8% Calcium : 1-2.5 % Phosphorus : 0.9% Sodium : 0.5-1% Moisture: 12%
Ingredients 
Corn, Soybean pulp, Sunflower seed meal, Shorts, Bonquality flour, Alfalfa pellets, Molases, Meat and bone meal, Poultry meal, Sepiolite, inorganic DCP, Marble dust, vitamins, minerals
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I am in need of normal reference values (like we have for humans,) for various biochemical parameters in adult male albino wistar rats, like serum glucose,plasma insulin, HbA1C, SGOT, SGPT, ALP,UREA, CREATININE, ALBUMIN,  LDL, HDL,TOTAL CHOLESTEROL,TRIGLYCERIDES, VLDL and in vivo liver antioxidant enzymes like SOD,CAT,GPX ,LPO. Please provide me the values with proper references. thanks.
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In case you use Charles River as your supplier, they have published those data also, even separated for their different breeding facilities. In case simply contact your local CR representative. If you do not use Harlan or Charles River animals, I would suggest to collect as many data as possible from the different breeders and have a look on the variability of the parameters.
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Hi,
I have to measure the length, weight of the rat puppies few days later immediately after birth. Any idea how to do that?
I also have to collect the liver, brain, adipose tissue and lungs from the pups immediately after the birth.
Can anybody have any idea how to do that. I read some papers but there is no description of the detail protocol. I need some papers/protocols for that.
Alak
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calipers, a balance with a container to put the pup into (tare it before adding the pup!) 
practice first - plan well, (ie what you will do with the tissues after will dictate the best way to process/store them)
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I have recently started experimenting with establishing rat E18 hippocampal cultures. I have had mixed successes and failures and have learned a great deal along the way. One issue that I have noticed is that when I plate my neurons at densities higher than about 40K/12mm coverslip they are forming non-adherent clumps. I don't mind the sparsity with a lower seeding number, however I would like to culture them to DIV21 and they seem to become less healthy after about two weeks at this density. Does anyone have any advice regarding improving plating density to avoid clumping?
I don't feel that it is a substrate issue because I do get nice adherence, just a little too sparse for my needs. I am culturing in standard supplemented Neurobasal on slips coated with PDL/laminin.
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Hi Thomas - I routinely plate P0 rat hippocampal neurons at both low (40k) and high (>100K) densities to at least DIV21.  I feel clumping is generally a result of unhappy/ unhealthy neurons trying to find partners to "feed" off of, so perhaps the neurons are not finding enough goodies in your growth media to keep them happy.   I use NbActiv4 from Brainbits, LLC, a serum-free complete media.  I replace half the media about 3 days after plating, then once weekly thereafter.  Also, though you don't suspect your substrate, I use only high molecular wt PDL (Sigma P7405) coating for my 12mm glass coverslips.  You might consider trying this.  Good luck, hope this helps!
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Transfection method for adult rat cardiomyocytes.
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Hi Cedric, 
Thanks for your kind help. I will contact you if we need it.
Regards,
Youhong
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If we want to demonstrate the experiments on isolated rat ileum or any other isolated tissue, then do anybody have better alternate of this without dissecting a rat?
If any software is available for same then can anybody inform me about reliable software which describes & demonstrate all such experiments (pD2, pA2, identification of unknown drug or Bioassay of drug)?
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I do not have enough information on the subject.
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These 2 species look very similar. Charles rives states originated by Drs. Long and Evans in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. To Charles River from Canadian Breeding Farm and Laboratories in 1978.
and
These rats have taken their name from the Lister Institute, where the stock first originated. From Glaxo to Charles River Laboratories UK in 1990 and again in 1996. To Charles River Germany in 2007.
Has anyone ever compared the behavior?
