Science topic

Radiography - Science topic

Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
Questions related to Radiography
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
Which Course is better, B.Voc. in Radiography and imaging technology or B.Sc in Radiography and imaging technology?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think the preference of course is decided by the employer so if you have an idea of the idea and/or job description, that may give an even better clue for you.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
Hello all
Could anyone identify some public dual-energy chest X-ray datasets to work on bone suppression?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Gerhard Martens
Thanks for your suggestion and I will follow it up.
Best regards,
A.U.F.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
11 answers
Teaching radiographic procedures may be problematic, taking into consideration student burdent and learning time. I would like to know how other Radiography Lecturers in other countries overcome the problem in deciding which of those procedures to teach and assess.
Relevant answer
Answer
In addition to what others have said, I would say use the outcomes measures set out in the curriculum to address this.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
1 answer
I am working on Anatomical X-Ray Studies of the Lung for Pulmonary Tuberculosis Assessment in Switzerland.
When I was Head of Radiology Department in the City of Urmia Hygiene (Healthcare) Centre (Feb 1984 – May 1984, West Azerbaijan Province of Iran), started the relevant studies for Diagnosis of TB
(Tuberculosis). It was during Iran-Iraq war and flooding refugees from Iraq to West Azerbaijan province of Iran. -We used portable radiography device as “Chest X-ray Minography” at that time. We observe the same phenomenon now as flooding refugees to Europe
and need Anatomical X-Ray Studies of the Lung for Pulmonary Tuberculosis Assessment in Switzerland.
�+
Relevant answer
Answer
With great pleasure!
Tina Mamaladze ,cytopathologist from Tbilisi Georgia
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
5 answers
For those radiographers working clinically on digital radiography systems is the ‘digital index’ being displayed as well as the manufacturer ‘Exposure Index’?
The DI one is the index that gives you a score on a scale from 3 to -3 with 0 being optimal exposure.
Are you reviewing the 'digital index' as part of your image quality review?
Relevant answer
Answer
If your machine has this function, I'm sure you should use it. So far, my colleagues are using the exposure index recommended by the manufacturers. May I know your machine brand?
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
4 answers
Hello dear scientists in RG
Can we make a radiographic tool like mass miniature radiography for COVID19?
Mass miniature radiography is a screening tool for early detection of TB.
We need transporting clinics have well trained physicians on using check list (results are score), and well trained also on reading a screening radiological tool.
Relevant answer
Yes, recent studies show that X-ray and microcomputer tomography can be used as mass radiography tools to diagnose COVID-19. Regards, Sergey Viktorovich Pushkin
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
1 answer
I use pyradiomics in CT imaging for extracting features but I'm not sure how to use it in radiography imaging. Is it reliable as CT imaging ? Should I change any parameters ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Conventional X-ray images (radiography) are defiantly less robust, compared to the CT. They are not calibrated with respect to the HU (like CT), so you should normalize them yourself, plus correct for different nonuniformities in the image. First, make sure that all of them were aquifer with the same protocol (exposure, kv, clinically task), look into difference between different scanners, etc. There were a lot of talks about use of radiomics for chest X-rays at the RSNA 2019, checking abstract or videos of the presentations might help. Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
I am currently working on my graduate project and have used one of your articles for my research. I am seeking permission to use the pre and post test from your article "A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit." Can you advise me on how this may be done? Thanks, Jennifer Peterson
Relevant answer
Answer
Just cite the paper and authors ...
@
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
4 answers
dose, processing, storage.
Relevant answer
Answer
In addition to the right answer of C K Gomathy, with digital radiography a lot of analysis can be performed in order to optimize contrast and luminosity of the images, and moreover all the research in diagnostic imaging is based on digital image, mainly in dicom or nifti format.
Nowadays there are 2 type of digital imaging: direct and indirect; the first one has a direct conversion of X-ray in digital images (DR); the second one needs an external support to convert the X-ray in digital images (CR).
