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Rapid Prototyping - Science topic

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A kind of surface roughness is produced by the application of laser energy density at high laser power (> 140W) which looks like an open porous structure. This kind of structure is not observed at lower laser power.
Is it produced due to oxidation of the layer? Or could it be a sign of instability at high laser power?
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  1. During intensive, powerful remelting of the surface, the melt exists longer than usual. This longer time is sufficient for crystal growth when cooling, and needle-shaped crystals grow, which are clearly visible in the picture.
  2. Pores in the surface are not open pores, but closed voids that arise when the melt crystallizes: the crystalline phase has a smaller volume than the melt and than the amorphous phase, which is formed in the case of high speed low power remelts.
  3. With powerful, rapid remelting, temperatures are so high that copper oxide can split off the oxygen and form metallic copper: 2Cu2O = 4Cu + O2. So, it may be that the needle-shaped crystals are made of metallic copper.
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I will do my research in eyewear industry to develop a new innovative business model that will transform the optics industry by rapid prototyping and mass customisation. Any suggestions / gaps on this topic or even gaps in different industries that will have potential to be distrupted by additive manufacturing will be much appreciated.
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It is depend on criteria you are after whether it is robustness, surface finish, accuracy etc. in which they can limit your options for Ex. if you are after plastic products with high accuracy and surface finish, MJF and Stereolithography would be the best options.
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I am exploring different methods to 3D print a transparent human nasal cavity using additive manufacturing techniques? Now according to me, it can be done through rapid prototyping. However there are different methods of 3D printing such as:
1. Selective laser sintering
2. Selective laser melting
3. Fused deposition modelling
So, which is the best out of these three to print a transparent human nasal cavity? By transparent i mean in which inner structure of human nose are visible.
I want to know the exact technique and the raw materials, which will be required and will be most suitable for this job.
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SLA or MJM would be best. As others have mentioned, support removal is a big issue. Another is that the walls of conchi are very thin, so FDM would likely fail. As mentioned in earlier comment, support removal is the biggest issue with SLA. One solution is print several parts to allow access for support removal. I think using MJM with water soluble supports (e.g. Stratasys Vero Clear) followed by dipped clear coating would give best results. Here are links to some examples we made a few years ago using SLA (before MJP water soluble supports were available):
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Hi,
I prepared solvent of PHBV and PLGA in methylene chloride. The resulting slurry was then cast into a Petri dish and dried. The resulting film was used to fabricate composite scaffolds using the rapid prototyping device. Is there any physicochemical data which tell which of two polymers will be on the surface after the 3D printing?
Thanks!
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Hello,
I am preparing RADseq libraries. I am shearing digested DNA (mean size 4096bp) using a Covaris ME220. The shearing is not working as fast as it should (compared to undigested DNA). Does anyone have any experience shearing digested DNA?
There are also the residuals from the digesting and ligations steps in the tube (rATP, enzymes, buffer etc). I assume this will also affect the efficacy, but I don't know how much. Hopefully I do not have to purify before shearing.
Thank you in advance for any help,
Ian
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Hi Ian!
Have you ever done yeast chromatin shearing using the ME220 Covaris machine? I'm wondering if that model works for yeast chromatin.
Thanks!!
Peggy
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Hi all,
for a project on 3D printing I need to find out as many journals as possible related to 3D printing, additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping; i.e. the articles must be mainly on these topics.
Till now, I have found the following:
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Rapid Prototyping Journal
International Journal of CAD/CAM
International journal of rapid manufacturing
RTejournal (Rapid Technology Electronic Journal)
Virtual and Physical Prototyping
Also any other reliable sources (scientific magazines etc.) targeting these topics would be appreciated as well.
Thank you,
Bartu
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Here there is a list of good journals with their links
1. Rapid Prototyping journal (Emerald)
2. Virtual and physical prototyping (Taylor and Francis)
3. Progress in additive manufacturing (Springer)
4. Additive manufacturing (Elsevier)
5. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing (liebert publisher )
6. International Journal of Additive and Subtractive Materials Manufacturing
Medical Field
7. 3D Printing in Medicine
8. Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine
There are also some journals which publish papers related to 3D printing under special issues. Hope now you have gotten the answer of your question
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The additive manufacturing (AM) industry is still relatively new, but growing at a great pace. The capabilities of 3D printing/rapid prototyping/additive manufacturing is very exciting to me yet I am concerned about all the new types of polymers that are being used in this industry and some are not biodegradable. With powder-based AM (PA2200 for example), I have been told that a large portion of the excess powder not used in the printed part, cannot be reused. With fused deposition modeling (FDM), a large amount of support material is often required which also goes to waste. I have read many studies on the impact of non-biodegradable plastics/polymers on our environment and I am avraid that this exciting new technology will contribute so much more to this environmental problem. So I want to find out if this issue has been investigated and if there are ways in which we can reduce (or even eliminate) the plastic/polymer waste generated by the AM industry. 