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Thank-you to Ulrich. Very interesting paper by van Goethem. Figure 4 does show some difference between Lister and Long-Evans in with regard to the Memory impairing effects of scopolamine although I would have liked to see the exact same doses on the x-axis. However they are much more similare to each other than they are to Wistars. As Robin said, they are the same species but they are listed as a different rat by charles river and over the years, I have learned that subtle things can matter which is why I asked the question. This would be a very expensive test to do in Canada as I belive the Lister rat is only available in Europe and then you have to account for the stress difference in shipping. Thank-you again
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I would like to know which method is simple to measure BP by invasive methods in rats.
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Are you talking about on human patients or laboratory animals? You can always put in an arterial line with pressure transducer hook-up with the plethysmography to monitor BP in real-time. But you do need to know how to calibrate and zero the machine. You can blindly insert the angiocatheter into an artery or do cut-down. Blind insertion is simple but needs a lot of practice.
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I want to use one extract, but have no idea which solvent (saline, methanol, ethanol) will be better to use and which route of administration have to select in rats.  
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Don't forget control groups, especially for the more volatile diluents. We usually also include a saline injected group, if that is what your compound is diluted in, just to control for the stress of chronic injections.
Best of luck.
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In human, we can get a capillary blood by finger pricking method. I need to know about the methods in rat to collect the capillary blood sample.
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Hi Annadurai
Depending on what the exact need you have for capillary blood is, the analogous sampling methods to a finger prick in rodents is probably the dorsal pedal vein sample (prick the vessel on top of the foot and collect using a capillary tube). You can also do a prick sample from the tail vein and collect using a capillary tube.
The following reviews might help you out as well:
Hope this helps
Pete
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Actually, I want to know which method should be used to collect blood from rats because the jugular vein has to be exposed to collect blood which make rat experience a small trauma and additionally there may be a chance of getting infection on that exposed site.
Alternatively retro orbital is very very painful for rats.
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Retroorbital is indeed painful and should be avoided whenever possible, since rats are our friends!
...what about the tail vein (especially for small volumes an repeated sampling)? The tail can easily be disinfected to avoid infection.
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I always end up poking the brain to get rid of the vessels and butcher the surface.
This is proving to be too difficult. Any help would be appreciated.
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Hi,
I would suggest using the fine-tipped tweezers (see below for image) and removing this tissue starting at the olfactory bulb. After decapitating the animal and removing the skull, you will see like a black connective tissue around the olfactory bulb. Use the tweezers to break it apart and pull it off (carefully). You should then repeat this on the other side and the brain should be free.
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I am having trouble finding a drug that crosses BBB and could possibly help to cure AD induced cognitive impairment in a rat model.
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Yes sir..
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My research group is about to carry out research work involving thyroidectomy in rats and we are looking for the best way to do it with minimal loss of blood.
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Surgical or chemical ? Chemical blockade is very efficient and no bleeding.
To stop bleeding use either hypertonic saline or soap foam - prepared by you from solid soap and some water
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The best methods or protocol to prepare primary tissue culture of oligodendrocyte precursor.
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Many thanks Dr Christopher for these informations
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I am interested in doing some directed energy (RF, Wifi, bluetooth, multi-spectrum RF)-associated experiments with rat animal models, (no pharmacological studies involved). Can anyone provide some comments or suggestions on the models I should be using in my protocol? (ICR-wistar hans, Sprague Dawley, B6 inbred/outbred, age, sex, etc.) Any useful comments will be most appreciated.
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More detail is needed to properly address this question. SD rats are widely used in many fields and easier to handle, however, SDs also have some drawbacks. Endpoints are also critical as many behavioral testing has differential effects across strain, and may or may not correlate to previous literature. Again details are necessary for age and sex. Female rats of any strain have several factors that need to be considered, such as estrous cycle in normal cycling females, OvX females with and without hormone replacement, or post-menopausal females if your study is in the geriatric population.
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Trying to determine if smaller tubes should be used for sample collection from a 150 g rat vs 400 g rat.
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For retro-orbital bleeds in mice I use long Pasteur pipettes irrespective the size of an animal. A good thing about this approach is that you never fully fill the pipette with the with blood as its capacity often exceeds the amount of animal's blood.