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
I would like to know what protocol followed for animals undergoing some treatment that induces some type of osteopenia / loss of bone density.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. To follow loss of BMD in rats, I used pQCT for the tibia, and after completion of the experiment, microCT for the femur. the pQCT data should be compared to each animal baseline though.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
9 answers
The images show radiographies (image size 6x5 cm). Related cores were taken Offshore NW Spain (Iberian margin, 1600-2200 m water depths).
1.png: deformation? creeping?
2.png: dewatering?, slide?
Within the cores are no further indications/sediment structures for e.g. syndepositional processes!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dirk,
Thank you for your comment. I completely agree with your interpretation.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
How do you assess life time attributed risk (LARs) in radiography and radiological examinations?
Relevant answer
Answer
i think you can add variables like:
1. age of the participant
2. gender
3. Dosimeter values per time period (if calculated for a radiollgy staff)
4. Number of mandatory exposure breaks taken
5. Number of radiology procedureds done (fixed to a single type of procedure for a Group)
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
10 answers
Cases stored in directories by patient, all in DICOM format, contain plain radiography, CT scans, MRIs, nuclear medicine studies and angiography studies.
Need to to add tags for image findings, diagnosis and sort of report to include patient history and management.
DICOM viewers do a good job "viewing" the files, but creating a data base of the findings is not possible for me so far.
So far all the files are stored in a local directory.
I can not afford commercial software, these are usually directed to radiology or hospital business, the prices are beyond the reach of single user mostly for educational purposes, so please advice regarding open source free software if possible.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ayman, i understand your question, and believe there are little or no free products to do this. Are you talking educational resources?
We as a company i work for, Hermes Medical solutions have created several regional or international setups on a commercial product TeleHERMES that do allow using databases up to Terabytes and investigate all (even several native fields), and perform a lot of postprocessing. The TeleHERMES account will work as a local Hermes workstation. Depending on your needs, place you work and interests we can have a offline discussion. We have already installed multiple educational cloud accounts (some hundreds) for teaching institutions worldwide. This also for Inholland Hogeschool the Netherlands with 26 students and teachers simultaneous users on a Amsterdam server, Contact me when interested.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
How do you assess life time attributed risk (LARs) in radiography and radiological examinations?
Relevant answer
Answer
I recommend you use RadRat (https://dceg.cancer.gov/tools/risk-assessment/radrat). This is an online tool that uses BEIR VII models and allows estimation of LAR for different organs, patient age etc.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
Digitally Reconstructed Radiograph (or DRR) that is created from a computed tomography (or CT) data set. This image would contain the same treatment plan information, but the patient image is reconstructed from the CT image data using a physics model.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
4 answers
I save them from distance from any irradiation 
Relevant answer
Answer
Radiographic film contains emulsions with a very high sensitivity and the latent image is less stable than with low-sensitive films. Therefore it is recommend to process the film as soon as possible to avoid “Latent Image Regression”. see also:
 
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
There are 4 views that should be taken of an equine thorax: 1) craniodorsal, 2) caudodorsal, 3) cranioventral, and 4) caudoventral.
Relevant answer
There are 4 views that should be taken of an equine thorax: 1) craniodorsal, 2) caudodorsal, 3) cranioventral, and 4) caudoventral.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
8 answers
I would like to know what the guidelines are for men and gonad shielding. What is the upper age limit in Norway, England, Sweden, Germany and USA? In Denmark it is 50 years old. Then we do not offer it anymore, but people can ask for it and get it on.
Relevant answer
Answer
Sorry Carla, I really don't agree. The public already have a very poor understanding of radiation, and I think you are only adding to the problem with this practice. You are, in effect, implying that gonad shielding is necessary for the patient's protection, when the benefits of shielding outside the collimated area are very limited. You are wrongly implying that the gonads are the only organ worth protecting, which is contrary to decades of evidence and has resulted in the widespread misperception - even among staff - that radiation protection only applies to patients of child-bearing age. Patients would not need to be reassured if they had not been misled in the first place. 