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There seems to be a number of publications going in this direction, see the attached ones.
@Mohd, I'm sceptical on the quality that will result from (unmixed) previously used ABS  material. Also the recycling of FDM printer waste will probably require more specialised equipment besides a wire extrude, e.g. for shredding the material.
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A frequent application is power electronics rapid prototyping, but many other are possible. A closer look for actual applications in the industry seems to be rare. This discussion can be highly useful for tackling practical applications.
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Real-time simulators are very important in many areas, where real plants are very expensive. Regarding powers systems, I have particular interests in the field of wind energy. It is not easy to have an experimental real multi-MW wind turbine. Therefore, we are developing a real time simulator with a PLC as hardware in the loop.
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Hi All,
Any test part which would be best suited for testing part quality in FDM 3d printing. Quality parameters can be dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, overhang and scaffolds. The material being used for printing is PLA and the printer is Leapfrog XEED. Interface used is simplify 3D.
I would be varying the quality relevant parameters for this work piece to find out the effects and finding out the best working parameters.
Thanks ,
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A less quantitative way is the 'benchy' boat build. It's intended to pack features into a very small build volume so that it's fast to produce and evaluate, which helps when you are iteratively tweaking your settings.
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In the process of developing an undergraduate and graduate level 3D Printing (additive manufacturing) course. I need a at least one good lecture book for the class,and a book for case studies.
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Hi
I think that the best book is 
Gibson, Ian, Rosen, David, Stucker, Brent,  "Additive Manufacturing Technologies, 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing"
I found it very clear, with complete description of available technologies.
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I want to make a shaft. The shaft is having peculiar profile.
Using the fast-prototyping methods, is it possible to prepare a shaft and then further heat-treat it using conventional heat treatments?
Is it possible to achieve hardness of 50-52 HRC using fast-prototyping itself?
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You can use metallic AM processes such 3D laser cladding or powder bed fusion. And then do a heat treatment.
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software for rapid prototyping
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Dear Mrs. Sanjita Namata,
For modeling and rapidprototyping of products you can use all standard programs for 3D modeling (ProEngineer/ Creo, Catia, SoliWorks, Inventor, NX....). For 3D scaners I sugest CREAFORM scaners, but you can use and all others.
Best regards,
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Currently I am trying to assemble these parts with a fully threaded rod. I don't think this will work good. Please don't suggest to assemble theses two parts with screws. I need better assembling option than this. I need solutions similar to press fit , snap fit etc...Consider Rapid prototyping limitations while suggesting solutions.  
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If you are sancasting the base part, you can give the form of parrt I to make a locking device and permit the assembly of the part II.  Now if part II has a male thread made in the same part we are left with a three part assembly in which you can just turn part I whereas part ii is locked from it's rotating degree of freedom, keeping the displacement.
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Hi,
In my research I am designing a femoral knee component. I found a simple calculation in the paper entitled: "Custom Design of Knee Joint Prosthesis by Using Computerized Tomography (CT) Images and 3D Modelling," in which the authors calculated the required thickness using a cantilever beam. This is shown in page 4 and 5, on the journal paper attached.
Can anyone tell me if there are other methods to determining the minimum thickness of the femoral component? An FEA model will be later used, but first I want to determine the thickness of the femoral component based on a calculation.
Thanks.
Robert
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Hi Robert,
There is an algorithm has been developped by Schnurr et al. (2011) in which tey developped a type of calculation to find to resection depth of tibia. I don't know if this study will can help you, but maybe it will clarify your ideas. In any way, I found some others papers which can deal with this subject.
Sincerely yours,
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I want to know how to layup carbon fiber with polypropelene for making composite. Also focus on the fortus machine which performed this work?
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Many multi jet technology equipment can be used to get composite material also you can refer to following for details
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Is there any way/experimental procedure by which we can determine the coefficient of thermal expansion of PLA parts made with a FDM machine?