Also, the risks of misplaced gonad shielding are not trivial. There was a recent study that showed CT scanners could increase dose by a factor of up to 3 to compensate for gonad shields, depending on position. Of course, the patient would be blissfully unaware of this and think they've been 'protected'!
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
14 answers
I would like to simulate radiation dose in Radiography and CT? I would like to create computer virtual models for image reconstruction in MRI?
Relevant answer
Answer
If you want calculate organ equivalent and effective dose from CT examinations you can use ImpactDose  software which developed by ImPACT group. The computation is done based on tables pre-computed for different scanners and selected anthropomorphic phantoms.
Another dose estimation software which is easy to use and not expensive is CT-expo developed by Dr. Georg Stamm. its user friendly and inexpensive. CT-expo in based on computational methods which were used to evaluate the data collected in the German surveys on CT practice. 
VirtualDose in another GPU-based Monte Carlo dose estimator which enables users to assess organ doses, in addition to CTDI and DLP data provided by the CT scanner.
for more information see below links: 
http://www.mh-hannover.de/fileadmin/kliniken/ diagnostische_radiologie/download/ct-expo-e.zip
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
25 answers
From kV and mAs values and without the use of any detectors, how can you find the dose delivered to patients? When using an X-ray, for diagnosis purposes, if you know only the two values of mAs and kV, can you determine the dose or maybe even estimate the dose delivered to the patient? Without the use of any modern detectors. 
I have portable 30mA X ray machine with the following specifications:
Output     30mA at 52 KV
                20mA at 68 KV
                15mA at 85 KV
Timer        0.06mA to 6.0
                 23 Steps
Tube         1.5 mm sq. Focal Spot X-Ray tube
Input          230V, 15 Amps
L. V. Compensation     210 to 250V
Beam Limination Cone with Centering Device
Weight        15 Kgs.
Dimension (mm)   250x175x250
Can somebody guide me to calculate the dose in gray (Gy)?
Thanking you in anticipation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Mr Sandeep Mittal
I am working out below two independent methods to arrive at the output of x-rays for a given combination of kV and mA. Please note that both these are only approximate but they do indicate the different approaches to the answers. Let us take the distance from the x-ray tube target to the point at which the output is required as 100 cm.
Method 1:
Let us assume kV = 60 and mA = 10; then power dissipated on the x-ray target is:
60 x 10 watts or 600 joules/sec = 600 x 107 ergs/sec ……….(1)
The fraction of electron energy converted to bremmstralung (f) is given approximately by:
f = Ee x Z x 10-6 (Z is the atomic number of target = 74 for tungsten; Ee is the electron energy in keV)(from medical physics literature).
Since the average energy of the unfiltered x-ray photon energy is one-third of the electron energy from Kramer’s equation, the photon energy available as bremmstralung therefore is:
Hence f = (60/3) x 74 x 10-6 = 0.148% …………………………..(2)
Therefore the x-ray energy output at the target = (1) x (2) above = 0.888  x 107 ergs/sec …… (3)
Assuming the x-ray distribution from the target is isotropic (valid for a thick target), the energy output at 100 cm is: [(3) above] / 4π (1002) = 0.0705 x 103  ergs/sec/cm2 ………………(4)
Assuming the total (inherent + added) filtration in the tube is 3 mm:
For 60kV, 3mm filtration offers 2HVLs, since the first HVL is 1mm and the homogeneity coefficient is 0.5 (obtained from literature); Hence the attenuation offered by 3 mm Al = ¼ (0.25)
This leads to an output after filtration = [(4) above]/4  = 0.0176 x 103 ergs/sec/cm2 ……….(5)
To get the output air in R/sec at 1 meter, we have to multiply (5) above by the mass energy absorption coefficient of air for 60 kV with 3 mm filtration. For an unfiltered x-ray beam, Kramer’s Law gives an average energy of one-third kV; for a filtered(hardened) beam, let us assume the average energy as 30 keV (this is a valid approximation). The mass energy absorption coefficient µen /ρ for 30 keV x-rays = 0.1501 cm2 /gm [From Hubbel’s 1982 revised 2012 data]…………….(6)
Therefore the output at 1m = [(5) x (6)]/ 87.7 [1 R = 87.7 ergs/gm of air] = 0.0301 R/sec  = 1.81 R/min…..(7)
This can be converted to air kerma in rads/sec by multiplying by 0.877
It may be noted the above derivation involves a number of approximations. Moreover, the values of  (µen /ρ) vary widely over the low keV region.
 Method II
This  method uses the RadPro calculator available free on-line. Here you have to enter the values of kV (60), mA (10), filtration(3 mm Al) and distance(100 cm) from the target to the point of measurement. This calculation then yields a value of 1.8719 x 108 µR/hr = 187.19 R/hr = 187.19/3600 R/sec = 0.052 R/sec = 3.12 R/min ………………………….(8)
It may be noted that these values (7) and (8) above are obtained by altogether two different approaches and both involve approximations. Both these denote typical outputs of a fluoroscopic unit.
Please consult any radiation physics text or website for references cited above.
Hope this helps.Good Luck.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
5 answers
Myocardial ischemia and bizarre symptoms occur without obstructive lesions in major arteries as seen with standard coronary radiography due to peripheral artery obstructions. Is there a standard protocol to investigate and treat such patients?  
Relevant answer
Answer
In my professional experience, I identified cases of Angina without obstruction mecanical.
Two cases of Angina with enzymes high and electrocardiogram changes, but without obstruction. Our conclusion was, coronarian spasm because adrenergic hyperativity.
Others cases with Angina with electrocardiogram changes but without enzymes changes was because coronaria ducking. When small segment of a coronary under segment of myocardium.
But I saw many cases of Angina with coronary arteries thin and tortuous, without obstruction.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
5 answers
Dear all,
I have some preserved specimens of deep sea eels. As part of my taxonomic analysis it is necessary to get the vertebral counts of the same. I have tried with few medical X-ray machines but fail to get radiographs with sufficient resolution to count the vertebrae.  
Can anyone suggest me any institutions especially in India that have suitable machine that could do radiographs.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Anil,
Thanks for informing me about your confidence in getting the X-ray and accepting my request. I will be sending one of my specimen shortly.
Best regards 
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
4 answers
The current imaging method of choice is conventional dental radiography. Needed information regarding impacted teeth cannot be obtained adequately by lower dose conventional (traditional) radiography. Should the indication to use cbct be emphasized?
Relevant answer
If 3D information is needed for the management of the impacted tooth CBCT is indicated (This conclusion can be drawn on conventional X-ray imaging and clinical examination (palpation)).
If a 4cmx4cm volume is made with 90kV, low tubecurrent (2 to 3 mA) and limited arch rotation (180 degrees 9 seconds) this exposure can be made safely in children (dose aruond 10 micro Sievert).
This volume will not be crisp and sharp but it will give you the information at the lowest dose (ALADA as low as diagnostically acceptable).
If on the other hand the exposure is made with a large volume and custom parameters the dose can be 10 to 40 times higher.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
where can one fined the spicefec program
Relevant answer
Answer
İMAGE j FROM NIH SOFTWARE WILL BE HELPFUL
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
For a student's work, I'm looking for normal video-urodynamic data: especially concerning the behavior of the bladder neck and urethra characteristics (length and diameter). Do you have some to send me ? Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Dr Cugy
I could not find any links that displayed the details that you need regarding video-urodynamic recordings. As I had looked for the info you need, I have included what I found, but expect that none of this is new knowledge for you. A lot of the data available related to pathology, not to normal findings.