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Dear Umair, did you measure the CTE of the PLA ? I would be interested in the value you found !
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I am facing a very serious problem in dealing with powder preparation for a few months. Existing ZCorp gypsum powder ZP102 and ZP130 are meant for prototype therefore it is not suitable to make bioceramic scaffold. While ZB binder (ZCorp's binder brand) is not so suitable as binding liquid for my topic. I am required to use other types of powder typically bioceramic powder to fabricate a scaffold. Since I am unable to disturb the binder system, therefore the only solution I have is by using water as binder/reactive liquid. I have a problem regarding powder preparation.
According to the various papers, the powder was prepared by incorporating the polymeric binder into the powder by means of wet mixing (ball milling), spray dry and mechanical mixing (dry mixing), while water is used as the reactive liquid. However, I am curious as to how ZP powder appears in irregular forms (equiaxial,rectangular) and is coated with the binder. How am I able to produce my powder into something like this?
I have attached the SEM image of ZP 130 obtained from Andrea Butscher's Printability Of Calcium Phosphate Powders For Three-Dimensional Printing Of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds.
I hope somebody able to help and advise me.
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Dear friend, very interesting question. I am interested to your question and will explain in detail soon (similar to my case). A bit hurry for this time, please remind me.
However, the easiest way is searching the related document by typing the keywords into google scholar. You will find some related articles.
If yet to find the articles, do not hesitate to let me know. InsyaALLAH I will help you in detail.
Good luck. Dr Zol Bahri - Universiti Malaysia Perlis
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In rapid prototyping process, the pre -processing software calculates section and slices the part design into many layers.I am not able to understand why slicing is nessary and what it basically signify?
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The slicing process is necessary because in the manufacturing process of rapid prototyping the Material are put together slice by slice.
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Fabrication of medical models from scan data via rapid prototyping techniques
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Follow the link to reach the paper related to the subject.
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I am working on a study of embedded system. I am particularly interested in embedded system design using FPGA. Some articles suggest FPGA for rapid prototyping of an embedded system design. I couldn't come to a clear understanding  of what prototyping mean in embedded system; and how using FPGA could be the fastest method for the so called "embedded system prototyping". I would like to have an explanation with good examples.
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The concept of programming is feasible with field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).
Gate arrays are good things to implement a desired function. Instead of collecting components and mounting on a PCB to realize a digital function, we can use FPGAs with software programming.
An FPGA board and software program can do it.
By programming in verilog, we can generate prototype circuits.
This process saves the time and money.
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Which parameters need to be closely controlled for better moldability of feedstock in metal injection molding?
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It means that the sucess of the process depends on a large number of variables of this mixture (feedstock), like powder size and powder/binder relative contents and homogeneity, viscosity dependence of temperature, injection pressure and so on. Please look at some appointments at Randall German's book for better insight. I hope this will help you.
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Any suggestions, and or possible solutions for the following.
Decreasing maintenance intervals: Turbine component materials in relation to cavitation decay and wear of high friction areas. Bearings etc.
Increasing overall efficiency: Exotic turbine compressor blades. High steam press and low steam press expansion-contraction zones to increase vacuum pressures and stable boundary layer effects.
Designing modular components: Speed up the unscheduled repair time. IE rapid prototyping techniques and processes.
Thank you,
Ben
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I believe that steam turbines should only be taken from service and dismantled for overhaul if there is a good economical or technically compelling reason.  I recall two machines that operated for 17 years before overhaul.   A close watch was kept on internal condition by regular performance and vibration  monitoring. OEM advice should of course be taken into account if they have experience of any particular issue with similar designs or components. 
To speed up the outage period, steam forced cooling can enable a turbine to be stopped inside a day rather than taking a few days by natural cooling.  Air forced cooling has been used to further reduce cooling time but that needs some equipment and minor turbine modification 
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I am looking information on the file .amf format. As well as your experiences and opinion on this format.
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Additive manufacturing format (AMF) is new format for additive manufacturiing.With comparision with previous widely used STL format which had so many draw backs ,most of them can be rectified using this AMF format for example we can store color, Material etc.,But still the modelling softwares like Solid works, Creo not included in their Pakages. Hope they will include it.
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I would like to convert medical DICOM data to 3D surface data (STL, IGES) for three dimensional analysis and rapid prototyping for TAVI simulation (transcatheter aortic valve implantation).