In this International Continence Society document re urodynamics, the functional profile length (the length of the urethra along which the urethral pressure exceeds intravesical pressure in women) is shown in the diagram 6A p. 334:
This link has the statistics for the length and diameter of the male and female urethra, but these are not related specifically to urodynamic findings, and you will probably be aware of them:
This paper describes the bladder neck and the bladder neck on voiding, but not in great detail:
Lukacz, E. S., Sampselle, C., Gray, M., Macdiarmid, S., Rosenberg, M., Ellsworth, P., & Palmer, M. H. (2011). A healthy bladder: a consensus statement. International journal of clinical practice, 65(10), 1026-1036.
It could be that the authors who are in ResearchGate could help you further?
Very best wishes; I will follow your question, and hope that there are further answers that are of more help for your student's work,
Mary
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
19 answers
During radiographic examinations, some procedures may require more than a single exposure to ionizing radiation, some may be repeated and others may come back for a follow up. Is there any "safe period" for which a radiographic procedure may be repeated?
Also bearing in mind the biological effect of ionizing radiation on the cells, could there be any "safe period" which should be allowed to elapse before repeating a radiographic examination on a patient, or any animal samples?
Your comments, materials and suggestions are welcome.
Relevant answer
Answer
Indeed, no safe periods with diagnostic exposures. The reason is the character of exposure, its stochastic. The repair of eventual damages is performed in hours.
Safe periods are needed in radiation therapy to give normal issues time for repair and regeneration.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
what is the best method to measure neck shaft angle of the femur from radiographs. i.e. what are the best lines that represent the neck and the shaft of the femur
Relevant answer
Answer
another file
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
18 answers
Radiography technique charts or radiography exposure guides have been used over the years as a means of minimizing rejection of radiographs in conventional film-screen paediatric radiography. How useful is this practice with the introduction of new image receptor technology (CR, DR)?
Relevant answer
Answer
About patient thickness. Imagegently.org are recommending that you don`t use grid on patientthickness less than 12 cm. When the examination area involves mostly air, like the lungs, you can leave out the grid for even greater thickness than 12 cm.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
9 answers
Is there any data available for potential exposure (#unexpected exposure) in the occupation of radiation facilities( non-nuclear facilities) like industrial radiography, food irradiation facility, radiotherapy etc. 
I want to compare my data with some of the study resulting in the probability of potential exposure in above facilities. OR  please give reference for the data for probability of accident in above facilities.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is very difficult to give a general number, even by categories of application. The potential exposure will always depends on the radiological protection measures and on how the procedures are respected.
Public exposure should be totally excluded, except for exceptional accidents like the pne in Goiania, for instance (if you Google it you will find the IAEA report on it). Personnel exposure will depend on the safety culture of the organisation. One example of accident in the industrial radiography (it reproduces a real instance): the warning signals that indicate that the source is not in the shielded position malfunction and the source remains out in an unshielded position, yet undetectable to the naked eye. The workers enter to inspect the pipe and to do other work, but they do not wear the compulsory PADs so they have no idea the source is still in exposed position. As a result, a number of workers were exposed to doses between a few 10ths of mGy to a 1-2 Gy. The accident would have been easily avoid if the workers would have worn the PADs or the RSO would have inspected the site prior to allowing the workers in.
In theory the procedures were there, and the accident had a close to 0 probability but, because nobody followed the rules, it happened. 
To conclude, it is hard to pin a number on situations that depend heavily on human behaviour,
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
21 answers
There are many methods for measuring the spinal curves such as radiography (Cobb angle), flexible ruler (flexicurve), Spinal mouse, and etc. Also there are many publications about the validity and reliability of the measuring methods. However, it has been mentioned some negative points about using them. So, what is the best and safest method for spinal curves measuring, specially in person with spinal postural deformities?   
Relevant answer
Answer
I wrote simple program for measurement of Cobb's angle from any pictures on the PC screen. It's for Windows system. It's free on web site www.anglespine.com.