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I have developed image processing and mesh generation software that is compatible with DICOM through my company Simpleware. We can export STL and IGES files for analysis and RP. The software is particularly robust at exporting FE and CFD models from image data. More information is available at www.simpleware.com.
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I am working in the area of layered manufacturing. I am searching for an alternative of fused deposition modelling with the help of CNC machine.
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Hello, I advise you to contact Julien Gardan teacher/researcher to the UTT. I worked with him on this subject and we publish for end of June an article to the European Forum on Additive Manufacturing (The next conference will be held
on the 24, 25, 26th June 2014 at Ecole Centrale Paris) . I'm on that he will be able to help you.
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Powder's hydrophilicity is important when it interacts with the binder for 3D printing application. At my best knowledge, hydrophilicity is normally determined by contact angle. But how about powders? Some researchers had done wettability test by dropping binder into a powder bed and recorded it with high speed camera. But that only how good is the powder bed packing factor that very connected with powder size. Does anyone have any idea how to determine the hydrophilicity of the powder?
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Kruss tensiometer (K 100) has offer a good methodology for hydrophilicity measurement of powders. The results are very reliable, I hope that this instrument should resolve your problem
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I am working on the thermal simulation of rapid prototyping processes where I need to activate elements based on time. How can I do this?
As per my knowledge I have to create an element table with two columns: namely element number and time of its birth. I am not able to enter the time of birth.
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Search in cfxonline, you may find some tutorial
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Layer thickness and saturation level (binder/ volume ratio) parameter appeared mostly on all journals that I've read. However, I am not sure what is saturation level is all about. Anyone can explain? Any reference that I can read about this parameter
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The layer thickness is a parameter which indicates the accuracy of the printing an saturation level:after printing model don´t have high strength( if U use for example printer which print model from the powder) U must usu finaling model ic cianoacrilate or molten wax. It´s a property as able to soak up the fluid model
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These two terminology have been used widely in many research. So, what is the difference between RP and AM? since both also uses addtive material and RP machine.
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Dear Ng Kei Hoa, dear colleagues, the question is interesting indeed, please let me provide view, hoping it may help:
It is true that rapid prototyping usually uses additive manufacturing technologies (both industrial complex machines, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering..., and low-cost 3D printers), but not always.
Rapid prototyping refers in fact to the fast manufacture of prototypes for different purposes including ergonomic and visual trials, assessment of functional performance, supporting parts to other processes. In many cases, such rapid prototypes are also obtained by means of high speed computer numerical control machining or using rapid form copying processes, after obtaining initial models.
Additive manufacture makes reference to any manufacturing technology using layer-by-layer or drop-by-drop processes. In many cases, these AMTs are used for obtaining prototypes, as they are not normally oriented towards production of large series. However, in recent years, more and more AMTs are being used for final parts, especially when the geometries are complex or for the incorporation of special functionalities.
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I am doing transient thermal analysis of rapid prototyping and I am having a problem with script writing, which is used for the continuous element activation process. I want the process to be continued for several stages. Can anyone with expertise in this field some advice?
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Dear Swayam Bikash Did you get any progress in the above mentioned problem ??
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Solid based rapid prototyping, in which solid polymer is heated and melted in a mixing chamber and three dimensional object is printed in form of layers.
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Dear Ankit,
In the heating chamber of the 3D printer will be really difficult (to get a really homogeneus mixture) and probably you will have clogged problems in the nozzle.
I think a better option is to use a extruder plastic machine to fabricate your own plastic material. You can find one of them in ebay for about 300 euros. In the extruder you can mix plastic with metal and other inorganic material and create your own ABS or PLA-based material with particles inside.
The new plastic filaments can be feeded to the printer (still you can have problems in the nozzle!)
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With so many 3D printers being produced and sold today, I'd be thrilled to read an article which goes into modest technical depth on the various technologies, pros / cons, capabilities, precision, machine cost, etc. Additionally, it'd be great to know what atypical industries are beginning to use them as their costs drop. Fuse Deposition Modeling (FDM) and laser sintering are becoming fairly popular but I'd love to know of any other technologies being developed or stirring interest. Many thanks in advance!
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I think, mr T. Grimm has been making regularly good benchmarking of 3D printing technologies. You may visit http://tagrimm.com/benchmark-2010/index.html , it is reviewed both technical and economical aspect.