The program would be useful for you.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
20 answers
The need for open reduction in acute femoral fractures of patients < 65 years is controversial. It has been shown that the quality of reduction is linked to the outcome (AVN and revision surgery). But these studies assess reduction by radiography - as done after closed reduction is performed.
Do we always need open reduction if closed reduction achieves good alignment?
Relevant answer
Answer
Once again the gold standard is closed reduction and stable fixation as soon as possible. Even on emergency base if the facility has experienced surgeons at disposal any time. Open reduction is an exception, and it should be done only if the closed reduction fails.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
4 answers
I am writing an assignment about the impact of the above on reporting services and would be interested to hear any experiences or ideas of how the role has impacted on service delivery/patient experience. Thank you. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Any meaningful audit on missed diagnosis , adverse events, negligence claims? Perhaps the ED doctors are just so exhausted they are glad someone / anyone will get patients out of their department? Do reporting technicians rely on trust indemnity or take out personal insurance? Glad to be enlightened.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
Is 3D CBCT considsered more accurate that panormaic radiography for the purpose of implant planning?
Relevant answer
Answer
CBCT is the best method for evaluating the jaws for implant planning because you can evaluate the bone in 3 dimensions but in panoramic you can't evaluate the jaws  buccolingually. linear measurment in panoramic radiograph isn't  accurate but in CBCT is accurate. 
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
     
It is shown that the costophrenic angles of thin and tall patients are more likely to be missed.
Relevant answer
Answer
It´s very plausible, but I don´t know any quantitative algorithm.
The prologing of fields is no real dose problem, because modern thorac radiographs belong besides the teeth pictures to the real low dose expositions.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
How it helps? What is the relation of nutrient canal and implant placement?
Relevant answer
Answer
Application of labelled nutrient into a plants parts such as root system, is very common to study the distribution of nutrient into different plant parts. In my view, this kind of method could also be performed to examine redistribution of nutrient into an implants. Namaste. 
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
7 answers
So far malignant changes have been found on exposure to higher radiation, but just want to know whether there is any study in which malignant / genetic changes have been found on constant exposure of intra oral periapical radiograph machine?
Relevant answer
Answer
I am not aware of any studies. The EPA in South Australia feels that the dose from intra-oral x-rays is so low that monitoring is probably not necessary.  I think you would need an unreasonable amount of intra-oral films to cause cancer.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
16 answers
Hi,
I would appreciate any suggestions for resources on mobile radiography.
For example, the use of mobile X-ray units, including status, advantages and disadvantages.
Thank you in advance,
Albertina.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, Albertina,
As you are a radiographer, I suspect you already know the benefits and challenges of mobile radiography and are looking for academic documentation. I am attaching a file with a bibliography of several sources that you may find useful. (Don't forget to look at the articles cited by these articles. It may lead you to exactly what you are looking for.) Personally, I can deal with both the radiation exposure (keep everyone back 2m or shield them) and have always had access to mobile units that have the same technical factor capabilities as the stationary rooms. What I see as the biggest challenge in mobile radiography is the ability to achieve the correct part-image receptor-central ray alignment. It is not impossible, but much more challenging in the mobile environment than in a dedicated R&F room.
I would love to know more about what you are working on. It is nice to have a community of radiographers that are interested in research.
Carla
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
Need Neural Networks help.
Relevant answer
Answer
Is  sex  determination  with  lateral  cephalogram  really  reliable? I  know  that  there  are  works  dealing  with  cephalic  index  to  determine  race  but  for  sex,  I  don't  know  how  feasible  that  would  be  with  mere  cephalograms  in  humans.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
1 answer
The accuracy of radioulnar joint motion, Supination and pronation is important for estimation of radial head rotation in closed reduction but it does not find methods to evaluate radial head rotation by radiography.
Relevant answer
Answer
Have  you  tried  doing  the  closed  reduction  and  necessary  radio-ulna joint  manipulations  using  theatre  C-Arm  fluoroscopy  unit?  I  think  you  may  have  reliable  results.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
8 answers
Mainly to simulate the lumbar spine and sinuses. Also any papers on how to develop international standard phantoms.
Relevant answer
Answer
As a first step you have to calculate the absorption, beam hardening and scattering properties with the ICRP model (Adam and Eve and a child). As a second step you can calculate with different materials and thicknesses how close they match the ICRP model. If phantoms should be designed to check the image quality the beam characteristic and scattering has a dominat role; the absorption is not of interest, means the entrance dose.of the phantom. Only in that manner the dose at receptor represents the clinical situation. In general different combinations of PMMA, Al, CF2 and air gaps  can be used to simulate the interaction of human tissue and X rays.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
10 answers
I think radiologist are few in Africa and many times pose as a challenge and may need some level of assistance. Could the radiographer take up this task?
Relevant answer
Answer
Preliminary clinical evaluation and definitive reporting by appropriately trained radiographers has been shown to improve patient outcomes and streamline care. The evidence base underpinning skeletal reporting by qualified radiographers is definitive (Brealey et al Clin Radiol 2005; Piper et al Radiography 2005) and there is a growing evidence base supporting chest x-ray interpretation (Piper et al Radiography 2014; Woznitza et al Radiography 2014). A recent service evaluation (Woznitza et al Radiography 2014) has illustrated the contribution that reporting radiographers and sonographers make in the delivery of an effective, efficient and patient focused service.  In low resource setting, and with appropriate training and support, radiographers could provide a 'total' system of image acquisition and reporting of plain imaging and ultrasound examinations, improving the service provided to patients and referring clinicians with a prompt and accurate report. This would also enable limited radiologist resources to be dedicated to complex imaging and interventional procedures. Education and collaboration are key.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
3 answers
The problem is to detect very thin linear defects called kissing bonds using a radiography device of high geometrical magnification, which is only feasible with the microfocus tube.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sergei,
As you mentioned correctly, kissing-bond is a hard to detect defect by X-ray. Already I read a paper in this field and you can find it below:
I think the authors of this paper probably can help you.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
2 answers
I am working on collection medical stereograms. Does anyone know about availability of database/dataset or anyone having stereo radiography? Kindly let me know, this would be very useful for my work!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Nittin Choudhary. Your reply made me to think about using the NOSQL. In addition, i was searching for the Medical Stereo images of CT and MRI. I suppose, the latest invention by the CAT and Siemens instruments are supporting to produce medical stereo radiography for the improving diagnosis accuracy. If you know about the these kind of image dataset, let me know.
And also i was looking for volume rendered stereo images for my work. If suppose, you have any idea about this kind of images database in internet or anybody possesses this images, kindly let me know .
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
4 answers
I am carring out practical work to find a mathematical equation between kVP and the backscatter factor.
Relevant answer
Answer
This is not only a function of kVp, but rather of "beam quality", which can be described by kVp AND filtration (or by HVL). Additionally, backscatter for the same beam will be different for different materials. See Appendix VIII in the IAEA report 457 - one table is attached, you can download full report from the IAEA site:
EDIT: additionally, backscatter will depend on the field size.
  • asked a question related to Radiography
Question
4 answers
Currently it is still very difficult to get an accurate diagnosis of pulpitis by clinical examination. An accurate diagnosis can usually only be established through histopathologic examination. This examination is only done for the research purposes, not for a treatment selection considerations. Pulpitis diagnosis is very important for the clinician, especially if the treatment of choice for cases of pulpitis is to retain pulp tissue by pulpcapping. Considering this, we need a study to support the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis.
Relevant answer
Answer
A study to “identify pulpitis at dental X-ray periapical radiography based on edge detection, texture description and artificial neural network” by Tumbelaka B.Y. et al (the report of the study enclosed as an attachment) might be considered as an attempt to diagnose pulpitis radiographically.